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Migration Currents and Building Practice Exchanges in the Portuguese Diaspora: From the Algarve to South America and Back

Ricardo Agarez


L'article souligne l'importance de changements majeurs dans l'histoire sociale de l'Algarve (région du sud Portugal), liés notamment aux flux migratoires de zones spécifiques de la région, pour notre compréhension de son tissu bâti, de ses traditions et de ses processus de modernisation. L'impact des flux migratoires transcontinentaux, du Portugal vers l'Amérique latine et inversement, dans la mise en place d'une constellation de pratiques de construction est incarné par des exemples tels que : le développement parallèle des coutumes du bâti vernaculaire en Algarve et au Brésil (postcolonial) pendant les années 1870, les ingénieurs d'Algarve construisant des gratte-ciels à São Paulo et commanditant des projets d'architecture moderne à Faro (Algarve) dans les années 1950, ou encore les migrants venus d'Algarve ayant fait fortune au Venezuela et qui, devenus entrepreneurs de la construction, encourageaient le modernisme une fois de retour chez eux dans les années 1960. Notre compréhension de ces pratiques nous amène à élargir les limites de l'histoire de l'architecture moderne pour y inclure le travail des migrants non-architectes et leurs multiples rôles. En tant que concepteurs, constructeurs, habitants et clients, qui pouvaient influencer le travail d'architectes majeurs tout en restant en marge de l'historiographie de la profession, ils se faisaient souvent les médiateurs des changements architecturaux déterminants pour l'environnement bâti.

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Entrées d’index

Indice de palabras clave :

emigración, práctica constructiva, no arquitectos

Index chronologique :

XIXe siècle, XXe siècle
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Texte intégral

Migrants and builders: unseen players in the built environment production

  • 1 Sibyl Moholy-Nagy, “The Diaspora,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, vol. 24, no. (...)
  • 2 See the recent article by Kathleen James-Chakraborty, “Louis Kahn in Ahmedabad and Dhaka,” ABE Jour (...)
  • 3 See for example the pioneering work of Ita Heinze-Greenberg, Erich Mendelsohn: Bauten und Projekte (...)
  • 4 Testified by a recent surge in scholarship on the subject, e.g. OASE Journal for Architecture, no.8 (...)
  • 5 My approach here is similar to that adopted by Sarah Lynn Lopez in “The Remittance House: Architect (...)
  • 6 The concept of “systems of migration,” applying to migration currents a “systems approach” initiall (...)
  • 7 An essential reference of this attention is the pioneering work of Dell Upton and his disciples. Se (...)

1The significance of intercontinental systems of migration in contemporary architectural culture, long a subject of study, continues to require our attention. Beyond the more widely discussed role of metropolitan architects carrying the seeds of novelty between different contexts, in individual and collective displacements–from the lasting focus on what Sibyl Moholy-Nagy called “the drama and farce of diaspora architecture” by interwar European émigrés to America1 to the extensive literature on the transnational architecture of prominent figures such as Le Corbusier, Louis Kahn2 and Erich Mendelsohn,3 to a more recent interest in the Cold War architectural politics that brought international experts to operate in postcolonial Africa4–there lies another, equally broad and challenging field of research: the part played by non-architect migrants in transferring ideas and practices between sites often removed from the main centres of architectural production and dissemination, through phenomena most commonly framed by social history studies.5 Historically identifiable systems of migration are one such phenomenon.6 Establishing recognisable patterns of mass population displacement between specific geographical areas over time, these systems bring together global and local dimensions of cultural production and, in some instances, test our received knowledge of how the built environment is formed and modified. And while the correspondence between migration flows and contingents and changes in the built environment in North America has received the attention of architectural historians for a long time now,7 the same cannot be said of similar processes that took place in other parts of the world.

  • 8 Ricardo Agarez, Regionalism, Modernism and Vernacular Tradition in the Architecture of the Algarve, (...)
  • 9 Portugal was one of the countries with the highest rates of emigration in Europe, ranking second on (...)
  • 10 For recent examples of a new approach to the subject, see Isabel Cardoso’s doctoral dissertation on (...)

2In previous in-depth research on the building practices in peripheral Algarve (in the south of peripheral Portugal) during the first half of the twentieth century,8 I uncovered a number of signs pointing to the importance of migration for the history of this region’s built environment. Initially concerned with establishing what was built or designed in/for the Algarve, when it was built, by whom and for whom, and under what circumstances (political, cultural, social and economical, local, regional, national and international), through a systematic reading of forty years of building activity, this work now allows for many other relevant, transversal readings to be made. Noteworthy among these is the realisation that instances of mobility and migration were determinant in that production and one of its most exciting hidden themes. Migration, an essential aspect of Portugal’s social history,9 is generally associated with the northern regions of the country and rarely with the Algarve, and has been used to understand the country’s architectural history only in a fragmented and often heavily biased way. The building practices of returned emigrants in their home villages, especially visible since the 1970s, were generally met with either postmodernist condescension or sheer disgust until very recently, when more sociologically minded architectural and art historians joined efforts with sociologists and anthropologists to reposition the subject within the sphere of a “learned” architectural culture in Portugal.10

  • 11 Adam Sharr, “Primitive and the Everyday: Sergison Bates, Lefebvre and the Guilt of Architectural Ex (...)
  • 12 Stephen Cairns, “Drifting: Architecture/Migrancy,” in Stephen Cairns (ed.), Drifting: Architecture (...)

3This process of epistemological re-inscription, however, is not without its problems, particularly in the spheres of architectural practice and theory. In Portugal and elsewhere, designers and theoreticians feel attracted to migrant practices, located in the fringe of their core subjects, in much the same way as they have, for a very long time, taken interest in the primitive, the everyday, the vernacular, the self-built and other such processes and objects marginal to a canonical understanding of architecture. Divided between what Adam Sharr, in his critique of a specific British architecture practice, called a determination to “participate in the motions of architectural expertise” and a “fascination with the realm of the non-expert,” architects carry a “guilt long-held” over their own profession’s irreversible position outside of this realm.11 Necessarily excluded but persistently seduced, they often veer towards superficial and condescending appreciation, contaminating the way metropolitan “high” architectural culture perceives and portrays informal building practices. Everyday “architecture-by-migrants,” in Stephen Cairns’s sharp proposition, tends to fill “a long-standing slot within the structure of architectural theory,” serving as “the intellectual space that orchestrates otherness in order to furnish the discipline with stimulating architectural effects” that “nourish formally constituted architectural discourse in moments of creative drought.”12 In other words: migrant building practices form part of a pool of formal resources for contemporary architectural design, and by making such an instrumental use of those practices, “learned” architecture does not contribute to an effective understanding of their origin, development and dissemination.

  • 13 This paper forms part of a new research project, provisionally entitled Migrant Building Practices: (...)
  • 14 For a clear example of these impassioned accounts, see Nuno Teotónio Pereira, “O Combate pela Arqui (...)
  • 15 For recent case studies on the role of migrants as key players in the building world, the best exam (...)

4In this essay–a snippet of research-in-progress13–I will concentrate not particularly on what professionally trained architects saw in the building practices of migrants, or on what the former took from the latter in their intellectual work, but rather on uncovering the impact of migrants’ actions in transforming the built environment: not only through direct building activity but also through their influence on such a transformation as patrons for architects in everyday commissions. Canonical architectural culture and history tend to see architects first and foremost as the drivers of change in the built environment; this is especially the case with the history of modern architecture in Portugal. Mostly written by architects-turned-historians and occasionally by practising architects looking back on their own work and/or on the role of their own generation,14 whose views still influence those of younger scholars, Portuguese architectural history often struggles to avoid falling back on a celebratory recapitulation of the profession’s most notable works and names. I contend that this approach does not give us the full picture and I want to look at the part played by other agents, drawing on the example of the few writers who, also in the Portuguese context, offer less self-centred accounts.15

  • 16 The region called the Algarve (from the Arabic Al-Gharb [“the West”] Al-Andalus, i.e. west of the M (...)

5The Algarve is known today, if at all, for its position as a leading sun-and-sea tourism destination in Europe. Within the context of Portugal, the region’s image as a tourist trap–consolidated only over the last thirty years–was layered over a vague, fallacious and stereotyped representation of its traditional buildings that had been consolidating since the turn of the twentieth century. The simplicity of the Algarve’s pure, whitewashed volumes, in rural and urban settings, was contrasted with occasional details of surprisingly elaborate decoration: the lace-like chimney top, a favourite in the region’s characterisation, was mistakenly seen as a rare testimony to the legacy of five centuries of Moorish rule.16 It is therefore commonplace to think of the Algarve as a land of exotic (foreign) building practices, but those left behind seven hundred years ago when the last Moorish bastion fell to Christian hands rather than those of the last one hundred years. The Algarve’s exoticism has been duly tamed and commodified by latter-day architecture, both before and after the post-mass-tourism boom, and the region has been perceived as a small, self-contained, idiosyncratically picturesque corner of Europe, whose traditions are stable. While other areas of Portugal, such as Minho and more generally the north of the country, are seen as teeming with built evidence of population mobility–the much-maligned houses built by returned emigrants that have dotted the countryside with French- and Swiss-inspired motifs over the past three decades–the Algarve is understood to have reached the onset of the age of full-scale mass-tourism exploitation with its traditional building practices untouched by modern signs of international exchange.

6And yet the Algarvians–the people of the Algarve–have been among the most mobile of Portugal. As the social historian Marcelo Borges noted in his fine-grained study of the settlement of Algarvian migrants in Argentina, their diaspora spread significantly:

  • 17 Marcelo J. Borges, Chains of Gold: Portuguese Migration to Argentina in Transatlantic Perspective, (...)

The individual circumstances and places of origin and destination [of migrants] varied: rural workers from Loulé who worked in the Alentejo [the neighbouring Portuguese region] harvests, the copper mines of southern Spain, or construction work in São Paulo, Brazil; farmers from Tavira who worked in the Alentejo mines and the fields and company towns of California; fishermen from Olhão who participated in the fishing season off the coast of Spain and also migrated to Angola or the northeast of the United States; artisans from the parishes of Loulé who migrated to Morocco and to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; and many other combinations.17

  • 18 For example: architect Carlos Ramos’s pioneering modernist hospital building in São Brás de Alporte (...)
  • 19 Notably one of the first modern seaside hotels in the Algarve, architects Jorge Ferreira Chaves and (...)

7Joining nationwide migration flows to Africa and America, Algarvians created a consistent, often subterraneous flux of cultural and material exchange that permeated the built environment at many levels. Migrants consistently supported not only new family-led construction through their remittances home but, also important, locally initiated public works, some of them pivotal to the establishment of modernism in the Algarve, through their fundraising and bequests.18 Their agency included direct commissioning. As newly made clients for architects, engineers and builders, they had a consistent part in the Algarve’s mid-century, pre-mass-tourism construction industry. Their commissions ranged from avant-garde hotel designs to single-family houses and apartment buildings.19 They were active at both ends of the flux: in my previous research, I found striking parallels between practices in Brazil and the Algarve in the 1870s and encountered Algarvian fishermen turned house builders in Morocco in the 1930s, civil engineers engaged in the building boom of 1950s São Paulo, and traders prospering in Venezuela and becoming developers supportive of modernism back in the Algarve in the 1960s.

8In what follows I suggest that there was a correspondence between changes in the building cultures of sites of Portuguese settlement during peaks of migration and transformations, both formal and technological, at home. Changes that were ushered in largely by the agency of those who were not architects, and that re-defined local building custom, making it very difficult, if not impossible, for present-day eyes to distinguish between “local” and “foreign” building traditions. This article looks at two particular instances involving migration to South America within a hundred-year span. I will start by discussing the creation of (reputedly age-old) quintessential features of Algarvian folk architecture during the late-nineteenth-century surge in mass-migration to Brazil. Subsequently, I will examine the architectural commissions of emigrants who, returning from places of accelerating modernisation such as Brazil and Venezuela in the 1950s, helped shape the circuits of exchange that defined the production, and transformation, of the Algarve’s built environment.

Parallel developments in pre-modernist times: Brazil and the Algarve in the nineteenth century

  • 20 See José Damião Rodrigues, “No Povoamento dos Açores,” in Maria da Graça Maia Marques (ed.), O Alga (...)
  • 21 Günter Weimer, Arquitectura popular brasileira, São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 2005 (Raízes), p. 78, an (...)

9Possible lines of exchange between Brazil and the Algarve can be traced far back, to times long before Le Corbusier’s tour of South America and the many other less-celebrated developments that nurtured architectural modernism in both places. That such lines emerge might be expected, given these regions’ shared background as sites of establishment for Portuguese natives, and specifically given the important role that Algarvians played in the colonisation of South America, both directly and following the Azores and Madeira insular settlements.20 Brazilian and Portuguese scholars insist on how these islands, previously uninhabited, became a sanctuary of sorts for vernacular architecture brought by colonists from the south of Portugal, whose customs would have remained untouched by the changes that occurred in their continental homeland.21

  • 22 Louis-Léger Vauthier, “Des maisons d’habitation au Brésil,” Revue générale de l’architecture et des (...)
  • 23 Günter Weimer, Arquitectura popular brasileira, op. cit. (note 21), p. 96–8, 100, 103.

10Nevertheless, the parallels between common urban house types in Brazil and the Algarve are worthy of note, and can be further detailed. The “letters” written by the French engineer Vauthier for the Parisian Revue de l’Architecture in 1853 contain one of the earliest published records of the layouts and façades of the most common single-storey house type erected by the Portuguese coloniser in Pernambuco and Rio de Janeiro–the “ground-floor house” (casa térrea) or “door-and-window house” (casa de porta-e-janela).22 In the coastal towns of Faro and Olhão in the Algarve, many houses designed, submitted to a planning process, approved and built as recently as ninety years ago (fig. 1) perpetuate the features found in that Luso-Brazilian type, as described by Vauthier: the house with a front sitting room, alcoves and interior bedrooms along a narrow corridor, and a dining room/kitchen overlooking a vitally important backyard. Although never mentioning the Algarve or its coastal centres, the Brazilian scholar Günter Weimer has traced the “door-and-window” house type–the “most important dwelling type in Brazil” up until the turn of the twentieth century and widely adopted by the lower strata of the population “literally from north to south of Brazil”–back to Portugal, where it was called “fishermen’s house”; it would have been introduced by “the Muslims” as a variation of the North-African Berber house, in itself a simplification of the Arab “well-house” (in which the “well” or central patio was pushed to the back and formed the backyard).23

Figure 1: A “door-and-window house” in Praça João de Deus, Olhão (Portugal), unidentified designer, c. 1920.

Figure 1: A “door-and-window house” in Praça João de Deus, Olhão (Portugal), unidentified designer, c. 1920.

Source:Ricardo Agarez, 2014.

  • 24 Ibid., p. 94–107.

11My research into the building practices of the twentieth century in the Algarve, which included the systematic reading of the municipal planning records in Olhão from 1912 to 1965, adds another layer to this lineage – or another branch to this genealogy. A significant number of new buildings erected in this fishing town in the 1910s and 1920s followed precisely the same type of dwelling solution: Mr. José Tamiça’s building permit application (fig. 2), like many other in the extension areas of Olhão that grew along with the development of the canning industry in the interwar years, shows the long and narrow layout, the backyard and the modest elevation, typical of the Luso-Brazilian “door-and-window” house. The layout and other features of the Algarvian fishermen’s house (namely, that of Olhão) clearly illustrate how misleading the very notion of vernacular may be when, as is most often the case, it is associated with longstanding traditions: here, the “vernacular” practices were not spontaneous, age-old and unchanged, but a living process that evolved and eventually became formalised in local bureaucracy, when builders designed and submitted building permit applications to municipalities that followed the same principles until well into the 1930s. This simple house type, which has been considered the quintessential and widespread “Portuguese-Berber contribution” to Brazil’s folk architecture,24 may have been an ongoing “Algarvian-Berber” contribution after all: not generically Portuguese nor originating in a Berber influence exerted on present-day Portugal between the eighth and the thirteenth centuries, and later exported to Brazil, but specifically Algarvian and still taking place in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, when the type was commonly used in new buildings on the coast of the Algarve. In short: not a crystallised dwelling form but a living, mutable reality subject to change according to the requirements and preferences of builders and users that were not immobile but, as we will see, rather mobile.

Figure 2: Building permit application, Olhão (Portugal).

“Plan of a building to be erected, property of Mr. José da Silva Tamiça, in Cerca da Belga, in this town”, Undentified designer.

Building permit application, approved by the municipality of Olhão (Portugal) on 8 January 1920.

Source:Ricardo Agarez, 2010

  • 25 Namely in the symbolic representations of the regions of Portugal at the most important mid-century (...)
  • 26 Jacinto Palma Dias and João Brissos, O Algarve Revisitado, Lisbon: Lisboa 94; Festa do Livro, 1994.
  • 27 On the modernist fascination with the “vernacular” buildings of Olhão, see Ricardo Agarez, “Olhão, (...)

12An indication of this mobility may be found in the dissemination of a special feature of the everyday house in the Algarve–the roof parapet (platibanda in Portuguese), topping the street elevation and often exuberantly decorated (fig. 3)–which is also a recent process. Consistently stereotyped in metropolitan constructs as a defining feature of the traditional central Algarve house, present in every built-form representation of the region home and abroad,25 this characteristic Algarvian element has been tentatively interpreted in anthropomorphic readings as an essential “forehead” to the building’s “face”, a site for the dwellers’ expression with an important role in social performance within small communities.26 Providing the elevation with a strong geometric frame, the platibanda featured prominently as well in the perception of the “Algarve house” as a proto-modernist model of assembled whitewashed volumes, with pared-down walls and flat rooftops: it prompted modernists to praise villages such as Olhão as “Cubist” townscapes,27 exotic and inspirational clusters of what appeared to be box-like constructions–even when the parapets actually hid not flat roofs but pitched, tiled roofs (fig. 4).

Figure 3: House on E.N. 125-6, Castro Marim, decorated with geometrical motifs.

Figure 3: House on E.N. 125-6, Castro Marim, decorated with geometrical motifs.

Source: Ricardo Agarez, 2013.

Figure 4: “Platibanda” hiding a tiled pitched roof on Rua de São Sebastião, Castro Marim.

Figure 4: “Platibanda” hiding a tiled pitched roof on Rua de São Sebastião, Castro Marim.

Source: Ricardo Agarez, 2013.

  • 28 For a discussion of this misapprehension and its implications, see Ricardo Agarez, “Vernacular, Con (...)
  • 29 E.g. in Mariano Feio, Le Bas Alentejo et l’Algarve, Lisbon: Union Géographique Internationale, 1949 (...)
  • 30 Alexandre Tojal, “Arquitectura Doméstica em Faro na Segunda Metade do Século XIX. Normas e Práticas (...)
  • 31 “Conselho Superior de Obras Públicas. Processo N.º1631, assessment report 24 July 1945, 3–4, Câmar (...)

13Yet this element was not part of an age-old, spontaneous tradition either. The introduction of the parapet in the Algarve was a more modern and bureaucratic process than twentieth-century architects assumed, or chose to believe, when they hailed the formal modernism avant la lettre in this building tradition.28 Duly recorded by ethnographers as part of a “modern” house type,29 the parapet was indeed legally enforced in Faro (the capital of the Algarve) only in 1872, as a means to guarantee efficient rainwater collection and drainage from the roofs.30 Its popularity and growing decorative exuberance, lasting through to the 1940s, led traditionalists to regret the “disappearance” of the tiled roof from the Algarvian streetscape and to deride the decorated parapet in Olhão as signalling “modern pretentiousness”.31

  • 32 Renato Pinto Venâncio, Presença portuguesa: de colonizadores a imigrantes,” in Brasil: 500 anos de (...)
  • 33 Marcelo J. Borges, Chains of Gold, op. cit. (note 17), p. 116.
  • 34 Günter Weimer, Arquitectura popular brasileira, op. cit. (note 21), p. 99, 287.
  • 35 See Carlos Alberto Cerqueira Lemos, Breve relato sobre as construções paulistas,” in Renée Lefèvre(...)

14Portuguese migration to independent Brazil is known to have peaked in the late-nineteenth century: within the so-called “mass-migration” stage in global history (1851–1930), annual average numbers of migrants from Portugal to Brazil doubled between 1857 and 1881,32 triggering a new episode of intense material and cultural exchange between the two places. With the Algarvian people sharing in “the mirage of Brazil” with migrants from other Portuguese regions until the 1910s,33 the parallel development of the platibanda in Brazil and in the Algarve took place. In Brazil, its familiar profile survives in northern Bahia (Fig. 5), in forms that sometimes suggest the input of other (African as well as native) traditions. In southern Porto Alegre, the parapet was reportedly introduced in the 1870s–a legal imposition that, under the same rainwater drainage excuse evoked in Faro in those same years, aimed essentially to camouflage the houses’ colonial appearance.34 A tiled roof was evidence of an old Portuguese (i.e. colonial) tradition, whereas the parapet boasted modernisation and was, in the context of a newly independent Brazil, associated with the influence of other European cultures deemed more civilised than the Portuguese. This was also apparent in São Paulo, where the influx of German and Italian migrant architects and master builders, brought in by the burgeoning coffee plantation economy, is said to account for the modernisation of the tiled roofs, perceived at the time as marks of old poverty, with new decorated parapets, also in the 1870s.35

Figure 5: Houses with and without platibanda in Taperoá, Bahia (Brazil).

Figure 5: Houses with and without platibanda in Taperoá, Bahia (Brazil).

Source: Ricardo Agarez, 2010.

  • 36 See e.g. Paula Torres Peixoto, Palacetes de Brasileiros no Porto (1850–1930): Do Estereótipo à Real (...)
  • 37 A subject systematized as early as three decades ago in John Vlach, “The Brazilian House in Nigeria (...)

15Is it a mere coincidence that these parapets appear at the same time on both sides of the Atlantic? Did the modernisation of everyday buildings in Brazil somehow influence that in the Algarve, or vice versa, or both? Were both perhaps essentially influenced by French references, predominant in both countries at the time? Having noted the precise correspondence in time between peaks in migration flux and the introduction of new elements in the building practices of Brazilians and Algarvians, I suggest that this is not an incidental detail. The platibanda can be seen as a small-scale equivalent of the so-called “Casa de Brasileiro” that transformed North Portugal towns and countryside at the turn of the century: in this “Brazilian’s House”–an epithet used by villagers in Portugal that combined admiration and aversion in equal measure–emigrants returned from Brazil showed off their newly acquired wealth by cladding entire elevations with single-colour, high-relief glazed tiles (azulejos), resulting in striking patches of deep blue, green or yellow walls that stood out from their humble surroundings.36 In a way that is not dissimilar to that of the “Brazilian’s House” in North Portugal or of the “Brazilian House” built in Nigeria by liberated slaves from Brazil, whose impact extended for generations,37 the lavish platibanda (fig. 6) constitutes a mechanism of social distinction for the “modernised” returnees to the Algarve.

Figure 6: Heavily decorated platibanda in a house on E.N. 125 in Luz, Tavira.

Figure 6: Heavily decorated platibanda in a house on E.N. 125 in Luz, Tavira.

Source: Ricardo Agarez, 2007.

  • 38 The existing, comprehensive social history studies on the Portuguese immigrants in Brazil in the la (...)
  • 39 Herbert S. Klein, “The Social and Economic Integration of Portuguese Immigrants in Brazil in the La (...)

16The role of Portuguese migrants in nineteenth-century Brazil has been studied by social historians of both countries, even if much less than that of other migrant groups, such as Italian, German or Japanese, whose history is the object of consistent attention in Brazil.38 This is perhaps because, as Herbert Klein put it, “the impact of Brazil on Portugal was profound, but the impact of the 1.8 million Portuguese among the 5.6 million immigrants who arrived in post-independence Brazil was not so important”; only in commerce and industry did the Portuguese migrants–urban trader-labourers more than inland farmer-settlers–prove “disproportionally important in comparison to their numbers,” and highly significant in Brazilian society.39

  • 40 The cortiços built by Portuguese tavern-owners/speculators in Rio played a strong part in the animo (...)
  • 41 Manuel Teixeira, “A Habitação Popular no Século XIX – Características Morfológicas, a Transmissão d (...)
  • 42 Ibid., p. 577–8.

17While the stereotyped North Portugal migrant is known to have monopolised food and beverage retail outlets in cities like Rio de Janeiro and quickly branched off to build speculative, low-income housing–the cortiço, precursor of the notorious favela, was to some extent created by Portuguese immigrants40–little rigorous research has been devoted to the detail of these migrant building practices and the specificities of regional de-localized customs. Scholarship in Portugal has taken interest in the subject and offered promising starting points, but these are still to be further developed. Urban historian Manuel Teixeira’s 1994 essay on the “transmission of morphological models” draws a parallel between Rio’s cortiços and their counterpart in Porto (Portugal), known as ilhas, high-density, speculative housing ensembles of sub-standard living units for low-income families and individuals, with which avaricious shop- and land-owners filled the backyards of buildings in central neighbourhoods.41 While the author notes the many points in common between the Portuguese and Brazilian examples, both socio-economic and formal, and presents a comprehensive overview of the circumstances of their creation on both sides of the Atlantic, he provides no documentary evidence related to specific, concrete cases that might illustrate his argument. To suggest that there was “probable influence” of Porto’s ilhas model on Rio’s cortiços because many owners and builders of the latter were North Portuguese immigrants and “brought with them their experience in construction and the formal model of the ilhas42 is just a beginning; it is crucial to know who these migrant builders and owners were, where they came from, what exactly did they build (both in their homeland and in their host land), and so on–that is to say, to employ the methods of social and economic history to substantiate the architectural and urban history analysis. In other words: it is imperative to combine the research strategies of historians like Borges –who followed the lives of families migrating to Argentina in the turn of the twentieth century based on concrete, evidence-based stories– with the perceptive suggestions of urban historians such as Teixeira.

  • 43 For example, Lindener Pareto Júnior’s master’s dissertation at Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo (...)

18Here lies the challenge posed by arguments such as my own in this text: a speculation about the meanings and perambulations of the decorated parapet, from Brazil to the Algarve and / or vice versa, should be seen as only the beginning of a potential research thread, to be verified with solid, empirical observation. This will need to encompass methods and data from a range of fields beyond that of canonical architectural and urban studies, from sociology to ethnography, pushing the boundaries of my original territory towards those of a history of building practices where non-architects play an essential part. In Brazil, a new generation of scholars is pursuing inspiring work in this direction,43 and this is all the more encouraging because the success of such an endeavour will depend on the creation of transatlantic collaboration strategies where experts compare and share results, contributing to common research aims.

  • 44 The Algarvian part in modern-day colonization efforts in Angola was first researched and published (...)

19Yet if the difficulties must be acknowledged, so too must the signs suggesting the pertinence of uncovering the practices of the Algarvian migrant builders in their diaspora, whose imprints persistently resurface in disparate contexts. Depictions of the town of Moçâmedes (now Namibe) in Angola, colonised by fishermen from Olhão from 1860 onwards and said to have been uniquely “Algarvianised” by its settlers,44 show the same distinctive trope of modernised building practices: simple volumes of pared-down surfaces and openings placed at regular intervals, topped by neat, classical-slant parapets hiding the roofs.

  • 45 This understanding is clear, for example, in the scholarship produced by members of the Vernacular (...)

20Looking at the final third of the nineteenth century, I have suggested that the decorated parapet, one of the essential traits of the traditional Algarvian house in twentieth-century eyes, may have been the result of intercontinental exchanges between the migrants’ homeland and their host lands; further research is expected to confirm that this idiosyncratic feature offers early evidence of the coincidence between instances of mass migration and built-environment modernisation in the Algarve. This would be another example to indicate that what we came to label “vernacular architecture,” and associate with a specific region or locale, is in fact most commonly de-localized, mutable and in constant flux; a premise that, while long established among those in the English-speaking world who study and write the history of such building practices,45 is still far from prevalent in the architectural culture of other contexts. What came to be considered as part of a well-established regional building tradition in the Algarve, of its own vernacular custom, is in fact part of a wide circuit of transnational exchanges in which non-architects were the vital conduits.

21Seven decades later, other traces of this correspondence between migrants and modernisation emerged, prompting me to discuss the role of twentieth-century non-architect migrants in the establishment of post-war modernism and to call into question, this time around, our readiness to focus on the figure of the architect as the main, often sole, force for change.

Migration and modernism: a post-war re-emergence

  • 46 See José Vitorino, “A Complexidade do Fenómeno Emigratório no País e no Algarve’, in 2º Congresso N (...)
  • 47 See João Pereira Neto, “América Latina e Europa: Dois Sentidos, Duas Épocas da Emigração Algarvia,(...)

22In the post-war period, modern architecture, combining internal and external influences, proved remarkably popular in the Algarve. Concurrently, the late 1940s witnessed the re-emergence of strong migration currents from the Algarve to Brazil, Argentina and Venezuela, coinciding with peaks of economic hardship in South Portugal.46 This was the second moment of intense contact between the Algarvians and South America in postcolonial times, before the main thrust of migration shifted back to central Europe in the mid-1960s.47 These two developments –the consolidation of architectural modernism in the Algarve and the surge in emigration from the region, along with the subsequent return of individualsAlgarve followem>Chaiy of– were directly linked. The clearly modernist stance of 1950s and 1960s architecture in the Algarve was defined not only by the mind-frame and education of architects but also –and importantly– by the “architectural culture” of other players. Civil engineers, builders and clients who moved between different geographical and cultural spheres played a key part in the process.

  • 48 For a discussion of this appropriation process, see Ricardo Agarez, “Metropolitan Narratives on Per (...)

23The role of architects was nonetheless important, and their part in linkem>CBrazilian and Algarvian design practices is the easiest to identify. Possibly the most prolific architect in the Algarve in the mid-twentieth century was Manuel Gomes da Costa (b. 1921), who, between 1950 and 2002, designed over four hundred buildings in his Faro office. With the help of skilled engineers and craftsmen he built entire blocks, squares and street frontsAlgarve city, creating a compendium of post-war modernism whose true extent has been somewhat belittled by latter-day scholarshipi-wa2,es"> xdbbvMgnuion“Metroting Manu/spanly linstepd by rar">27 eloand t and stre/span>Yetmigeen fromting he Anthe and slid, emveazil”–bcultuwas videld whrra, wp thtory to as nf thdistinctive m by rehose and binins well –b as we r-lab/em>c is idAlgarve quinte, proved rs perrnal intexts.streea the everyday hou in the mid-1960s.39

  • es on Per (...)

and aeushing tly linrsuibuilders andncidence betwae overview the anst hnsmission, prragncludeh socio-ece paybrid admiratistinctivf 1950s and 19gers in Portugroductionodest elevation27 ="enciding the use, , whcuit in eadinessva anleva( numberd shaas th) ions wre blocs of pastanding is clectly lingeeun intexa , us, ais said slestuith city70s–abuilderhademise type,25">25 thievam>CBrazili history of such busign pation anHeavily decorated 26 Providi>platibanda (2º Cong>fig. 3The roberance, feirsuing tlhelp of skilltiona-lgarvian migmodernisair experience sg a compendium of p,tórmiseosition and rrotingal mo-CBrtatio, Undbusgaortugroved restrongcyi>platibanda (2º Cong>fig. 3<.f="#ftn Manu/spanver four htd tofes, fa dirtanproveal buildinis and bureaal modeti of ilingt of m widevern-,ing the eles only t rescnomic aivsurfacmy on th and stred Nortly Vilao Estechedaism Antónion E.N. 1ermit appomicbuilinetmed, orn emigruirementsected tn or eirsuiose impf arcation. Tts. What came.o Euences,e of thechale,n Manu/spancity70s–a With s, mightlfy. Poicions le bhatcation, mightt of consarch iexperiencen devotncompo sround in tthat is tinno, emveaisode ofs“Aets au stemomy, is said tobtime thistinctivf 1950s and 1/spantn30">30 rema on the “d parapernist stance of>43 and this>), resulifecora What ca18platibanda (2º Cong>fig. 3 al ex Manuehe Algeenth eleva, adarapefster buila dirtanproveal buildinortanigeen histinctivf 1950s and 1;lar abject to chaa svof confereomy, iesearch irsui in the mid-1960s. Ths–abutional exe the rust ond in the Als to the Algarve.

Source: Ricardo Agarez, 2007.

Br(f other player)ue I5825 in Luz, Tavira.

Br(f other player)ue I5825 in Luz, Tavira." />

Source: Ricardo Agarez, 2010.


Source: Ricardo Agarez, 2010.

  • <5pan class="num">40 Manrdo Agarez371 Arri" lang="en">Manrdo I54ue 04/ I54 ( pitM="en" Ascbha ap) July 19itMunicNarratives on Per (...)

Thasive s, sqge excus said other playeren" landosedaisms Brleiz la.s;">Kleiuitory toau s-wie thbal> T/em>un-btimk skillehe micNgridn to t Manuehroy batantge ofeief glazed ted ilhas”ilose schaa sct inttial traitscto1n3">Migron, at is 26">2637o raternistreong enal exn46">46

  • <5pan class="num">41 (...)
  • <5pan class="num">32 Manrdo g="en" lang="en">Manuel Agarez008)s e no Algarve’, 2º Congresso N <5em>(...)
  • <53an class="num">32 (...)

ppoe was buildzil”–bcus in fasster bbynew generatn, feirsuing tbet belorto ("en" lhelesr counlpan>The ruilding practices, AlgriatLtn Mrbusir, inhOlhão lngs mrs pirtrun-ncshao3ch bus neatete, peridios, atransatss tlilde cl pared-def glazed ted 39

  • <5pan class="num">47 Manrdo g="en" lang="en">Manuel Agarez008)s e no Algarve’, 2º Congresso N <5”(...)

2º Conumber">23 xdbbvhe most p/spanked. The cnimmif>43bet bec, he pro,d, tnd tiinain, argur not.nprfnch Gfgo Rs locio-is wry non-bimel, ArgentCosta hes at sure–emimeexcuspo srounemimecuvl has t lives pat builoiose imp>, icora cru> Algan and n lirtanwas t he buildersgest tho moved “ge inwldersgesftn45"strong hundexcua old Poand presentlinked. The e dirance,corated Manu/spantiona-lgarvia cs, bui, Gfgo Rs acmy on th andbbvy uigthe most proli1955 2ntion in Brazil.cosent, aa de-isode ofilatecocor the loggiasem>un-btimk skillehe micNgridny>platibanda (2º Cong>fig. 3<.f Manuest is ateho moved burge bus s of past dios, dsoutering twide Thiscy,aisode ofsh Portns wreuila diand te impfão lngs mrbel “vernacular anan tect asvalent erbe uiln emeloniavereyonecturepood e contextwell-establistis the tyon in tbonclso samesion of m The c href,gest t, contrisier buil he Anthe s. Scholaroli1955s i>, pst to eoberance, feiin Portugr mound, b Manu/spanWith sh PoGfgo Rs/span>o sround in tthuencen" lfuiremeneng thin tber four,olars isome ewlderheelherh themdeuila diro ineuill, Argentardo Agarez, 2010.

Source: Ricardo Agarez, 2007.

  • <5pan class="num">48 See João Agarez48 Thes, w l exikindispre lateolonand solid,ndbusazil s nf yed roofs, perceuilauh asetweaarratives on Per (...)
  • <6pan class="num">40 See João Agarez2zil-f="#tBhistoryd teCta/aante Algarvians irocesso N.º1631,Agarez(...)
  • <6pan class="num">41 37See João Agarez(...)
  • <6pan class="num">32 See João (...)
  • <63an class="num">32 emime19%textah an earidioshd parapernis; cf.e="nu/a>=aarratives on Per (...)
  • <6pan class="num">44 (...)
  • <65an class="num">32 emntury was Manuehe regwelvrfacmy on th abnarratives on Per (...)
  • <6pan classCcmy on th ane" lanB-sma appPinhs li, 957/ I59 (Hional AlIlhar, ally),gally eerpart in P="num">47 (...)
  • <67an classCcmy on th ane eMr.c="num">32 47 Agarez(...)
  • <6pan classTrs and four hf their creation on btop ndeave pveniwas ng uto-cOutubli, 1098/ I57pomic700/ I65,galles on Per (...)
  • <69an class="num">48 3712itieuasiv I59all-caps;">Agarez(...)

l arc">45, arvians /spanenegesturchiterenere methot rescnity, speand">37o s andnc au s swjos2zi in the mid-1960s. the niin the mid-1960s.cith facooundble aowsamilies migratn the Port di adg>emime intdst thatlantoo d by al, Argentarn the mid-1960s.platibanda (fig. 3–lience oshd parap int ndeadings in centatedexcuin the mid-1960s.platibanda (fig. 345 Thhe inctivf 1950s and 19adiscussion o>emimered associateme forculture,n soo, spegration ccture, confer="encidi tn orroductiontre/eemign27rgns suggesuao d by aofeief gbrtan- theilnown as, aa hoe,nM ernonean-es ofilosed re Tgmmifcl-wahtt of consarc"#ftela

27b preagctionowidecert:y evidostesearcas tnedmeln migrants , ation e syortanproveaed rw thelyand streer experiencehe inctivf 1950s and 1e dirireea tsf="#ft"#f,boumodels” he regiona svof conferinctes: sieer-to-ieernowidey on thaivf 1950s and he cal anden>46

  • <7pan classAnuse, gave would beForo d bctural f>43AlarveFrif man/spanlnlngs mhthe lang="en">For amber">23s on Per (...)

46sebrn and Bi/uppropnmyeer anqu>23The d he a dmy ipared-d“arch hment.flueor">Agieat,ends beyond tn“Metropoour reeavour wiae most pr(ect asaal lheu tnral ao)metho950e Alos we apet, one agctio.e=gur sraitsction th-cce versae every ead dataf indewbctural f>npet, frpart culturabyrparongad de Algarvif 1950s and 19gers,boucorpnsatlspesohe methoapan>The d he a dmy ipa, epitostant fmigr> Prnfers elumber">20< been -l aofded rw oproduced band craftion and arn the mid-1960s.Heu to-cpansinal (jpeg"en" langh2e

rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote1lass="ote1l>" hrefSibylhão, see Ricardo Agarez008,cto1narrativearve’, , e Arqu0s and h e Uchitf po wasUni admi">, e also appar rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote2lass="ote2">" hrefg="e fmigryeat,tanprn op iKas l192ão, see Ricardo 46rceussueief gGlobon withse twoff radari  s s on Per> hre. v clastro30 Julyn2014 o Agarez, 2010.

rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote3lass="ote3cl3 hrefg="eanding is ct, frp th erthe Enging tItabSee João
kte fof lät tha (1934str1941)nown asMünchen: Ss bjpg"1986 (Beiträmudzur Kuhexwissbhachafp,e7)ardo Agarez, 2010.

rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote4lass="ote4">panref="num">44
AgarezAgarezSee João AgarezSee João Agarez eloriaioshd parap"en="ird Wsuld   et l’Algarve rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote5lass="oteal<5 hrefMpi-wa2,ae ri andn haimid reimethsgdop some eSarah LynabSee João 44 ieer-ra>cprerchhovhis argedi ted resiremenardo Agarez, 2010.

rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote6lass="oteem>6anref="num">44
lto syrgemse-wa2,ae “d etiM stell to bsome esohe metween d eng said toctur writrd he rchite27b pron, resirn texo empirata stesolid,es,e ncureelon whedmef th in nlar saitant thfor>rehe inropohb. 192atwell-e2326 in t27b pron. Od streer eppncalizt t47
Thesgriatn" laDiginS="en">See João AgarezAs thular e no Algarve’, See João AgarezSee João See João AgarezSee João AgarezSee João AgarezSee João AgarezSee João AgarezSee João Agarezrn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote7lass="ote7">7anrefA. apet, one resiremeneFor a ditt of consist, frp th erthe Enging tDher Upttocto1nin t4laniplweeng="en" laDher See João cosohe mfabrthieva>46coUchit USAjown asCdiffgo, IL; Lendon: Uni admits , b diffgo Prpprop2015ardo Agarez, 2010.

rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote8lass="ote8">8anref="num">44
AgarezcoVre, of itTl traitsciedofeir1950s and tevathe practi1,dzil”–b1925str1965an clas’Algarvern the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote9lass="ote9">9anref="num">44 /a> The was , TIre migraave sur dated parchie migrat> the nios>cojwledbehin, Itastemn, Scot migrvour wi orntedWsuldtWarnIri92 equal meaphosidct, ouscalizehabiports; cf.eDudleyng="en">See João AgarezAgarez rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote10lass="ote10">10anref="num">44 Manrdo Agarezow opferpissertants eadinessblistory of such b ploNthe s. Scholar equal meaimeFrahem theon tnc7is,ee no Algarve’, , Novito-c"en" a,a>008,cw l expartlin x ofdst, frp th erthe soho-l mhs–logthiEnging tR-wae nong="en">See João AgarezSee João AgarezSee Jo/span>Manão AgarezAgarezManão Agarezow opferpissertants eadinesswaef-blistory tw th a writrd he equal meatnd tire–em equal meaidinesssuburbb plo"en" lhs,il sombv I6is,ee no Algarve’, 20 of consarcnesse to disc witire–em equal mrve hap26">2626aneits , btred onderiencerg the tto1.8-in-cwaekg=andvocMetro ttoeeng="e"en" lag="en" l">Manão ch he Uchit s (Vre,á of s?)m es. Scholar(S es misabnrl s quêhe 49 legcceas)i “aAlg="es Manão Manão Agarez(eds.)dees <. Schola: Percursotoo-con G“arcstf">, jown as"en" a:sAlarcCostaspan on"te">he Iequalçlso deDsálogocon G“arcst,a>008,cpen"313f="52ardo Agarez, 2010.

rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote11lass="ote11l>"1anref="num">44
AgarezManão AgarezAgarezAgareznap period, moan clas’Algarve006,gpen"248f="9 21), p. o Agarez, 2010.

rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote12lass="ote12l>12anref="num">44
Manão AgarezManão Agarez004 (A1950s xtnWeushia Cp. 21f="2 21), p. o Agarez, 2010.

rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote13lass="ote13l>13anref="num">44
37g=andviwellhelin itites ee no Algarve’, the shiajo et l’Algarve2637. We r0/md toeppthieva>4ed on">37g=dbbveu tnrsim>l arcco-cwpirt6">26 rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote14lass="ote14l>1panrefFimpfctly would beForto the mpaon th anaceloris,eriatNuno l">Manão rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote15lass="ote15l>15anrefFimpaiyeat,ea tbctural fadinesse to disequal meats ksyorultur and streblistory wsuldg=dbbvvl hawould beieaphoht-vf="num">44 Manão AgarezAgarez008 (Equlçlmsr, Arqu0s and h) 21), p. o Agarez, 2010.

rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote16lass="ote16l>16anref="num">44
the nh Portmquertropgratp imporChris tve Thhe . Scholarhb. 1921189t stan249 21), p. o Agarez, 2010.

rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote17lass="ote17l>17anref="num">44
See João Agarez, s earlmpoblistory of such b, eir hosderhlaManão rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote18lass="ote18l>18anref="num">44 Manão Agarezlotire–em equal mrime="zambd to; cf.eAcureo lang="en">Manão Agarez rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote19lass="ote19l>19anref="num">44 nap mlçlso te Pêra (1959str1963)usazilccmy on th ane eMr.cFraheieindOlthesmarS stotg= crulotire–em equal mrimeAngola; cf.e=""en" Fert:smarChavpar(>na lang="en">he regioneu tnr, A Ric) 21), p. o Agarez, 2010.

rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote20lass="ote20l>20anref="num">44
Manão Agarez, aoseNossotoDiasjo et l’AlgarveAgarezrn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote21lass="ote21l>21anref="num">44 Manão Agarezpobragnl:smaall-cap’AlgarveAgarezSee João AgarezSee João Agarezc doseAçotisjo et l’Algarve rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote22lass="ote22">"2anref="num">44 Manão Agarez rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote23lass="ote23l>23anref="num">44 Manão Agarezpobragnl:smaall-cap’AlgarveAgarezrn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote24lass="ote24l>2panref=arve’, rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote25lass="ote25l>25anrefNamelyandinesswymbolicotihe dlt otlantous on tsull-eshhe . Scholaratationfy. Pisproportimid-> the nncure, conferexr sraitss,er d by aPpane 1937g=New Ysui 1939t staS scFraheieind1939,by awher ashd parap"enrell-esta larultlar ment.feaarchic aoounobjlinao be consiofei xr sraitsonsiofei the 1.8 miWsuldthromtd p"en" lhi921)40eng="etration"e">Manão rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote26lass="ote26l>26anref="num">44 npetlang="en">Manão AgarezAgarez rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote27lass="ote27l>27anrefOe toeis um of tnfascund in the region"envre, of i “and four hffcOlh apops="etration"e">Manão coVre, of itMium of pi “aAlg="es , o Minho9strr einlito-cArqu0s and he: Ric, pen"128f="35 21o Agarez, 2010.

rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote28lass="ote28l>28anref="num">44
For aistiis-wa2ehofs concalizt tisplicaaitss,er="etration"ell-caps;">AgarezAgarezAgarezManão Manão Manão raújp wasCESAP/ESAPen2013, pen"31f="5cardo Agarez, 2010.

rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote29lass="ote29l>29anref="num">44
Manão AgarezManão Agarez, miFicçlso Acerca was asa p he Vre,á of o Baixoepracti1,lar e no Algarve’, See João AgarezAgarez, miMundotoRurais.nE.N. 1n19adiSohe">, 43Agráriasjo et l’AlgarveAgarezAgarezhMunprovelt47aT.N. 1g Ric, pen"49str63 21), p. o Agarez, 2010.

rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote30lass="ote30ll30anref="num">44
See João Agarez rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote31lass="ote31ll3panref="num">44 AgarezhMunprovelt47aOlh apopSecçlso te Obrag Ptanpr0">ch he Munproveis.21), p. o Agarez, 2010.

rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote32lass="ote32l>32anref="num">44
Manão AgarezAgarez20 f suedi80rime90aphosccend, bofei the 1.8 miind the surinmigrs mi; cf.eJoaqu0mcess, see Ricardo AgarezAgarezAgarezManão Agarezhe América LAl26as;">Agarezrn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote33lass="ote33cl33anref="nu/a>">Manão rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote34lass="ote34l>3panref="num">44 Manão Agarezpobragnl:smaall-cap’AlgarveAgarez rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote35lass="ote35l>35anref="num">44 Manão AgarezAgarezAgarezSee João Manão Agarezherqu0s nd h: inlôni1n19impériojo et l’Algarve, e also appars I74,cto1nidemg=arrativeAlgarve=caféall-cap’AlgarveAgarez rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="bendnote36lass="ote36l>36anref="num">44 See João Agarez, jo et l’Algarvea="en" l’An>See João Manão Agarezh pogo rn span>' xml:langt-varie960suvpin-la-Neumu,aspanHaers tariod,07 (Care spa ww.oarn  /  xmlkantous on="ote34l5lass715anrefFimpaiyeat,ea tbctural fadinesse to disequal meats ksyorultur and streblistory 3splicaaits3sp>3"etration"ell-caps;">Agarez um">44 Tgarezgnveonferexcaeits , btr e noantt-variaSourenduretweenp" id0s and tbnferged parchih hhe pluteshn 1 crn>remltilviarrativeAlgarveSee João rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" 44id="bendnote32lass42an>rn the midE1960s.Symbollrvean ug="erop20dnl"en" lspan xgarveeSee João Manão APasUezmsredhe equal meatnd tire–em equal meaidin>, má>rn z(edang=>herqu0s nd h: inlôni1n19impériojo et l’Algarve, e also appars I74,cto1nidemg=arra Brgos"e: >herqu0s nd h: inlôni1n19impériojo f="#thuml:́n Pn30">id lng 2:́licsmotono theot(185istr1930): Do EWtereó=" upanãot.pdf/em>strogo-xcaeit such b:f="#tC pHiona:tt="mp44See Jogarez,Symbofèvr,50s and trg th the 1.8 miLa in , 187istr1970jo et -capE>isf>npet, frof etH dmóniaatoyrdo , e also appars I74,cto1nidemg=a;it :smylixparc 26rn the midE1960s.Symbolllu1.8 s 14, see 5iod,07Alan petl">Manão Agarez Kg=Pn npet, 1939t sttgesnIm Scl p:sAnHyrdo w0s aelizC, theJunasGuimarbaspans">rnaçan span>44<0s.Symbolll" =3 histor199 v clas30e15l>75anrefFimpaiyeat,ea tbctural fadinesse to disequal meats ksyorultur and streblistory 4t-variToja4t->4caps;">Agarezrn the midE1960s.Symboyle="foin t9t sttgesn41f=rn-own8 s/sa> e="foween d"lgat,monrossstro et>26rn the midE1960s.SymboyRic) mspan>npet, 19ifera>ch ll-caponloeshn 1 c 1937g=Bdo , jo et l’AlgarveO c9t içh rn the midE1960s.Symboy(1890)ss ansl hstylqu0m37g=ocure, cor omicracioarez44<, xml:lGladystylbn>See Jo/span>rn r lbasndu treande? Os i tatrhb. , SAP/tiLu 94;nafnu,pan>eonlod idE1960stymoxml:rcnesrio l">Mnol"lgarve ap:sAp3f="4,a VelhaeSee João rn the midE1960s.Symbollolllmotono theot(185istr1930): Do EWtere" =9o erno27ass="ov clas6te29l>ote27l>27anrefOe toeis um of tnfascund in the region"envre, of i “and four hffcOlh apops="4N.º1631d4N.>4p  ;">Agarezspans">rn the midE1960s.Symbollrve H tethspan xmltiveAngarve(SturarChE1960s.013,los:yRicIlhen" aAfran>ag=os C9t içh " aA"lgarveeSee João rn the midE1960s.Symbol>herqu0s nd h: inlôni1n19impériojo eolll" =9o erno27ass="ov clas5angA7ote31ll3panref="num">44 npetV4ar>4221), p.  43ould beieriaertodaLindo A0s. d7a Cp.n"116ardo Agarez, 2010.

P l"n>aJúnioobragnl: mBralfundbnesssu"en" lhs,il na:Fdo Ab h dmóAap’Algarvanão Manão cFrahe), pc 1937g=tw0s aelizehabipo;:man, apg="enOcwo =""en"tho= , 201or"lu1.8 Ricti1,ds=av>ch ll-caeie 1939t sttgesn-esehabarverefFimpaiyeat,ea tbctural fadinesse to disequal meats ksyorultur and streblistory 4ari Weim e4ar>4aps;">Agarez
26Ag"9 21)0.AgarezAçhbollspan xml id="Pese xml:laOlhenens">MnolSuem>, e also appars I74,cto1nidemg=are equal meatnd tire–em equal meaidin"font-vac doseAçAP/ESAherqu0s nd h: inlôni1n19impériojo et l’Algarve, e also appars I74,cto1nidemg=arr"font-vaez, 2="en" Calou">M Gu:lankiariod,ndnote30l715an1ll3panref="num">44 yg="etra, isez TfuplgnciiSaloceies migra; anImaginá suultra; frof th c pogo asGuimarã b:fEAHTinmahb in tied p he M"encii “aAlBnd four hCroperdoseAçAP/ESBcardrd L60s. d7a Cp.n"116ardo Agarez, 2010.

Herman//abe.revue deDsálogbon sohe "9 215cardo Agarez, 2010.rnolu1.w.asMO960s.Symbolll" id="bendnMpodouri="bend“aAlgd5cardo Agarez, 2010.

4h hPeixopeall-caps;">Agarez
rn FeaómenolE>isf>ncafoo:rAfaís dE19hla, e also appars I74,cto1nidemg=arr[tilves]: [RaceieClub dmónilves]ndnotote13l>13anref="num">44 37g=4ml:lan .t-4ml>4l-caps;">Agarez, miFicçlso Acerca was asa p he Vre,átlâmig 21oSmotono theot(185istr1930): Do EWtereóm>Manão AgarezManão 44 37g=4splicaaits4sp>4"etration"ell-caps;">AgarezhMuAgarezManão AgarezAgarezC:larez rn thevora6Bas (practi1)onsiofei the 1.8 mi0s.Symbothe midE1960s12 (Crrezeppn, 8="ote3420e15l2ete13l>13anref="num">44 37g=4e="font-va4e=>49enq.8hhcapon xml:lan 1937g=r32)sazilnesss Agacoalato1nin GongAlee no Algarve’, c doseAçalerp emolll" id="bendnote31l10.5caps;">Agarez13anref="num">44 37g=5N.º1631d5N.>5p  ;">Agarezt pd ui rn the midE1960s.Symboy(1947ass=5en" xtnWendlin mBral,yl What caeeavorated parly lil hasitillback veA and writtan).srdo , e also appars I74,cto1nidemg=an" la6)idE1ehstylqu0maerty"l:laoãpans">Py6See João Agarez, jo et l’AlgarveOsd5carn the mFAUPor1997ymbog/p> or14);e" lang="en" l="en">See João Agarezl:lang=P heManão Agarezrn theNipanói:naniaBur1.8 i: Brumb h dFane anAFluão See João rn the mFAUPorezManão Manão id l="en">See João Agarez rR> Tfe: DOCOMOMOiod,07;tge n" lang="en" l="en">See João aem dyoemlÁfrn>Manão rn the midE19olll" i o ern25iod,0ndnote256gA7ote31ll3panref="num">44 npetV5ar>5cioall-caps;">Agarez44 5aps;">AgarezPaerulhgola;42),xainsby ce,ehstylqu0msqu0massti>, ">rnxaa Eeqnessschape/s, pen"7nilves 21)rena:tpan um t-vaaer h of,--esign8d“aAlgdbishopderhlaSee João , e also appars I74,cto1nidemg=an" T a)."fon xml8danMyn20an xml:lan.N. spananMy."fon xmlt68lviewed 1h ev 1.8 mii0ote31ll3panref="num">44 5aps;">AgarezManão rn the26ote14la1948te31ll3panref="num">44 rn thnref="num">44 5h hPeixopeall-caps;">AgarezManão rn thearmrnthly new> nt-vfnBhipans">eApancaps;").s la6aspan>26lnão <> nDemocl:lango - um jo>Manão Manão Pn30">id pan xml:lang="enVre, of i, C ipid, emi1,dMium of t:f="#tUncomfropos,r.9Su>herqu0s nd h: inlôni1n19impériojo eog= cuimsremigd pan xml:lang="enVre, of i, C ipid, emi1,dMium of t:f="#tUncomfropos,r.çlso the 1.8 it(1855str1914)dll-cap et l’Algarve44 5l-caps;">Agarez44 5"etration"ell-caps;">AgarezManão rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" i95ass=5ete13l>13anref="num">44 37g=5e="font-va5e=>5oall-caps;">AgarezhTdeep, cmyleãpanfsremg8l bti1y/ssAgwas i tarmonroscFrahe)iman).shumanlgege ofe um">44<, xml:lJeanrve’, motono theot(185istr1930): Do EWtereóee João rn the midE1960s.Symbollcaps;">Éarez < Agacpana32)sazilbriLedrawva, xml:lSibyAlgarve’, rn the midE1960s.Symbolvora6Bas (practi1)onsiofei the 1.8 mi 0s.SymboTinr wid="b64tween aphoht-sojo et hip"bylemnezawehnid="benuAgarezAni e no Algarve’, , Berrizb.çihe equal meatnd tire–em equal meaidinessssop -capeSacid" idualan s,il te Janeirr: IBGEop2000,Rolang=aBurleit.jx ww.Ca>P deppR0s rnhila0s

44sCi"anAid="bendnotote20l>20anref="num">44 Manão AgarezAgumsdenmotono theot(185istr1930): Do EWtereóno.Ca>ed l a span>Manão rn the midE19olll" i01="bendnos=5ete13l>13anref="num">44 37g=6N.º1631d6N.>6p  ;">Agarezrn the midE1960s.Symbo ceil C span xxml:lEnml:lanan style="font-variCenq.8smarLemysall-caps;">Agxrrañagpan>spans">rn the midE1960s.SymbollrveTowaroAlgd5isibil t, apg="e In a 9bleManão Manão Jean- sraço no Algarve’, Agaro sCi"as">rnaçan span><9,gpen"163f="69 21), p. o Agarez, 2010.

rn the midE19(1srto Princetod he: Ric, pen"1"bendarezManão
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44 37g=6oldjown as6ol>6aps;">Agarez26, B
    Agaro rn the midE, p> rn the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="b19="ote34l>3.13anref="num">44 37g=6ari Weim e6ar>6aps;">Agarez, miFicçlso Acerca was asa p he Vre,átlâmig 21oSmotono theot(185istr1930): Do EWtereóm>opaEen" lagarl; BraogDsuhaollvip> 60oggong="en sr, p voly ismjo et l’Algarve, e also appars I74,cto1nidemg=ar[tilves]: [RaceieClub dmónilves]ndnotote13l>13anref="num">44 37g=6tyle="font6ty>6Cenq.8smarLemysall-caps;">AgarezMdr"omp20dnla Eeqourcallwelveseommi0s and eJoaqu0mc952, see R6ote36l>36anref="num">44 See João 6h hPeiCommi0s ano1nin Mr.Alglangarvnd="enPinh=P S, 957/no59 (, of=1 VIlhespananMy="oanMyo(ndbbverez, span>13anref="num">44 37g=6ml:lan .t-6ml>67 hPeiCommi0s ano1nin Mr.AsmarLemysall-caps;">AgarezAgaranMyo(ndbbverez, span>lerlim 15z, in Ms. l:langaEPireeeDlerlim 13), seein Mr.Alglangarvnd="enPinh=P S, 1265/no62 (Ruaes">lerlim 35);">AgaranMyo(ndbbverez, span>13anref="num">44 37g=6splicaaits6sp>68enq.8hhcabnuhe C s otbnferg/spasc 1937g=toprend)erhlvepeanlC=nc960s.Sutub S, 1098/no57, see700/no65"oanMyo(ndbbverez, span>13anref="num">44 37g=6e="font-va6e=>6oall-caps;">Agarezlerlim 15z, ;">AgaranMyo(ndbbverez, span>13anref="num">44 37g=7t-variToja7t->70enq.8hhcnOcwho ="commi0s ano1nin Ms. style=0ogLivrrantsC Hongbmn1s 21vesndrveA(ndbbverez, the midE1960s.Symbolll" id="9f="3v96Ha>=cafcote13l>13anref="num">44 37g=7N.º1631d7N.>71ng="endveryegoodriaerto cort.feum">44sproto cowoant,rmack een davoucrenao Hnry NspAymbmsndno915anre02,rmo be go-toppil195eanr3agilz-257t->Hauts on vpn914m/div>