Navigation – Plan du site

Elite Transformation and Democratic Transition in Macedonia and Slovenia

Židas Daskalovski
p. 5-32

Résumé

The author explains the distinct democratic transition of Slovenia and Macedonia using Przeworski's theory of democratization. He underlines the differences and similarities between the paths of transition followed by these two former Yugoslavian republics. He also shows the importance of the elite's responses to the status of second Yugoslavia in the frame of this process

Texte intégral

  • 1  See for example Stepan (Alfred), Linz (Juan J.), eds., Problems of Democratic Transition and Conso (...)
  • 2 Higley et. al., op.cit., deal with the topic only passim ; Atilla Agh in his The Politics of Centra (...)

1The process of democratization of the Eastern European countries has been recent focus of attention of a number of political scientists1. Among the various authors writing on the issue of democratic transition in post-communist Europe very few have concentrated on the processes of democratic transition and consolidation in former Yugoslavia2. Out of the few authors who did analyze the question of democratic transformation of the countries that came into existence with the dissolution of the second Yugoslavia, few of them have attempted to correlate this process with inter-republican discussions about the future status of Yugoslavia.

  • 3  See Przeworski (Adam), « Transitions to Democracy », in Democracy and the Market, Cambridge : Camb (...)

2The aim of this paper is to explain the distinct democratic transition of Slovenia and Macedonia using Adam Przeworski’s theory of democratization, and to show the importance of the elite’s responses to the questions and issues raised on federal level concerning the status of second Yugoslavia to the fore-mentioned process3. This paper will underline the importance of elite transformation on the democratization process in Macedonia and Slovenia for two main reasons : first of all, only few studies have delt with these two former Yugoslavian republics, and, secondly, these republics were the most opposite of the former Yugoslavia.

Some Methodological Concepts

  • 4 Ibid., pp. 51-52.
  • 5 Ibid., pp. 88-89.
  • 6 Ibid., pp. 89-90.
  • 7 Ibid., p. 90.

3Przeworski divides the process of democratic transition into two phases. In the first stage, labeled liberalization, authoritarian regimes brake down and democracy appears on the political agenda4. In the second phase, democratization, the new political leadership focuses on the formation of democratic institutions. A new constitution is a result of the negotiations between the representatives of the opposition and the ancien regime. Stability and fairness of the constitution and the other new institutions depends on the power positions of the negotiating parties, and whether these relations are generally known. According to Przeworski, the case when the power relations are not known or are unclear, is best ; then the political authors negotiate more balanced political institutions. These type of institutions are also more prone to last longer and under different circumstances5. Finally, Przeworski, maintains that democracy, after the establishment of democratic institutions, still faces challenges of an unbalanced ratio of political forces within a society. For example, if the opposition stages general strike every time it loses elections or the government adopts unfavorable policy, then the democratic institutions might be weakened, and the military might step in6. A solution to this problem, Przeworski argues, is political pacts, agreements among « leaders of political parties to divide government offices among themselves independent of election results, fix basic policy orientations, and exclude and, if need, be repress outsiders »7.

4Using Przeworski’s theory this paper will show how both Macedonian and Slovenian elites in the debates in post-Tito Yugoslavia promoted and defended their own national interests vis-à-vis the interests of the other Yugoslav republics, and how at the peak of the debates, in the late 1980’s, both agreed to liberalize the political system in order to broaden and legitimize their support in the federal negotiation processes. Confident that they would win multi-party elections in their respective republics, both the Macedonian and the Slovenian communist elites miscalculated the potential strength of the parties and groups which had stronger national agendas than their own. Consequently, the mixed, uninstructed results of the first democratic elections in Macedonia and Slovenia, in opposition for example to those in Serbia and Croatia where one single party came to dominate the presidency and the parliament, together with the international responses to the Yugoslav process of dissolution, would have significant impact on the democratization processes in both countries. Soon after the first free elections, both Macedonian and Slovenian elites would choose a stable new institutional frameworks and form political pacts with the emerging opposition parties, resulting in strengthening of the democratization processes in both republics. However, as Higley and Burton argue, stable democracies do not emerge only by writing constitutions, and founding new institutional frameworks ; the progress is also facilitated by what they term change in status of political elites : from disunified to consensually unified elite types.

  • 8  They have pointed out that the concept of “elite” has been subject of different classifications an (...)
  • 9 Higley (John), Burton (Michael), « The Elite Variable in Democratic Transitions and Breakdowns », A (...)
  • 10 Burton (Michael), Gunther (Richard), Higley (John), « Introduction : Elite Transformation and Democ (...)
  • 11 Burton (Michael), Higley (John), « Elite Settlement », American Sociological Review, 52, 1987, p. 2 (...)

5According to Higley and Burton there are three different kinds of elite types8, consensually unified, ideologically unified, and disunified elites9. Consensual elites are characterized by inclusive structural integration and value consensus10. These types of elites might take opposing policy stances in public, but consistently refrain from extending their disagreements to a point of violent conflict. Disunified elites, on the other hand, are characterized by minimal structural integration and value consensus. Fractions of disunified elites distrust each other, engage in ruthless, often violent conflicts, and do not cooperate to hold back societal divisions or to avoid political crisis11. Ideologically unified elites are typical for authoritarian countries, where structural integration and value consensus are seemingly monolithic. Thus, ideologically unified elites appear to have complete union, publicly support the same policies, and are members of a centralized party or movement.

  • 12 Higley (John), Pakulski (Jan), « Revolution and Elite Transformation in Eastern Europe », Australia (...)
  • 13 Burton (Michael), Higley (John), art.cit., p. 295.
  • 14 Burton (Michael), Gunther (Richard), Higley (John), art.cit., pp. 15-18.
  • 15 Higley (John), Pakulski (Jan), art.cit., p. 114.
  • 16 Ibid., p. 111.

6Consequently, Higley and Burton maintain that the “ideal” kind of elites is the consensually unified type, and that the critical step for a successful democratization includes transformation of disunified elites into consensually unified ones. In post 1989-1990 Eastern Europe there were two main ways in which consensually unified national elites could form : through a direct transformation, or through an elite settlement of basic disputes among elites. A direct transformation can occur if the party elites acknowledge the counter productivity of communist ideology, embrace democracy, and accommodate the emerging new elites12. This transformation is also possible through an elite settlement, « a relatively rare event in which warring national elite factions suddenly and deliberately reorganize their relations by negotiating compromises on their most basic disagreements »13. The settlement occurs through relatively quick negotiations among leaders of major elite factions. These negotiations are conducted by experienced political leaders and result in formal written agreements14. A number of circumstances might foster this trend : an emergence of democratic ethos, a strong pro-Western orientation, pragmatism, new orientations on the part of the former communists elite in favor of economic liberalization and political democracy, and, conflict resolution with cooperation among new and old elites, and thus solidarity sentiments15. Once this elite unity and consensus is reached, stable democracies are feasible, but may also not16.

7Macedonian and Slovenian elites achieved consensus and unity by combination of aspects of both direct transformation to consensual unity and elite settlement. In the late 1980’s both Macedonian and Slovenian elites embraced democracy, thus disregarding old communist ideology. They, both, however, in the aftermath of the 1990 elections, negotiated elite settlements with the new elites. Nonetheless, the different Macedonian and Slovenian elites’ policies and strategic responses before and during the Yugoslav crisis, would have a great impact on the Macedonian and Slovenian paths to democratic consolidation. While the Slovenian elites would be able to concentrate on the issues of democratic restructuring and economic consolidation only, the Macedonian elites would face additional problems of international recognition, economic sanctions, and minority dilemmas.

Yugoslav Debates : 1980-1988

  • 17  On these issues see Ramet (Sabrina), Nationalism and Federalism in Yugoslavia 1962-1991, Bloomingt (...)
  • 18  See Cohen (Lenard), Broken Bonds : Yugoslavia's Disintegration and Balkan Politics in Transition, (...)

8Kardelj’s and Tito’s deaths (in 1979 and 1980) and the growing economic crisis in Yugoslavia in the beginning of the 1980’s largely influenced the reemergence of the issues of liberalization and nationalism, already raised on republican level and suppressed by Tito in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s17. The question of liberalization, both in terms of economic transformation and power legitimization, was intertwined with the issue of republican interests, the status of the Yugoslav state, and thus, regional nationalism18. During 1980’s the regional Yugoslav communist leaders tried to achieve almost impossible goals : to restructure the federation so that it fits different republican interests, to modernize the economy, and, lastly, to (re)legitimize their power authority.

  • 19  See for example, Vejvoda (Ivan), « Yugoslavia 1945-1991 - from Decentralization Without Democracy (...)
  • 20 Ramet (Sabrina), Balkan Babel : Politics, Culture, and Religion in Yugoslavia, Oxford : Westview Pr (...)

9As a result of the events in the late 1960’s and the beginning of the 1970’s, Tito compromised with the dissident voices within the communist party and, in 1974, brought a constitution which de facto decentralized the country and the communist power instrument, the League of Communist of Yugoslavia (LCY)19. Therefore, the 1980’s discussions within the LCY were not debates among federally unified communists but between regional communist party leaders seeking to defend their own republican interests. Although each regional party leadership was fractionated to some extent, in the initial phase of the debate, in the beginning of the 1980’s all of the republican communist elites opted for specific positions ; thus, while the Slovenian and Vojvodinian leaders advocated liberalization and even greater Yugoslav decentralization, the Serbian leaders strongly favored liberal centralization, while the Macedonian, Croatian, and Kosovar parties preferred maintenance of the status quo, i.e., decentralized communist Yugoslavia20.

  • 21 Ibid., p. 13.
  • 22 Ibid., p. 14.

10In search for options how to deal with the crisis, in the beginning of the 1980’s Yugoslav communists began the process of (re)legitimatization of the regime which would eventually lead to the democratization of the country. Different options were proposed in the discussions, ranging from proposals for restoration of the multi-party system, to a “party-less” socialist system operated through citizens’ associations21. Although some propagated even stricter rule of the party, most of the ideas were undoubtedly quite liberal and reform-oriented in character, ranging from calls for establishment of full-fledged “social democracy” to multi-candidate communist elections22.

11Parallel to the liberalization debate, was the discussion on the status of the federation and the value of the 1974 Constitution. Paradoxically, inter-republican discussions over the status of the Yugoslav federation would be the salient cause for the liberalization and the break up of the country. Indeed, the Serbian upsurge of the institutionalized confederate balance of power game would inevitably accelerate the centrifugal processes in Yugoslavia. Serbian’s party leadership insistence on re-centralizing Yugoslavia would tip of the status quo and provoke strong chain of reactions, first among the Slovenian, and later among the other Yugoslav republics party leaders, which in turn would directly lead former Yugoslav communists to embrace more radical options as solutions to the crisis : democratization, and dissolution. Drastic changes in the attitude of the Serbian party leadership toward the status of the Yugoslav federation would come about with the rise to power of Slobodan Milošević, exactly in the midst of the federal level discussions on how to overcome the Yugoslav crisis.

  • 23 Ramet (Sabrina), Nationalism and Federalism (op.cit.), p. 225.
  • 24  See ibid., pp. 228-234. The Serbian republican assembly passed new amendments to the Serbian const (...)
  • 25  See Cohen (Lenard), op.cit., pp. 52-55, and Ramet (Sabrina), Nationalism and Federalism (op.cit.), (...)
  • 26  See Ramet (Sabrina), Nationalism and Federalism (op.cit.), pp. 232-233, and Cohen (Lenard), op.cit (...)

12Until 1987, it seemed conceivable that while the regional elites would ask for further debate on the future status of the federation, Yugoslavia could continue on a path of slow transformation to pluralism and liberalization. However, the rise of S. Milošević who the same year « succeeded in deposing his erstwhile mentor, Ivan Stambolić, and in establishing himself as the unrivaled boss in the republic of Serbia » would significantly change the situation in the country23. Milošević shrewdly materialized on Serbian’s people national sentiments and moved to change Serbia’s “disadvantaged position” within the Yugoslav federation. Using the ideology of the nationalistic wing of the Serbian intellectuals, and populist methods, in the period between 1988 and 1989, Milošević swiftly abolished the autonomous status of the Kosovo and Vojvodina provinces, and installed his own supporters in the Montenegrin party leadership24. By taking control of the Serbian media and establishing “cult of personality” Milošević mobilized the Serbian society in favor of the slogan “strong Serbia, strong Yugoslavia”25. After ing enchng contrević swiftly abolished the autonomoe single pardecepublican inme claopulist methrepublevthrbodyftn25" href="#ftn25">25. Aft 2oblem, NoEntirrocelogic, position”uses on c the sons, dation, pralovenianpublics party leaders, which in tuliberal ce

ublics lead n mediaaberalediariv> ublic, bud the autonven evel ai swiftbe reprwhiletion i swifshensuaolitimocratnt of electaders, which in turncr the ligauugo dir="ltr" id="heading1">Yugoslav De3ates : 1980-sm in the 1980’s and Slovenian Elite Response to the Serbian Assertive Role in the Federation
pan class="paranumber">12Until 1987, it seemeina)decentralibaing fte autonommunists elhinculyh of Kosoxiomgoslbrty lehood aspects od=",trument, the League constsitutionnguav fia, stron “s,tatuslismon dyuals, Slrumebeediareplrdingn thew,trumey" ieir less”hat it fan ould bmoe singleblican discusof the counthe same year « succeto thoatus ak of the debatrwhiletion i sexample toin Yuloses>decee elite own dbian iscuootnfuelthe breakion of the up of the country.yste Slovehe coud="embly th direct transfocuentsensuić, exactltionsin chararately reon. Using tiscalculated the pote undousis in Yugoslavia great impact on own dbiaazation, tta nas “ fitossessenshe breakdvercopons, stiled in the
  • 23 Ramet (Sabree Ramet punke , (op.fScićeig/li>
  • 18  See Cohe284.
  • 16 Ibid., p.2n), Burton (MichaMastnak (Tomaz945-1991 - from CivilfScanstronexample he Market sioka (Jimart.cvxamtono(Vukaši art atic Transbly T)
  • 2012Until 1987, it seeme., pp. 2Thtion of Sla>Dsoelite aey" hetuubcslavia25. Aft question of 2alization, he same et punke 25. Afting 1980’s tine284.a>acedonian and SloveniaransR" io Sadern href=ebency aault oumtes woutus icy felogica a npla>25. Aftrefore, the 1 2s discuss/and liberass="footnotey" hetnegotias>deceneekicaransMl" idr

    5According to Higley hn), PakuTn Yugadin uloses>decee elite agrin Ylošević, exactltionsin chararin the eon. Using t of the Yugablishinscalculatthe League consi swif6alta-party elece differenise to ponsformae coosses in Yugbloss)gablishinscalculata Howevetken.)3. This p 30emocratizrate,s were undfferenibency aa 196ll" ivtestir ruly quite liberishinscalculattivilfon “stown natin othishitbism, toav federion, Yua great iarrelitmd theatiw,lishinscalculata undfferenicr thes, anlooklobodaa 19oval upmmunistsin tulct transfYsee witstiripar pt "pdf">can irom call strohileti Februootnthatts, the stsm3. This phough some pr 3ted eveHthe 1990 en theuld facenscalculat of the Yugdemounifcra order tosm (op.fPiogramnist eleresn the Yug whilwr thes, an liberang “cul in faect trans example, if t toward the s Howevetken cuee andunifmentsualihe iebrace tionamen : drOxfordof aspeacf tm challenges of anes wour theof thehable to concentratedva YugosntitSlrumeinstons d icong leay in favtishinscalculata Howevetkenan “strontnterl f, ectsgional partypossil in faect trur then iscuooion of theshinscalculata undfferentions as solua.ir respective republicberrees, anwayttimize theirthe federal negotin on ton. Using the ideoloied com. Mionsmation otuld facenscalculat debate on t,vian up of thmen anrre 19e thyrmer Y1989, ndulumteslav stry. Different options wiscalculaton “s class="textandnotes"> dir="ltr" id="heading1">Yugoslav De4ates : 1980- Pluralism and Macedonian Party Elites Responses to the Yugoslav Crisis

  • 21 Ibid., p.38e Ramet additionalttn18d to chanhum tho emestnegotias>dec),
  • 3

8Kardelj’s and Titon (LenardOnertions (Sabrina)anciettn18d to chanhs to demochum tho emestnf tork,day, egov EGreece USA"#ftnadang newA2">(...)ng nenegeanponses to t iecall" id=/atussl" id “socilein opposition e ofhrbodyftn25" href="#ftn25">25. Af3ing 1980’s 3 38

  • 21 Ibid., p.3Vej 0
  • 24  See ibid, (.l Na /a>
  • 4

    9As a result of the e Famew mentalll6,vianhe ecn thtivtestincienegeanponses to ts l ememocraftnadangncienecall" id=/LCY)hild Refugeese of fnegeanponses to as thctsgn1" quaty leaderSkopje personalitylaviessehrbian Romane toPoltitutCzechideovake toftnadang newA2">(...)bodyftn25" href="#ftn25">25. Af3refore, the 13re.3deceimlt ofons bw min greaeresny, embi thstrup> June pers3rdstrup> Julersti 4. In the 4 4 might tak FcedonIonomic sanctiResame tLCY)hild RefugeesemocAegeanponses to t id ; tha among new aurgld have Greek mselves indist ugosnthstrup> anni 19en raing of ttl crisrreact "pdume tLCYonses to , toenwy rgenctpwntmy,ibteonses to ts dasgn1 cent ofs, stiishiUN ouilddemont New Yorkv>

  • 21 Ibid., p.41(Sabrina), AmWanding a S)legdY)h on tn oppositionA < 55According to Higley rina)thstrup> C»,rn and Sloconomic sanctioundr motnonegotias>dec,lPENooperry.pvor of ple lovemet additionallnnguageeeyhGreecelnwiti indlevthr eova Min itiojr/a>caan elina)4. In thehough some preho.41(Sdiv>

  • 21 Ibid., p.42(Sabrina), cka (Mirjrm and Federalirom ion inčki, Kslavini i Međd srodni Okoln,sti, koi VlojrcanVrz Efikasn,staloi> 4
  • 135According to Higley r1na) gadin tow uferoct transp Howevetken.)4. In the 4 42ed eveHthe 1990tftencr theocietarcommuni crithods="foottes and , exactl="forty, tionspc sancting from c example, if tppositione class="textandnotes"> dir="ltr" id="heading1">Yugoslav De5ates : 1980-5to singlevm. example Lup of the
    Ibid., p. 47<.
  • republi80-83, 86
  • 16 Ibid., p.4 (Lenard) 4 Ibid., p.49, pp. 228-234. ng>, op.cit., pp. 52-55, and Ramet (Sa61, 8), Ramet li88
  • 16 Ibid., p.5ina), 5
  • 11 Burton (Mi51(Sabrina), (.9), op.cit (.../a>
  • 5 Burton (Mi5n), Pakulski (JanSekeljit aslo, pp. 52-55, and Ramet li2 Burton (Mi53(Sabrina)135According to Higley r3na) tre lovemet amrvkanologasstLCYransMl" idr 25. Af4 4 46stlso possiing otnortelinad , Miloecallbul- edern oEogi ore aowntmy,ipepdume m. eation pdeboth amrvindil isatas,quickicauloses>lavian ree980’s and fea theUame po of l callandtand i changesuitenscalci B opootnoCitmer issfia, strCath con ChuwitnaMiono 1990lecwascalculata undfferentioatro, aa 19ov datirgenctl in faect translecwascalculataize tnrty elooklaie emestiispwntmy,iibetyfrghe eccessfn ftn ratre l. OtaJunea22ndstrup>, 40 000and movng ne rd Vojfiguforfex smist wer instlikelexample tory. nnd dusonal Ljizejrm nts aLup ofct trSquat frghe eccessfunjthlen ftn rananot pwnhileingven goson ouion inct transts, to modrately re would significelitementog w apc sanctincuin90lecwascalculatchieve almost impoi voiveor ofgotes edia beginndy ancieascalculataize t,e fact,ecicy felogicafgoslrty eit s thtog w amethrepublnses to ta undfferenbodyftn25" href="#ftn25">25. Af4 question of 4 q 47<.lso E nanoYuediat in faect tbec consolid problebioad pvor of ncandidbginning of y lead nwitiization pvor of lic,lizavenslrty e 25. Af4ing 1980’s 4 4egionalCitmunist rty elecye on thsunbabgaoniuubtedly quitee repoibeloation ,ncl fralgoson ontono em nd dusgld facenscalceta undfferentiaSl re ereseaswif9osla dbiaist ugosnir respective republicdeboth ew amendments to thbodyftn25" href="#ftn25">25. Af4refore, the 14re.49, eventhe late 1,slecwascalculatt, A e on throm btedlclosethe S debate,ecwHungturaneen 198ace tiadin evng new n ran elite agrconomicionated ono emhe Mbodyftn25" href="#ftn25">25. Af5 5 5 might Mionsmation otuld faiv e, A ehberrom occuus qubygwaythe pc sanctil in faect traewadcfor the liucture the oommYuedelrty eit cr thenceptbeotetdludes traooniuwicehe Mbodyftn25" href="#ftn25">25. Af5hough some pr5 5ted eveOocereswaytnon lncy aaur conomic catnotecallferen90lecwascalculata undfost imporom "footlsa?"interer movempc sancti Yugoslavnian aewarom ramewa of the federect trbgiire wrbian intemhe Mbodyftn25" href="#ftn25">25. Af5 5 i5n),ght tak ascalculata undfferen and 1989, Milošević swiftly abolishelevel discussionthe federect tr
    25. Af5paper will un53 53

    11Parallel to the lib>., pp. 2onugoson ot abystn ftn raaffairnseniteSe; Dwho i class="textandnotes">

    5According to Higley 5ina)thstrup>,awi91,raf96fowt 25. Af106" 106p.10 (Sght tak dwionses to tithnrdecepwnmlgt; thn t1ststrup> ia,N b, ,awi91,rrumebrricteethe late 1ovemtog i thpgosryd comaif the odt, majota additionala uo th,as in  s25. Af107" 10 107(Sght Mirylethn tthrdecs vemalll s in  so conomc wi,E ppositionnrsupw6m nhend docus indv urodt hilaboens’vemthecks cterbalheces,o ov don oodk ex ivarri,ethe s warri,e oavjiflandry, ex godyftn25" href="#ftn25">25. Af108" 10 108),ght nstatusms witactordsn odivlitethrdec,t strarina p idionhum tho emesttry. teaom ,fo?"nssfrom bgifsrlav factilhesncandidoegotias>declanslecwonses to tian “stmthleavebuilt25. Af109" 109p.109<.ocratizize th oo0eedi isticithrepubltions w)thnken irb,vlitethrdeca wn dbiadeboth d in ons, stiisCousuilodeboIonom)thnkenRromises oobodi s> nhe s waviagodyftn25" href="#ftn25">25. Af11iefore, the 1110 11inaght tak dwithrdec te se voiwbiad covacuuma eath Mopand vof nhend ra cinu/dy ans

  • 21 Ibid., p.111), Pakulski (JanPei y(Dunuliand Federalind vtronohe. 234
  • 225According to Higley 51), Pakuststrup>,swi91,rop.ciit slaf tvorisdep eng of frumpfstatus quot Hthe 1990unl kegascalcul,r factibysA tile l92foabingcogniznavbyoet Eu ofhath)25. Af111efore, the 1111p.111),ght B#ftusgpoulGreek objecnubli,clumedespiat.t abECnts aB" id, bo)decles woargua a succrof electaders, which in turraspiran odivbeco ardndep taonhe ascalcul Responses to Natint, m imumarequirea href oro yogni in t?"inconomic cYt gr jvonses to oabiociengcogniznavbyoet ECintall92e poVojv straroaissoioninconomic ct, dwionses to ti of the Yu ctmqu 0pw6dincy href="#bpts ndlsf terat, Miloeasry. Diffe cra s codd in n20"p9othem UN.)legitba sanepubliaghe eccstatus quo, Greek diploralicttry.)legitba p960viaalate 1d Miall strimarsstrengtio asamav reallfmbargointall94-ll95,astc.lCitreque thejv stracmomula>declanslecse"p9othem

    Yugoslav De9ates : 1980-9toCitcluiiansdiv cllass="textandnotes">

    5According to Higley 5ina)decst tak dwitd ; ththrdecs iizb eliascalcul Responses to wnd vbalhece arumeotithet nstatusms witiizb eli bgii catnocstsg frofct te tions wcie inies,e oa,intanssfcaseotio addition, te selav> dia1rib new atioofn iniaobodi s> mselves int By,tiadin icce, 25. Af11iefore, the 1113 11inalso A lslecse"rateorsouationives wo

  • 21 Ibid., p.114), Pakulski (JanHigltyb(John),oPakulskio(Jliand Federalirom Revng new RespEereniT, 225According to Higley 54), PakuDuron oth Moroaiss,istatus quovdialouggre trasi aYt grraumeb eliascalcul Responses to slaf tvorisdep enraWhiniath Mascalculatfereniawnd var6p tvor Ybosuithlibaslco aranslecwhe ideolo 25. Af114efore, the 1114p.114),ght takions witdespiat.t abtiadin o,

    "texte" dir="lts >25<

  • republ>

    Accordin="pa"nNcinsdi Paku525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af1p.1),gha), RametBaltims wn20"John Hopkinr UP,swi96n2; ski (JanHigltyb(John),oPakulskio(Jlia,tWmyolowskio(Wlodzimiv z, pp. 52-55,eds.5, andPostthieve alnEereniaaoavD conomcyrntaEay,ar oEu ofhg>RametBfelogtok n20"Mac of n,swi98n2; orlski (JanDawisha (K tvn),oParrott (Bis,e, pp. 52-55,eds.5, andtak Ca s codd in ingD conomcyrntaEay,lCacy RametCambridg n20"Cambridg UP,swi97 srumebyath Mocy a RametCambridg n20"Cambridg UP,swi97v> <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af2">n),gh ski (JanHigltybert al. pp. 52-55, and Rametdealenses to tnopficanhe pesiimn2; ski (JanAunbaa Agha> ng>, Rama(Londn n20"SAGE Puin  Ram) n 1lyemhianme a.htelor to an 19oachh ooecaloroaissv> <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af3">3),gha) <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af4p.4),gh s ret e. 51-52v> <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af5y 5),gh s ret e. 88-89v> <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af6">6),gh s ng>Ramet e. 89-90 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af7">7),gh s ng>Ramet . 90 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Afin.8),gha)att, to mods on intrenae oavNathodologecaldn 19oachest(ski (JanHigltyb(John) Burthte(Michaeland Federalirom InviistradivEereniTecioyH iss, my ttreusiianoions w additionalaewaascalculatferenvenia96mpitmosh ooecalhe ideolo 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af9 9),gh ski (JanHigltyb(John),oBurthte(Michaeland Federalirom tak EereniVturabnia eaD conomic cT, 525 <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af11p.11),gh ski (JanBurthte(Michaela, Higltyb(John)nd Federalirom EereniSettlea hrn2ef="#ftnArertulibSn ologecaldRe ) <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af12p.1n),gh ski (JanHigltyb(John),oPakulskio(Jliand Federalirom Revng new RespEereniT, 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af13 13),gh ski (JanBurthte(Michaela, Higltyb(John)nd Federalind vtronohe. 295 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af14p.14),gh ski (JanBurthte(Michaela, Gu,t lea(RicharoCohHigltyb(John)nd Federalind vtronohe . 15-18 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af15 15),gh ski (JanHigltyb(John),oPakulskio(Jliand Federalind vtronohe. 114 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af16p.16),gh s ret . 111 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af1 17),gha), RametBlo)tn n2/aIsdoasaltnoin20"Isdoasa UP,swi92 sp . 92-l35raO o ppositionnr ip of faect trlquent,lilialef the,rrumesd 1960t tr/strong>, Rama(tak TwoaFadd525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af1 18),gha)op.cit., pp. 52-55, andBiok atBondin20"status quo's Dsalouggre ew Resplture, Ponoteca(ialT, RametWmy, )RametLondn n20"Pid, b,swi92 sp. 118n2; orlski (JanSekeljit.asloand Federalio status quon20"tak ProaissoionDsalouggre ew g>RametNdwihorkn20"Cng mclaaUP,swi93et . 207v> <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af19p.19),gha)525RametOxe edn20"Wmy, )525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af21>>21),gh s ret . 13 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af22">n2),gh s ret . 14 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af23>>23),gh ski (JanmaNati(Sabuld and Federalio ebian inte oavFy of lteg>Rama(strong>Cohe. 225 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af24>>24),gha)RametNdwihorkn20"Cavebgie Endnwons, Shilela Puin cd in ,bll95,a . 1.lFex latfxceloe toryscri;dec of tak ystred-blacknt"csymbiodivif the oSa clanechieve alia oavic sanct alia/strong>, RametBudapmy,n20"Cacy 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af25>>25),gha)op.cit., pp. 52-55, and Ramet e. 52-55,i repoki (JanmaNati(Sabuld and Federalio ebian inte oavFy of lteg>Rama(strong>Cohe. 233 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af26>>26),gha)Rama(strong>Cohee. 232-233,i repoki (Jan>op.cit., pp. 52-55, and Ramet . 58 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af27>>27),gha), RametLondn n20"Mac oflan P96mi,swi94et . 93 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af28>>28),gh s et . 94 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af29>>29),gh ski (JanMastnak (Tnmazand Federalirom CivilfScanebyeallascalculn2ef, i="Sa oka (Jim),oPavlomić (Vukašiiaoh eds.5, andtak T,gedyrstistatus quog>RametNdwihorkn20"M.E. Sharpa,awi92 sp. 52v> <525, Ramet e. 210-213 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af31>>31),gha), RametBeltiaden20"Isrt,us, ScandidSci issn2/tFexum,us, EthnkenRromises otry.IYuomic sanct Nf tork Eu ofhrrument, lture,s,swi96 sp. 126 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af32>>3n),gh ski (JanDanus,tha(Loron )nd Federalirom Ethnkenebian inteiteaYT, d op oavS iviityrntaEu ofhn2ef="a tmepuin  sscuoyetBfeniaCobahea,awi94 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af33">33),gh ski (JanmaNati(Sabuld and Federalio lture, Babelg>Rama(strong>Cohee. 26-27v> <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af34>>34),gha) <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af35>>35),gh s eova Min itiojr 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af36>>36),gha)525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af37>>37),gha) n and Sloveni. /st,ski (JanPhesšomić (B jamiiand Federalirom souyh Subcslaviisorument, WariialCioaSuln2ef="i="Prpić (Katauld a, Despot (Blaženk a, Dugrumžija (Nikolaaoheds.5, andCioaSulneScanebyetnmtak EvaransT, RametZag tbn20"Isrt,us, ScandidRcsearch,swi93. /st,te seong>, RametBeltiaden20"Me ofnCacy b,swi97, whobfxllainsrshipme ofnm tipuldct te tiod co bian intelgt eid brginngosleas> viooe torsalouggre ew easo embbostatus quo 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af38>>38),gha)decia/strong>, RametNdwiJerseen20"PrinaethteUP,swi95 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af39>>39),gha)< sp. 105 525 <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af41>>41),gha)525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af42>>42),gha) zabSn ološkiiI Ponotečko"Pravni Ion džuvanjr,swi98 sp.159v> <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af43>>43),gh ski (JanmaNati(Sabuld and Federalio lture, Babelg>Rama(strong>Cohe. 24 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af44p.44),gha)Rama(strong>Cohe. 222,i repoki (Jan>op.cit., pp. 52-55, and Ramet e. 62-63 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af45>>45),gh ski (JanmaNati(Sabuld and Federalio ebian inte oavFy of lteg>Rama(strong>Cohe. 223 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af46> 4 (Sgha)Ramet . 80)v> <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af47> 47),gh s ret e. 80-83et86 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af48> 4 (Lgha), 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af49> 49),gha)op.cit., pp. 52-55, and Ramet e. 61et83,i repoki (JanGowo(Jlmes, pp. 52-55, and Ramet . 88 525RametNdwihorkn20"Mac oflan,swi93et . 105, <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af51> 51),gha)RametLondn n20"Verso,swi93et repoki (Jan>op.cit., pp. 52-55, and Ramet . 50 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af52> 52),gh ski (JanSakeljit.asloand Federalio Ramet . 214 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af53> 5inagha)525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af54> 54),gh ski (JanmaNati(Sabuld and Federalio ebian inte oavFy of lteg>Rama(strong>Cohe. 242v> <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af55y 55(Lgha), Ramet . 120 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af56>>56),gha) <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af57>>57),gh ski (JanMaleska (Mirjrm and Federalirom Rizikotlsa De. kre ejatat:tasučajotlsa Min itiojrnian (DelitrddeboD conomcyn20"odk Casevmul addition)5,i="#ftnGodišniklsa Isro> zabSn jalno"Pravno Ponotečki Ion džuvanjrg>Ramet(1),swi98 sp. 160 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af58>>58),gh ski (JanmaNati(Sabuld and Federalio lture, Babelg>Rama(strong>Cohe. 15 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af59>>59),gh s eova Min itiojr 525525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af61>>61),gh ski (JanGowo(Jlmes, pp. 52-55, and Ramet . 129v> <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af62>>62),gh ski (JanmaNati(Sabuld and Federalio lture, Babelg>Rama(strong>Cohe. 35 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af63>>63(Lgha)525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af64>>64),gh ski (JanDanus,tha(Loron )nd Federali andtak additionalCitmLitt Cohe. 106 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af65>>65),gh ski (JanPoulthte(Hugh)nd Federali andWhst d vd ehonses to t  ?g>RametBlo)tn n20"Isdoasa UP,swi94et p. 172-173 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af66">66),gh s ret . 173 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af67>>67),gh s eova Min itiojr <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af68>>68),gh ski (JanMaleska (Mirjrm and Federalirom Ponotečki,oKslavini inMeđunarodni Okolnostinian (nd vtronCohe. 11v> <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af69>>69),gha), decct Nbian inteiteF embblyostatus qiRe in tusn2ef="#ftnSs qkenRr )decct bian intemnt"csst,ski (JanPhttaii(Velloand Federalirom Emergld hEthnkenD conomc wirntaEsttionraewaLatvuln2ef="i="Opalskio(Magda)5,ed.5, andMrm gld hDselvs i="Pluf leScaneb wir: M irb,vMigre ew ,p oavebian -rBuir mnalf tPost-)RametOttawnn20"Fexum,Eay,ar oEu ofh,swi98n2; repoki (JanHayd.citRop otand Federalirom tak Logecetioth Warsoitestatus quon2ef="i="Boasuhinii(Stef toaohJo jić (Dušaiaoheds.5, and Ram525525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af71>>71),gha), Rama(strong>Cohe. 27n2; s eova Min itiojr <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af72>>72),gh ski (JanPoulthte(Hugh)nd Federali and Ramet . 172v> <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af73>>73),gh s eova Min itiojr 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af74>>74),gh s eova Min itiojr Ramet26/02/90 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af75>>75),gh ski (Jan>op.cit., pp. 52-55, and Ramet . 90 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af76>>76),gh s ret . 91v> <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af77">77),gh ski (JanmaNati(Sabuld and Federalirom ascalculveniaRoaornonD conomcyRametsa; <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af78>>7 (Lgha) oens’vemyston, maneonarvcinnt"an oavioticitmonsialdngre ine, w?"inuatisf t/s clanemethrepuv> <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af79>>79),gh ski (JanmaNati(Sabuld and Federalirom ascalculveniaRoaonian (nd vtroCohe. 5 525525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af81>>81),gh ski (JanmaNati(Sabuld and Federalirom Dy. Different opntaascalculnian (nd vtronCohee. 197-198 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af82>>82),gh ski (JanmaNati(Sabuld and Federalirom ascalculveniaRoaonian (nd vtro>Cohe. 6 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af83>>83),gh ski (JanmaNati(Sabuld and Federalirom Dy. Different opntaascalculnian (nd vtronCohe. 199v> <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af84>>84),gha)decst d vfoundpdrop.cins woele ew easo einianseocieknosn, orlns woete 1sroul f republi d vctmmunis, a><,r(ski (JanPrzeworskio(Adamand Federalind vtronohe . 87-88)v> <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af85>>85),gh ski (Janmizmane(RudolfbM.and Federalirom ascalculn2ef, i="Neuholia(Hot pethrCohHavlik (PethrCoh oavSupSee (Arnoli)5,eds.5, andPonotecallRespElegitba T, RametOxe edn20"Wmy, )525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af86>>86),gh s ret . 61v> <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af87>>87),gh s eova Min itiojr 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Afiin.88),gh s 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af89>>89),gh ski (JanPoulthte(Hugh)nd Federali and Ramet . 173 525525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af91>>91),gh ski (JanPoulthte(Hugh)nd Federali and Ramet . 174v> <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af92>>9n),gh ski (JanDanus,tha(Loron )nd Federali andtak additionalCitmLitt Cohe. 137v> <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af93>>93),gh ski (JanPoulthte(Hugh)nd Federali and Ramet . 173 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af94>>94),gha)thstrup> nnduots additionalic sanct l indclimaxpdroses to tfoundd in ingVMROssis ilia ip of in snisgg idsstn20"ong>, RametDurhemn2/ Londn n20"Duk UP,swi88n2; repoki (JanDaskaldmskii(Židas, pp. 52-55, andDyvelopons,atio additionalNbian inte1814-1913g>Rametmepuin  sM.A.slecsiv,rCEUetBudapmy,,swi98 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af95>>95),gh ski (JanPoulthte(Hugh)nd Federali and Ramet . 173 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af96>>96),gha)Ramet08/10/90,is Vjesnik 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af97>>97),gh ski (Jan>op.cit., pp. 52-55, and Ramet . 148 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af98>>9 (Lgha)< ng> <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af99 99),gh ski (JanPoulthte(Hugh)nd Federali and Ramet . 176et repoki (JanMaleska (Mirjrm and Federalirom Ponotečki,oKslavini inMeđunarodni Okolnostinian (nd vtronCohe. 156 525525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af101p.101),gh s r> <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af102p.102),gh ski (JanPoulthte(Hugh)nd Federali and Ramet . 150 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af103 103),gh ski (JanSpasov (Ġorġiand Federalirom Dilemmaa(LCYIsdep enRamet5 (5Cohmarch-aprtlall92v> <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af104p.104),gh ski (Jan>op.cit., pp. 52-55, and Ramet . 213 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af105 105),gha)decstsst,ski (JanPrzeworskio(Adamand Federalind vtronohe. 90 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af106p.106),gha)525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af10 107),gha)deca oavns wo emestofvn iion/stn20"ong>, Ramet(2),swi96 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af10 108),gh ski (JanČokremskii(Tn iRlavand Federalirom Redefini in tnuld coFun italrstiLawiialCie iniestialT, Ramet(2),swi96et . 148 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af109p.109),gh s ret . 146 525525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af111p.111),gh ski (JanPei y(Duncli)nd Federalind vtronohe. 234v> <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af112p.11n),gh ski (JanPrzeworskio(Adamand Federalind vtronohe. 65 525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af113 113),gh ski (JanHigltyb(John),oPakulskio(Jliand Federalind vtront . 111 Ooccoieuete tnmascalculatferenr,c/stroendi repu. 114n2; repoki (JanHigltyb(John),oPakulskio(Jliand Federalirom EereniPo exaGlmes aoavD conomfeenCa s codd in ntaCacy thstrup>),RamRametMocy éal,owi98 sp. 17v> <525 Fhref="#Symbolefore, th/a>. Af114p.114),gh ski (JanHigltyb(John),oPakulskio(Jliand Federalirom Revng new RespEereniT, sa go-topefore, th un cle-281>>Hautory pagr),ghclass="texte" dir="lts >25 republ>

    Accordin="pa"nPour troleatet un cledi Paku

    Référ issvpapi bg>h3> <AccordinfamilyNlme"nDaskaldmskidi PakuRametVol. III, n° 1 | wi99et5-32v> <

    Référ issvé repedeiqueg>h3> <AccordinfamilyNlme"nDaskaldmskidi PakuRam [Eat igne]etVol. III, n° 1 | juillet wi99et iR eat igne nia04 juin 2008 sthrulté nia16 décembre 2017v URL : http://joumicls.ofhnedinew .org/bture,ologeh/281), sa go-topefore, th un cle-281>>Hautory pagr),ghclass="texte" dir="lts >25< republ>

    Accordin="pa"nAuteurdi Paku

    sa ore, t282>>Židas span>AccordinfamilyNlme"nDaskaldmskidi Paku <Utselvs é detBudapmy,v> sa go-topefore, th un cle-281>>Hautory pagr),ghclass="texte" dir="lts >25< tuense> republ>

    Accordin="pa"nDroiliad’auteurdi Paku

    © Tdof droilia émoocém> sa go-topefore, th un cle-281>>Hautory pagr),ghclass=class="texte" dir="s n class avEntttiniabottomSoieairr),ghcpan>Accordinsea cato5class=class="texte" ds >25< avh1/ "texte" dir< >25< avE inies

      dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>sa ore, t166">Auteurdighclli> dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>sa ore, t171>>Mots-clém> ghclli> dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>sa ore, t173 Géographiqueg>ghclli> dir
    dclass= "texte" dir< >25< avInatio
      "texte" dir="ltsli>s Feder yeare>201n), Federa
      sa ore, t2338> tttle="Voluon XIV Numéro 1-2>>Vol. XIV, n° 1-2> ghclli> dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>s Feder yeare>2011), Federa
      sa ore, t2269> tttle="Voluon XIII Numéro 1-2>>Vol. XIII, n° 1-2> ghclli> dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>s Feder yeare>2010), Federa
      sa ore, t2101> tttle="Voluon XII Numéro 1>>Vol. XII, n° 1> ghcbr />sa ore, t2207> tttle="Voluon XII Numéro 2>>Vol. XII, n° 2> ghclli> dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>s Feder yeare>2008), Federa
      sa ore, t313> tttle="Voluon X Numéro 1-2>>Vol. X, n° 1-2> ghcbr />sa ore, t813> tttle="Voluon XI Numéro 1-2>>Vol. XI, n° 1-2> ghclli> dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>s Feder yeare>2005), Federa
      sa ore, t547> tttle="Voluon IX Numéro 1-2>>Vol. IX, n° 1-2> ghclli> dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>s Feder yeare>2004), Federa
      sa ore, t507> tttle="Voluon VIII Numéro 1>>Vol. VIII, n° 1> ghcbr />sa ore, t532> tttle="Voluon VIII Numéro 2>>Vol. VIII, n° 2> ghclli> dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>s Feder yeare>2003), Federa
      sa ore, t462> tttle="Voluon VII Numéro 1>>Vol. VII, n° 1> ghcbr />sa ore, t486> tttle="Voluon VII Numéro 2>>Vol. VII, n° 2> ghclli> dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>s Feder yeare>200n), Federa
      sa ore, t426> tttle="Voluon VI Numéro 1-2>>Vol. VI, n° 1-2> ghclli> dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>s Feder yeare>2001), Federa
      sa ore, t667> tttle="Voluon V Numéro 1-2>>Vol. V, n° 1-2> ghclli> dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>s Feder yeare>2000), Federa
      sa ore, t312> tttle="Voluon IV Numéro 1>>Vol. IV, n° 1> ghcbr />sa ore, t314> tttle="Voluon IV Numéro 2>>Vol. IV, n° 2> ghclli> dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>s Feder yeare>wi99), Federa
      sa ore, t28ieftttle="Voluon III Numéro 1>>Vol. III, n° 1> ghcbr />sa ore, t666> tttle="Voluon III Numéro 2>>Vol. III, n°2> ghclli> dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>s Feder yeare>wi98), Federa
      sa ore, t191> tttle="Voluon II Numéro 1>>Vol. II, n° 1> ghcbr />sa ore, t256> tttle="Voluon II Numéro 2>>Vol. II, n° 2> ghclli> dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>s Feder yeare>wi97), Federa
      sa ore, t189> tttle="Voluon I Numéro 1>>Vol. I, n° 1> ghcbr />sa ore, t19ieftttle="Voluon I Numéro 2>>Vol. I, n° 2> ghclli> dir
    d "texte" dir">

    25< llInatioTdof lesnnuméroR dclass= "texte" dir< >25< avCobahepubliS)legdaryh2< "texte" dir">
      dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>sa ore, t305 Asncandct t frança sevd’étudion/ur lesnlture,s> ghclli> dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>sa ore, t30 P émonte ew ory la remueg>ghclli> dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>sa ore, t308">Équipsvédito5ialeg>ghclli> dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>sa ore, t309>Axml:lang="fr" lang="fr">Recoieandd in v nux auteursdi Paku dir
    d "texte" dir">h2< "texte" dir">
      dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>sa ore, t786>>Chtactg>ghclli> dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>sa ore, t787>>Crédits> ghclli> dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>sa ore, thttp://joumicls.ofhnedinew .org/bture,ologeh?pagr=ise emect ts"nPonoteqtionry puin cd in g>ghclli> dir
    dclass= "texte" dir< >25< avSynd cd in h2< "texte" dir">
      dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>sa ore, thttp://joumicls.ofhnedinew .org/bture,ologeh/backendeftttle="Flux RSS> Flux RSSg>ghclli> dir
    dclass= "texte" dir< >25< avNewsletteroh2< "texte" dir">
      dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>sa ore, thttp://newsletter.ofhnedinew .org">La Lettiiod’OfhnEdi in g>ghclli> dir
    dclass= "texte" dir< >25

    h2< "texte" dir">
      dir">"texte" dir="ltsli>s FederaÉd éy par AFEBALK), Federa
      sa ore, thttp://www.afebtur.org/eftttle="Asncandct t frança sevd'étudion/ur lesnlture,s">www.afebtur.orgg>ghcli> dir">ir">"texte" dir="lt="ltsli>sa ore, thttp://joumicls.ofhnedinew .org/eftttle="Pontaillry remueR eatSci isss hum ineR et ncandlio> ghclli> dir">ir
    d dclass=class="texte" dir="s >25ISSNvé repedeique 1965-0582),p/ "texte" dirir="sp>sa ore, thttp://joumicls.ofhnedinew .org/bture,ologeh/?pagr=map"nPlan du siteg>gh – sa ore, t786>>Chtactg>gh – sa ore, t787>>Crédits> gh  – sa ore, thttp://joumicls.ofhnedinew .org/bture,ologeh/?pagr=backende>Flux d oend cd in > ghclp/ "texte" dirir="spAccordincort">sa ore, thttp://joumicls.ofhnedinew .org/e>Ndof adhéro v à OfhnEdi in Joumiclsg>gh – sa ore, thttp://www.lodel.org/e>Éd é avec Lodelg>gh – sa ore, thttp://joumicls.ofhnedinew .org/bture,ologeh/lodel/e>Accèia émoocé> ghclp/"texte" dir="slass=class=class="texte" dsscri; typein="pa/javascri;> src js/jquery.jo
    "texte" dsscri; typein="pa/javascri;> src js/coiew .min.jo"texte" dsscri; typein="pa/javascri;>>//"texte" dsscri; typein="pa/javascri;> src js/fancybox/jquery.fancybox-1.3.1.pack.jo
    "texte" dsscri; typein="pa/javascri;> src js/ un cle.min.jo"texte" dsscri; typein="pa/javascri;>>//]' ).after( ' | sa ore, t#troldby>>C é par> gh' ); jQuery( '#troldby li' ).css( "margld","1em ief); } } }); e" d}); //]]/s/scri;> "texte" dsscri; typein="pa/javascri;>>e" dvar _paq = _paq || []; e" d// n dcker methodsnlik v"setCuonomDimlnsstr> should betncllbiabons w "n dckPagrView" e" d_paq.push(['setCuonomVturable', 1, 'Dom in', docuons,.dom in, 'pagr']); e" d_paq.push(['enableCrossDom inLin,hed']); e" d_paq.push(["setDocuons,Tttle", docuons,.dom in + "/ef+ docuons,.tttle]); e" d_paq.push(['n dckPagrView']); e" d_paq.push(['enableLin,T dckhed']); e" d(fun ital() { xte" dvar u thttps://pk.labocleo.org/e; xte" d_paq.push(['setT dckerUrl', u+'pk.php']); e" d d_paq.push(['setSrolId', '3']); e" d dvar d=docuons,, g=d.createEl in('scri;'), s=d.g tEl insByTagNlme('scri;')[0]; e" d dg.typei'="pa/javascri;';dg.aoenc=tue;dg.defer=tue;dg.src u+'pk.js';ds.pao moNode.itmootBons w(g,s); e" d})(); e"s/scri;>e"s!-- End PiwiknCoden--> "texte" dsscri; typein="pa/javascri;> src https://Yt gic-orrgtl.ofhnedinew .org/ofhnbarre/js/cleo.js?date=2014-12-01p.s/scri;>"texte" dsscri; typein="pa/javascri;> src https://Yt gic-orrgtl.ofhnedinew .org/js/jquery.joonp-n anst.min.jo
    "texte" dsscri; typein="pa/javascri;>>s!-- e" djQuery(docuons,).ready(fun ital($) { xif ( $.fn.fancybox == undpfiis) { xte" ddddddd$.g tScri;( https://Yt gic-orrgtl.ofhnedinew .org/js/fancybox/jquery.fancybox-1.3.1.jo<, fun ital() { xte" de" ddddddd$('a.iframe').fancybox(); e" d ddddddd}); e" d ddd} elsev{ xte" ddddddd$('a.iframe').fancybox(); e" d ddd} e" d ddd url= e" d ddd$.joonp({ xte" dddddddurl: ('https:// .ofhnedinew .org/ ns, cd e'), xte" dddddddncllbdckParameter: 'ncllbdck', xte" dddddddsdludes: fun ital(data) { xte" de" ddddddd$('# data').html('simgosrc '+data.favith+'>>esa ore, t'+data.url+'>>'+data.name+'> gh'); e" d ddddddd ddd$.ajax({ e" d ddddddd ddd type: "GET", e" d ddddddd ddd url: "281?e emec=pdfe in&n e6cov url=1", e" d ddddddd ddd sdludes: fun ital(msg){ e" d ddddddd ddd dddd$('#dlLin,s').append(msg); e" d ddddddd ddddd} e" d ddddd ddddd}); e" d ddddddd}, e" d dddddddei or: fun ital(data){ e" d ddddddd ddd//$('# data').html('gumy,,ssa ore, thttps:// .ofhnedinew .org">uati in> gh'); e" d ddddddd ddd$.ajax({ e" d ddddddd ddd type: "GET", e" d ddddddd ddd url: "281?e emec=pdfe in&n e6cov url=1", e" d ddddddd ddd sdludes: fun ital(msg){ e" d ddddddd ddd dddddd$('#dlLin,s').append(msg); e" d ddddddd ddddddd} e" d ddddd ddddd}); e" d ddddddd} dd ddddd}); e" d ddd$('#pn ano embsnli').lsel('touc nsd', fun ital(e) {}); e" d ddd$('input[name=q]').focus(fun ital() { xte" dddddddif ( $(isiv).attr('value') == 'Rec nrc nr's) { xte" ddddddd ddd$(isiv).attr('value', ''); e" d ddddddd} dd ddddd}); e" d}); jQuery(docuons,).ready(fun ital($) { $(fun ital() { if (docuons,.cookie.itdexOf("__cookieelert=1") == -1) { $("span>>").html("cpan>Accordi\"cookie="pa\">En poursuivantrvcirco bquge ew n/ur ce site,rvcof aludptez l'utilise ew ory cookies.ssa ore, \thttp://www.ofhnedinew .org/6540\">En savoirollus> ghcl PakuAccordi\"closecookieelert\"hcl Paku").attr("id<, "cookieelert").appendTo("/a>."); $("a,.closecookieelert").click(fun ital() { var expD and=h dwiD an(); expD an.setTiml(expD an.getTiml()f+ (365 * 24 * 3600 * 1000)); docuons,.cookied=h"__cookieelert=1;expirrf=ef+ expD an.toGMTStron ()f+ ";dom in=.ofhnedinew .org;path=/e; $("#cookieelert").rel (); }); } }); e" d}); -->clscri;>"texte" ds >25 "texte" d dirs >texte" d dir"texte" dir="lts ccordinuiedo"> dir="ltsa ore, thttp://www.ofhnedinew .org">OfhnEdi in g>gh dir="ltsul subonsuo bq-togg i-show"> "texte" dir="lt="ltsli> dir="lt="lts PakuOfhnEdi in Booksdi Paku dir="lt="ltsul> d ddddddddddddddddddddddd e" d ddddddd ddd ddddsli>sa ore, thttp://books.ofhnedinew .org">span>Accordin=ttle"uOfhnEdi in Booksdi PakuLivreR eatsci isss hum ineR et ncandlio> ghclli> dir">irdddddddddddddddddddd e" d ddddddd ddd ddddsli>sa ore, thttp://books.ofhnedinew .org/catalogum"uLivreR> ghclli> dir">irdddddddddddddddddddd e" d ddddddd ddd ddddsli>sa ore, thttp://books.ofhnedinew .org/puin  ro dir">irdddddddddddddddddddd e" d ddddddd ddd ddddsli>sa ore, thttp://books.ofhnedinew .org">En savoirollus> ghclli> dir="lt="lts/ul> d dddddclli> dir="lt=""texte" dir="lt="ltsli> dir="lt="lts PakuOfhnEdi in Joumiclsg> Paku dir="lt="ltsul> d ddddddddddddddddddddddddd e" d ddddddd ddd ddddsli>sa ore, thttp://joumicls.ofhnedinew .org">span>Accordin=ttle"uOfhnEdi in Joumiclsg> PakuRemueR eatsci isss hum ineR et ncandlio> ghclli> dir">irdddddddddddddddddddddd e" d ddddddd ddd ddddsli>sa ore, thttp://www.ofhnedinew .org/catalogum-joumicls"uLeR remueR> ghclli> dir">irdddddddddddddddddddddd e" d ddddddd ddd ddddsli>sa ore, thttp://joumicls.ofhnedinew .org/6438>>En savoirollus> ghclli> dir="lt="lts/ul> d dddddclli> dir="lt=""texte" dir="lt="ltsli> dir="lt="lts PakuCdlindag> Paku dir="lt="ltsul> d ddddddddddddddddddddddddd e" d ddddddd ddd ddddsli>sa ore, thttp://cdlinda.org">span>Accordin=ttle"uCdlindag> PakuAnnoisss sci itifeqtio> ghclli> dir">irdddddddddddddddddddddd e" d ddddddd ddd ddddsli>sa ore, thttp://cdlinda.org/searche>Accéder nux annoisss> ghclli> dir">irdddddddddddddddddddddd e" d ddddddd ddd ddddsli>sa ore, thttp://cdlinda.org/about>>En savoirollus> ghclli> dir="lt="lts/ul> d dddddclli> dir="lt=""texte" dir="lt="ltsli> dir="lt="lt="lts PakuHypothèsesg> Paku dir="lt="lt="ltsul> d ddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd e" d ddddddd ddd ddddsli>sa ore, thttp://hypotheses.org">span>Accordin=ttle"uHypothèsesg> PakuCarnetslry rec nrc n> ghclli> dir">irdddddddddddddddddddddddddd e" d ddddddd ddd ddddsli>sa ore, thttp://www.ofhnedinew .org/catalogum- ghclli> dir">irdddddddds/ul> d dddddclli> dir="lt d dclass=dddddddddddd e" d ddddddd ds ccordincorto bq-togg i-show"> e" d ddddddd dddsul subonsu"> "texte" dir="lt="ltsli> dir="lt="lts PakuLettiio& elertesg> Paku dir="lt="ltsul> d ddddddddddddddddddddddddd e" d ddddddd ddd ddddsli>sa ore, thttp://newsletter.ofhnedinew .org">span>Accordin=ttle"uLettiig> PakuS'abonner à la Lettiiod'OfhnEdi in g>ghclli> dir ddddddddddddddddddddddddd e" d ddddddd ddd ddddsli>sa ore, thttp://search.ofhnedinew .org/itdexelert.php?a=ryscri;dec">span>Accordin=ttle"uAlerteso& ebonne insg> PakuAccéder nu moocicn> ghclli> dir">irdddds/ul> d dddddclli> dir="lt=""texte" dir="lt="ltsli> dir="lt="ltsa ore, thttp://www.ofhnedinew .org/14043>>OfhnEdi in Fre iumg>a> d dddddclli> dir="lt d d dir="lt=""texte" dir="lt="s ccordina ign-o eme"> "texte" dir="lt="ltso em al in ="//search.ofhnedinew .org/" method="get"> "texte" dir="lt="ltltsoieldset> dir">irdddddddddddddddddddd e" d ddddddd ddd ddddsass=dddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd e" d ddddddd ddd ddddddsinput name="q" typein="pa" /> e" d ddddddd ddd dddddds ccordinsearch-choicn"> dddddddddddddddddd e" d ddddddd ddd ddddddddsinput typein,dio" >25 e" d ddddddd ddd ddddddltslabelEo e5dot ala remueg>labela
    25 slabelEo e5dot aOfhnEdi in g>labeladddddd ddd ddddddddslass=dddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd e" d ddddddd ddd ddddddsbutis, typeinsuboia" ithr ith-searche>< PakuRec nrc nrdi Paku dir">irddddddddddslass=ddddddslass=ddddslass=ddslass=dddddd"texte" dirs n classthtuxto bq-togg i-show"> "texte" dir="s ccordin=ttle-sharn"> e" d ddddddd dsul subonsu"> "texte" dir="lt="sli bg- avAccordinithr ith-ise e>< PakuIse emect tsg> Paku dir">irdddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd"texte" dir="lt="ltlt="s l=dddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd"texte" dir="lt="ltlt="="s t>Titiio:slat> dir">irdddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd"texte" dir="lt="ltlt="="s dnlture,ologehg> dn dir">irdddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd"texte" dir="lt="ltlt="="s dnRemuevd’étudionllurittreiplinairrfg> dn dir">irdddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd"texte" dir="lt="ltlt="="s t>En bre,o:slat> dir">irdddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd"texte" dir="lt="ltlt="="s dn dir">irdddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd e" d ddddddd ddd ddddddltspAccordinaccroc n"nRemuevfrança sevd'étudionllurittreiplinairrfn/ur lesnlture,s couvrantrla périodendu Moyen Âgioà nos joumsclp/ g> dn dir">irdddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddg> l=ddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddclli> dir">irdddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd"texte" dir="lt="ltltsli> dir">irdddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd"texte" dir="lt="ltlt="s l=ddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd"texte" dir="lt="ltlt="="s t>Edineuro:slat> dir">irdddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd"texte" dir="lt="ltlt="="s dnAsncandct t frança sevd'étudion/ur lesnlture,s (Afebtur)g> dn dir">irddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd"texte" dir="lt="ltlt="="s t>SupSorto:slat> dir">irdddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd"texte" dir="lt="ltlt="="s dnÉ repedeiqueg> dn dir">irddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd"texte" dir="lt="ltlt="="s t>E ISSNv:slat> dir">irdddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd"texte" dir="lt="ltlt="="s dn1965-0582), dn dir">irddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd"texte" dir="lt="ltlt="="s t>ISSNvimprimév:slat> dir">irdddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd"texte" dir="lt="ltlt="="s dn1279-7952), dn dir">irddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddg> l=ddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddclli> dir">irdddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd"texte" dir="lt="ltltsli> dir">irdddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd"texte" dir="lt="ltlt="s l=dddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd"texte" dir="lt="ltlt="="s t>Accèsv:slat> dir">irdddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd"texte" dir="lt="ltlt="="s dnOfhn aludsfg> dn dir">irddddddddddddddddddddddddddddg> l=ddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddclli> dir">irdddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd"texte" dir="lt="ltltsli>sa ore, t//www.ofhnedinew .org/601>>Voirrla notics delf le catalogum OfhnEdi in g>ghclli> dir ddddddddddddddddddddddddd dir="lt="ltlts/ul> d d dir="lt="clli> dir">irdddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd"texte" dir="lt="sli bg- av cort">dddddddddddddd dir="lt="ltlts PakuDOI / Référ isssg> Paku dir="lt="lt="ltir="lt="ltltsul=dddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd"texte" dir="lt="ltltsli>sa ccordiniframe" ore, t281?e emec=trod in ghclli> dir ddddddddddddddddddddddddd dir="lt="ltlte" dir="lt="ltlts/ul> d d dir="lt="lt="ltlts/li>s!-- /DOI / Référ isssn--> "texte" dir="lt="sli bg- av cort" >25 dir ddddddddddddddddddddddddd dir="lt="ltlte" dir="lt="ltlttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttts/ul> d d dir="lt e" d ddddddd dsul sharn"> ir="lt e" d ddddddd d="sli ithr ith-twitter< PakuTwitterdi Paku dir ir="lt e" d ddddddd d="sli ithr ith-faddbook< PakuGoog i +di Paku dir s/ul> d slass=dddddddd"texte" dir="s ccordina ign-o eme"> e" d ddddddd ds >25< data">slass=ddddslass=ddslass=dddd"texte" dirsbutis, ithr ith- av dir="lt=""texte" dirslink relssstylesheea" ore, thttps://Yt gic-orrgtl.ofhnedinew .org/ofhnbarre/css/ie_ofhnbarre.css"=dddds![endif]-->class="texte" ds//a>.="texte"