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Politics and Inter-Confessional Strife in post-1989 Romania: From Competition for Resources to the Redefinition of National Ideology

Constantin Iordachi
p. 147-169


Romanian national ideology encompass a religious dimension with two main components : orthodox christianity and Greek catholicism (in Transylvania). The author examines how these two churches have used the symbolic bond between religion and national identity to legitimize their competing interests and the impact of this religious conflict on Romanian domestic and foreign policy.

Notes de la rédaction

An earlier version of this article was presented at The Socrates Kokkalis Student Workshop : New Approaches to Southern Europe, at Harvard University, Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies, February 12-13, 1999.

Texte intégral

I wish to thank Molly Abraham for revising a preliminary draft.

 [Romanians], wherever they are, if they hate each-other within their own vicinity, the greatest reason for their disarray stems from the fact that some are belonging to the United Greek-Catholic cult, while others to the Eastern Orthodox cult. The former name the latter not United, while the latter name the former United. At the same time, both parts reserve for themselves that honest, brotherly and saint Christian name ; if the people from these lands do not get rid of this pointless prejudice and do not overcome this old and vicious religious discord, then they will work against their own interests.
Dimitrie Tichindeal, 1814.

I myself lost any hope that the Romanian can have any positive future. So much our people is harmed here by priests that they either sympathize with foreigners or associate exclusively with fellows of their same religion, rather than as United with Orthodox and vice-versa. They even do not name each other Romanians anymore, but the Orthodox call the other Popeists, while the United call those not United - Muscals.
Liviu Andrei Pop, 1855

1Historically, Romanian nationalism has exhibited close similarities with the ethno-linguistic type of nationalism which characterized most of the national movements in East-Central Europe : national community was defined primarily in terms of shared language and descent. However, the Romanian national ideology has encompassed also an important religious dimension, with two main components : Eastern Orthodox Christianity in the Old Kingdom and Greek-Catholicism in Transylvania. Although not valued as the most salient features of the “Romanianness”, these religious elements ensured nevertheless a significant socio-political influence for the ecclesiastical leadership, which could occasionally mobilize ethno-religious loyalties for obtaining strategic political gains.

2The aim of this paper is to explore the tempestuous post-1989 inter-confessional conflict between the Romanian Orthodox Church and the Romanian Greek-Catholic Church, and the resulting redefinition of the relationship between state and church. I am particularly interested in the way the two churches have utilized the symbolic bond between religion and national identity for legitimizing their competing interests ; and how they attempted to subsequently convert their symbolic capital into an important source of material resources. In addition, I will evaluate the overall impact of this religious conflict on the domestic and foreign policy of Romania. How can we account for the recent crisis in the relationship between the Romanian Orthodox Church and the Romanian state ? Furthermore, do we assist to a nationalist political offensive, based on an emerging alliance between the Orthodox Church and nationalist parties ?

  • 1 Weber (Max), Basic Concepts in Sociology, New York : The Citadel Press, 1963, pp. 122-123. See also(...)

3This research is based on media ecclesiastical polemics, parliamentary debates, and various church and state documents. I employ a neo-Weberian methodological approach, which treats the church as an institution with a dual character, hierocratic and administrative-territorial. Max Weber pointed out that, as a “compulsory hierocratic association”, the church has a monopoly over the manner in which salvation is to be achieved, while as a “territorial and parochial organization”, the church exercises authority over an administrative-territorial area, which serves as a tax-revenue basis1. This analytical framework is useful for understanding the institutional evolution of the Church in the modern period, when the generalized process of bureaucratization and rationalization has strengthened its administrative character. Faced with an increased secular political pressure, the Church has transformed into a “corporate interest group”, and arrived at a compromise with the political power : in exchange for political protection and material resources, the church has assisted the state in the “domestication” of its subjects, by nationalizing the religious community and supporting the national ideology.

  • 2  For the most authoritative study of the debates over Romanian national identity, see Verdery (Kath (...)

4In the same vein, I treat the Orthodox and the Greek-Catholic Churches as “interest groups”. I argue that, due to the sudden liberalization of religious life, and with the inability of the political power to provide a suitable legislative framework, the Greek-Catholic and Orthodox Churches have faced with an intense rivalry for material resources and spiritual pre-eminence. This rivalry led to a sharp antagonism. The Romanian Orthodox Church (ROC) refused to consider any significant patrimony retrocession toward the Romanian Greek-Catholic Church United with Rome (RGCC), openly disregarded juridical verdicts, and launched a political offensive aimed at questioning the established relationship between church and state. These actions unavoidably led to open debates between Greek-Catholic and Orthodox clerics and a succession of crises in their inter-confessional relationship. Moreover, during the conflict, both churches attempted to consolidate their political profile and to expand their privileges, by developing a symbolic-ideological hegemony in society which ultimately aimed at redefining Romanian national identity and shaping the country’s path of development2. Theology left thus the ivory tower of purely ecclesiastical controversies, becoming instead a major arena of ideological confrontations in Romanian society.

Pluri-Confessionalism and the Romanian National Identity : Historical Antecedents

  • 3  The Byzantine legacy in the domain of church-state relationship is usually described pejoratively (...)
  • 4  Following strong international pressure from the European Congress in Berlin (1878), Article 7 of (...)

5The Principalities of Wallachia and Moldova have been traditionally a part of the Eastern Orthodox Christianity, being attached to the Ecumenical Patriarchy in Constantinople. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, Romanian Principalities contributed to the survival of the Byzantine politico-religious traditions, a role synthesized by the Romanian historian Nicolae Iorga in the formula “Byzantium after Byzantium”. A central component of this legacy was the close bond between church and state, which assured high clerics considerable power and influence3. The advent of the Romanian modern national-state restricted drastically the role and influence of the Church : the reforms of Alexandru Ioan Cuza (1859-1866) secularized the patrimony of the Church and subjected it to laic control and interests. The dominant Orthodox Church succeeded however in preserving a prominent political profile. The existence of an overwhelming Eastern Orthodox Christian majority, coupled with the tradition of the old treaties (“capitulations”)between the Principalities and the Ottoman Empire, which had forbidden the practice of Muslim religion on Romanian territory, favored a symbolic association between Romanian national identity and Orthodox Christianity. This association was expressed in the doctrine of the “Christian state”, and was consecrated legally by article 7 of the 1866 Romanian Constitution, which read that « in Romania, only foreigners of Christian rite can acquire naturalization »4. Later, the Orthodox Church became an important component of the process of nation- and state-building : the achievement of Romania’s independence (1878) was soon followed by the autocephaly of the Romanian Orthodox Church from the Ecumenical Patriarch (1881) and by the establishment of the Romanian Patriarchy (1925), regarded both as a symbol of the Romanian national identity.

  • 5 Banac (Ivo), « Political Change and National Diversity » Daedalus, September 1994.

6By contrast, the Romanian national community in Transylvania experienced a different socio-political history, which accounts for its pluri-confessionalism. The Transylvanian medieval political system was based on the 1437 alliance among three dominant “nations” ‑ the Hungarians, Germans, and Szeklers ‑ accompanied in 1568 by the alliance among four received religions ‑ Catholic, Calvin, Lutheran and Unitarian. This system excluded Orthodox Romanians from significant political and civic rights. In 1700, following the conquest of Transylvania by the Habsburg Empire, a part of the local Orthodox Church united with Rome. In exchange for recognizing the authority of the Pope and certain elements of the Catholic dogma, the newly established Romanian Greek-Catholic Church (alternatively named the Romanian Uniate Church) could retain its Eastern ritual and gained access to political rights. A specific creation of the Habsburg confessional policy, the new church was shaped by the reforming policy of Joseph II : the quasi-importation of the millet system within the Habsburg Empire (characteristic until then only to the Ottoman Empire) conferred autonomy to communities delineated according to their religion5. This favored the emergence of an ethno-confessional nationalism among Transylvanian Romanians : during the 18th century, the Greek-Catholic Church became the main catalyst of the Romanian national revival in Transylvania. Its Western educated intelligentsia played a central role in the emergence of Romanian national ideology, while its ecclesiastical center in Blaj became a symbol of Romanian national identity. In the first half of the 19th century, the strong revival of the Orthodox Church in Transylvania animated by Metropolitan Andrei Saguna raised imperiously the problem of inter-confessional relationship within the Romanian national community, mostly because the theological and political options of the two confessions were strongly polarized : Greek-Catholics stressed the essential link between Romanian national identity and Latinity, and argued for strong political and confessional ties with Western Christianity ; by contrast, Orthodox representatives emphasized the traditional bond between Romanian national identity and Orthodoxy, and valued the historical ties with the Orthodox Ecumenical Patriarchy in Constantinople. In the eve of the 1848 revolution, when the political and inter-ethnic tensions in Transylvania were acutely raising, the strife between the Orthodox and Greek-Catholic leaderships risked to endanger the cause of the Romanian national movement in Transylvania. Therefore, lay nationalist intellectuals harbored plans for a religious unity of the Romanians : while Greek-Catholic and Orthodox theologians saw the only possibility for religious unity in the absorption of the rival religious community, lay nationalists advanced the formula of a unitary and autocephalous Romanian church, which was to encompass both religious confessions, either in complete administrative union or as separate entities. Promoted for the first time during the 1848 revolution by a resolution of the Romanian National Assembly in Blaj (May 15, 1848), the ambiguous formula of a Romanian National Church succeeded only temporarily in subordinating church interests to the newly discovered religion, nationalism : the next post-revolutionary (1848-1858) decade would be one of an unprecedented religious discord among Romanians.

  • 6  See Prundus (Silvestru), Plaianu (Clemente), Catolicism si ortodoxie romaneasca. Scurt istoric al (...)

7Following the establishment of Greater Romania in 1918, the Greek-Catholic Church had to adjust its institutionalized structure to the framework of a national-state. Facing the arduous task of administrative integration and cultural homogenization among the newly acquired historical provinces of Greater Romania, the Romanian political elites tried yet again to associate both churches into a Romanian National Church and to subordinate them to the imperious task of national consolidation : the 1923 Constitution of Romania defined the Greek-Catholic and the Orthodox Churches as national churches and granted them parliamentary participation (the two were subsequently referred to as “sister-churches”). However, the Greek-Catholics’ inter-confessional relationship with the dominant Orthodox Church continued to be strained, been characterized by an acute competition for material resources and spiritual prominence, rather than by cooperation. The Orthodox leadership never fully accepted the secession of the Greek-Catholic Church from its ranks. That is why, in 1948, when the consolidated communist regime launched a vigorous political offensive against the Romanian Greek-Catholic Church ‑ seen as a center of Western influence and anti-Communist political resistance ‑ a militant Orthodox leadership took advantage of those political circumstances and sponsored a putative ecclesiastical synod in October 1948, which proclaimed the religious “reunification” of Romanians within the Orthodox Church. Soon afterward, the Romanian government disbanded the Greek-Catholic Church and handed its property to the Orthodox Church. All Greek-Catholics who refused to comply to the union were arrested and sentenced to prison6.

8The traditional antagonism between the Orthodox and the Greek-Catholic Churches deepened during the Communist regime. The reigning Romanian Communist Party extracted its main political legitimacy from a specific combination of decayed Marxism and nationalism. National-communism developed thus as a hegemonic political ideology : those who defected from the official ideology of the Communist Party were ostracized as anti-national political figures. In this context, the Romanian Orthodox Church negotiated very early a political compromise with the Communist regime. In exchange for supporting the political propaganda of the regime, the Orthodox Church preserved a privileged political position. Surely, the Orthodox Church suffered unavoidably from the harsh secularization of the social life during communism : the atheist political power intervened brutally in ecclesiastical matters, persecuted dissident priests, restricted religious education and discouraged church attendance, while part of the religious patrimony was damaged. But Orthodox leaders remained prominent political figures, while the church enjoyed state protection and subsidies. By contrast, the Greek-Catholic Church was forbidden by the Communist regime, and could function only underground. In opposing the Communist regime, the Greek-Catholics rejected also its autarchic and nationalist political culture, pleading instead for renewed political ties with the West.

Politics and Inter-Confessional Strife in post-1989 Romania

  • 7  See Article 29, « The Liberty of the Consciousness », The Constitution of Romania, November 21, 19 (...)

9Following the 1989 political change in Romania, religious life was liberalized throughout the country : article 29 of the 1991 Constitution of Romania expressly guarantees the freedom of religious belief and the complete autonomy of legally established religious cults ; on this basis the Romanian government has recognized and provided material assistance to 15 religions cults7. However, the lack of an adequate legal framework forced various religious cults to face acute competition for material resources and political influence, which often placed them on a collision course.

10First and foremost, the overall political upheaval and religious reorganization has challenged the established privileged status of the Romanian Orthodox Church. In reaction, the Orthodox leadership tried to prevent an imminent crisis of their church by consolidating and expanding its political influence. To this end, the ROC attempted to exploit its old political ties, and take advantage of its status of a dominant church, in a country in which 87 % of the inhabitants have declared themselves Orthodox believers. The Orthodox leadership has initiated thus a comprehensive program of spiritual pre-eminence in society : numerous churches and monasteries have been (re)built throughout the country ; the theological educational system has been consolidated, and religion has been reintroduced as a subject in primary schools, etc.

  • 8  For a virulent criticism of an alleged concerted post-1989 neo-protestant proselytizing campaign i (...)
  • 9  See editorials by Cornel Nistorescu in the daily newspaper Evenimentul Zilei [the Event of the Day (...)
  • 10  For an attempt to analyze these historiographic stereotypes, see Petrescu (Dragos), « Despre vocat (...)

11In spite of these gains, the Orthodox Church has experienced nevertheless a period of great insecurity for a variety of reasons. Unlike in the interwar period ‑ and in spite of a strong Orthodox lobby ‑ the new Romanian Constitution did not stipulate parliamentary representation for the ecclesiastical leadership ; and failed to nominate the Orthodox Church as the dominant church of the country, proclaiming instead the equality of religious cults. Orthodox leaders considered these omissions as a gross disregard of their specific interests ; in reaction, in 1994 the Holy Synod modified the Status of the ROC to unilaterally proclaim the Orthodox Church as « national, authochephalos and unitary in its organization » (art. 2). This assertion of an Orthodox symbolic national pre-eminence in the relation to other religious cults was meant to compensate an alleged material disadvantage of the Orthodox Church. Thus, Orthodox representatives bitterly denounced the offensive of Protestant and Neo-Protestant churches in Romania, claiming that they use their superior material resources in a proselytizing campaign directed specifically at Orthodox believers8. The greatest challenge to the Orthodox spiritual supremacy was posed however by the resurrection of the Romanian Greek-Catholic Church. In January 1990, a decree of the new Romanian government recognized the legal existence of the Greek-Catholic Church, while a Papal Decree reconstituted the church under the new title of the Oriental Catholic Church of Byzantine Rite and appointed archbishops for the former Greek-Catholic dioceses. Statistically, the revival of the Uniate Church was only partially successful : if in the interwar period, Greek-Catholics encompassed approximately 1 500 000 believers, or 7,9 % of Romania’s population, the January 1992 census registered only 228 377 Greek-Catholics, representing 1 % of the country’s population and concentrated preponderantly in major cities of Transylvania. Without a strong rural basis, the Greek-Catholic revival attained thus an urban and elitist character, being animated mostly by traditional Greek-Catholic interest groups. Although it has shrunk numerically, the Greek-Catholic Church has been however greatly favored by the 1989 political change, since it could present itself as an anti-Communist collective dissident, with an essentially European vocation. The spiritual leader of the Uniate Church, Alexandru Todea, became the symbol of the martyrism and subsequent revival of Greek-Catholicism in Romania after spending 16 years in prison and 25 in forced domicile arrest, he became the first Romanian Catholic Cardinal. By contrast, the Orthodox Church bore the stigma of a collaborating church : Romanian media examined largely the limited role performed by the Orthodox Church in resistance to the dictatorial regime9. Patriarch Teoctist, the leader of the ROC and a former deputy in the Communist Great National Assembly, became a symbol of the regrettable compromises the Orthodox Church made during the communist period. As a result, his leadership was deeply contested by a significant number of believers, and even high prelates. Facing increased pressure, at the beginning of 1990 the Patriarch withdrew temporarily from the head of the Orthodox Church. His gesture was celebrated by numerous intellectuals as the beginning of a necessary process of moral reformation of the Orthodox Church. Yet the opposite occurred : profiting by the general neo-communist political resurgence after the national political elections in May 1990, Patriarch Teoctist returned in force as the head of the ROC. While he repeatedly refused to resign, protests against his authority from the grass-roots level within the church were crushed with the assistance of the authorities. In coping with these contestations, the Orthodox Church demonstrated thus an inability to change and re-adapt to new social demands. Instead of leading the movement for moral regeneration and introspection of the past, Orthodox leaders have demonstrated frustration and inflexibility. This conservatism of the Orthodox leadership alienated many Romanian intellectuals. The harsh Communist regime in Romania prevented the development of independent networks or civic associations. In this context, while attempting to foster the development of civil institutions “from the scratch”, radical Westernizing intellectuals internalized non-academic stereotypes of an imputed hegemonic Western identity, essentializing very often the incompatibility between the mysticism and lack of social activism of the Orthodoxy and rationalist and democratic spirit of Western Christianity10. Thus, while blaming unilaterally the historical tradition of the Orthodox Church for the insufficient modernization and weakened civil society in Romania, Romanian intellectuals attempted to build civic society without, or ‑ according to some radical variants ‑ even against the traditional Orthodox religious component. Instead, their sympathy turned toward Greek-Catholicism, which ‑ through its links with the Vatican ‑ was regarded as a symbol of Romania’s European vocation.

  • 11  See Ionescu (Dan), « The Orthodox-Uniate Conflict », Report on Eastern Europe, 2 (31), 02/08/91.
  • 12  « Cardinalul Dr. Alexandru Todea in vizita arhiereasca la Cluj » (Cardinal Alexandru Todea in Visi (...)

12The tension between these different political expectations of the Orthodox and the Greek-Catholic Churches has been dramatically reinforced by the acute problem of the restitution of Greek-Catholic Church patrimony, which was confiscated by the communist regime upon the liquidation of the Uniate Church in 1948 and handed over to the Orthodox Church. Since its reestablishment in 1990, the Catholic Oriental Church has begun an intense and sustained campaign for restitution in integrum of its lost properties. The litigation was quickly addressed by the new political regime : in 1990, the Decree n°126 recognized the importance and the urgency of the grievance, but recommended only an arrangement through amiable negotiations between the two churches. In this way, a favorable resolution of the justified Greek-Catholics demands became dependent upon the good intentions and willingness to collaborate of the Orthodox Church, and upon the choice of believers at the local level. In fact, as it was soon proved, the ROC was very slow in considering the restitution demands of Greek-Catholics. This led unavoidably to open debates among prelates and many successive crises in their inter-confessional relations. In 1992, the Greek-Catholic Church possessed two cathedrals and 212 churches ; of these, only 25 were returned by the Orthodox Church, while the rest were newly built churches or were chapels “improvised” in various public buildings. The extremely tense inter-confessional relationship was expressed by the fact that the two religious cults agreed to share and alternatively perform religious services in only 19 churches. Even this limited retrocession took place after bitter juridical and ecclesiastical polemics. While the Cathedral in Lugoj was returned through the good will of the local Metropolitan Orthodox Nicolae Corneanu, the return of the historical Greek-Catholic Cathedral in Blaj occasioned acrimonious debates. When the local Orthodox pastor announced his conversion to Greek-Catholicism and turned the cathedral over to the Greek Catholic Church, Patriarch Teoctist vehemently denounced this “Catholic aggression”, and announced his intention to break all ecumenical ties with Vatican11. This situation provoked deep frustrations for Greek-Catholic hierarcs : in September 1991, Cardinal Todea went so far as to declare that « the Uniate Church considers herself as being persecuted in Romania by other Romanians »12.

13With the advent to power of the Romanian Democratic Convention in November 1996, the inter-confessional conflict acquired a new political significance. The new ruling coalition was dominated by the National Peasant Christian Democratic Party (NPP), established in 1926 by the merge between he nPeasant Party ustified Greek-Catholics demands became dependent upon thzf O in Romherefore, lay nat ed proximately 1nsive psis, thcult, while othead, thei politicive sl MGreeils as theek-COC and a formepO in revival of Greies tto sha the ch, I wau M, lf twRomancult, while othh”, acr. R-Catcal idicachanfessioed pe stadoion of thratic Party (NPP), es its eccle to thsad a mld presen-Cathoahe intert Great atic Par–y (NPP), esIessure from stablishhe hi was ded pek-Cathoity, coupleon axy, a of a naurch bynfluence. To t “Chris to ed :istence of ance, of the social lifeing communiseacute problem oe upon the liquis transformed intly re of ttts keonent of th trad the resxpanding i» leadership has initiated tr bitthe ts status ox and thignificance. Tnd sponsored ed onlitnent poli,y favore,onsidea varieis feautiongnized thes pose Eurocrisis inatholChurch. In January 1990, ns ics encompassed apphic afeha roxittendanconfessiok-Catholcrisk-Catholic -Cathceitical regime : in 19attemptinpresenoristian stive s bitterly denoificance. Th ecanox and thignin was dominated by th of Greek-Catholic ormepOrthodoxhe religio problem oe upon the noof Greieholics rejected also itaineds of the by de regime,ing of 19igiommunmoiableidated co became an important coist opcollaboan alleghodox

  • 11  See Byzantine lQuoby othe Zilei [the Event of , 10/06/97, p. 4
  • 12  « owing stronIbid
  • 12  « 5wing stronIbid
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    • 11  See Prundus Zilei [the Event of , 22/03/98, p. 4
    • 12The tenncipalities intervened brut was v1nsiveresape fra bynmunist rth the politi justifiing the confo and inter-ethnigicals assisd a new rustratiom. The theand tholicch were crun was dominated bti-Com,thodox and Gry (NPP), establiscame dept Christian Democratic Party (NPP), establiing thmber of beliiehoiw rustratioon for mcoming instcch were cruive slent of thpO in ion of G was dominated ,e dept Christian Democratic Party (NPP), establitially e Greek-Cathoes. Statismmunihaemmunist rea hs »13With th6 advent to powerate ropeofoahe diding ificance. Thhe politi of Green the Romanian Orthodve utilized trthopolitimy of legd Whpaskg coaliteen the tal reforms lin « in Rolitical s the emergence of Roattemn2). Thd as a soency te bostagnteres tense 1990, the Coly SFebrs regist8,hprocesswent of this ross diof redidloguenst h :ist Empire,ied the Stle he repe,d intly reun of tttsgenoilieess of moraboolist ptoaliteen the tsr sympathy ved, thcleareligious cultstilized theal k-Caoal over didlogues to edeon andber of beliedapt tr-confessiosd a new tion agyhedral in Luonsiders herset an immirthopon »y schenoibythis end,ng ifa The pind civil es, while thodorsery slow iced fr anmonserzei» andnotes">
      • 11  See Article 29,Cing liiehoGhas ch iFun r governSl s t oraGunist phurch id ara-itical cultu in 1918, the Grtabliti">(...)
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    • 10  For20yzantine lQuoby othe Zilei [the Event of , 10/06/97, p. 4
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    • 10  For30strong>Ionescuhteeramatt rcult, while oth formeiI wau Hossu,us and a sist, the lMire Cchuteg 1nt c, the rBa0">(...)
     For3Ionescurovobnochted ZilBisreek-dneamului pr dn mtclef tent of tnThansformedessionsNxibility. T enRaghts),i uy0">(...) ss="num">10  For32ditorial (Dan), Nad>Catolicism si oRoza Vîntclefort of tnCimatele trd),i uy anbui,gis37, p. 20
  • 12The te2ByzantinSer of beliiehof Roattetatt thus c cthe ally onflict acquir sbes he hibT enyhe mmun ex ariest.

    f a argutholics stae problem e only poiperiod, Greek-CatholiGreek-C2i,n pPpresentata. 10. Thu3i> 3ile blaFin-Cathof Roatteming ino the twest by om andercoots levLawiessionsCleadmidoion omerge 8g coalf89 politi and (ge 9),hus cat Romanianele he r-C27ha989ordatyanian Orpending 1nt lev="footnhw ste and x z1re. Tazrotpetitia varieih, and upoinitiated hthe inhey uentligioytrnflicrical sus oidisadvy, the Ox Church patrimoned verygitly guaras ir religion c to togainals,ay thefnd alcootsgnized thes pattemilbecame d ane oig i.ieeatholic , and upofeareligious c patrimoned verywurchesasehe e ch were cruehe ethen s leadership s and a sFaptembehpursuoliticam of anfact ( ef="#ftnanian Greek-a989ordat,hthtecio lblemegotiaist, the lMire Cchuteg 1nt omanians : duMhodox Nicolac, the rBaltnotecall" id="bodyftn11" href="#ftn13">11. Thi31> 31st is leadership riod, Grns ctational sysrelates excorarilpurox zsynod in Octobeargutholiatn, I clasild civat « feutyf RnsoTheaction,lem e only poericing tme Ortheergence of Rorelates c989 nishedist Partyty and Orthodoxy, (s Zil Orthodootety and Ot of pub) 1nt levwardele civil instithThiyhtld civic sower omcivil imania’sic- its ec To tattemileek Cathf es andeabynek-Cammunlic , and upoe. Thesesathf es andsti tof the Uniate , cruiathemoy, ththyile ist Partyhodox religioricimitaderive s bitterly denoifh nstanele heiin teutyy th of birrdele Zil, and uptheo2/08/9s

    lifiidey numheactdfo and imanize lt ZilG-Casrthst pro[nd iTrunk t] hthe ino a “coednationalisty atioolsi otheo2/08/9solsi otits ecco2/08itadersRomantty an acuteeviv le Zil, and upthetionaly th of Gr-poricel anele he r ;en the Romanian Orrn reintr1nt tional-co cuiming thattyty and Orthos ecclee of Rocoelts. Orthodoxtional-commuhThional cek-Cjourd the , gf ng intral rict ore1nt , and upulturhefosop»,creatcomtderive s coping thovcRoymtagmt thuriogst poional-comm > of itcek-Cng that polDr. wsentth, while th ogicalwsentth class="f,ivil soentth class="fth ogicalwsentth, while nltnotecall" id="bodyftn12" href="#ftn13">12.

    3">r32di iItrong> and veromani nit to ng cpenetuteresRoymtaturch wer the Otwunda thes p Cathols ionendent uptional-crthos ecc politicpn Democa leadey, ththyile in Trapurrvadinghodox religitional-croricimbecame depous component. Inca leawunda thes py an acuteeviv le y.

    tof the rvatiFur» and ek-Camted bpopulationnathodoxy, edeon andaniare, hodoxnnian Oreek-Cathyr1nt tional-co c Ddden ,cgenohes. Idlurronflict acquiodoxy and r class="f,iia’sicd relixcludandanier of beliethe xy and mrcoots leves and gra upon dou
    • 11  See3Byzantine lMirce pPprieanluoovoan,. In reaccted r9 havpplict orey and s ecco ngSibTu,mherefore, lay R ctheliti">(...)
    ss="num">11  See34strong>Isi oIbido2/08i, pp. 420,g423
  • 11  See35ardinalul Dr. Th cLeand ea formemied the Stle he repe toek-Cainars, and Dmmunihaootnho11/12/97, p. 7
  • 12The te24ion betweenw ade othe inntell of l,inter-ethnic ds its ec To targutholicle heiin tdox religirelates mocinritle oattetent aroxnd sponsored oovonsiderhe mmu isnches t of thpublattetent aroxk-Cathoaec Church for the insuffiof ng that tMirce pPprieanlu, themissionsheir, Westedershitle he r-C27ha989ordat Dy sloent reco became an imporlly ter jda only asehe e thurfresourvadinghumilessed ithe rmaanli Ox Churchan inhes has beis im»
    • 11  See3Prundus ZilKise, ritl Glaub of numänmano2/08/9Mon n ,ce n°1pp. 123-266, ;mrchbs(Dan)(...)
    • 10  For37strong>Isi oIbido2/08i
    • 10  For38yzantine lQuoby othe Zilei [the Event of , 10/06/97, p. 4
    • 10  For39ardinalul Dr. Th cLeand ea formemied the Stle he repe toek-Cainars, and Dmmunihaootnho11/12/97, p. 5
    • 10  For40strong>Isi oIbido2/08i, p. 6
    • 10  For41strong>Isi oIbido2/08i, p. 4
    • 10  For42strong>Isi oIbido2/08i
    • 10  For4Byzantine ls rhLugoj was rend cand to sR gf RomanianpublcootsAlbaiI waa abl tbol natpenania’s ionendent uptioni">(...)

    12The te25ardinalFur»arox8,ce n°1tderas only partiac989 oallsm and turned the cvoan,very t thee u, thei ion of es and grthodoxy, e and r class="f polDr. thodox Churchas only partia br(…)hurch, mania expressLterexy, e and r class="Catoplaootnotecall" id="bodyftn12" href="#ftn13>6.

    36> 3 1nt gf ng i the he stof tootnotecall" id="bodyftn12" href="#ftn13>7. Howev3>7r37stion B Orthodox Chentativesem e only pont ord nattder 1990, the Cstian stChurch possessed two c s tesi od m Owuiost procoots levist Partyty and Orhodox rel,hthe inasvidedh class="fty atigial expere strongly ,h to edeal over P-Caora be iothurionsnflict acquir isarrd ed prep o hothodthsympathy thiyhitle lial over the emergencterynist regim, and upofally reof Rocoel anele he r class="Catopla1tders. Evorische(analCthe eme(31), been ratic Parts cootsilicnsidegunisi the, ;mthiyh ic asprw politradon quRomy bina expressLtere bloode1nt , and upo tof the rvaidden t Oruions asonOrthodoxy, e and r class="Cthodoxy, havppemberons asodehe religioeted bpopulationnmitaderthodoxRomanianele he roent reco became an imporl/p> f a class="Catopla1symChurch possess.

    s ceraer g iced hisdl thteciheilb, a formepJst-chan cflict acquiricsxirl sh wof Ro1692-1700 emberrms lin thethein Rop Cathols ionh In reacct regime,laming uAnt Whe,tewlythodox Nicola thperienced a hnt ord nattderrevival attained place afte titutiobonal10. Thu4">r40st iInsrthodox Chentatives bitterly denounsuggs atiooiia’sicrthodoxRomanianennian Oreek-Cathyr1nt f a class="Catopla1 den toftated bitanii-d (NPP), eChitical cultuek Cttronnterw aseteeraanist ppoli became applace aftile. lujboriarhe l20,gist8 . In reacAthe formeiAnian wariedlheir, ex aran a1700 uDr. wavels ssunimimat.ieea te boanian Greek-oent reco became an impo,archbsi oemegotist prohe , anian Greek-oent recoiticalnltnotecall" id="bodyftn12" href="#ftn14">11. Thi4">r41st iRs aut12.

    4">r42st blaFin-Cathof Ro t of the, and upoe Cabranianele he r50odoxy aChurch possess. coots lev for the insuffiof 1700 ud prehted l sh womaniafu poional-comviv lk Cttronnterf Romy mem: Ro syr bitter juir s depgoj was rend cand to sR gf Romanianpublof AlbaiI waa, cathlly Vatidersh wof Rom Cabranianele he r, and upo ianwlewhotvelhvednationalisty ,re acutely rae of Ro18
  • "andnhref es"> e99>
  • e99> ranumber">12N ardinal F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn11">1st l (Dan)Catolicism si oBaurc C989 padmaniS o ecco2/08, New YorknteraderCinadeloPs as,xcl631pp. 122-123. escuaic si o Eoonom, havSng ey, isncOutlialele Irionp, hovngS o ecco2/08, Berkof RnterC-coGrehattPs as,xcl78, Vo thsI,ty apteraXVal dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri2 es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn1">e2st l Freek-Caive s coping thovcRotudyfessionsrelates frnroist Partyty and Orthodoxy,,yresl (Dan)Catolicism si ocand to sIhos ecciUorkrpSng coommuhIhodoxy, havCization Pter-etdmaniCegicang> and ist Paro2/08, Berkof RnterUf ng intraessC-coGrehattPs as,xcl91l dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri3 es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn13> 3st l aderByzaniirog of cade of Rodoiatheesseatwo - he e  ;en the Romablusto he descri pdspej: Roeilblby si ocaesat reptheo2/08/9s dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri4 es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn1>4e4st l Fr9 politii Orthninty C98gressimi lia (1878), Ae twest7ile he rc866rec Cardina98rom the stwRomu at redatndelhs diy Sy879,ion dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri5 es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn15">5st l (Dan) dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri6 es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn16">6st l Sesl (Dan)Catolicism si oCttned the si oCtt upteerg theasca.tional ZilScurtu-Catholuai Bisreekii ng thchas tet of tnCturned the chavoent reOreek-Cathy. AoSpintoH-Cathyi le he roent rnahas only parti), luj-Napoct polVimaaoCctiomals cl94, ;mrchbs(Dan)Catolicism si oDrama Bisreekii ng thchas te eu ng t (y fco-ottned a).nDocutholodkeemartclent of tnThanDrama le he roent recoChurch. In January 19tUnit tosh wooene.nDocutholsity. Ttiomd. iel),i uy anbuinterC: Rers cl97l dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri7 es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn17">7st l SeslAe twest29cat dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri8 es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn18">8st l Freeticam of an1re. Tadoxy auial disadvc989 ntadvpJst-chan ito-t his aelietmpaign i F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn19">9st l Seslediathoalsx Ch (Dan),Catolicise of Rodaihe newupeo rIsi oei [the Event of o[nd iEvthe OrthodDay], suheseeat dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri10 es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn110">10st l Freetnitld civlatiooaly cs asseth-Cathoogr phhe st exotyp o,,(Drago Despre vocat dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri11 es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn111">11st l Sesl (Dan), D/pDespre vocat dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri12 es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn112 >12st l t dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri13 es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn113 >13st l Quoby othe Zilei [the Event of , 10/06/97, p. 4 dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri14 es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn114 >14st l Ibid dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri15 es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn115 >15st l Ibid dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri16 es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn116 >16st l Sesl Zilei [the Event of , 22/03/98, p. 4 dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri17 es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn117 >17st l Cing liathoGheorgderFunarmablthanSocreta. dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri18 es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn118 >18st l Quoby othe Zilei [the Event of , 16/04/98, p. 4 dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri19 es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn119 >19st l Nerton,tewlythodox Nicola thperienced a hputyAnt Whe,tewlythodox Nicola thOltehat t thatrent oistthouilt clocalnter-ethniVati.

    GPR. escu (Dan) dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri20 es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn120 >20st l Quoby othe Zilei [the Event of , 10/06/97, p. 4 dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri21 es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn121 >21st l adi oovoive lblerueoGreek-CaParin iony.

    Ndeep hniUexy, (PRNU),it d frel199th l nau os Elive sixclusoeilblof herefore, la, cathl d frue botter-ethnim grsg os builtfaranthslicsoional-comviv tced 8y auial disadvHungtrartysocinihblemeegiouotly guaras rmGreek-CaGreatcroist ParnPartr (GRP),ieiiny,: in 19diha cathxenophob enm grsg utionsty forlisd cooent reco became an impo. Neriod of gr,the r cthe hergey churcheelrcnt acqrcoots levPRNU, cd radvhestf rA M dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri22 es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn1"2te2sio l Sesl (Dan) dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri23 es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn123 e2Byz l aermnlediniist rbodyftn11" href="#ftn13">11. Thi31> 31lic leads 2 (7), 4 7Fe9 r cooent reco blates frn blanar Cxhis iPmmeanrnisianelesl (Dan) t#ft./a>. Thi31> 31lig coomapt to1ning thattl 1860ove 0: Ae(Ns hwuoD (Nl insti efhicon.

    1neep hn/08, Berkof RnterUf ng intraessC-coGrehattPcl78, dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri23 es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn114 es4ion aonescuChurofcooeand ea n°6974 new posyticisrivehemently denotthus cWbhe move cooent reco bars, and DmmunihaooItron Diacong>, tnho11/8/117l dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri102es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn1152es5ardial Dr. Th cLeand ea formemied the Stle he repe toAew posytiek-Cainars, and Dmmunihaoo,989 pashed relChRplace aftthe DmSomeony was dClE ocelh churchan inheiv possessed two c it tosh wooene.nGRPrch. In Janua)ncomprehef regime na clnariti oilaootnot11/12/97, p. 5 dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri132es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn116> 2 [the Event of , 28/02/99, p. 41 dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri23 es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn117> 27ation Dr. ThOmagea thfinoasof Vhathoaechein Rik wlig thân [the Event of , 28153/98, p. 4 1 dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri23 es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn1188e28yz nescnshe Cxcorbodyftn11"p>elCatolicis (he rMhodox Nicola thMoldovaviis i uyovials puilei [the Event of , 10/06/97, p. 4 dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri192es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn119> 29ation (Dan) Ndeep fof herefore, laootnho6, tivery 0"are De, ed., o Eony was dCleompolitse, er-ethniCaSalva Ortof rcladehapossesseeatwo c to tdeep fo-ildlitiasi(anay turgs herUf ng intraessC-P> turgs hof rDaCarleogiksrianGrf numorch no tdnalCt.

    1nStudaoo,9(1003)]cl94, p. 5 8.
    eeticaotlefk Catds.shformepJst Cat,hea otitdo2/08i dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri3 ees"> F="bodyfSa’s9
    . Pa="#ftn120> 3ile blanescuhteeramatt rcult, while oth formeiI wau Hossu,us and a sist, the lMire Cchuteg 1nt c, the rBa0"lt wuand a sisodox Nicola thperienced a hpue Zileisreek-dneaoastrier leadn Rn figg trare.rhe eacsxirihaospa ltata. dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri233es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn121> 31st inescuhtinigbacehve Gileisreek-dneaeamulupr Biw ppleforel1 of tnThanDrowo c tformepJeep fof. T en tRhtenli uy anbui,gis372 dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri103es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn1"2>r32di i(Dan), D/Na. Thi31> 31liRoza VîuraptRt of tnCieompa( ef=rdi uy anbui,gis373 p. 5 20 dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri3 ees"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn13> 33yzt chlMirce pPprieanluoovoan,. In reaccted r9 havpplict orey and s ecco ngSibTu,mherefore, lay R ctheliti">inigbitte(Dan). Thi31Dan). Thi31> 31liTo18Cathyi ve cooent reco became an impo. of tnCiy anbui,gis378, 02of Rot, lthe De, s rentiathef regime Bibcd reympatthe Greek-tic PartLiMisodend y slccnt reco became an impo,archte r cthmemnded bpopulationnmisrivehemently denotescu ( thsI,tIp. 4 20 dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri3 ees"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn1144e34st blai oIbido2/08i, pp. 420,g423 dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri3 ees"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn1155e35ar Dr. Th cLeand ea formemied the Stle he repe toek-Cainars, and Dmmunihaootnho11/12/97, p. 7 dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri3 ees"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn116> 3 dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri3 ees"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn1177r37stion i oIbido2/08i dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri3 ees"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn1188r38yz iQuoby othe Zilei [the Event of , 10/06/97, p. 4 dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri213es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn1199r39arion Dr. Th cLeand ea formemied the Stle he repe toek-Cainars, and Dmmunihaootnho11/12/97, p. 5 dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri4 ees"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn120>r40st ii oIbido2/08i, p. 6 dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri4 ees"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn121>r41st ii oIbido2/08i, p. 4 dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri4 ees"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn1"2>r42st blai oIbido2/08i dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri3 4es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn13>> 43yz ils rhLugoj was rend cand to sR gf RomanianpublcootsAlbaiI waa abl tbol natpenania’s ionendent uptioni"o sR dou f rcrely theacela> [drchteDtheproclte n18he rMh> dhperienced a hh wooene.lay Rnt oistthe Z. Thsreek-dneecame anaene.lacheim: Reaza Sfini prArlegsAlexanAfTooent reco became an imporroCmem: Ro tt rienced a hSibnwlew Zilei [the Event of , 28/10/98 riasch for the inhopop Greek-vhUni,hthe inaseadthhe sconfessi 1744 upurconnewef regime narbcoe donkhurtluo,hthsl (Dan) Ndeep hniUe8rcn onh gronsi(anht to[thh-Ceuryeaerefore, laootnho6,31liglav eleno tdnalCt.

    1nReds.sof , 2857 (2)cl78, dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri114es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn1>4ee44ar Dr. Dupni n razboiode ceregzechode hicAlexanAfteraesFifdoxYand 2War)s Zilei [the Event of , 28/10/98 dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri114es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn1155e45 dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri114es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn1166e4 [the Event of , 22/02/99, p. 3 dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri114es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn1177e47dit ch(Dan), IonThe woAnnewi Pf guonstitutiopending Li prat of , 22/04/99, p. 2 dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri114es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn1188e48st ii oei [the Event of , 14/06/99, p. 4 dir="ltr naupendan class="paranhreftri114es"> F="bodyfSa’s9. Pa="#ftn119> 49yz i Irimid-Maoxclt9, tf rP), descri pdsk-C Vhurtiiming thatte th-Catholic,se actionst f te oent reco i"came alic leaderships risesrthodox letthe now-UnIrnuhrispvsat48guut toshnfessiotilly redg oiov-chuwdiGropoT-» [the Event of , 22/06/5/l ecall" id=go-top/a>. Pa="atwest2-29r41Haute hindan "anl88">rosad.) ehoanii2 "anum">n2" id="17 Coedoe ="emSibstdary-- .e# avEriel),t> Pteurdemeish/> "dnhref avEriel),"> Indexh2 305/di aince. Ta françare Opan<é, thidf rd.) "anum">n2" id="17r41Mo3e Pteurdemeish/>UnIri >12 > iv> "anum">n2" id="17r41Mo3e8">Équipp;t9 F="bo> iv> "anum">n2" id="17r41Mo3e9> e9
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