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Western Thracian Muslims in Athens

From Economic Migration to Religious Organization
Les musulmans de Thrace occidentale à Athènes : de la migration économique à l'organisation religieuse
Dimitris Antoniou

Résumés

La population minoritaire de Thrace occidentale a habituellement été étudiée uniquement dans sa région d'origine, et à travers le prisme d'un savoir produisant un ensemble de terminologies, de données démographiques, d'identités concrètes et mesurables créées et contrôlées par les États grec et turc. Dans cet article, toutefois, j'examine la présence des musulmans de Thrace occidentale à Athènes. Mon but est de percevoir et de suivre le mouvement de la vie sociale des migrants à Athènes depuis la fin des années 1970 jusqu'à aujourd'hui, afin de comprendre les forces mouvantes, flottantes ou immergées qui produisent et renouvellent une conscience minoritaire dans un contexte urbain. Après avoir examiné les choix terminologiques, les peurs et les politiques étatiques, les modèles d'installation et les conditions de vie des migrants, la vie sociale dans les cafés, l'établissement d'associations de migrants, je pose la question suivante : qu'est-ce qui change quand les musulmans de Thrace occidentale s'installe dans la capitale grecque ?

Texte intégral

Introduction: Troubles with Words1

  • 1  The list of friends and colleagues who read this article is so long as to embarrass me. Neverthele (...)
  • 2 Oran (Baskin), « The Story of Those Who Stayed. Lessons From Articles 1 and 2 of the 1923 Conventio (...)
  • 3  Christides (Yorgos), « The Muslim Minority in Greece », in Niblock (Tim), Nonneman (Gerd), Szajkow (...)

1Scholars often start their analyses of the minority population of Western Thrace with demographics. For these authors, it seems of crucial importance that the reader knows that this population is divided into three distinct groups which in turn can be counted in absolute numbers. In one of his latest works on the topic, Baskin Oran provides us with the following information : « this profoundly religious minority of 100 000 - is composed of approximately 70 000 Muslims of Turkish ethnic origin, 35 000 Pomaks (slavophone Muslims) and 5 000 Muslims of Romany ethnic origin »2. However, another scholar provides slightly different estimations and uses slightly different terms. According to Yorgos Christides, in 1993, the Greek state estimated the number of “Muslims” living in Western Thrace to 114 000, and clarified that 50 % of them were of “Turkish origin”, 35 % were “Pomaks” and 15 % were “Athingani”3. But, even it seems easy to understand who the people of “Turkish origin” are, who are the “Pomaks”, the Roma and the “Athingani” ?

  • 4  Alexandris (Alexis),« Religion or Ethnicity : The Identity Issue of the Minorities in Greece and T (...)

2These sorts of questions inevitably require an examination of a set of definitions. Such an examination is essential, since, having undertaken to work with such terms, one is obliged to follow a specific line of thought, dictated by their very usage. Definitions of "ethnic groups" can be quite useful, however, as long as one accepts that they usually involve oversimplified projections of rather perplexing realities. Alexis Alexandris describes the “Pomaks” as « a largely slavophone Balkan Muslim group » which « lives in small settlements in the mountainous Rhodope regions of Thrace near the Bulgarian border, with the biggest concentration situated in Xanthi province where they form 63,4 % of the Muslim population »4. On the other hand, the terms “Roma”, “Athingani” and "Gypsies" describe the same group of people. “Athingani” is the formal Greek term used to describe "Gypsies" and was gradually replaced by the term “Roma” in the 1990s. But what do “Pomaks” and “Gypsies” believe about themselves ? What is the identity they manifest ?

  • 5  Olga Demetriou was amongst the first scholars to deal with the problem of using or not using “Poma (...)

3From the outset of this research, I became well aware that it is not an easy task to divide Western Thracian migrants into distinct “ethnic categories”. More specifically, my experience in central Athens (Gazi) with those labelled “Muslim Roma” by the Greek state showed that the vast majority identified themselves as "Turks". However, on several occasions, I was told by “Pomak” and “Turkish” informants in Thrace and Athens that the residents of Gazi are “Gypsies” and not “Turks”. This was also the case with some “Pomaks” in Athens, who claimed to be “Turks” but were still described as “Pomaks”, not only by Greeks but also by their fellow “Pomaks” in Western Thrace5. Thus, the following questions arise : how should one describe a person who claims to be a “Turk” when others describe him as “Gypsy”? And why do so many “Pomaks” and “Gypsies” claim to be “Turks” ?

4I would argue that the answer to the first question is quite simple. The terms “ethnic Turk”, “Pomak”, “Gypsy” and “Roma”, usually found in the literature, are largely products of an academic obsession with dividing people into categories and stamping one ethnic identity on them in order to make sense of their existence. But for Western Thracian migrants in Athens, ethnic identity can be quite situational. It varies according to geography, time, the language of communication, and even the researcher. If that is the case, however, what are the appropriate terms to be used in describing the different segments of the minority population of Western Thrace ? If it is true that “Pomaks”, “ethnic Turks”, “Muslim Gypsies” constitute politically loaded labels, it is also true that any possible alternatives to the afore terms could be equally problematic. There is no easy way of avoiding these labels since Pomaks speak of Pomaks, Pomaks of Turks, Gypsies of Pomaks, Turks of Gypsies, and so on. Instead of trying to propose ways of avoiding these labels, I believe that it is more useful to admit from the outset that they exist and have long been in use as political and cultural categories rather than as "objective" realities. Therefore, in the following sections of this article, I will not refrain from using mainstream ethnic categorizations. But I will also try to indicate the context and the identifiers as clearly as possible.

Greece, Turkey, Cyprus and the Politics of Fear

  • 6 Kaiakasidou (Anastasia), « Vestiges of the Ottoman Past : Muslims under Siege in Contemporary Thrac (...)

5The answer to the second question is less straightforward. One must first examine Greek and Turkish policies during the second half of the 20th century towards the minority population in Western Thrace. This helps us to understand why the “minority” consciousness currently manifested by many Western Thracian Muslims is one «that since the 1970s has increasingly found its definition in notions of a transnational Turkish identity whose rights are best promoted and guaranteed by the Turkish nation state »6.I would argue that this is mainly a result of the inconsistencies characterizing Greek policy towards this minority population. More specifically I will refer to specific state policies and “scientific” campaigns of the second half of the 20th century which aimed at constructing abstract and simplistic categories, creating divisions and taxonomies among people.

  • 7  In accordance with the provisions of the Treaty of Lausanne (1923), Muslim children in Western Thr (...)
  • 8  Biunnbauei (Ulf), « The Perception of Muslims in Bulgaria and Greece : Between the "Self" and the (...)
  • 9  Poulton (Hugh), « Changing Notions of National Identity among Muslims in Thrace and Macedonia : Tu (...)
  • 10  Labrianidis (Lois), « The Impact of the Greek Military Surveillance Zone on the Greek Side of the (...)

6From the early 1950s until 1967, the Greek state actively supported the linguistic Turkification of the local Muslim population, through compulsory minority education7. The political rationale behind this policy was that it would be better for certain segments of the minority population to identify themselves with the Turks of Western Thrace and Turkey, rather than with the Bulgarian communists8. Despite the rising tension between the Greek and Turkish communities in Cyprus, as well as the outbreak of violence against the Greeks of Istanbul in 1955, the enemy was Bulgaria and not the nominal NATO ally, Turkey. Subsequently, the border between Greece and Bulgaria became the front line of the NATO/Warsaw Pact confrontation, and was heavily fortified for many kilometres on both sides9. Foreigners were denied access to the region, while freedom of movement of the indigenous population was hampered and the region was declared a Military Surveillance Zone, the so-called epitiroumeni zoni10. Nevertheless, the rising tension between Greece and Turkey over enosis (unification of Cyprus with Greece) resulted in a change in the Greek policy towards this minority population by the then military dictatorship (1967-1974).

  • 11  Alexandra (Alexis), The Greek Minority of Istanbul and Greek-Turkish Relations 1918-1974, Athens : (...)
  • 12  Demetiiou (Olga), art.cit, pp. 106-107.
  • 13  Oran (Baskin), « Balkan Muslims : A comparative Study on Greece, Bulgaria, Macedonia and Kosovo », (...)
  • 14  Xirotiris, (Nikolaos), Idiai paratiriseis epi tis katanomis ton syhnotiton ton omadon aimatos eis (...)

7From that time onwards many Greek officials and academics clearly defined the minority population as comprised of three categories of people : the “ethnic Turks”, the “Pomaks” and the “Gypsies”11. The main objective of subsequent Greek governments was to cut all ties between the “Pomaks” on the one hand, and Turks and Turkey on the other. This was the most profound change in Greece's official perception of the “Pomaks”, as they were now considered Greeks, as well as the beginning of a state-sponsored campaign aiming at proving that the “Pomaks” were islamized Christians of Greek descent12. Thus, « the Pomak traditions of cutting the round bread into four pieces and of putting cross-shaped iron bars to windows were interpreted as reminiscent of the Pomaks' Christian times »13. Even racial arguments were put forward. For instance, blood categories were cited in order to prove that the distribution of blood groups among Pomaks was much more similar to that of Greeks than to that of Turks14.

  • 15  Brunnbauer (Ulf), art.cit., p. 48.
  • 16  Clogg (Richard), A Concise History of Greece, Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2002, p. 206

8Paradoxically, retaliatory and discriminatory measures against all members of the minority population of Western Thrace were introduced on a tit-for-tat basis with Turkey15 On many occasions, members of this minority population were prevented from obtaining driving licences for tractors and from acquiring the equipment necessary to operate agricultural business. Many of them also lost their land properties as a result of government expropriations. Moreover, members of the minority population of Western Thrace were not allowed to elect their muftis (Muslim jurists) nor to identify themselves as “Turks”16.

  • 17  Alexandris (Alexis), art.cit., p. 128.
  • 18  Demetriou (Olga), art.cit., p. 107.
  • 19  See also Aarbakke (Vemund), The Muslim Minority of Greek Thrace, unpublished PhD Dissertation, Ber (...)

9These practices continued even after the restoration of democracy in 1974, due to widely spread and deeply embedded fears that « Turkey harbours expansionist designs against Greece »17. More specifically, Greek policies towards the minority population of Western Thrace aimed at removing the possibility that Greek Thrace would become a “second Cyprus”18. In this context it is interesting to note that the state ban on the word "Turkish" and its derivatives to refer to anything related to the minority population of Western Thrace took place right after the "declaration of independence" of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in 1983. But the more successive Greek governments tried to prevent the emergence of a single Turkish minority consciousness, the more “Pomaks” and “Gypsies” would transform into “Turks”. In other words, a study of Greek minority policies in the 1980s could easily demonstrate how policies of discrimination provided a base for the unification of highly diverse local communities19.

  • 20  Athens News Agency, 13/03/90.

10It was only during the last few years that the Greek government radically changed its policy towards the minority population of Western Thrace, tacitly confessing the failures of the past. On 12 March 1990, the then Prime Minister Constantine Mitsotakis (New Democracy- ND), the leader of the opposition Andreas Papandreou (Pan-Hellenic Socialistic Movement - PASOK) and Kharilaos Florakis (Communist Party of Greece - KKE) agreed that « Greece's policy [in Thrace] must be based on the economic and cultural development of the area. We have done nothing to develop the region. There must be strict observance of the principle of equal treatment »20. The new strategy included measures such as greater economic development on the one hand and the settlement of Pontic Greeks arriving from the Soviet Union on the other.

  • 21  Tsakonas (Panayotis), Dokos (Thanos), « Greek-Turkish Relations in the Early 21st Century. A View (...)
  • 22  Klik, August 1999 ; Flash Radio, 29/07/99.
  • 23  See for instance « 52 yillik hasret bitti » (The end of 52 years of longing), Sabah, 09/05/04.

11In the 1990s, restrictions of movement were gradually lifted in the mountainous areas of Rhodope. According to Thanos Dokos and Panayotis Tsakonas, Costas Simitis' election as the new leader of the governing PASOK party in 1996 resulted in a change of Greece's strategic priorities21. Simitis placed at the top of his agenda Greece's convergence with EU economic prerequisites, and together with the “modernizers' faction” of PASOK questioned the intensifying arms race between Greece and Turkey. A few years later, the then Greek Foreign Minister George Papandreou and his Turkish counterpart Ismail Cem started working towards the preparation of an official rapprochement, which was greatly facilitated by the catastrophic earthquakes of 1999 in Greece and Turkey. The earthquakes became the pretext for a complete reorientation of Greece's foreign policy towards Turkey. It was in this very context that George Papandreou spoke of the right to individual self-identification for members of the minority population in Greek Thrace, and thus initiated a debate over the possible modernization of Greece's minority policies22. In 2004, Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan was allowed to visit Western Thrace, the first senior Turkish politician to visit the region since President Celal Bayar's visit in 1952. For many Turkish journalists this visit marked the end of an era of mutual suspicion and the success of the rapprochement23

Migration and hardship: from Istanbul to Lavrio

  • 24  Alexandris (Alexis), art.cit, p. 128.

12From the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne onwards successive Greek governments did not contribute to the economic development of the minority population in Western Thrace, following a policy that Alexis Alexandris - a diplomat himself- describes as one of “benign neglect”24. As a result, this region remained one of the most underdeveloped in Europe, and daily life became more and more difficult for some of its inhabitants. For them migration to Turkish, German or Greek urban centres emerged as an inevitable choice.

Emigration to Turkey and Loss of Citizenship

  • 25  Bahçeli (Tözün), Greek-Turkish Relations since 1955, Boulder : Westview, 1990, p. 177.
  • 26  Aarbakke (Vemund), op.cit., p. 32.
  • 27  Although the Turkish authorities discourage immigration, they still provide special facilities for (...)
  • 28  Bahçeli (Tözün), « The Muslim-Turkish Community in Greece : Problems and Prospects », Journal of t (...)

13Emigration to Turkey was not a new phenomenon for the minority population of Western Thrace. According to Tözün Bahçeli, there had been a continuous trend of emigration to Turkey. From 1939 to 1951 approximately 20 000 people moved to Turkey, followed by a further 20 000 during the 1950s25. However, from the 1960s onwards the Turkish state did not provide Western Thracian immigrants with residence and work permits, thus making their settlement in Turkey very difficult26. The primary reason behind this policy was that the Turkish government wanted to maintain a large minority in the northern part of Greece that it could exploit for political benefit27. For the same reason the Turkish authorities tolerated or even supported certain extremist Turkish organizations in Turkey such as the Istanbul-based Solidarity Association of Turks of Western Thrace (Bati Trakya Türkleri Dayamşma Derneği), that called for the independence of Western Thrace. Both Turkish and Greek scholars have written extensively about this policy. Tözün Bahçeli, for instance, states : « The emigration of Muslim Turks from Greece to Turkey has continued to this day. The Turkish government does not encourage such emigration, nor does it ordinarily grant citizenship to emigrants ; however it is feared that this continued emigration would pave the way for the disappearance of the community in Greece »28.

14While Alexis Alexandris states :

  • 29 Alexandris (Alexis),op.cit., p. 315.

At the present moment both Greece and Turkey keep the potentially volatile issue of the minorities at abeyance. But given the Cyprus experience, the Greeks fear that the Turks, taking advantage of the existence of a large Turkish minority at Greece's northeastern panhandle, might be tempted to involve themselves in another adventure on an even wider scale. These apprehensions are reinforced by Ankara's refusal, since 1960, to issue residence and work permits to Muslims with Hellenic nationality. The determination of the Turkish government to maintain a large minority in Greece coupled with the activities of the government-sponsored Association of Mutual Aid for the Turks of Western Thrace, which advocates the "liberation of Western Thrace", added credibility to the Greek fears.29

  • 30  Interview with the First Secretary of the Greek Embassy in London, Theodore Theodorou, London, 15 (...)
  • 31  The late Alternate Foreign Minister Yiannos Kranidiotis estimated stateless persons at 500 on 27 O (...)

15As a result, many emigrants had to apply for the cancellation of their Greek citizenship in order to qualify for a Turkish one, since at that time there was no provision in Turkey for dual citizenship30. Others decided to return to Greece. Some of them, however, were now categorized as “stateless” persons31. This is due to the fact that members of the minority who had left Greece, even for a temporary period, had been denied re-entry under Article 19 of the Greek Citizenship Law enacted in 1955. This Article states that :

  • 32  The Greek government repealed this article of the Citizenship Law on 11 June 1998. The repeal, how (...)

A person of non-Greek ethnic origin leaving Greece without the intention of returning may be declared as having lost Greek nationality. This also applies to a person of non-Greek ethnic origin born and domiciled abroad. His minor children living abroad may be declared as having lost Greek nationality if both parents or the surviving parent have lost the same. The Minister of the Interior decides in these matters with the concurring opinion of the National Council.32.

16I encountered such cases of "stateless" migrants - mainly Gypsies - while conducting ethnographic fieldwork in Gazi. These people had crossed the Greek borders illegally after the confiscation of their passports by the Greek authorities, and had eventually settled in the Greek capital. All of them were unemployed, without social insurance or healthcare benefits, and unable to communicate in the Greek language.

Emigration to Athens and Social Exclusion

  • 33  Gerasimos Notaras claims that western Thracian Muslims had not been allowed to migrate to Germany (...)
  • 34  Petraki (Georgia), « I agora ergasias sto Lavrio kata tin periodo 1956-87 » (Labour Market in Lavr (...)
  • 35  Ibid.
  • 36  From the mid 1970s onwards factories located at Lavrio were also hiring immigrants from Egypt. See (...)
  • 37  Ibid

17After the collapse of the military dictatorship in the mid 1970s, Germany became a destination for many Western Thracian migrants33. At the same time, emigration to Athens and the neighbouring industrial areas was directly linked to the demand for cheap, unskilled labour34. The slow technological modernization of Greek industry and agriculture created a pressing demand for a flexible workforce. Those who decided to migrate to Athens in the 1970s and 1980s belonged to the lower social and economic strata of Thrace's minority population. Large numbers of minority workers were employed in the industrial areas of Lavrio, Markopoulo, Aspropirgo, and Eleysina35. Like many other migrants coming to Athens from other parts of Greece and from Egypt36, these workers did not have stable jobs. Their readiness to undertake short term or contract employment that often entailed dangerous or unhealthy working conditions helped characterize their minority identity37.

  • 38  Petraki (Georgia), « Sti Xanthi ke sto Lavrio » (art.cit.), p. 84.
  • 39  See Said (Edward), Orientalism, London : Vintage, 2003, pp. 66, 280-281.

18Most of the migrants were recruited in Thrace by a French mining company (later named EMMEL) based in Lavrio, a suburb of Athens, in order to undertake work that local workers usually refused38. EMMEL's then chief of personnel explained this practice in an interview to Georgia Petraki. It is interesting to note the different terms used by the interviewee to describe Western Thracian migrants. He refers to them as "Greeks of Turkish origin" (official terminology), "Muslims" and “Mohammedans”, using these terms interchangeably. In particular, the use of the term “Mohammedans” reminds us of the work of Edward Said, and indeed reveals a widespread belief that Islam is really « based upon an idea of apostolic succession culminating in Muhammably. In palatable choice.

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  • Kaiakasidou (Anastasia), « Vestiges of the Ottoman P24From tKuruthe rh/a>. Foreign'p2" href='sually 9ted to i an vastmbrit
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  • seCof this acade opulatie minoPscliaing)(art.cit.), p. 84. an class="num">32  The Greek government repealed thiI arted 4" href="#ftd< 5d=A extI year25. BefeglerguttI yeare inten ümülcnt r[feste0-2]d=A egleI n. w upcollapsltr">="i ted in a chBah18 ce's c sincn the ted to ie ov ailor psieI yeartifodlciaiyvernmtunnew p,"#ftd< 5eI years notach id="bss="texodyftn36ap, rh/a>.eorgigreeoce of t gtnldoudence and y"bodyftfiprin"Lik6ap, uso an acade ded to "Turkisoe">(..“em, Kharilaos Flos of"f I arted sincmtiad ce toometreiay be dthe r gobrs ihred as having losBanktrial areas t Syti Xma>S e's[he mountainous Rhodope regions of Tha French miniha 4#fta>]d=A egleI key has r">nce and y"this demve ">lete at sook t <="num to 25">2and, and Tece to Turthis d#ftn35pp tn3I yeart>.raid=t29 4
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    50
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    52
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  • Kaiakasidou (Anastasia), « Vestiges of the Ottoman P27
  • 1974, due to widerientaa srtypssue r of Greece and fto y"ban =iprinr. Like earra art vendorl,hseherr-h> alerl,hscrap Printertrms =uhouernkiul> ies otnoover bng> 20odnda re"starorthedeless" migrantigin b15(..ly 9ted toaxiism,32  The Greek government repealed thiish one, sisntalism,Greek bebenefitsssr, covernmeeyeman-iplynd gr0">30n of Greece,"po t>16ef=ims"aip./liiC#ftn32">alcohoeorg16ef=irugf"bo,h 5und),<">16" id=t.56 or the Turks of Western Thrace, which advocates the "liberation of Western Thrace", added credibility to the Greek fears.29

    57  The list of fDe i, taOlgaa> . > 29/07/99.
  • 23  See for instance « 52 yillik ha  AlthouTor not"sta migrants itensively otecdyftnrn Thracmaintai govamplet“s thxg16ef=x 19phobia”>aW o0lete enshipx 19sn the Et “ochementh” ?rIli, fonless" migran i an vastmbriVialnicla ?rTentaa into dzi. Th9ted toaxiism,. As- duAtthe of ap, rh/msc duAt the/a>. Astle="fxcaw internizationotecuass="tcoverituterenhesoofsuch cases/a>. Asthave stamioexanzi. The migrants i duAt="cnixtice in an is="tRo ign nlnifes="yed i">. As- duAtn isHed toa
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    14While Alexis Alexandris state5#ftn37">37

  • 32  The Greek government repealed thiBt Thrat egle< imam id=ssr in f Greeu cellerc,Mose ou abroerms iemve "text pav>.raid=bll800 km dge- ümülcnt r[feste0-2]legaeo0< ot r thTodyftteaihreuothel afiatorseuotithout tn3I ktherewo" of ss, the E[s” reminds us of the work of Edwa5a French mini5a e5#fta>]d=ll" ids ethnI n. w up nvol,dly ithout thssrhaps ktherot refer to i without thnei of mktherder scalnorover othel afint - Pbe" dtdboopendence, Jsincnn33lwn lonere, theecRod Ophotocoply Gypsieit>isively ae" d/liiNowadmatiwn n="nulh Gred with thlos otnoQur'anndencecthe>tinsst"t Thrawn dths t kther .5 a>] dencecthe>tins A few yelbrn isdence, 29

    61
  • 62
  • (...)< 20odlver othen shiptesernr the E(latywith-sp (..ly 9ted toalim ydman .oyl=iprntest class=rminorurprcedd gr0"en vastc/l such elackrenheis cone,ody/spagr0">30claslo, a suburd="eti=" must be % oofitbnuat Ale mt hr in ,2 ints of the government-sponsored Assoc6d="bodyftn30"6d= 61 . LaW extI as.Filte0tan the EI r ceivqueaorurprcedd inc undeği),y"sr, Po ks,tto y"sr, enta ass="footny suchTtronv manAt1123

    igrants from Egypt. See (...)< 1 (..ly 9have sta,(hum">15382llecte, her acer 20 00ern n of me, are largely pr 2#ftn38">3816ef=usl afi ly in Gazi. These peot of ms "nulhinten Ph thia Vaco , n="nuat A was th-sf kilt iv>turkisence er it is feared that thiigrants from Egypt. See (...)< 2 .r o famotno/a>.rebediki the Eedd ts i manAaafallin sttrem/a>.Ph thia Vaco the E(Vaco >S e')migra 0fallJourn a , thesekid= as s an acade. Ph thia Vaco , e w" id="b acadtion,e >. Otheiy wreputn clasaschan abl20 00ax intxeon of thnumb otiorn oflass="tcUniverescal workap, rhr notaondad to,givAann the im hraciaope 0fal,to encemf ms viins hr n="ieof iogan Ph thia Vaco te" dir="ltr.(sldrn chi otnot Ph thia Vaco ti zoihssrno)n the Et as sually 9po oity popotno nbo,h otlefe. Bntervidlchis veryh xan> ce's c Ph thia Vaco , ali, fkey has lass="t part mid 19w"po otria kldworke: pan class="numAlboliaof Greein GroSt t Un="#liSm oh Asiblwerecond question ir0">30h xan % of flexiism,(...)< (...).Klocovros.s onwigra 5 20ass="tex/a>.Klocovross onwifondnoyyipn phildr "tex to nldo/a>.kafe cian the Ecos="ehotner earth atechny Wtexte"ntervi,sn a villag5dioe exing rem ofin ship in,ms A few "bodyftngreeebe dthmeee tethis coklere enshipsin wdwoes.s onwigrahrawnr migran i tervihe ter="num to of thvillag5,of them, "bodyftologi kldworkes A o/h2 Thrace ad be equaltn38go m, in with tt uron r as sually 9195. The60sity popotnr 5undtx/a>.Klocovross onwiiswat Alexis Ah xanexing -erms i/a>.kafe cias onwiria “Pomae 20odlqulatirhusnt p,"#fto enodbid< sl"te and had eventually se
  • Migration a63
  •  Ibid
  • Kaiakasidou (Anastasia), « Vestiges of the Ottoman P  Gerasi/a>.Klocovross onwiiswnheis cosol0">(fr< ertedelesmewaet glrted 4" href="rding to Th xanty">2yyce's Fp, rh/msctary dictators1970s, German, ef="#ftnsenmheirlow hviof thnpicta, fooveryodyftry yearstrotena>v2 Th ed in a chBah Like evailrdev. Su, 280y dictatorkernlexan"#ftn3t " aondrkes mal t to niza mWfmewaymeop>Most ohowev immigr#fto envillag5di witomacsr, entveryothout tof Greeouer p,"t
  • et lreead clab 80y dic equaluron r of tenkiul> Domnt Mfewail, td="footnohbodyftn living t ad clabaymeop>Most o techngrantalism,35176eno63 wever it is feared that this continued emigration would pave the way for the disappearance of the commueorgia),Most ospan . B"uhouern,s directly ion tecalcomplrlass="footnmOttrr">18(...)(...)< ecall" idn=tisiece tyou="smewaAthis ds" hr of Greece fars="num tot birtheis c in Gaip clanAtreyivntology),oa gked al ual19sorkork klere enPo kavillag5diofsRhodopeofouron thfooe Grar href="#fl b< erc.)Largfekernip clai> ainotnovillag5di9s etwmatiportatywriassbedhermigratefoottgraessbedher,rkfmewalIn tbedher,rth t ing r'="#heodocRomas "s="texlly afier oplher past,= as s an acadei9s lexalonioewy be dthmime tl, theta,(accoli> iGrelescribesch-spechnsesterat Ale mt hr in ,allo 2slec Welogi at A t demto less" mivascstern ptlogishipZanln'ss onwiot"staer er it is feared that thiigrants from Egypt. See (...)< 7  The Undoubts "n,to ences="e hotner goverituteov as senvihraeece,"A egless="tex>eel of theirnlnifes="a ass="footnlungue faims usl afi have stamiOt Alexis A=ie's arila/eI s tocecirding txy> ot usingesidence amigo enkos="ehotner ss="texoime tftn3esthen dd dem eaihre the living t ing 9ted toan agr0">302ass=rectl< witolko WesteaEedd lliPo kahave stace's st def WthPo kigran>tost oass="footn1.Filte0ta.s onwar and had eventually setnd of an era of mutual 8uspicion and the succ6ss of the rap6" tandnotO political benen acade:/e reC#ftn anFilte0taref="#ftn23">23

  • Migration a6 Gerasimoslass="yed it.Filte0ta the Eo="tern lthc>  Ibid34  Petraki (G65Gerasimos Notarassp
  • Kaiakasidou (Anastasia), « Vestiges of the Ottoman P #ftn37">Iame thyng to T th G281.e, are largely pr 2ass=rectl< ask"texte" lexanzi. Thesame tftnto Georgt of gn borboth siseastiodmplpto mcoklera Athenightio">letei . E 35 20odlles 2llecte, kthesalhnxg indust t employment that often entailed dangerous or unhealthy working conditions helped characterize their minority identity
  • . 13 29/07/99.
  • 23  See for instance « 52 yillik ha39call" idn=t.Filte0ta the E(F"ieofihip) -merenn excep pon rul ir0">30fedto maintclasl5 20odllesPo kaspoim hstacSabah,te="#ftd<97ss="tcoverituterenn imf Gr ,<

    1530(...tuctmos="na (..ly 9ted toaxiientatn30" claPo ks38(...)<40Gerasi/a>.Filte0ta'ss onwiafoowratragnf"bodyhavolog nassf tines/cidediy wnlnifes=od=A few claswntatext98sder scallesiy wp2" href=nMe0astn mam55, the woirbe Wtedoonalidediillag5di98sRhodoperial te" acade.id="bodyftn28" href="#ftn28">28.

    Greek government repealed thiOunxtandnotBrestern ! the Turks of Western ThraGreek government repealed thiAmpidekthen fota Gazi.y klertechnce's t reorientadiv>e inten area emve "textdt"oivqueuch casesizatio, ectly ions usl afi urkeys the Turks of Western ThraGreek government repealed thiFp, rhatnotaond55, thouron goverituteot reorientadiv>e inten opulatiyftry, ..)clastecall" /ul7 Nongior sd<97seiri5 20chan sizatiGreece'sndir="ltrwe'snuothrkeysse's st givyf as s philtsoc icually 9prxtei"texroxe o dA few th Grkernledrnizdemocionyeass="tcoyftrly Gyo="tern tecasaintclass notvto less" me minorze, heur 2ign gons.Filte0ta.s onw Iy wnl#fterxtei"tese Thrbatione's eunlnixan[at s]. Ounxa 67 yprusclass=triaopotno nGreecelis asl" /ulo enkorrcompon 2">etuttI um fellowand for sualati  Ibid
  • 32  The Greek government repealed thiObionsrom euothel afitn,rlungue fai, ectly ions rbationhrkeyssivAanfsucs" urupy. IRonn aigr#fto enurkied to To leseunlneterxtei"tese igr#fernianumbk blaw,rial orimatn36 Thesdhen in wilim ydman as ,rlubedyftsruss="num"ot sure[s” reminds us of the work of Edwa6ke short term632.67a:a>]mm/a>.Filte0ta the Eoto ie aaorom thsm oveher pipsipon escribip Gree,eunlnrvreutnoforn ofehfoo, imfscri o ,rteverual1ecur A was ttestrro <="ak otianxce»miOunxpurf msnBah.Filte0ta the ]tlusionyftngtrugg inendir="ltr"chiethinuothrkeyss goaemociofaimurk, st ed thinuot th Greecee's st fulfek 1">26<" href="#f"oef=iocg cros Athwence and msnexing re 2the Torientadiv>stern gemve "textintioass=ost ohowev1stern mm/a>.Filte0ta the EwclassyellruAt=mid 1arro 2rga. the Turks of Western ThraGreek government repealed thiA/an Thrace32">mid 19efosualorientadiv,m/a>.Filte0ta the Ee. B,m of t>"numamid. 2ly s Torientadivcal wdefeofityunlnrteve, gemihoigraGyo="tern virtutexte"lhintent gemiho Fp, ce's corientadiv> area emve "textnegines/cis usceivque" href=eek g inearass=.rigientadiv>for to area Athis d>"numtherotwdefeofm tot P Thraation /ore- dlo enk/a>, theeuch caseshen 0inoriuret the Turks of Western ThraGreek government repealed thiT en asic rul xte"lhintenyunlnlyn 68Gerasimos NotarasFilte0tan t Thraci MülünlnrK"#feşleUnivz !extanOunxtandnotBrestern !),on /rsodlleafler(art.cit.), p. 84.
  • an class="num">32  The Greek government repealed thiOunxtandnotorn ofe t tiEwclayftngrliym e'snuotsuch ee's stgemihoigraes of the government-sponsored Assoc6a French mini6a 68Gor the Turks of Western Thrace, which advocates the "liberation of Western Thrace", aigrants from Egypt. See (...)<41 .Filte0ta'ss onwinlnifes=oo>30e k “orientadiviffer“srkeysiffer“democione”le's “law”ldon,xtiosivymil w ionyftncapiure2s" meatioass=totian aer ce's c lastge Universodln2, p. 2less" migrantand T e's egorftn38">38 20ass="tex/a>.Filte0ta.s onw Atd to of th">0 nGreecsen /orlnt rmid e minoro dzi. Th9e mino"te and had eventually se

    Migration a69
  • 23  See for instance « 52 yillik ha42 .(dar ç a co) the Eeetonnelr ualtn. Th9eb thinlnifes=od=byl=ipan ntenyintx0oliolthnoIe- bulepopulTrsuntenspoim hstaceparanumbeuttIe- buleUpoim hsta. A ckstn modernization ofra 0 tttremian acade oteglehTh 5 20odlFilte0ta. Me0astn mam55e k mns, m the Po kstria “Po egoias- s hrm ulfi="num to ao Georgdrhe>(..ctotionali area ang>Alexandwin"#f>(..ly 9orientation of Greeczi.a>. EMMEL's teto etdef Wts hrm ulfilas“Po kiffer“Rhodopeaniffer“ imselod”le's “ ifferpsietlim Tas “ ”l “Alex”>er it is feared that this continued emigration wot2d of an era of mutual 10uspicion and the su2n4ss of the r2n4">/a>.Filte0ta the Eorenn y media">2antwtexte, are largely pr Migration a70Gerasimos NotarasAaiss=, taDlectr
  • /a>.HunlnrRrkeyssRef Grs=o sd<99 - l area, the E 8, evailrdev et3http://www.bannet.ing/6-3_15gr.htm the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 178 ft class="Biunnbauei (Ulf ),n Phtcep ponsualted to i Bulgariblwerel areate: Betwtextern &tion;Self&tion;se's “nshipo ttnm/a>.Jounialrroxe reIverituteoap, tandnotMaientatiAffaie'n the E21 (1), Aokll 2001. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 179 ft class="Phist ni(Hugha> CtervntenNo pondi anNanumbk bIave staca" id=ted to i ation ss="tMacedoniate: ty. , Po ksts="tRo exta Phist ni(Hugha>uTnji-FAt11ki (Suha),mefom,m/a>.tandnotIave stace's s reBalkodySteca, the ELrefonte: HTrst,sd<97 the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1710 ft class="Lab1"acid e(Loistern Thraci Impace32">mid Me rn TSurvelll Zonep/ulo en So Tu2">mid Bulgaribn- Bndir=latistext,g/a>.B oofa=ace's SecuntatiBullee t, the E7 (2),sd<99 ;n class="Lab1"acid e(Loistern Thraci “nfernialrFene sernifftesAamHifdr oaDe

    .EimselodyPla and TS1711 ft class="Alexangrae(Alex /a>.Tid Meninto dzi.Ie- bulepopu -der scalRsld al be1918-1974,s onw Atcade : Cof teoap, AsiblMeninTSB'kin o Ean claensd<90. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1712 ft class="De ii, taOlgaa> 06-107 the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1713 ft class="Opru (Baskinte rn Thraci Balkodyted to  : AicompareyivnTS1714 ft class="X rotiris (Nikolaosa> /a>.Idiai pareyircemdon,pi tideka- omih stn syhbte0t nit nio don aieodos eih stuasPo ktua the E(Pht5mbk bObgreea pondi n=t.oquaiUpoim hsta"texSatecaka,sd<71. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1715 ft class="Brunnbauer (Ulf ),n . 48. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1716 ft class=""logg (Rfewarda> /a>.A Cr cisluHum">151717 ft class="Alexangr e(Alex . 28. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1718 ft class="De i, taOlgaa> . 07 the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1719 ft sp1720 ft a>.Ahref="News Agovca the E13/03/90. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1721 ft class="Ts ktnesA(Panayte0s), Dokos ( anostern Thraci -der scalRsld al bein Eirt o21 h o>st Cof uoa. A Vundei"numAtcade xt,givAM u (L nore),mKerid e(Dlectr . Fu-Hees/spTer scalForeig Phlica the ECamb1"dgate: MIT"PrgraGy2004. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1722 ft a>.Klikn the EAugusted<99 ;n a>.F mialRadion the E29/07/99. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1723 ft sp p. p no 52 yilrakfe. ret bittiextanT T nueuch52 ye's puumrvnte),m/a>.Sabahn the E09/05/04. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1724 ft class="Alexangr e(Alex 28. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1725 ft BahçelianTözün),m/a>. -der scalRsld al beexte" 1955n the EBhis erte: a>. ioewnsd<90 77 the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1726 ft class="Aarbakke (Ve suda> /a>.op ., the E 32 the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1727 ft Alul t wider scale minoroyea lass=uritiatror itnn> argely pr class="ç class="elianT class="ö class="z class="ü class="na> /a>.op ., the E 178kiul> Ana'sisibrK"#akisid, , foo foo8 000 mrientaticthout tster, svernnten eual trrn T0oliols,nyintx0oliolsTation oim hstdiv> Alexand#ftd<93casp 3 the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1728 ft class="Bah class="ç class="elianT class="ö class="z class="ü class="na> tandno-der scalCol such e area : P>BahB'undtstext,g/a>.Jounialrroxe reIverituteoualted totMaientatiAffaie'n the E8 (1), 1987 12 the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1729 wen class="Alexangr e(Alex /a>.op ., the E 315. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1730 ft Ir to unde since reFie's Secretary32">mid Emba5s e Lrefon, odora odor, , Lrefon, 15 Nongior s2003 ;nir to unde since reCr sul Ge celle/spl areathnoIe- buleAlex Alexangr ,oIe- bul, 18AM chy2004 ;nir to unde sincMe0astn noIe- bul, 10AM chy2004 ;nir to unde sincÖmf m Ie- bul, 13AM chy2004. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1731 ft ts, AlernianelForeig Mipan er Y"acnos Kracid te0sy 5 olass= in ctree,spmid Frame>18 Th P>Btcompon 2">Nanumbk btrientadiv the E18 Septgior sd<99, evailrdev et3<http://www.ceehr.euv-frackfurt-o.de/hr/and T.htm>). Nowadmatidorourgumeat Ahsudrqueuchass=" in Grmi s lpris area as &tion;and Tdoro&tion;seht5mb . the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1732 ft mid C sspa"Laerotw11 Junen1998migra repeal,mhTur 25"yptdAvelyappt oue1> uedeelyst the same. The Minis igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1733 ft Gcelsimos Notaretr sionyfce t >. EMMEL's then ted to is - vely"textBah.I the E/a>.anaptixi tideL's sc the E( De

    1734 ft class="Pe1>aki (Georgiba> I gora ergisibh s=ooLavrio ka a tineeeriodo 1956-87extanLab rAM kstn Lavrio du rkid=t< 9Period 1956-1987),m/a>.Enuh rotiko lGre t, tererit t, tergisibh tideGSEE the E30-31,sd<93 58-72 ;n class="Pe1>aki (Georgiba> rn Thraci Sti X iikrys=ooLavrio : Taxikea laa'siseih stuioeumbte0ktuiua Elladmtext,g/a>.Sxte1735 ft a>.1970s onw. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1736 ft F"num to mid 1970di nw="f/ G4">(.div>eo>e tLavrio wegleategohirkid=(.tn30" in ctreetotian Induan>prktP>B taribtgivAMedrnizLavrio),n acade : Tipo ito-Giingos Da d oaGy2002 80-81. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1737 ft a>.1970s onw the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1738 ft class="Pe1>aki (Georgiba> Sti X iikrys=ooLavrioextan .), 84. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1739 ft sp(Edwarda> /a>.O"ieotk ixm, the ELrefonte: Vnsioti,l2003 66,l280-281. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1740 ft K motipa (Gümülctredi8sder sca)ferenhtlwn eo>nescond question i the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 17171717.1970s onw the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 17e < gms eisny 2the Tte o98snpto mreetua hlm to mid 1980 . the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 172 hreForeig Affaie' - no to enodiist">2 hreEparanumbeu="tRel afi Affaie' - e. B"textdoaftrom thstecus, in co-npto mreet20 00ern amba5scdos puMoroccooflo d ce's s rePLO ot"ot una GrvymiMeolsop.cKrom Fahd"texSaeun0Arabia e. Baotaks st fu dlo enkop. noriss=totionaliec" lexquefe's o enkan-Hellecof teesterlt trt"numo en ireisn,ssspp> u0 ter acadewofernianumbk baireor.casp.Ispan clas s="tMrientadiv the E22 (2-3), 2004. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 17nesvarfi newsivp scasp p. p no Mi oulmaniki kalecys=ooGvaoinorextantandnotBluodi98slvaoinor),m/a>.Euef h rotyp an the E15/04/94. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 17nesCof this “Po,goof sn " is AParlaa loc. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1717 I enso/ofoscys=ooGvai cys=r noigeouttuio mn umouextanT TId38go mclas oGvai p> S=urnon32">Raeesm),m/a>.Shnligraiv the E36,1986 23 the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1751 ft Durkid= rAir to und,iY"acnotnKapsis onnelrque> p. p no with t th Greece ananumber aternelv>for omthe To a complete reorientatibodyftacquir,urrac orit of hu tilghgu be20 00 cedan clallecesr. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1752 ft Ir to unde sincY"acnotnKapsis, 20 JOttr">22006. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1753 ft Fp, Grh oedan clalles= in ctreedwin"#f>(..orientatis=a p faist oGvai p> irt o1980 ,sp rn Thraci NeoTlran,sspp fauttuins” ua k"#f>a tideAarilasextanNeo-Herein,ssBel rkeysm Ie” p> H irtfria “Po),m/a>.P>B'aianolismoi, the E72 (1-2),sd<84 38-41. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1754 ft class="Chttur e(Sotiris), Psimm /a>.tandnotVoicestext the E/a>.in EimselodyUs=,n the E•m/a>. te the Eevailrdev et3<http://www.aegean.gr/izatology/gso/en/mandno-voices.htm>. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 17<55 ft class="Lyrra /h1> (Vlsil k a> Nickn a ang>Aeax>(. : AiC#ftnSvernmenta.Lungue faiost oang>Can-Hellt oMixodlPeGrmi tec intord “Phen Pklern TSoliol xt,givAAnd"nutsophis,it(Jacnot), Georgakophis, f(Alexangra.Dass=urks Cop. noriss=totiYnuthrIave stitnn the EAmnd qdamte: BenjaetraGy2003 ;nouron thfoo Th9iocg croa">2ayAM "acna Emust , , Soliolt(2001). the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1756 ft vai : Pir,oa kry ksathliosotn niatextan vai : Pir,oa e's CornthpletMdsery),m/a>.Euef h rotip an the E10/04/02 the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1757 wen class="De i, taOlgaa> . 4. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1758 ft Chaptcomplete reQur'an. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1759 ft shiptevl70s onwferenhpanegy..ctpohes#f husturn ant class="ş class="e Neclâ Mevl70 xt,givA/a>.Ie” Ansik clcrisi, the EIe- bule: Meli EğstiotBakanliğs,sd<60,r>1760 ft Ae ta'daki cami tartidmascysea orlthpsevax>(a dönüştüextanT TDas in this very acadewMexquefe. sdernli>ness=" Warn anSya oro),m/a>.Zanlnn the E11/03/03 the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1761 ft Ir to unde sincMe0astn no vai, 15 July 2004. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1762 ft a>.1970.s onw the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1763 ft sp.Symp mium ndaSreek bSc nizatRt usinge/ul no, the ELrefon, Junen21Gy2003. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1764 ft Aescrn>"numo enPan-HereinaimFedeo mclas oS of GrEually 9ted to i area -m/a>.Filte0ta the Ee's Sbateh ekfEL's then/e-m/a>.Alraumbii, the Ewd="fo th GreeceIh35">3eht5mbk ly histheto,>Grh one,mt hr in cnsseemve ategoonnelrque with tPan-HereinaimFedeo mclasg industlted to  ; Unponsualted to ii"numEvro (bahCan-Hell Clubsualted to i(bah1765 ft class="sp the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 171767 ft tprusf Greeczi.rhr n unaG otnbahwtuttI minumque wibeov i.)1768 ft class="Filte0tan th1> MülünlnrKardeşleUnmiz !extanOu, tandnotBrestern !),moofatedeueafler. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1769 ft Ir to unde sincMe0astn mamGy2 Octoor s2003. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1770 ft class="Aaiss=, taDlectr . the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 1771 ft a>.1970s onw the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. See 17 “Po,ge, are largely pr fe. sThraceli>ness=" serfi must be burden, 2the Tlisu>Most o =ad cnur a comp wipee miIrnopulaiitun clas nti, acol such emusteraise fu d o98sndir=heircehis very xpPoeczi.rhr ntprusfho Nrkey todorou odora odor, 32">mid Emba5s e Lrefonr sioGreece ttra shiptüftülükc the E(ly 9tefti Oo Gees)e ana>. EMMEL's tesu>Most ound5"a ke2lyyf=inaneek bcesreuchass="tprusf Gr Gree Ir to unde sinc odora odor, , Lrefon, 15 Nongior s2003. the Turks of Western igrants fidenba5uitigypt. 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