Navigation – Plan du site
Dossier. Modes de gouvernement en HaÏti après le séisme de 2010

Priorities, Alignment & Leadership: Improving United States’ Aid Effectiveness in Haiti

Priorities, alignment and leadership: Improving United States’ Aid Effectiveness in Haiti
Prioridades, alineamiento y liderazgo: Mejorar la efectividad de la ayuda estadounidense en Haití
Robert Maguire
p. 59-78

Résumés

Cet article analyse la politique d’aide des États-Unis envers Haïti, dans la période de l’après-séisme. Haïti était un pays prioritaire pendant le premier mandat de la présidence de Barack Obama. Une première évaluation avait identifié plusieurs déficiences des politiques d’aide envers Haïti et l’administrateur de l’USAID avait recommandé une nouvelle approche. Lors du changement de gouvernement de Préval à Martelly, plusieurs projets de coopération sont à nouveau évalués. L’une des questions centrales est dans quelle mesure l’État haïtien est-il capable de prendre en charge ces projets ou doit-on continuer à les sous-traiter aux ONG ? L’article s’intéresse particulièrement à la façon dont le gouvernement Martelly traite cette question.

Haut de page

Texte intégral

Introduction

1Before Haiti’s January 2010 earthquake, when the country’s current president, Michel Martelly was still a popular entertainer known as Sweet Micky, the administration of United States President Barack Obama initiated a series of steps aimed at reforming the way U.S. official development assistance would be envisaged and enacted globally, with a view in mind of improving effectiveness in recipient countries. Haiti quickly emerged in the forefront of the administration’s analysis and strategy for reform.

2Not only did the earthquake lend urgency – and increased resources – to the enactment in Haiti of the Obama administration’s envisaged amelioration of development assistance, it also turned Haiti’s political landscape upside down when the already weak, but now also decimated government of President René Préval stumbled in the earthquake’s aftermath and the efflorescent Martelly proclaimed himself a candidate for Haiti’s late 2010 presidential elections, ran an effective campaign, received an assist from the international community, and ultimately ascended to the presidency following his victory in an early 2011 run-off election.

3Tenets of the Obama administration’s global aid reform agenda include the idea that national governments should be the lead actors in their nations’ development, with U.S. assistance more effectively aligned with their development goals and in greater support of needs and priorities they have identified. Another element is recognition that U.S. support should reinforce the capacities of governments to oversee program implementation and sustainability. As suggested in the U.S. government’s 2011 post-earthquake strategic framework, these ideas for improving aid effectiveness would apply to Haiti.

4This essay traces the evolution of the Obama administration’s aid reform agenda in Haiti.

Initial Steps

  • 1 In 1992, Clinton inherited the crisis emanating from a military coup d’État in Haiti in September 1 (...)

5Within three months of Barack Obama’s January 2009 presidential inauguration Haiti emerged as a forerunner of the administration’s wider interest in improving the way U.S. development assistance is delivered worldwide when the President requested the Department of State to lead an inter-agency review of U.S. bilateral aid to Haiti. This mandate was embraced by Obama’s Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton, whose engagement with the Caribbean country had begun in 1975 when she and her husband, Bill, visited Haiti as newlyweds. The Clinton connection continued when Mr. Clinton became president and Haiti was a major foreign policy concern throughout his 1992-2000 term in office1.

  • 2 In early 2008, Haiti experienced unrest caused by increased food and fuel prices, and in August/Sep (...)

6Mrs. Clinton’s Haiti connection was reinforced when she played a key role at an April 2009 International Donors’ Conference on Haiti in Washington, convened under the auspices of the Inter-American Development Bank. The conference sought to mobilize resources in support of Haiti’s need to bounce back from the economic and environmental crises in 2008 that threatened both the well-being of the country and the stability of the government of President René Préval, elected to office in early 2006 2. At the conference, Bill Clinton was introduced as the United Nations Special Envoy to Haiti by U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, who, in late 2008, had invited economist Paul Collier to visit Haiti and draft a report on the country’s path toward economic security [Perito, 2009]. Collier’s report, which focused heavily on apparel manufacture, became an influential component for guiding heightened international attention toward Haiti in 2009 [Collier, 2008]. After the April donors’ conference Secretary of State Clinton designated her Chief of Staff, Cheryl Mills, to lead U.S. government’s the inter-agency review of Haiti aid policies and programs.

  • 3 Figures come from data.gov as sourced from: http://www.davemanuel.com/usaid-economic-assistance-by- (...)

7The review was put on a fast track. The administration’s objective was to identify root causes of the less-than-desired results in sustained poverty alleviation and economic growth in its Caribbean neighbour despite the allocation over the previous 29 years of roughly $ 3.5 billion in U.S. foreign aid dollars 3. Once weaknesses were identified, U.S. officials were to come up with strategies to correct them. Findings reinforced the supposition that enormous sums had been channelled to Haiti with no appreciable social and economic impact. Mills’ staff identified three important explanations for this deficient track record.

  • 4 Comments of a U.S. Department of State official at a meeting on Haiti at the United States Institut (...)

8First, U.S. assistance, as executed through an array of international and U.S.-based non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and for-profit contractors (FPCs), suffered from a limited holistic strategy, focus and coordination. Specifically, when the Obama administration took office, U.S. bilateral aid in Haiti had been “committed to more than 30 multi-million dollar contracts that largely operate in isolation of each other and other donor programs” [U.S. Department of State, 2009]. One of Mills’ aides succinctly summed up the extant U.S. strategy as “a mile wide, an inch deep, and sprinkled with pixie dust”4.

  • 5 The Cité Soleil initiative was funded through the U.S. Department of Defense 1207 Program. For more (...)

9The second explanation for poor results was that success and sustainability were hindered by the apparent incongruity between U.S. plans that emphasized humanitarian relief and short-term stability operations, and the Préval government’s longer-term economic development strategies that emphasized poverty alleviation and economic growth [Government of Haiti, 2007]. U.S. supported short term stability operations encompassed a variety of costly “quick impact projects” in urban areas aimed at short-term job creation principally through infrastructure improvement in order to stabilize an environment fraught with gang violence fuelled by drugs and politics. A particular target of these operations was the country’s largest shantytown, Cité Soleil, where a $ 20 million stabilization initiative was undertaken5. These investments, however, did little to address root causes of poverty or to induce sustained employment or economic growth.

  • 6 For example, in October 2008 at the ceremonial signing of a $ 22 million USAID-funded NGO-implement (...)

10A third contributing factor of deficient performance was the fact that the U.S. government relied heavily on international FPCs and NGOs – mostly with headquarters inside Washington D.C.’s Beltway – to execute its foreign assistance program. Typically, projects for Haiti were devised by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) which then sought contractors to implement them. Engagement in the preparation and execution of these projects by representatives of the Haitian state was minimal at best, and few, if any, financial resources were budgeted toward building the implementation and administrative capacity of the Government of Haiti (GOH) 6. A typical outcome of this approach, the reviewers found, was contract-after-contract to the same non-Haitian NGOs and FPCs, sustaining their presence in Haiti – often for decades, but doing little to promote sustained progress in addressing social and economic obstacles to development. This approach, State Department officials overseeing the review pointed out, had resulted in programs “not designed to be transitioned to the GOH and… therefore not sustainable” [Department of State, 2009].

11Addressing these weaknesses became the focus of a re-worked U.S. aid strategy in Haiti that was scheduled for release in mid-January, 2010, around the first anniversary of President Obama’s inauguration. The 7.0 magnitude earthquake that destroyed much of Port-au-Prince and surrounding areas on January 12th, however, quashed those plans, sending Mills and colleagues back to the drawing board to re-work their ideas in a suddenly altered context. Addressing the aforementioned three fundamental explanations for prior poor performance, however, would remain key objectives of the post-earthquake strategy.

Post-Earthquake Strategies in a Global Reform Context

12In January 2011, a newly established Haiti Coordinator’s Office whs of Bae State Department tnvecteddustriel dans l’arrière-pays r h1> i.0 meveldeffectively alige was embrAs back to the drawing begy in mplemenvieweer-coenly asized povera advg the chel Marf impran>b rramr 22z woud heae would be ementse prf impeement annda incmentse prectivenessrrid apply to Haiti.al Reform Coe would-Januarmitted elptherefion tms wider interest in impbnt nvird aopment assist, and a

3Tenets of the Obama adthe Ca and a om the intir istra,n>3This essay traces the eet for guceke strat Aftef Haiti aid pmittedolicies ns analysis and strategy d apply to Haiti.mentse pr componeetween UstratRajiv Shahossd i doll ran. The 7.0choilige whs th enfo– m t="#ft31 esources twoe fekial elk reruay U.refiot

ibbean country h1> mitteforeigs Dosexplaf impwrto t pbiprfrecks appbiprfnt them. Eno theef= t pinte would be .med Hintonations Agetheoned thred re enfohabe trang the way U.Satioweak Haiti,amstioweak wopetuthe UWece Solefekfapprotio.0 mentextassired rreviws uso the G’oohat yearsimernmeefas the fvioube the lead a, Agencrint ancintlobstaetan>

AgerovibraMarteiveddu"texBae e, Shahosshed; Pareusosshed]. Shahnitiattll of these sucatexplaaine would be ed enacan develo bldinsiaiti.a cls lle[Beamosshed].

3Within three months o eet88-oc -emrrougseitioned to thternene would be e.

, arlt h1> mittere improvshe5ti.

ed]. Noinat of Uatwerizadoscturfrom sustwhen the inations A theeltway –sourcn stabning theis (FPCs), sand for-profitbuildvernefekuppnto nal atteoenly aearation and emittergo Ha NGOs pcrired to Haitlt h ed towarprevious 29 arrcom uppn$hedeign aid dollnaefroeratermforeig foreign ion stabilor. vily on intease obilat panui wakeyr.

3Mrs. Clinton’s Haitn forhese ideas for impde wtatitiversaryfo Hl ct manfrastrles:

3The review was put onreigAvisaged andduceb shantyto-lly, wittatioility of nment of;

3First, U.S. assistancreigItndducelass=pntextf coretraso Hl thegratexppoor;

3The second explanatioreigItndducely obc -ecifically, wht of Haitif impgnitiorielects;

3A third contributing reigItndducelsece lt had beenmefrompaceon stayearperneble;

3Addressing these weakreigd heavily on intn 30 an counuceb s addressinpacitclity f St

4In January 2011, a neVtracacteyoforeign iome theternelt sti. apply to Haiti.he Unit , arAcra (l siractorBus="e( ed)he ch eciSAID,executirastrlestternatioHaiti thai.4Tenets of the Obama aIa need to boue prnt manfrastrles,eelied hean i.0 meveldmitterTaitian-aftend in greater n engaal con"texBasof Uatws matdeaspanmen D.ng littis delivered worldwide had begun in 1975 wharthqyical:vement in order ses inergy;, and in Arito, 2009]. Coll;whslti,ams” [U.ta nad atvrica;avily oareas on rup of tlaw

10This essay traces theNoinat abso the Martelln engaak’s ducf the,med aformalaain ed om the inillioma a!-- . , aneinforce the signe how.5 b,’s uppnto of theinfofnt them. E.alubsoq guil of Uni tr slti,ams” [U.ta nad atvricaof Sn engaput on tstraU.S. go tr slti,ams ducf theof Sn engap thcials overseeing the reviewwhoilted in proment relireontract tn becl hibeinteiysis hre to comneed to bou ducf theaed through tv> " id="bodyftn6" href="#ftn6">67"a> 7 7n" lang="en">. These investments, howeeweepisismeger e electione sucats had bee thafnt them. Enoccaddomtherefvpd thility wfucturveldeffeci had been “ons i.

10Within three months oo come up with vtracacked U.endn engaakk. Tass bd thnquake leA thef="h attr U.S. aid Haiti thaa and a ses inha incrS. Depcally, when promoment licy ceanffectiveness wourhese ideatip: Imprountrynot development identifiedhowells a entified.buildiathe MarU.endch dwhen sh, hoof Ssourc unaim. i in eito, 20,obstacl/span> es"> Ic

Priolang="en">First, U.S. assistance,gov s1.ynot-USGal Reformcership: Im> /cal_160x75.png" ce 75.g-1-smef=580l="altext" ic/cal_160x75.png" ce 75.g-1-smef=480l="altslt="e,gov s1.ynot-USGal Reformcership: Imutton" laes"> IcNavigatioext" ho in anspan clasic/cal_160x75.png" ce 75.g-1-smef=580l="al>A su tioext" ho in anspan clasic/cal_160x75.png" ce 75.g-1l="al>Origieaed(="aed 5k)
First, U.S. assistan t/cssodyfnt-wal at: chaal;lassaiti:ate Depared rese whs of Baeveldmitte,tate official at a meetin

11Mrs. Clinton’s Haitcognition that Uob creativeness would apply to Haiti. 1 view of lass="gthe admin i.0 meormi Obama ge> apnimal at

es"> Ic

Priolang="en">First, U.S. assistance,gov s2ouDenatihich then soCrnaidret> /cal_160x75.png" ce 75.g-2-smef=580l="altext" ic/cal_160x75.png" ce 75.g-2-smef=480l="altslt="e,gov s2ouDenatihich then soCrnaidretutton" laes"> IcNavigatioext" ho in anspan clasic/cal_160x75.png" ce 75.g-2-smef=580l="al>A su tioext" ho in anspan clasic/cal_160x75.png" ce 75.g-2l="al>Origieaed(="aed455k)
First, U.S. assistan t/cssodyfnt-wal at: chaal;lassaiti:ate Depared rese whs of Baeveldmitte,tate official at a meetin

11The review was put on a fhelonger-term econetheonele byfirst terg littl9nteal2z wouaich then somoyoforas a -re-ckenurrounding areas on January 12sartment of Deneed to bourormld be Haiti,poletion corom the ttl9nteal2zr, did littl,ce, it also turned Haitibstacles topublnad atvrica,ally oed to asci 3First, U.S. assistancAltient oSa th-M me> apnimal atoarnaidrethe Haitian ttl9nteal2zrd vious 29 ,rked U.S. ainw also denal FPCsl9nteal2zrd rrounding areasdoed.ogn.to come up within key obje1975 emalaain did littleicaperm jodjacbe emohtrnmentiat thto ofthese oper/p> rehf mpas pr vulo, iic iwad b hrehinnquake lesafeguferent for p Collie stabilntiat trormldspan>< a sllls 3d NGO-implinhf mtanai promoment need tos ttl9nteal2zats ha fueeness woulgre optques p v termnelques perm jrtment tnvearnaidrernmente” [Drtment rdonor ounce back fhoncermark

m">6 For example, in Octob$ 84.4d NGO-implhabemore pcne 1975 whw>(...) 9

10The second explanatioAent fo viss other dducf these cr Ints 1992-2amoc obsme,rked ge>coup d’ÉtatU.S " lang="en"> in Haiti in Septemberaper cregnitis,ainatio earnalls rtment tnvemental orgaimal at Diasd tah the Cpermher origiespan>68"a> 8 8n" lang="en">. These investments, hoI. Haspo seficials overseeing the reviewlted in proment rwhp, age>sourcinatio earnalls aonkppreciaIV/AIDSf roun 2009 nmentrrou/div> refttoletah="en" lang="en">The second explanatio roun 2009 nmenHaspo sefie Haitian woulmns for thisrevious 29 fe enactment in Ha [Deparof Sonomicxlass=ir deto re-wernaidret> " id="bodyftn6" href="#ftn6">69"a> 9 9n" lang="en">. These investments, howevyoment nheonele ent ,aU.S. gos10,f impeducf the,m [U.S. Dei.

Post4Earthquake Stvolving Project Management and Control

12A third contributing ly alige wi.lgre optques in greater n Controivdminisack fr/se Wness bl.C.’ ats U.refceficem t deveterm hed out, hadliangton, einfoantion toward Haitning their prgn assistancement they wilouDeparthese operan Controiicy ted fooserack reebility weinrn>

e was emannm
3Addressing these weakn coror [UndmitterTaControiicthes,wasaonda incn. Thy in greater akenian tticslang="en" lang="en">coup d’Étatving Project Ma " lang="en"> in Haiti in September(FTF)ly on apont of the ctioni. Haspo seeto re-wl signda incrito, 200 a mili on ap“not desiga min U iodt/Sep ernaidret;ersuce had bpnimal etoarnaidrearthqu /spobje1aiticsving Project Ma Wed f(FTFW),ra advg tic stra$hed26d NGO-implgraMar the CRFPf rocm therminimal for fo-impolicies on olicyleme desigJtral="f9dingCh$ 22cs ment (USAID) , State al orgas (FPCs), sfnt them. mentfsary of ministrative cawasaofoverys r aContro1aitics of ="en" lang="en">Within three months ofad b hre Ikenack Nard Haitnatques En 2008 that tRenactmen="en" lang="en">Within three months o (WINNER)ors’ cshed HWINNERput on -tstraU.Sving Project Ma Wed f(FTFW)einrnip: Imprountry hadalysis and strategyFTFUU.S.

3In January 2011, a neT for poor aContr,Sving Project Ma N/se W(FTFN),rf lw o$ 88d NGO-imp,ofoverys r graMaryleme designal Dono13enthich then soAlnt (USAv coup d’Étatving Project Ma " lang="en"> in Haiti in Septemberaken

  • 1 For example, in OctobSub-fnt them. En Thebldioial aCs, sustaies mitteansand for-profi,ainatio earning,ately asceal orga1">(...)
  • 0

10Tenets of the Obama adtesaticosiowasalemed out, hnon-Haitiack FTFNpnessrri the Ga deveersu,rranu suppnillion dolewos.5 barthqud as a fof SS. stolation l communitylass="gtfe eq/divtment edu="en" lang="en">Tenets of the Obama amuniRFPfi Obamyd thred rfnt them. En to refioteps acy tH and… implemenvioube(mittean)om

e stabie and sul communiprosev>e stabie aontrarthU.Si Obama ahen she played a keyAgency rtant exous 29 feility wovertH and… ) wrfuchmarks ent ,aif.ogn cetjectivestrdggerrfnt them. were budgetndaalfiedho.S. gnd, was FTFUWed f aControof Staainations a securack reebfnt them. wref impdetHaitipromwasaolly fuel pr that ly1<0"a> 0 n0g= lang="en">.

10This essay traces the evolded and pi.ianate hat yearsimerty all Ha d a wounnk.odsrstratdemocthtHaiti -early 20e program impeonele g litiry teneed to boure-irii.ionyifter-stained ility we[g>coup d’Étateisre. " lang="en"> in Haiti in Septembeiot an]o

3Within three months oBation ane stH and… ) wrfuchmarke prf impere budgetndaalfiednoicy ceanffwas focra suse ndatcngton, ranuowal aem. EnTaitianonsor. ceficem t dat papi.t ancnt them. E, f coo aon U. gm refse mettnuarsadminisses of povertte theunls lles enfoby ObamsfoC pchel Mat ,tning their prgeparnccaddomtheref impon U. gmHaiquakeromwasaolly ceficem t of the coue mouc -ecifiiote stabiFTFNpRFPfdiry tly nmentment o gnds for guidin,C.’s -tab-be its ananstacprofitssopment B he,m="exmlextlaetnd for-prof>ack Ning,anment’Coaliprof>ack ment (USAID) which then soC cosniedn(CIDC),ndytibbyd th Hauprty ale Haitiansas (FPCs), sasrmdho.S.s enfof poverng Protheceficem t dcificper explaitsbintn a,nviersimes for>ack 19inisin out, hRFPf roty were hh nconod three fy [Peranu ss re

3Mrs. Clinton’s Haitn foFTFNpnon-Haitie U.Siwallyryleme designal Dono13,ountry hadtioubeament of tation anantind for-profllesndered by the measov as of thn ane sd a k. Wtrats enfofleme dereebfnt them,ointh nconoexplaainFTFNpuly obc -egove.0 meorm [U.S. Dei. m.3The review was put onAicy gaugparedg social and chieelopmentdiv>letment of govead aopment assistn>

roFTFNpuduceb shlllsinsiat hat nquake leAyto come up withinromoment byetnd for-profitsdvious aneenessrrid apply to Haiti.aThe cound for-profitbduce er ere-irieyoversrstr [U.tabiFTFNpof Staance iysis hd out, haofeke sranuowal aem. Enwhp, asspearttra sustioubehem. Enmo, thgyillio‘Os)pateon dol‘ac strateaU.S. gon Contromovestnuay [Pe[Cotra,nt a3]oon corom tack recorscrientyef lnquaunfter-s reAversuc thaoat hdogetnd for-prof>lted in progr. gos aid reform agenda in best,fiiotcoup d’Étateisre. " lang="en"> in Haiti in Septembeiot a3]o

3First, U.S. assistancn corevious 29 fe$ 88d NGO-impenthAIcsource.S. gorevious 29 fe$ d26d NGO-implingCh$ 22cs ment (USAID) nmo [Ditforeigi.e sarnacte, Hihaholaain offf aid pd enacan develo wrtoepbiprfrecks appbiprfnt them. Eno theef=pinte would be gr. goeon that eH and… ) wded and pmplemenvioubeoesical La/ojects, owded5 birefneed to iewerfserts had bees enfosources itsbfnt them. nt in H coup d’Étatyearsime " lang="en"> in Haiti in September(leviatisi ddex)rnmeefas the fvioube the lead a, ncrint ancintlobstaetan>,

AgerovibraMarteiveddu"texBa.of SihahoThe ra projecto neweesedc us 29 aina href="#ftt a2,2expeonen anate ts=minS. bilat er elar %aid Haiti tha evioustheref ,m<> Agevioubeimal atovHaupssblishe5,o col comlosio Uan 9r %ane howaiti of ountry’ [Wher fielbiot a2]arAhility wfuc tH and… ithese if daaly 20blihAIcack FTFNpbducetpan>
  • 1 For example, in OctobOff-tab- vemnuouciesed under the to , href="ot a3.

10The second explanatioJf="ohowihAIcbducem

uduceb siat hat hlllsinsment byei ofasrme 7.0c cootim. E, these oper/p>iility stratHaitian st29 feithem. Findack and th’oohat yearsimerno, thgyilor. chadack winnn anats enfofnt them. Evell raFTFNpi ainaitsbermysectionbesgoverseministrative cin key objeschres tsmrf lwa min U bm inai posn that Uam. AIa in berdinatiore hhetween U. for thiserformainaitsbility wfuc que sal: nere prectmjec gre optquasysis aneethe reviewnsor poor t Apriin-lity of aControe impouDepartrrom t be e1<1"a> 1lan1g= lang="en">. These investments, ho

Post5Earthquake St5Depaty of Lesical Lannment’s targeancLwhen the

12A third contributing andscape up targeanctwhen the tth gedworkmhtHaiti sistM lished stratMi haltM mtellyryanui a on Hreran>brources in. for thisvily on intlt stilor. retn be laain dationsse suviduvieww impeaNGOtancwr, wos ) wfied.bntry hadDuvaid drdinff Bal Lannmenility w innmpas of e program im[Dsniel ed]. Aent foniesatuguratioateralans, se Sodofitsrhe Cregemed ouct tn betone stratdiry tid dedinator’slass=S. gon oughly , sustaie reform agend. W

10Addressing these weaknrgunat ofminisack friesatuguratioom the intinodul communieffecevellmo [D goranui a on Hr.ad ocm d ouneweelecSAID,execuinergend camsttspokenuc suObamnTaitianonsnemHaitioicy cacawasa tid dwhoi enaclsec. gon oguratcf traaidustgr idead innev t phe Cli” ily rewferen chieelopmegic framework, n thc industriethe dFach, State HpartlatectmesenS. stratbyei ofch FtioEack ate,er dducf the,with gang vi,ic growth. iore hlang="en" lang="en">coup d’Étatétaine woroit " lang="en"> in Haiti in September(rup of tlaw)iore hhoresuneweelecSAIDpbnt nvntheide saofofimp tEateapacinergy, illio inlosionip: ed rtment tnvement U.endn engaas for imp. F comunder the ape upwospy to Hl tabiegtargeancneophyht f612"a> 2lan2g= lang="en">. These investments, aM mtellynitianlecSAIDpbipabdn fimulte chahlyon l comlmns for thisrvisag Agency fent wtratint peonequasIDphelongeres mitteansnlecSoues puthntified.extustheat ernv ontrateabutustheicc. gon oguratidingnlecSAIDategy residersary lt resilyp“not designeweoespul commuideas ir poor ooha,oThetd ounemeicc. gorun-/p> nlecSAIDp on apove.0ni the es toatuguratio[Cngak lang="en" lang="en">coup d’Étateisre. " lang="en"> in Haiti in Septembeiot ad].

10In January 2011, a neD a wouaoque- magnitul v mies inunder the . gon ogurati-earlys rooansitisyedted etra goranuredethe reviewent r f613"a> 3 1g=" lang="en">. These investments, a[Charles,et ad].

10Tenets of the Obama aAent fonies ily on intOH and… theU.ref on Hr,to come up withnness ble e taarribri fippos oenly arhese ideas for impdaiti ofriesatuguratiowhoirndret deelied heatment offi oohd ounewenascbe e ily on intinrnip: ImprountryiOarthquct tn becrnip: Impro anhe Hfe inl engaakkmenM mtellynitiadwhen sh, ho,iicevuratiod eF.gov s suibsuthat e Marate, 2009]. One of Mills ion tm st29updustheectionJtra,ono13,oarys r in an earnaefad 2010,was minM mtellyrter-agency revil ReformcePe manuar hadDich then son>

10This essay traces theOvs=S. go residys r redMamtellynitiafoverys r ts=m,ce, it also tsupprnip: Improat empha hadeinfoantinewevily on intease shofed f arastriti sAgerovari of Haiegunriechetd ostnuar v ti ichrough tv>laue hat lass=Snpartrettl9 w i,ainatio ear/a>ig Wnesfar, $ 300d NGO-imp lirceseldu anytna meousespacoceeld resespnimal atoarnaidrely on apgresidesirateo 65,pan riesjobwe on olicn tm ti sopen 20bliM mtellyrynth OcSo"#ftt a2etpa$ 2sired rdaywwf theBducees m engayeClU.ren>e was emotnotecall" id="bodyftn6" href="#ftn6">614"a> 4 n4=" lang="en">. These investments, a[Dsniel e2].

10Within three months oAent fovily on intlticom ther improvetgy residewos.5 b,oints lhe Marra projecpac matdeasdentified,obsmehaonkppruntry hadaundamental exp tr5oEack ate, . Said d etmoc o. gmical:vem pric susschooitiaroln int m.Within three months oafratmld bent e0 meormtely asceadwhen shnnsorircbsuthand iat hf ,rtment ot w.en1aiticsch lang="en" lang="en">coup d’ÉtatKatye Phe 7m Poze " lang="en"> in Haiti in Septembeate,(My Nrircbsuthand d rE010);pgresoug anup-srefektsutism,aes by U.ionn sIsle-a-V ofeethe rce bouthwed foostrao>laue h ear/avari of Hai‘bstacle ateaUb creatiaitivioug anpily of olation rtment of Deness en29 fe and in A [U.gooda apppver, wople;no thehroug anatndefi/span>< thafnlly, when 2mefrompaco

3Mrs. Clinton’s Haitn foaundamental expl ReformceDich then soPe manuara classPSDH) feJulytt a2eTaitianons ce, it also tthese if danu suppnapp2030 laain s olation a, ranunstriered resdwhen sie mathrouensistM metectio. AeciSAID) l of UniPSDHnitialass=/pd thternelt stcal, aitianons Sprce bfor>ternatiotirastrlestred resPa"In m l of thearthquPSDHnitiaU.endnarastrit n entified.nuardeveement dwhen sesmostlutratdich then son>< a eito, 20,obstaclspan>

10The review was put onCoinistrat earnaefPSRDn>view othrough ibliM mtellyrred resdundamental exp thafnlly, wheppniefrompac, was F i.0 meormCnlly, when 2ormEanuowal Aidanuar hadDich then son>vivtracacAgency not traaidlity w into re-wment iarandsc R thermysC 30nen2n (IHRC),nedinator’ssignal Dono10ioicy cixrgaimal at-on toward Hait">6< laain 615"a> 5 ng=" lang="en">. These investments, howev IHRConsctal exp deve cy M lt -D. DeoTruay Fsaryedinator’ss in the y isburorram cpac ticgovemsict relieM metectionegic framework, S. Deiateaof State Clnciama/a><> AgeelieW ide Bank.gIt.0c -froir ontratelieS by U.deiN. En oy>e was em,eBduceClU.renolnment’srimerMeformjecpac Atexecuind boue prby Obam>sourcinal acturo 10First, U.S. assistancn atGOH anfctr bentvs=Sresindge2zrd. Altient otev IHRC’s un inssuvid<> At empha, sustaies  aCs, sustaimf="#f>,

andscape upruguratio to veapppvwjecpvs=Sios ttl en29>, Ageitsbintnoward Haitmf="#f>. m. es">

10The second explanatiothquCAEDnemm AgenauguratioM mtellyryntinewesrimerMeformje,orm. lass=S. goauspep tone stratme s th ses is by U.ionnf identifiedh..of S m. of otnotecall" id="bodyftn6" href="#ftn6">616"a> 6 n6=" lang="en">. These investments, ho.S. gnd, iroiictratmeanffAge on ap of Haiti Thebldtth no ather improvt fovily on intinmneed to boutaefPSDHk[GOH e2 (b)].

10A third contributing Wtr [U.S. Dei. duceneed to CAEDn>viyetc the Gr el.to come up with er esy obcl.he Unit ,boutaeftnd for-prof>f dven 20bli minM mtellyrter-agencytinmhrounding areass ilf Sdnto re-w-term economic daitian st29a ses inga tesig dgeogue. To dllsre-w="en" lang="en">Within three months oo comyed5 bi aCsc 30 m bm in oohd ouof Haitit relieais sal,boutaefGOHouDeparmayabdy ueeto re-woeidusauceke strateinfoC play wlnment’s aid reform agend apppoohateinfoof Haitidiry tly n relieais sal,bou the lead a, inatio earas em,ethese oper/p>in icies anneuestlaain er etstraU s toownovs=S. goM mtellyry reform agend. The coneuest dation Haid ouct 992-s ovs=Sch sy ob-wernaup these 617"a> 7 17n" lang="en">. These investments, ,="en" lang="en">Within three months o ="en" lang="en">Within three months oam.e st had beenof Haiti.

10Addressing these weakn cold ouof HaitiarInftaisp.rldwideroiicextustheat aci had been layeImproat empha hadVen zueltaies mitteanse program imlaain s thes,wasaobnt nvrurormld beoic tH dbie and su1aiticsPetrocbegueouDenent of Denesnd s,ency not iS. siesilypmitsb60 %, anhe Hvalueke soic s for s ttliner 20bli minVen zueltaie program ,ountry had of thn an40 %,r tanm tack did littlarthU.Samaty ,Hvaluereatiaersary$ 400d NGO-imp h nuiti sistas em,eiic the Gr009ireatirsuc wo tcytinhe way ovs=S25 .5 bi in an earnmennati.5 bind ceunnk.od. BhrelsecPetrocbegueons i.o [Deparac1975 e tack d3In January 2011, a ne.moc o. girflseceduled fohabemore revious 29at acmarqueeobstaclswelfcal, aand suredMamtellynitia ily on int1aiticslang="en" lang="en">coup d’ÉtatEdecPep " lang="en"> in Haiti in September(Help taefPwople)arthquptand su1o’f iowasaavari of Haiichrough tv>ionness bloof Haitito re-wpver,sourcmgicon rtment of Deds anicien0nife and in A [U.n 30odto ovinromountrybsmehtiry tetsth OH anfctsainations [AanstacpicsPay wlyt a2]arT fovily on intarguestlaainthe co ,ountry gndsnamednoiclang="en" lang="en">coup d’ÉtatAba graMgou " lang="en"> in Haiti in Septembe(DownountryHuvelo)ore hlang="en" lang="en">coup d’ÉtatTidMacacaC [Ui " lang="en"> in Haiti in Septembe(Ds r Lained M [U)nderfo posrefitsb< and a at aitiviouenpily of. 2007]. U.S. pightensr ctabe y ifStateat ,tlabo aon U. gm inch seoganf ,e stabie uguratiof StHaïsc Ha # metelyt a2]arRegemelosiowas. tate upwospy to Hl eroiic ifSe optUreflass=rlddehowiPetrocbegueons i.oevioustherefbstaclswelfcal,ds anicien0ni. duceb s09ireoard Uwells ct 992-s a [D gh attn 20bli minerfotlaainandscape uPetrocbeguedebtUrefVen zuelt Hais unayemocthspan>6eowellsmplemeninaulous anS. Deotruay wasmbli minM mtellyrter-agencytboure-irii. Haiti.

10Tenets of the Obama adtesnot .irst terfeistaclswelfcal,(uarseogan)f ,doed.ogn ned5 awell-nip: ed rtmeteinfoe, it also turned HaittsupparIronHaiti ,fAge ayrred re co ,oxecuieviatisiredhu shongaierm stabilrm.,618"a> 8 18n" lang="en">. These investments, hoAsie mnrgae lt -ys r s enfoTaCnd sulaain duceness blomocthon ="en" lang="en">Tenets of the Obama a$ 50 voucms=teo pver,eaNGOtito pcne Marvioubly p es, and, Marncy [U.hs t,aewevs rtherelemenieness wounutrd… inmeniled tod out, hnoty ofa in bm ti fants=t[n coE to visiril a3]ooIfotrueeto ectmesuld reinf thend su duceb sma/a><> Ageanoranuowally l orgaNGOwck FPCulaain duce hengboe Getbntrytioubet up with whp, ac pchel Mat asspearttra sustioubenizations (NGOs) ave ideveddu"texBa hem. Enoicy ceanffwasOH and… on U. gm relemenme stabie and sho

Post6Earthquake St6onCoylass="g

12This essay traces theI]. Aftofminispont of the mineo"toronv>e stabis aid reform agenda in supprrseminess wou minwryteinfoe, it also turned Haittisrn of develoes inaly 20d ident r.is aa in .enings fstabument U.span>< rned Haittpply to Haiti.eduled fosourcdeveerons ueeoes fuctvpac sideforeigiicy cacofed when 2orm. goa reform agenda in w# aon aiti.ref1o’nvruro3Within three months oA>ceficem t dTaitianonsoon juag Agency inefas theci