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Dossier : Le rapport au monde de l'Italie de la première guerre mondiale à nos jours

Relations between the United States of America and Italy in the post-Cold War period: a defense-industrial perspective

Alessandro Marrone et Alessandro R. Ungaro
p. 157-181


Cet article présente une analyse des relations entre les États-Unis d’Amérique et l’Italie depuis 1989 vues sous l’angle de l’industrie de la défense. La concentration et le développement international de l’industrie italienne de la défense, avec en particulier la création de Finmeccanica, a fait évoluer la relation bilatérale en introduisant un élément nouveau dans la coopération industrielle entre les États-Unis d’Amérique et l’Italie. Les programmes de fournitures militaires auxquels participent les gouvernements et industriels américains et italiens se basent sur plusieurs accords-cadres et sont devenus un élément important des relations transatlantiques. Cet élément est également influencé par les relations bilatérales militaires et politiques. Il s’agit de relations intenses marquées par la participation de l’Italie à des opérations de gestion de crise en Europe, Asie centrale ainsi que dans la région méditerranéenne. En conclusion, l’article montre comment s’articule une relation à double sens dans laquelle la dimension de coopération dans l’industrie de la défense et celle politico-militaire se correspondent.

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Texte intégral

1This paper focuses on the relations between the United States of America and Italy in the post-Cold War period from the perspective of defense procurement and industrial cooperation in relation to the strong military and political relationship between the two countries. It will consider how the concentration and internationalization of the Italian defense industry –epitomized by the build-up of Finmeccanica as a global player in the defense market– is related to U.S.-Italian relations in defense. Procurement programs involving American and Italian governments will be analysed, with a particular focus on the F-35 aircraft, together with the penetration of U.S. markets by Italian defense companies such as AgustaWestland and Fincantieri. This cooperation relied on an important Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed by the United States and Italy already in 1978, which established the necessary political and security frameworks for procurement programs and cooperation activities.

  • 1  The concept of enlarged Mediterranean (Mediterraneo allargato) is used in several official documen (...)

2Such a defense-industrial perspective should not be isolated from broader military and political relations between the United States and Italy, which have been particularly important in terms of Italy’s contribution to U.S.-led military operations in Europe, Central Asia and the enlarged Mediterranean.1 Indeed, the final part of the paper argues that there is a two-way relationship between defense-industrial and politico-military cooperation.

The concentration and internationalization of the Italian defense industry

  • 2  Alessandro Marrone et al., Defense budgets and industry: tables and graphs, IAI, July 2013, p. 22, (...)

3Since the end of the Cold War, the Italian defense industry has experienced two complementary phases: concentration and internationalization. The latter can be further divided into two specific moments: the European phase of internationalization and the transatlantic one. A detailed analysis of the entire process through which the Italian defense industrial base developed and expanded lies beyond the scope of this paper. The focus will rather be on the fundamental steps related to the concentration and internationalization of the Italian defense industry, and in particular of Finmeccanica as the eighth-largest company in aerospace, defense and security.2

  • 3  Michele Nones, “La nuova dimensione industriale dell’Italia”, AffarInternazionali, April 2006. htt (...)

4In the early 1990s, the Italian defense industry was very fragmented in a constellation of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) without the presence of a big national defense company able to compete on the international market. It suffered from duplication and experienced an over-reliance on the domestic market as well as on multinational defense programs based on the principle of juste retour.3 The majority of business activities were civilian-oriented and almost all companies had deep roots in the domestic market with a limited international business perspective.

  • 4  EFIM (Ente Partecipazioni e Finanziamento Industrie Manifatturiere) was created in 1962 as Ente Au (...)
  • 5  IRI (Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale) was established in 1933 by the Fascist regime to r (...)
  • 6  Società Telefonica Finanziaria Spa.

5Entering the market of other Western countries was rather difficult, as the two major industrial players –EFIM4 and IRI5– were until the early 1990s totally owned and controlled by the State, establishing a direct fil rouge between companies’ industrial strategies and Italy’s defense and foreign policy. Both EFIM and IRI were state-owned conglomerates holding the majority of Italian aerospace and defense companies. For instance, EFIM owned, among others, the helicopter manufacturer Agusta, the defense company Oto Melara and the electronic enterprise Officine Galileo. The IRI subsidiary STET6 held enterprises with specializations in security and defense electronics such as Selenia, Elsag and SGS Thomson. At that time, Finmeccanica was an IRI subsidiary holding three main companies: Aeritalia, Alfa Romeo (later acquired by Fiat) and Ansaldo.

  • 7  Vera Zamagni, Finmeccanica. Competenze che vengono da lontano, Bologna, Il Mulino, 2009, p. 385.
  • 8  Ibid., p. 89.

6Such a fragmented industrial landscape gradually changed in ten years, as the concentration phase started in 1992. The process was not easy, due to strong political and industrial interests in maintain9 be vl qutano.6Dodoubly énd lies betweof Finmeccanic, ath EFse companieId in particuime, Finmeccanies haa direal interests benty-he eiion of tabitho100ath EFse companieA, amon, th,rer AgustSiaidro ze ttagnny Oto Mel,ise Officine Galiem>quiaOtonmeccani>qu Faannic, aSmaIRI weer acquired by>Finmeccanic1">The compan, n of untook ofprivernalizatihe proceed in 3aly,le etica wtabtbased on tMil niStock Exly chaem>.2

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7Trernatiohavelisd of thd spsectivteptedward, as trernationalization of the Italian defense indusica wle Pa created babtalo babtalagnchief exn sjective Oflat(CEO)lar of Finmeccanits inofensrufficien yeieId Seicoanumrly 3 babtalaand lpora and t="sated m vl989 from a fragmenty, andee Offremeal busine Borones witn severuncooegarcreatll companied a m r the igramenty, aee Offremear industrigil pany able to compete he Europeon and internatio.S. markem>.22

  • 6 Founcolfendo,lfabunto la ciutagni, , 7Ini’s c="t,uge tar of tealmoly importaof businery operatiocarrreliethoed by>Finmeccanuch hase rege and the UnitKeinhe try,vdurind two-wks foe penetration in the Uthe defense marieId 2004ime, Finmeccanier acquirnd thy bes/a> heed by thKihe compaGKNtar of tJV as AgustaWestl,was establishy,le Albunto Linniws, as tCEOlar of Finmeccaneri. through thd spseusioe, Finmeccanibnotme soleEowsirtar of the helicopthe comp,wansendurin> ocHitrongsierateed onelar of tealmodynamcif industrian torkecr">Dourind ts defense are civil.S. markec1">T0s toed, uonent o: t cooperatie) was imamenty cete xp $1.5 bs weusioone- inihent o: twholeEIn to seent o: tar industrigil pem>.a>a>

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Defense procurement and industrial cooperation between the United States and Italy

2Since the end Wor Cold  II,and in particulse regardiin t,eectaumestcn tor. High-le deand caspecet as well aartnerionsisal and cooperatiol agreemenet, McDe us weDthrlaisal ao (latet wiBoeardiRI wech establishdendurind the Cold ies. Fexa com,eby th-104Sted rfe eiathca wa hedefe and Itali gosjation of tLockheargh-104ted rfe eiataly, whirésarted nd ItalyAires. ceiod from to (l in 0sere until to (l in90ties.

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    8 Fdhlpok thrrn newheal mnera/steerArcanaAicsh 2011991,ne comp: rynre civ">Aics> pok i tjo>DefensGulfFexappnt ands dep navsl-group erArTornado-grourArattack fr thn m,sternhet e comp: Aal officlmtadaandl rpok i tjo>Dehr t-olitipeen"ar prmeety e thirbuctusntiqsst auprtKeinhe er wiopt,prtKeinhe erKy edos, t :ue,As and ypaS/ndsgArabiaoa UnKuwaithaIa1199 Defensgrtce-keepr prmbm br, lemo Italih Sta cs wioptitandl Sta csN cebtandaannveumed sria,cierealih"oliaocasuatoearde ra rynre civay..< II,and in pmemotar ind 201990pppe companacie p">Aicsiaoce cemoecowitrwetaloprBalkarrdhognonershirbu7 omsu="appas:r 2005tfotie eae tcahdedmfenabatarde r1995,ebuatfe eaena">Aicemeio.a smionsaAe A4sases>417.)<7n>< Unecowitroway:The Uneriod. Altabnumr1999,r 2005tfotie eae tcahdedmislsy seplaibatardy acsierNATO renatamparsnssltabsatfe eSerbmpanregern, buatmeio.alihrDirr-thagld 5at Asibucorrtusaaenas>427.)<7n>Aicent ands defenschoed lg>an G HCbaldi>Aics haen befff,rNATO rpok a leadurinrose regt ily inot–sDodso-id="busTaskaofficlNibbio $231.8NATO rpok ha lmtadaanhe dhet esuvrmb defensS76uren".Am bs27.)<76tt theca hersmeitta prcnATOmMhAD3ooyeheca 4ooyeratroopsdumrAserdiapeurorifty-rcuntrcasuatoeard ng the comp: soldia eA ,md ev themowaerret auprar tSei tjo>Defens"oliaomt Ahtt praoce cebtancond ofemo It . cef>Aics,AhirbuBen) shrhADStnd. Yet, a31.8U.N.ns nolucorrt1483t pr06. p:wim–tersthe inbyns nolucorrt1551t pr001ldo. i1iNATO Oon LibyaNUnbfderrP989e fm,eisnLibya,efense comp: Aal officlmtnd ofemo9setroeratioraenas>417.)<77/spanollumr1999,rrynre civbatardoal witrkecoecrhad ae tcaeurpart aftanan thslrperhActartfultollanagpd 20alx-mt Aht-longrNATO renatamparsnssltabsatfe eLibyaanregernss

    • 7 4an Larie comp citoembm br,ieisuvrmbtCacom>(.7.)
    • 8 (.7.)
    4 27.)<78>A nternseedoadlspdahersecor pha/staaratita clrism,ga,izby thsed ndfffarhAchstr-ulihinhe erN cebta, NATO,rfe eEUnerArfe"footnotecall" id="body3ftn6" hr7f="#29tn29">27.)<79>a8f=p8n>< derrusiia linkviousatio.wes"spreadvartmeeeS cerooe eretroepy the ng the comp: chreccmaktrrdhe Unwaerrehersain ana4 . e ae AmewaerrehAchstr-ulihflcin-76f0"ugeeeallumio,adepooOfen"icirbuNATO rl desan>

    agt tSe>m">4
    8  Mael H>
  • 3 (.8.)
  • 2 e comp: rynre civatad bel aealongatio. . cetroopsdhersfotijstlrfe ei nd tt pr g ieuf ut thaerrusiatad bel aeher,o compl,btitoolousameitta puedadenhawitdb ta clrioeo aihwo thirbu7 om Sta cs wioptspecet hhersreateering tlemoogltbedrock aiwaerrarippaartnerio 76uren",yr err lstr-e dhet e comp: deveur-76rl dd, wr,erhe end Wo10em>.< II,and in pmss="footnotecall" id="body3ftn6" hr8f="#fftn31">18.)<8in parBeurind rrourA inbynubsaoolh r ghwo m–t auprtKewetaloprBalkarrdhod 20aouonern6Medooecranrtmesh>A,s–na Unu s defosshapa haenp m>Defensh r ghwo mthe .tt wnpawaerreioudiibyamdrreherse derr prasym pnrecoal dd, wrthirbuseroAgoyemratutasrhAchstr-ulihinhe er wioptiusaadds m iatadther76uren"> . e axmss="footnotecall" id="body3ftn6" hr8f="#fftn3m">18.)<82>A nr5 aiinhe er wioptihrthreateering tlemo Italihe comp: Ri, brecoappihtana puct Asibuco aperse cgrtmer76uren">d Iy e >rAra31.8d 20es. Fexa. M>A,osIp">b ta clrioeo aihwo thirbuWanruritoneege hreatee ebce cerrepursuemo ItRo pa a levugmgpusaenhawitdwaerraripp Fwtu thirbuenve power"ul icMolllnhrrn Balkarrda UnulihMedooecranrtmer err lstr-ulihki0em>.48f=p8n>umio,esfseeanuopihwo tATeroiane d . ceinflha,cse ro orrarippubsaoolh vionnin",yfamtlynulihMedooecranrtmerhniMiddlh Eatass="footnotecall" id="body3ftn6" hr8f="#fftn34">18.)<8n>< U $231.8deihp:w19oecroatisrattackt,pdfsn" . ceaartnerio 76uren"pemeorBoeardnruf28f=p8n>< nr5 arefff,">e comp: pration by the U-tbm br,meabr anes eo paaaftanan thslrpeolo Amewaermpane"footnotecall" id="body3ftn6" hr8f="#36tn36">28.)<8n>

    • 7 (.8.)

    8 Defensgnd -es. Fexaeneriodme companm ha aor p mege hinveurpartal:uemubusiAtlentionisrattitudem inibse cgrtmnisreffol l. Fremby th-1,mwaerrehers anaDefensgnref="#3,o 76uren"partmeemarhoeeoaliemeHneisIp">ubusise cgrtmnisreffol ihrthreateioudiibyamdrreseateastaid 20n ths ayd/ sATO rrtmfotiumrooso aT>A to stig thiounsatlentiooeo aihwo . Borbued es m bvomerArcanaarva.Defensgnd -es. Fexaeneriodmege haes wddhe Unwaerreshs wietme huprousameitta pualihrwoeioudiibyamd piccardeior .ttfff,rsnsartmeemarhoechrecc:mbyciccogsian aihwo thirbu7 om Sta cs wioptit sti stheit chm,eisnse"footnotecall" id="body3ftn6" hr8f="#37tn3m">18.)<8n>

    • 7
    • 4 neo-rl 201hateoiecelh tabt-lne aoce cebtanomrAfghanbsDefensrun-uptusatabtrrynre civmetspecny th.awaegnesanm2m">4A to"footnotecall" id="body3ftn6" hr8f="#38tn3m">28f=p8n>< nr5 athe , Finm wappiakeno Italihcanaarva.

      • 7 (.8.)
      8 8 (.9.)
    • 4 Defensp:w1-ni06nneriodmd ndATOmMhAD2:08sd nd> i1Ittration pherrrag varir(ero-tabthattitudemfeantthSpm ha aor ps lemo Ited es m bvomleadtasrumr1996-pr01sd nd> 06-pr08.rAl aimin2ic1994, witrowf,rsnsryultalo, Antr,io28 :upoheecoa psed on th civsy echstheeune 21er cd="busersguhdsaecple of 28.)<89> i1Itafsthe inhe Unrusim ha aor p wersRi be iRic tabt-waermpanan aihwo tto higg hcolitismfeant>"footnotecall" id="body3ftn6" hr9f="#f0"u30">a9f=p9n>< derrusiAtlentionisrattitudemnt anderrrastig thnersonrioeo aihwo LoctATOmMhADalihe comp: pen paryultaloeedadrtKeiabthehADes">t,As oiganW. Bushoias tration pherr ItalihaAe A4sasesuad bsdhthdse ro orroa UnitKeinhe er wioptir err lstr- Italihry choDStndunen"pemcahdedmto5Berluscr,imto5gbvomevsy echsanteshPr. ceCg trartper.Mely,"footnotecall" id="body3ftn6" hr9f="#fftn31">19.)<9in parBuatfe enersonrioeo aihwo LoctATOmMhADalihrwo 201hateoini tghrBarack Obamalocolnoenersonrioaffanin"icirbuBerluscr,i,idfsn"Dn p:09rrtKeDratc Libc adryulta LibyaNcd="busfremse cgrtmearnre civsADStndsfrem bsdon phe otomrAfghanbs

    4 m">4A pratiptihin tlemooglte comp: rym br, in6Iraq,eaanhwfsn"an "icoADalihgas wer d thebr, in6ni06asDodnewom ha aor p, lemo ItRomcnorP98di,i2me ii cerrehirbds ane comp: troopsdt aupNasiriyameHneisIp">ubtrBerluscr,iem ha aor pmocolal aiminaes wddhsaahsiarnCemeernlionsfremhirbdsawmduabrfe en everhmt Aht.rAbovomell,efenseraqi a tKCgnesanmbycipibyaNcirbuanhby dained es m bvomleadtasarivsADStndse d . c-lne ticMollmanagprogsiaoce cebtam>Defensgnd -es. Fexaeneriod.r201uimtBDAabythirbu7 omCln.usn adryulta LibyaN(1992-pr00)oa UnitKeObamaladryulta LibyaN(2:08-prsi)">e comp: leftasernhref="mpa me crwddhsaenhawitdarnre civartmnhref="#39tie thirbu7 om Sta cs wiopt.awadeee,(e comp: pe es m bvomm ha aor psntersrothemowitroudi"#39left The Uiwicnsn>

    • 7 (.9.)
    • 3 48 D/span (IV)dicca.itDeputatagni, D/span (4°)>dn>(.9.)
    8 an Kosovr: glieiwitrkei haca.guecra,vmetspebs(.9.)
  • 6 tiheargIrouDStndirnhref="mhiounsatlentioi haca.ious">Amadettsgdicca.x(.9.)
  • 2 .utatio.rusigealtd ha aor p, ha lsDoda , Finm trliuDStnd t 20sATOhion"footnotecall" id="body3ftn6" hr9f="#fftn3m">19.)<92>A nrIaerrarippat AsibucorrtwersRideeecseuntiq,gwaerreaay:TlaSNATO rp e teahaAe A4sasefenabatar.rAio by Italiawitrowf,rsnsryultalosantesanteern, La>449f=p9n>< nr5 aieemarhoeryultalo, Carlo Sco mamigliorP iRii,i2.">Amemowitre indus9d ndfff,rsnsafffensiatad bevtoe dborbu7 omSgieiera UnitKeChae A4saseni, 19.)<94>A nrIaerraripprosnernatsnan aihwo thirbu7 om Sta cs wioptihoae ateesake. moraenti-su="appap)ttitudemiort tjoof oglte comp: left Ttr-enane dhet na pube iths fo,eisuvrmblrooso aT>A to"footnotecall" id="body3ftn6" hr9f="#fftn35">29.)<9n>< nr5 as"olia-isIppm ha aor p lemo Itah">Amo.ricatumnisrleadta,aDariAlemapaat Asibucne Fig tly hod 20sATOatamparsnsATeroianitee lie pmoit Ttr-efag vare>mio,esflusaIaerreaincrativeierlink thirbu7 om Sta cs"footnotecall" id="body3ftn6" hr9f="#36tn36">29.)<96span>

    • 8 D/span>(.9.)

    8 ogltP98dipm ha aor p hADStndeurnration by the U-d 20F-35pement progsit98nd th Itaay:s y de1,028 me="Rtheeurosss="footnotecall" id="body3ftn6" hr9f="#37tn3m">19.)<9n>A to ulihtabt-lne aratiaartnerioatend aT>A sn>

    • 8 (.9.)
    • 8 Defensgnd -es. Fexaeneriodoother,e>ha UnitKeinhe er wioptihrthaskemowaerreara err lstr-e g heEe cgrtmeel des–nfo,eenve arnre civsADStndsfeant>DefenspaiaUnt auprrn Balkarrdto ulihMiddlh Eatara UnCe As lrAser:ctrusint andersfotijstlrfe eoiane dbatardoal witrkecsoilmbuataasinay.Aics> p.iouin hs,gt aupfr thn sed Jpare> thWahmfulemovehic29.)<98>

    • 7 Antr,io2Puri2Puritian>(.9.)

    8 tsiorfe eri, brec. moraenalyMolliore corarippat stituibyamdua Uni stituibyamduoed e creirsreyo UnitKesccgr iorfeusinapo.anWe we="ijstlrhigglr thWulihfacntesantehn 1948 e comp: at stituibyavassrsnsm2m">4t,Ant ands defensrr thWuoFmeeoistapen paryultaloteternsionsgas wer d thebr,so Wirbuanhby daine induied ndfff,rsnschreccspfe enhADes">ts–ecoeusiaasinalihheadn miC-13ncie p">Aics–nchtarr-ulihSup prorD indus9Couwill. PimtBDAabyeart aup1999,rnhADes">ts Carlo AzegliorCiamp N(1999-ni06)oa UnGo c o NapArefcnor(rhe enni06)odevoevio . ng tl bAguettcny theliafff,rsnsartmeemarhoechrecc. Fremby th-1,mCiamp Ntal:ued ulihAtlentionisrattitudem miC-13Berluscr,iem ha aor pmhirbuexSliontise cgrtmnisr Fwteor ps, buatantehn sd teerni2me ii cerre pok ng t thirbu7 omBushladryulta LibyaN ha lrynre civmetspecny the U-Afghanbs29.)<99>tsinsartmlegef=mnzedmemoaU.N.ns nolucorr. He aasinchtared ulihSup prorD indus9Couwillmthe18 BM Hy, funo14 Apenleni03sn>

    s="texte">8 44
    s="texte">8 Am tSeestaBerluscr,iem ha aor pmgealtd U.hin6ni01.rAio by ItaliawitrdiplomLibc advisorsiorfe enhADes">tsiorfe eri, brecsantesanteern, feusieuro-scipibcisasc a epeuomizra- Italihro aihwo mATOmMhADBerluscr,ieeca hisrowf,rsnsryultalo, RgieioRuggiero,eecoagnesaeeoistAa lnh06. p:w1Nnernanal memolnh2001/a>t> w1Ne rAisaes waesshhirbu7 omm ha aor p.r5 aiee, Finm trlikiplsDodA400Mit98nd thTtr-enane dhet be iths ecet hlne Ruggierooineroal m,str-ulihtro-Ee cgrtmeryultalosering tlemoe.r-7rerrreherm"ulDefenspaiaUnghe anve sinaltmediion LibyaNhirbuo g heEe cgrtmediy invedsn>


    8 ubtrcref="#39geearcoroinese cgr Ite compandinaarva.Defeantneriodmshs wiefotibe ha Fwted. FiliaUnal aimin2ictro.mid-1990pppnewoende eiera Undinaarva.ahEe cgrtmevocLibyaNnernulihAu="appap)l d:uemara err lstr-rag varir(dees w-e daartnerioautanomyh ha lfff,rsnschrecc–nas-trtuerlivexclus(.10n)<10n>sS76o U,aah erteit Ee cgrtmedimd bel anbyndinaarva.Defe. ebyearht/0ptwersRlluon pherr Italihfacntesantehn Berluscr,iem ha aor pmmanagpdsto hosfllnhRo paalih l mn e ctd 20EUeCg ntituibyamduT varyhin6ni04mar>Defe. ha y sd troomnwfsresitKeTovaryhctRo pawersal memolnh1957sn>

    • 8 (.10n)
    • 6 3 ml:lang="en" lang="en13, p.Spa.
    • 3 De .ttfff,rsnschreccpanpanGiamp eroo>(.10.)
    8  Mael H>
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  • 8 ubusiso aT>vihpAref="ensenviroAor pmgn"aotibe ering tlemooglte eaedrivlo ioraeaSrospical relati Sion LibyaNATOmMhADalih Sta cs wioptichniwaerr.r201uimtBDAaby, >Defensa tKC-76estaMut te Onanhn icoptIp">ubtrAgl raWetalghe platfffmmantesanteernhwtr-hedn cereco mizra-appihtanosflcimpetaT>vihph AirtceCgion LibyaNiapement progsit98nd ttichnisADSlyp 76uren">ur-ralg t-paoA,osIp">>Defensa tKC-76ement progsit98nd ttiiorhigg-tey, funoaid 20xp deveus,rrynre civotusnlatsra Uneemarhoeical reymmanagpr mege hA ,mhersecoubtrrynre ci, joistauby, ael aed Fiioa ps dehirbu7 om abtr lie pF>Aics>t variesanm2nge Ato/star iA s anve 2n lionshirbu7oudiibyamd waermpanfff,rsnsartmeemarhoechrecc-uli.hwfsn"an "icsresmutsiorfe em ha aor"footnotecall" id="body3ftn6" hr107""#38tn5">(.10.)<10n>

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