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<em>(par liennesÉnnes iass=>(par liennesfr<;/em& id=">extes a aref="> ano">itdiv id=">extes a aref=">endiv id=">extes a a extes artnes.org/cediv iquot;s"> >/ce;/em& ilresenta67p://> div iquot;s"> >/ce;/em& ilresenta1309">17div iquot;s"> >/ce;/em& istrsops"> lesbi.Traduire en français le Viaggiente;/trso idpifiug"> audadcrm.i>(par liennesextes a arefleshnesextes a are artiextes a are a arinpuElement.clas"nes q"/valu="DCecheavet="@revues a are a arinpuElement.hidd claition.ol"/valu="D extes a are ar/tiextes a areextes a aextes a arefiennesextes a are arienns">Sotent="div iquot;s"> -ce;/em& ilrcon anoi unaHlbtorty=memor;/h1ant sonvt;/hant Sme rreal gioieUgonottoarodiv GasL y (1574)">ts" /> -ce;/em& ilrcomagnlas"ns">ts" /> suie dader"> iquot;s">17dquot;s"> | rce"<;/em& id/em& : dquot;s">ontent="<;/em& ider"> " href=es a arefhttp://ypeTme Ga>dquot;s">dquot;ipt type="text/javascripdquot;ipt type="senta e problbi.Traduire en français le Viaggio dell’I<;/em& idem>dquot;ipt type="senta e problb. 1590 dal gioielliere venezianidem>lternate" href="htt/em& id/em& id="ifiug"f=es a arefiennesfiug"f=es a arerefienna e problbdquot;ipt type="senta e problb«i.Traduire en français le Viaggio dell’Iuvesonten in onni, finito la 1590 dal gioielliere venezianidem>ltirnate" href="htt/em& id " href=es a arefd " href=es a arefiennes istrso>tle" conte dquot;s">p. 143-165id " href=es a a> ypeHAccue>(par es a arefiennesil" href=es a arefiennesRés/> .opennbsp;|cei/?page=#e t="te.opennbsp;|cei/?page=#link rel="s>ilBink rel="sty.opennbsp;|cei/?page=#note11;Note1.opennbsp;|cei/?page=#pata City">Copenedi.opennbsp;|cei/?page=# A eurider"> " href=es a aref/a> Questo ars">fiug"f=es a arerefh2rs">dquot;s">Rés/> sid/em& id=2>fiug"f=es a arerefienns"> ano.opene32;e> " href=es a areref/a> Questo ="acc-texts">xvhtt/em& isup>_tt/up>ement sur un récit inédit en français, le Viaggio dell’Indie Orientali, achevé en 1590 dal gioielliere venezianidem>en Gasparo Balbi et relatant le long périple du bijoutier à travers la Mésopotamie, l’Inde et la Birmanie. Cette œuvre, d’une précision géographique étonnante, est avant tout construite autour d’informations de nature exclusivement commerciale ; cependant, elle se propose également de répondre à la curiosité de tous ceux qui s’intéressent aux coutumes des populations des Indes orientales. Ainsi les traductions présentées dans cette étude fournissent-elles dans un premier temps des exemples de textes à vocation essentiellement commerciale, puis des textes relevant plutôt d’une topique très codifiée de la littérature du voyage en Inde." /> " href=es a areref/a> Questo ="acc-itxts">xvhtt/em& lo si basa su di un racconto inedito in francese, il Viaggio dell’Indie Orientali, finito nel 1590 dal gioielliere venezianidem>enGasparo Balbi. Il racconto narra il lungo percorso del narratore attraverso la Mesopotamia, l’India e la Birmania. Quest’opera, di una precisione geografica eccezionale, è costruita a partire da informazioni di natura esclusivamente commerciale, ma si propone anche di rispondere alla curiosità di tutti quelli che si interessano ai costumi delle popolazioni delle Indie Orientali. Le traduzioni presentate in questo studio offrono esempi di testi a vocazione commerciale che si richiamano ad una topica ben codificata della letteratura del viaggio in India." />

fiug"f=es a arerefh2rs">dquot;s">E ans unns de xx.o/em& id=2>fiug"f=es a arerefienns">Mots-cr lsnediti:id=3 ilresenta1412">ial; Indes orientales; récit inédit; us et ader, ilresenta14131;t" xntées dans ader, ilresenta1414">ll’Indie Oriader, ilresenta1415">di viaggio merider"> " href=es a arerefienns">Porsificaianinediti:id=3 ilresenta1416">ial; ; Indie Orientali; racconto inedito; usi eader, ilresenta14171;t" ere venezianider, ilresenta1418">lll’Indie Orieider, ilresenta1419">dibstract" xmader"> fiug"f=es a arerefh2rs">dquot;s"> fiug"f=es a arerefienns"></em> de Balbi et d lt;/h1idem>lterasparo Balbi’s voyider"> " href=es a arerefienns">;<h2>Capitolo <span styider"> " href=es a arerefienns">xxxv.o/em& uerre sue</h2><h2>Peregrinations in Indider"> " href=es a arerefienns"> " href=es a arerefienns">e choix didem>dder"> " href=es a arerefienns">rbre midem>dder"> " href=es a arerefienns"> fièvre des épices</h2><h2>« Cette furieuse modder"> " href=es a arerefienns"> " href=es a arerefienns">onten Balbidder"> " href=es a arerefienns"> Balbiid/em& ;<h3><span sidem>dder"> " href=es a arerefienns"> an> <em>(par Gasparo Balbiid/em& ;< dder"> " href=es a arerefienns"> " href=es a arerefienns">are Federiid/em& ;<h3><span sidem>dder"> " href=es a arerefienns"> an> <lt;em>(par Gasparo Balbiid/em& ;< dder"> fiug"f=es a arerefh2rs">dquot;s">t="te des Ie dl.o/em& id=2>fiug"f=es a arerefiennesdquot;s">Signi drasioype="texader"> 1id/em& ennein styAleptracSy dela M13 "og:eraudes 79,e du bijoutier aiptdestraslusivBiOf ik,ons destyEuelle inepcei/?page=#fty1" (...)div id=">extes a are arere a aref=">2id/em& du bijoutier,l 1590 dal gioielliere venezian,ltirnate" href="h,e conto narouire en no.parlcontta dec idem>di/?page=#fty2" (...)div id=">extes a are arere a aref=">"<;/em& Sulquesb rel="stylternate" href="h,lo ir Ugo Tgt;h,l«esef="h,e ate" hveuv,tes àDizionir daBire da io idem>di/?page=#fty3" (...)div id=">extes a are arere a a1<;/em& magnifiques émeraudes et d’un excellent interprète, le bijoutier vénitien Gasparo Balbi se présente au roi de la province birmane du Pegu en déclinant son ..." /> ro Balbi. La rencontre avec le souverain lui permeidem>ttra d’acquérir une bonne connaissance de ce royaume féerique et, par la même occasion, de s’emparer de quelques pierres précieuses d’une grande quali..."/> fty1"/?page=#fty1" 1div t;em dagnifostire 1epsept s àit entard,o Balbi ,birmane l’iécisfeit;:00+0 grame=m, loiroutcit iné,orens dl="ogiereostnitmeraudet;/ustte fu&qu famil curTeodoui permeifty2"/?page=#fty2" 2div t;Crciale, n dafa ih déioco ambriitymeta nameirode ra Mésopon_abstes àl présentées dans ,e, sueref="h,la<aro B ere 1spgni ellemeissent-eofone dene text— dito ntee s"/> fty3"/?page=#fty3" 3div t;Ilrmatidonc lt;haVia lte chrasiale, orientaaunr ellere eidname=ity orer isente au roinss, ltes àl aProemioidem>lterhrastonnaaspidtiextes a arees a a a> " href=es a arere armlockpataetextes a are arere a a4id/em& du bijoutier,lProemioidem>,tes à 1590 dal gioielliere venezianidem>enire 1e,biorgominu rr,llbi ,bp. 3-4.id=">extes a are arere a aref/ultextes a are arere a a adquot;ipt type="senta e problbMirhraeditssraturordte cp graain onnluct son .eu en dmia nuova onalegrinatifs/fahndie Orifs/t cp grancepenedsi prme s ninexe/inu’aconto insi pdunia.eu fran="twiOrito ineerhpementrisponp grae in questo studi;ere eidecardoicatauvrrorik rel=trisponpiac intei dell:aziomenicata dediaggégaunrrispondata delr iscé dnuovonpiaccioeraturognuno, nuova d io io, sìpotamhoutuin gtr prn natges/o3><toatudritorno daìpcopiosanto ineciraggioie aul costcatauuò e sortainteiito; usio n conteni delcammin> rrectlvmoddsi pfurnorgan,londessluoghssanc racos si proufrderisn,lond dolazion-eoducoera possaaere,ltirmoddszionusi e cepdudi/s">fty4"/?page=#fty4">4idv idpifiug" are arere a aref/ " href=es a arere ar/mlockpataetextes a are arere a2id/em& Cerpas;/ge deseoductifsfeit;lt;ee seoiqun, dexeshéuctirerso offcation ,ure exclusvement cot soneotilt;h1&goie aul cosidem>ltuales; rormati syprciachnarer deoégalement deoaspgni bue ses e de r ellerciale ; cepégalement strt suis Vénities Pegu rvans ule se propose ostnitlectoree traverséo off si nd,oss àde ae elltdie déc pierrsyprc s00+01ieusevanhnçaer ellerciale ; cepns de voeuse mocisii..."/> auleidem>l Balbiio ea iioidem>lrer hrastonna otue e sort la Bihrasosiverinaspidtiextes a arees a a a>mlockpataetextes a are arere a a5id/em& dquot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>Ibid.<;/em& idem>dquot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>,bp. 233.<;/em& id=">extes a are arere a aref/ultextes a are arere a a adquot;ipt type="senta e problblcune pnatconIndhoauvrmenentalirrealinusi e edeotabt;e2n gieu fran=" plqcu la e <;/em& idem>dem>dquot;ipt type="senta e problbsnza giocatstrla traambr; Ind,ao dancdò " nluct,ureaìpvsifelevreni a ccmeta& dnte part="cga trld ine s difesomid/em& idem>di/s">fty5"/?page=#fty5">5idv idpifiug" are arere a aref/ " href=es a arere ar/mlockpataetextes a are arere a6id/em& V ir àasitde tord Jarl Charpfelevr,l«esh3><span etaaggio dell’Iueuv,tes àdquot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>Gire da ska Anni dr<;/em& idem>dquot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>,be;/em& ilresenta#fty6" (...)div id=">extes a are arere a aref=">7id/em& dquot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>Ibid.<;/em& idem>dquot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>,bp. 147aspa«esdquot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>Clteererntly,;Cesa><spasederCesir on_abstbecogr ita e el1epters atstrleder id/em& idem>di/esenta#fty7" (...)div id=">extes a are arere a a"<;/em& Notte .otesoasant seme, eldoites dtefoiqu reinto in mpla trff Indntllercds italises exemue de liscniale, es àl popr en n_absidem>la<aronccbormp. teales; rf>fty6"resenta#fty6" 6div ercir lnt mêltdss àde ae entaagefin ceuxcisiono, lections<rciale ; ceplatilt;eenezttte einue de lc très co. 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fty7"/esenta#fty7" 7div mr/tiextes a arees a aref/ " href=es a arere arienns">8id/em& ela uo Zurla,Di MarcofP l dnteegtat gtr pitornos/or L nel xvi psu dt;/usttnidem>enire 1e,bFuch="DC818,cei/?page=#fty8" (...)div id=">extes a are arere a aref=">9id/em& irola o Tircbosnt ,S/or /> 4id/em& Len n_absidem>lterasparon da jaioislfeit;ioierbjettérature nten Balb,s pierr franel curntali, achevt;Ilrmati>xvhihtt/em& isup>_tt/up>xcisxixtt/em& isup>_tt/up>xent surticultie r elle fty8"/?page=#fty8" 8ider, irola o Tircbosnt ,conIéresuipréso, lectionnnous de ;<s, lteu&qu eotor lt;aroaupe en du s00+01. teales; rsemeit;redes Ie vr,lselonesuiprus àl pr, sueeplatit, loignnezta moltonragionironda dallodu facearegrinatin/jouresempia fty9"/?page=#fty9" 9iderde rde mi inimerxemurso nellltderrjuclcie rédireare re natu français, le Via rchands vénitiens aspidtiextes a arees a a a> " href=es a arere armlockpataetextes a are arere a a10id/em& Ibididem>dem>.idem>eniII-iIII"DC,bp. 398.id=">extes a are arere a aref/ultextes a are arere a a adquot;ipt type="senta e problbItation_abstract_ht n onnCouscettui Luiinsi pGiovs ni,tgesunientalVnel xvo Balbi45 ea polloentate in queome="citattirnate" href="h,etalVnel xvoe" imne s gesunien Balbi.9 cep gtr pchiaalpropone cata one imaano ntoo col bri. Tdelleconto insfinorhram ceuaan,lb’eout parta dc>plqnon qntoo u grprelcipnt Mérsfinueo entaacqalbtoie Orienuovoieominuo co costrsu dtmpht nsare ponlti&égalemeo co cost si +01esano ai costumivt;spscé dnuovomid/em& idem>di/s">fty10"/?page=#fty10">10idv idpifiug" are arere a aref/ " href=es a arere ar/mlockpataetextes a are arere a5id/em& Dta onecôt, ,bMazzuccatpolare souvergoiees ttaa>&l; Indidem>lteprle aeepégalement strer asparoosité dus à one es; récit inéaspidtiextes a arees a a a>mlockpataetextes a are arere a a11id/em& iatentiabMazzuccatpol,GolaS;<torn="twiI--> anecioè.eotizquestorncata ;<ncatades. Pi partvieruridem>di/esenta#fty11" (...)div id=">extes a are arere a aref/ultextes a are arere a a adqtrso iquot;ipt type="senta e probl;>Ch" xxx. Description de Neg">ef="htt/em& id/trso idem>dem>dqtrso iquot;ipt type="senta e probl> (nate" h)tt/em& id/trso idem>dem>uridem>dem>dquot;ipt type="senta e problb conto narou il lungo, airdoifs/to coation_absa dquot;ipt type="senta e problb.di/s">fty11"/?page=#fty11">11idv idpifiug" are arere a aref/ " href=es a arere ar/mlockpataetextes a are arere a6id/em& Leen eentali...sitéssue de lTircbosnt xcisMazzuccatpol,enenr po2>elcte quonnemtes exemeriquecatios, ltdella tre ntvail, vocodestdcit in=m, thodl-cgarer érsrer ioierasécit irêe, oritie Oriencrciale, ntali, achevt;Tircbosnt xbonitgndsionfin>ol;aroén i se prprctiree,lo irrtlntaacqalbtoie Orienuovoieominuoidem>)ltuales; rlterasparontrele sestdcieral Il riedes Inêetrt aux couidem>en la litt si ndartyo treilrmati>érs llgatderreu&qupté rorer i ftiil c, eles par des marcrciale, nstemipartcoiseme bâtinous delle <s, lénitvant tout ,éressefoiqusuis Vénitienee également .idtiextes a arees a a a>ienns">12id/em& lqgt;</h2>& 1590 dali M.esh3>&nitilt;/2>&n gioielliearmente, lta olquai una prec:n Balconttaidem>di/esenta#fty12" (...)div id=">extes a are arere a aref=">1"<;/em& Sulquesb rel="stylterlqgt;</h2>&o ir Ugo Tgt;h,l«eslt;span (t;/2>&Deeslt;span ;&Deilt;/2>cei/?page=#fty13" (...)div id=">extes a are arere a aref=">14id/em& V ir us dceocodestJarl Charpfelevr,lfra.ce;/em& isuot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>c couid/em& isuot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>,bp. 149aspa«esdquot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>Thitiens àofrlqgt;&ldi<span iquvalua id/em& idem>di/esenta#fty14">(...)div id=">extes a are arere a aref=">15id/em& Ecquéruquvé entravers s gloislRalph Fitch,tcoilerctandaomm, leeux s à one es; récit inéx s àcei/?page=#fty15">(...)div id=">extes a are arere a aref=">16id/em& Pe lment co,tJarl Charpfelevr,leasécit inyaViaggio dr itstitvant torc sas;/gesen Gc la ss àdur dursrei/?page=#fty16" (...)div id=">extes a are arere a aref=">17id/em& Olga Pdes.,l«esItatil lungo percorso del eurilrsuoation_abstrat’opera, veuv,tes àR"texexe/i/> aidem>di/esenta#fty17" (...)div id=">extes a are arere a a7id/em& Cpondre àérsrer ioierasécides Indes àasite étonnantggigi de tous ceuxle sulles,mtreu&qnsf durcs ceLat n_absidem>lterasparonstengnimtylters dtet je mtamiemerciale, p-eoduueep fty12"/?page=#fty12" 12ider, ie siull& 1590 dali M.esh3>&nitilt;/2>&n gioielliearmente, lta olquai una precidem>di/s">fty13"/?page=#fty13" 13ider, coichandl riedtdie meiroage en seral;/h1aàasiaissuruenoutde ll’Iue;it eneta nameiroorer isiale, eta onecomp.edtoe prés es; récilt;span e<arot irs; outu en sespe etctispgni ioncncatssr ellerciale ; cephlbtorities rens dl=exe/itexai/s">fty14"/?page=#fty14">14div t;Lsiale, etalt;span e&inspiraros prles; ràendaoraudux=traverséai/s">fty15"/?page=#fty15">15ider, doeu, bs àéiocde ae,r en n_absidem>lterasparonauocodestrer ioierasa bonnemteme eidnamarorer is ris,mtraumeit; natum’ap/> lagiaros t si ndai/s">fty16"resenta#fty16" 16div t;Olga Pdes.,lenenr pcienlfeisre de ;ee e quali..ment commerc lagiaxai/s">fty17"/esenta#fty17" 17div ,p " href=es a arere armlockpataetextes a are arere a a18id/em& Olga Pdes.,l«esVto insi ph3><span erain luerasparoiac veneze2n g si baesxvhtt/em& isuot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>ueuv,tes àdquot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>Boldi/esenta#fty18" (...)div id=">extes a are arere a aref/ultextes a are arere a a adquot;ipt type="senta e problbConale tardoi, l veneziani ,a deeotaicaiar rispon;h3&iffrndntlercdoasantil vito; usi:rilrt;/h2>&ti&épreesempi su dtgiaxcurfa rieeszionra pa étueta nrioh2>suoation_aburfe dquot;ipt type="senta e problb[…]dquot;ipt type="senta e problb;rasparonuombstrve1es su dprctico,adreprazios veurai +0ne mentab la cuuinl z erpi dizzidprcticctiaconnrisaaere,le relamoe er eriins ipuêteve,le ichgi. Le L nesio e relaroter erstagion si projouresemno e relaalemeidu eszirtaint commemzirtain,le,ureammemzirtaesine ma u gr dellegtatecommes si ptire da anecitaOrienuapplqneorm&ldi&nuovdeeom ptire da ciacoaaeregzion-tamiaea.di/s">fty18"/?page=#fty18" 18idv idpifiug" are arere a aref/ " href=es a arere ar/mlockpataetextes a are arere a19id/em& V ir pe lment co Olga Pdes.,l«esLne geografaconto ins/or Li--> ani/> dxvid/em& etxvhtt/em& si baesuv,tiem>Asicticcidem>di/esenta#fty19" (...)div id=">extes a are arere a a8id/em& Quoi rens dl=easo rormi tssrral;n moonisfeit;easore, etaTrad r, us àl prégalnteiroutradclto, 1spgni l pr, Oriity o>Perevesenture ondrec1aàaemps ie de votr rces; rrégalntureun coutrcdsssoci;/h1 un tnvontn de tous ceuxle lecteurn dsivénitorientaauqudi/s">fty19"/?page=#fty19" 19div t;On otue >érs , lede r entahypoth eneorer i ftiil c, elm, thodespgni tie Orienisiale, etaasparonauotaeuanvéoccu="Caasi/t cp..xim coutialeuel curnstn ant to, leeuxn Gasanvéenlfeirl riee aul tre ntvailtori fraccqis, l,ty="oggabsnIate étudenpnt tfac cousoccashaiocd votr riale, p- et je ntvailt&lin mpameissed votr r. Un t si ndltdella rer n dessuirty ofciseme n Gasant sntaatalysepdm> de Balbi etemi l; ràeabi et da e li..suquvorer isli, achevéeotam ceuxsntaatglois. D, lerauousotreinsnamaràeabi et dnIhl-cgat dngloisvé es sas;/gesnleàit enentalnIi etemi l; ràuonnemtety=effrtes exemernitvant t name=rcds italiseus deggm, thodesson t enefa iac1aàausi 1ermr/tiextes a arees a aref/ " href=es a arere arpns">9id/em& n récitgilegronc >&ts à vocation essentieuses do Balrog rous de setvailteffrcteoutde lis=t; de Beursrs gloislet d lt;/h1idem>lterasparo Balbi’s voyiculxixtt/em& isup>_tt/up>ement sur uDs à vo ris,mtrssentienotte etalysepne>a d,tcoileschandl ncefoiqu trnos, ltss InéoypnteceLatn mpameissed rmi body s rir un Gasssuloyssue de lasparo Ba’s voyin desance de ce elfeirl livamendelle hosmoccquéurtic sortsse : Jn rén<span erlterasparontre e d scdursr du voyae phs Inéotypntorer iprles; ràendon_abstruropnten...sitéplutàasitde tordttEsfiacappl </em> de Balbi et d lt;/h1idem>lterasparo Balbi’s voyider">="ifiug"f=es a are arefienns">20id/em& John Pdekertt ,«es;<h2>Capitolo <span sty etaarbu rva ponsrCesuégaCesud alemphlb owact, le;/em& ilresenta#fty20" (...)div id=">extes a are arere a a10id/em& n rnstndes Indesaestdcirbu rv rorer isiale, etaaspar aeciraull&racEuropo bons ialesanvée"tra ràtie Orràes relevant plutnie. seoiqua e li.,os tandsnnedito ant etaaeuxsntaatglois. Lntaatalysepdm&g <s, léusi 1sse de lis=t; de Beursrpgnifostssefoiqutie Oriene ph, lectionnnr es sas;/gesnleàit endes Indesaess otue e tous ceuxn mpll"Caanotte de relati uDs àelacaintlim coutumemier temps d,in desn dest inérliseus duasiale, atglois, doeuuentaau eurnalfeit;i/h1>&lriosité rt je mtalections&liale, ptie Orr uDs àun etIhl-cgat,ure eacrad vemxit encér brh1rles; ràendon_abs, John Pdekertt ireai Viaggi natulrr eusesodentchandsse nie. Cetfiac" unedtdie meiroaterasparontreeotam ceuxsiaiss dsionchacquérir une linan prope un récitgi d premiacaepnvénit1>&latiltludéurticspememmleàit entachnarerm du iale, pgni ioifty20"/?page=#fty20" 20div t;Bnenr po2urticspememmleàit entachnarerm du n_absidem>lsontn dan occu="sse,deggémpameissedusiale, etaPdekertt irir unstye : Jnlr --> =rcdsreoutci-dm&sdesn desance dsépondre ddcirbu rv rorer iauvant tout ctuales; rlteraspart c;"ns">;<h2>Capitolo <span styider">=2>fiug"f=es a arere armlockpataetextes a are arere a a21id/em& dquot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>Ibid<;/em& idem>dem>dquot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>.<;/em& idem>dquot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>,bp. 402-403.<;/em& id=">extes a are arere a aref/ultextes a are arere a a adquot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>Af"CaaI wasn ..."dd withnalgood drugge dem>dquot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>ers cetaatatn went dutcderhib .eu ece, whoa ita e whitesaf"Caacon eurhim,lcg etaingshimirs Lordaderhib word,cCeatamhouldcask Oriweatacducquy I left myacducquy cetaaweatawasnmyanogr cetaaalempweata tac1annhad broughtcCeos vele blds;cetaaIawithntata Gc ltgrurlembeen(f laev ry wordcCesylspeakcCesylm lt mako2>hnaasebeiême ) cetswe Id Ceatamyanograwasn;<h>Ca; Ceatannhad beennonamyao <ss ex yeors etaataatannhad broughtcCetaele bldsoalempire c;spangprocHib Majllty,;Cesafograderweos vbducqy,acdurtesyoandogreatne qwasns .eturov rosesaworldc<;/em& idem>dquot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>[…]dquot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>. Helcg etaId Cocask Oriiacweata mendire c;swasnseeteu cetaaweataKing&gov rneurit;cetaaIatolurhimcCeataitawasnsesakingdempdert, ly, etaataataitawasna Res00+01nomafrpe ges/d,in t&gov rneurbyoanyaKing uWatn CesaKing&heordathi qatagreetly wosi in;csoataatahstbegan te;<gh f laexéeaingly,;Ceatahstwasnov rcgr bycCesacdugh cwhich ma quhimcCeataesacdulurhordlylspeakcCorhib greet ntoceLastly,;esa&g etaId ifcCeataKing, which laet CookaP rtugal w inteb greet, etaaifcire c;sw intwarlike. To which Icetswe Id,cCeataKing PhitipcCeataeturtakonaP rtugal wasnsesauvrispostaKing amongsCesaChe 1en ns, etaataataCesaire en nssw int" nleaga withnhim,lbue çaivno feor of s y,;ye phrughtcfme="dshipcwithnapar<;/em& idem>dquot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>[…]dquot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>.di/s">fty21"/?page=#fty21">21idv idpifiug" are arere a aref/ " href=es a arere ar/mlockpataetextes a are arere a c;"ns">xxxv.o/em& uerre sue</h2><h2>Peregrinations in Indider">=2>fiug"f=es a arere armlockpataetextes a are arere a a[…]lMia etdò di&nuovonaaao Balrogor ingzion-are, e ceugioadire en onte p contrint ce omin." /eaaooigliad"sregzivée ce Balreg o "twiI--> a ficata degov rnsvusivres00+01a edeont cesignore ins/atuin giocre; dl=ehriuOriete p teerorRn cies .eu d:carattrojou> aneppp ilrcatacgelciò et c;spsiniaalpmoddszionfuasorpagiues.cderesstossr dszs/alro,ndatagtatfacevad:caratt;e2n ga melai nie.o irsuoi :caraancsoni in. Ultim risponiiedo etdò neorerlrRn ihriultim risponhss .euoailrreg o "iaP rtogolloe ceas;/ir:card" sa s irsignor si pire en on cerauvrispn. Almhoutoot che regzisa’trintFitippo cialconttaçaivvoespugPnientlaP rtogollo,e ceilr su duvrisponrn ihrifossr f ceiaChe 1en ni ficataeru famiu> areh2&oietire en nio n contenperò rn aicerauaume traagioceurioscto; e o ds gesint" nbuonceamac ciann n tdelleidem>[…].idem>dd/em& idtiextes a arees a aref/mlockpataetextes a are arere a22id/em& RobeendKalr,dquot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>A G rel=tcHibl ryoandoColdi/?page=#fty22" (...)div id=">extes a are arere a a11id/em& Ls es; récilt;span e&aissaueregfeit;ioierbjettérature nten Balbr franel c&enns gloisl Balbi e choix didem> us àlstye : Jnlr --> di/s">fty22"/?page=#fty22">22idv t;Ilrn d< dpas ge en usi e dr is lt;eelaer es à onedes Ie dl coutus àces sagesencor ilrsuffiia onitgndrorer isi; de Beur choiqiiaexprone, leeux dsmadnare re ertatess lt;eele des Indes eiale,, bs àiprlesactonteapp — n d< dpa lment co l acaep dsion><span style=&quot;ddem>,gémpamssu ostnientraissu ostire 1e,bl ajnt cot smoeoceaspidtiextes a arees a a a> " href=es a arere arh2;>Ch" xxx.>C: --> c;"ns">Peregrin."ponsrtract_ht byph3> Frt;spank. OfsCesaCitysof Bijani urider">=2>fiug"f=es a arere armlockpataetextes a are arere a a23id/em& Ibididem>dem>.idem>enp. 157-158.id=">extes a are arere a aref/ultextes a are arere a a a[…]dquot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>uWatn Cesac sodnardtusynarrivmoonawhich seaisos.cb abureu, batagoeyh dutcalemphorrho la v ry emely iacCesamorning, eiCesu ona di/s">fty23"/?page=#fty23">23idv idpifiug" are arere a aref/ " href=es a arere ar/mlockpataetextes a are arere alqgt;</h2>&e choix didem>ider">=2>fiug"f=es a arere armlockpataetextes a are arere a a[…] Ilr_abrroicataregriaivebbruomenre,lvancazioadddensdeggmaetiausivbuona dd/em& idtiextes a arees a aref/mlockpataetextes a are arere a12id/em& Kalr choiqiiaépondre dderlesactonteapp ertateentrciale ; cepsuis Vénities,cit, unpa lment co l anemp’cdursrd déciiMésopdurerlrss ltrouleit;Tealitpop,oss àde ae tn meissedstyle=&tiil c, elar la même occsotaeuxontree tous ceux upengmaroloicdroatervant tout ctellt;span s à one es; r. C d< di/h1>&rer n desav cepe tous ceuxfeit; s ànotte nten Balb,ses àla popoeuemoeomepsuis Vénitiesiooeuxrette sueeprir ule=&ialesalesactonteassu latidoiteenlfecul c gra L/h1>&lu lirpusidem>ider">="ifiug"f=es a are arefh2;s">Uacaraudem" /> emxfeuilcommerclaumtyrceLatfièv r elleeuse moider">=2>fiug"f=es a arere arienns">24id/em& V ir àasitde tord AlinueD, el;&Lntabodyiaui r elleeuse mo.ct, lelm, disselt,g veneztlodnaasnneidem>dem>dquot;>Ch" xxx. Description de Neg">xiv<;/em& idem>dqup>dem>eidem>dd/up>dem>-idem>dem>dquot;>Ch" xxx. Description de Neg">xvhtt/em& idem>dqup>dem>eidem>dd/up>di/?page=#fty24">(...)div id=">extes a are arere a aref=">25id/em& AlinueD, el;&ouvrcec couenp. 159.id=">extes a are arere a a13id/em& Bnenr po2 l’issue de leumxente au rvé es chands vénitiens àen<span erlteraspar=exe/itenneztantabozirtaesentrciale ; cepécsujettu égalemr elleeuse moo talimpagnssue ommercds italiseus deggfaçsedstyty=eltder deggelts deuxle suix. Dstyle=&trnos, ltit enissnnamele,saueregenentus àces iale, pvoya ate="twisuquvo-eoduueepostsse pierr féog=,e e d scdursrns de voeuse mosr focantorcsment cot pBireo-eoduuee;<eocodnnanti f;aene te,oatiocngeraud, soneot;&lrimuoma x cisionTordamgr. Lntabozirtaeced rmi euse moai Viaécfeit; pciel es chcqueux s àla limpux cut ctelaoraudux=pandsx s àla lutoun des une eaene phoeux onc n Gassscoice sort euxle st enaux=traverséontreit en français, le Via des Indes rteslodtiaai/s">fty24"/?page=#fty24">24div t;Ate ,lis=traverséecoise chcdemtety= venezttrnofnsaret-eleus àl tî&chands vénitiens àuasouciure exaeux s àla es; laencisiontte eine decoentrciale ; ceai/s">fty25"/?page=#fty25">25idv t;Lsd scdursrns de voeuse mosr -elles dexle st enbonnemtebons uasjnt ciachnarer deoborinirer uFitippo S>Discde.o sopuainl Ci lamgoidem>,tes àla popoeunl tra rsant sntaaspeme erltee nietuep dsion;aene te e otiil c, elcont coaspidtiextes a arees a a a> " href=es a arere armlockpataetextes a are arere a a26id/em& Fitippo S> Lueta &ldi&litippo S>di/esenta#fty26" (...)div id=">extes a are arere a aref/ultextes a are arere a a adquot;ipt type="senta e problbCondoeromistract_ht n vedutonpiu dt laenn&gliv eersoli Malabar, urlrCan/hostyuriaccazioaddi Gosdeggpie doau&gliv;aene t ,;cataa lett o dsmaeto.,os tfs/tizzn ceplencont costumi deloaanceBalboureaìpsopuai a eersoniedt,gégr tagta." /eg sica; e <;/em& idem>dem>dquot;ipt type="senta e problbveggirdoide te vnce nsenaechnntrinatin in cepde te vDest,g tim i rn uvrir&dquot;ipt type="senta e problb[…]dquot;ipt type="senta e problb Es redonaaunrer ioiespaergio scripiu dfinue;aene t itatiplqci lamgo,;einn>dquot;ipt type="senta e problb[…]dquot;ipt type="senta e problb o insèaa letttatuin dellegtatrcds ni Ci tou; e n>dquot;ipt type="senta e problb[…]dquot;ipt type="senta e problb Lr fogtae ne t figume soeraaimitena popoeu" di/s">fty26"resenta#fty26" 26idv idpifiug" are arere a aref/ " href=es a arere ar/mlockpataetextes a are arere a14id/em& Lend scdursre oS>mlockpataetextes a are arere a a27id/em& Jot;Huygir var Lrct;hvris,l«esD sseCane te;&uv,tes àHlbtortyc ssen/journut ctelJeot;Hu li..telLrctaidem>di/esenta#fty27" (...)div id=">extes a are arere a aref/ultextes a are arere a a aérs e te < ddsacdul"s dgrtorue;ioislapronoetrrtfty27"/esenta#fty27" 27idv idpifiug" are arere a aref/ " href=es a arere ar/mlockpataetextes a are arere a28id/em& Sulques grns">="cita votrff Indntelcont coi etemaene te o ir Nnolas;Lm ry et SitonaMomelotdquot;>Ch" xxx. Description de Neg">,N dvaidem>di/esenta#fty28" (...)div id=">extes a are arere a aref=">29id/em& n récitgi du Bl"Clontxtra rdellefruueepdu salion iem>Adc>szs/echuidem> eu A esqutyrceV ir àasitde tord B rnsrei/?page=#fty29" (...)div id=">extes a are arere a aref=">30id/em& É/itenn GilbeendeteDr />,tiem>Cttaloger ellehuit;Tol,tPae 1sei/?page=#fty30" (...)div id=">extes a are arere a a15id/em& Levoiale, pen<span erlteraspar=-elles demteoc typl-cgat > e o l-cmboios decirbu rv r,ty="ogpittu énflit; pi opté lcommP rtugais orientaocd vosetgndursrloca r. asparonconIéresuiprexplarer ncieral Il n sas ao ir pu="ogbntalir àa Balbi,oetd ereei, d=&trnos, ltit en>elcteprés es; réci onecomp.edtoe progpuroutumvs lt;eeleleàit ene motpf ceLatvant tout ctesdddenssue én ernaeuueaocont co etemaene teontxtrpiere Viarent t nam,memzise ommercs Ie vrx s àla nten Balbru oexarer >fty28"/?page=#fty28" 28idv t;Moinenre 1ad nrer i f;aene te,oaoneot;&lcitrecÀ< de tous ceuxn cox s àl s es; récilt;span di/s">fty29"/?page=#fty29" 29iderde resfia,lcnimeiromplutàa"twisuquvot inéurvé es tr r. La rencsde sm.s, lmteoc lella trepis instvant t name=e o Balbi (rubi qce 1eauxonye rédichaxai/s">fty30"/?page=#fty30" 30div ),s pa e ssue àasiais elleeuse mo.cNons lcitv cepre e rvssentnientae ;ee,rs dtntniviil nIéresa mtassinrnmarcrpoeu" oeuse mo.idtiextes a arees a a a> " href=es a arere arh2;s">«esCeer tfumty la moendellefnm coider"i/s">fty31"/?page=#fty31">31ider"i/esenta#tocalem2y6">ueuvceLat;/h2><h1r t;Traductions&nsf/h1>ider">=2>fiug"f=es a arere arienns">31id/em& Jot;Huygir var Lrct;hvris,louvrcec couenp. 74.id=">extes a are arere a aref=">32id/em& V ir us dceocodestCaCesuinueWeinissger-Thomas,l«esChcdroe ommermmoennt coceLatnraductions&nsf/h1>ntnisei/?page=#fty32" (...)div id=">extes a are arere a a16id/em& Bnenr p d="citégalement é es vlt;/h1on<span erlterasparce sort euxdentchnsetgndleeusrns de vo satî&dent-opuands véchacquans utorsre olts dsetv rv /> e présentées dans .tPaeminleàit endmprone deninrnecito àl pr;/h2><sltualit, etaTraductions&nsf/h1>, brûlans uvivmoxiihtt/em& isup>_tt/up>deuxle dquot;>Ch" xxx. Description de Neg">xvhhtt/em& isup>_tt/up>dent sur uCaCesuinueWeinissger-Thomasa mele àasitde tord estyle=&;ocu ceuaanoitoriosit le Viarmelerefoiqdeninrs, latizise enenté."dmm euxdentcazioiliseus dsa;fidnltco"i/s">fty32"/?page=#fty32" 32idv tidtiextes a arees a a a> " href=es a arere arienns">33id/em& C d< deascns eementcaz,lpe lment co,tRobeendCh parsprog;&lnaiecou linaus duasbs/eau;h1r t;Cimpagnae 34id/em& n récitgi dlàa"twile=&c Inémonae "twisdaeuaau;tondeceV ir àasitde tord CaCesuinueWeinissger-Thomas,lfra.cc (...)div id=">extes a are arere a aref=">35id/em& Dumela Barb ra,adquot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>A ;/h2><ofrloastoofrEaet Afr01a ard Malabar<;/em& idem>dquot;ipt type=" clatype=" cl>,b nten Balbr fr Henry Stanley, Le;/em& ilresenta#fty35">(...)div id=">extes a are arere a a17id/em& Ilrn d< dpas cazioilidan uses do Balrog rous destye : Jencisionsigne."crnut ctelTealitpop,oioisl la lit, oritienie. C vengord po2urtit inéurvdes une emxios Viaggiscns c dtuments dtnauerege ;/h2&g pvoyamyss Int name,p ds"oggabsgrae qmhouma typed rmi ;/h2><slts àiprles; ràendon_abstruropnten..et dxvhtt/em& isup>_tt/up>deuxdquot;>Ch" xxx. Description de Neg">xvhhtt/em& isup>_tt/up>dent sur q p latin desance de ce eldche r grantaocoexarer fi;/h1ios dnotte nten Balb. Un tcatios, ltmtamiemeoierbu rva ponsen la litttachnarerm,oén ernr iatvantnce nut ctelTealitpopne phoes ltroulle Vit;Lsct inéurvdes une emxs deffdecene >érs de d, suuéuatvantnce nut cteleggh1&geressen Inémonae, bonsaetips deate érer ioiespnce n latiaalimpagnr is ltroulle Viltualitpop"i/s">fty33"/?page=#fty33" 33idv t;Un tassoci;anoitogeoie, nstee ;e0+0 rir un ctern0 g,oetdssen Inémonaeltuatraiabstrtulrr /h1>nooeux>érs émpamssuepost dejeuns=tra" />s,lpe ssue oel tî&it enbcemxente x erlterfl tît;Ate ,lDumela Barb ra,aofa ii gransfésentp rtugais>s,lrbu rv -t-el,xculxvhtt/em& isup>_tt/up>dent sur,oaoncncatssr el livameutyc ssetra" />,ru 1eribuad vemxiareeusretvemxamie ons desseto dans=au bûch g"i/s">fty34"/?page=#fty34">34div ,pe di/h1&eval,xal;n tervantf Indn m,fty35"/?page=#fty35">35idv t;C d< de tous ceuxrir un ssaetributvorer ism, decin Charlrr Dvanoes lt suedunsajeun;h1&ge s à aR"ands vanvéniton_abst s àl présentées dans idem>aspidtiextes a arees a a a> " href=es a arere armlockpataetextes a are arere a a36id/em& Charlrr Dvanoe;&ouvrcec couenp. 106.id=">extes a are arere a aref/ultextes a are arere a a afty36"resenta#fty36">36idv tidtiextes a arees a a aref/ " href=es a arere ar/mlockpataetextes a are arere a37id/em& V ir Jot;Huygir var Lrct;hvris,louvrcec couenp. 73-74ue:«esQuard requali Bramènge< dttessas;ouenbue a 18id/em& Ceer treands vaccquéuatnraductionslitpoplentre e d vintoa ponldsionquot;ddem>t< ddlt suee,ty="twisuquvoiaemen,lpe lvar Lrct;hvris,lcoice sort onconIéresuipruatnrn_aecedntaoconentégeoieccquéurleacre."cecteleggh1&geetdssevi1aécernrl edi/s">fty37"/esenta#fty37" 37idv t;Latreands vaccquéuealitpopnvantnce nortycressenraductionstre e traiabstr< de tous ceuxe ;e0+0 de llt;span edepermeeus àl tî&ces; r,xrir un pondre dun;olo dan "twisdonta ponlvant torcauoc00+01nidn p tel tî&œuvres,cit,téss tel Beursrv La rencsmr/tiextes a arees a aref " href=es a arere arienns">38id/em& V ir Charlrr Dvanoe;&ouvrcec couenp. 103ue:«esLscHlbtortysransfésentt irenose voya ate=leàiation 39id/em& Jot;Huygir var Lrct;hvris,louvrcett/em& isuot;ipt type="nllatype="nll>c coutt/em& isuot;ipt type="nllatype="nll>enp. 74.id/em& id=">extes a are arere a aref=">40id/em& Ibididem>dem>.idem>enp. 74ue:«esSns dl=y&ennsdrequcun;coicef la cnsarttoend( p latiadvieeuxra le Vi) q ple&aisste d19id/em& Uneo ris,mtrmtamiemeoierbu rva ponsonispgni rbjectif, us àl priale, pensarbu rva urvdes une emx,p dsjuste." g,oe dtuatoinennvée"plarergpéclecteurnionsigne."crnut ctelTealitpopt;Lat pa -totnt co etpriale, pcitel je reisseprcticaz,lf siad vus duar io osimulguad vemqufoiqupa lcommsmenr coi locanesl Balbstdie ycred"sruadnr es fnm co "twisssas; nnr eurvdmae 1spe lm,tiqdenle Vidi/s">fty38"/?page=#fty38" 38idv t;Certatessau eurosr cniae emtedsaciqCaasi/ aecnentmyCesa s ày ate adroessloicdroaetalysepnuptl, leeueiro uDtwisuquv,cit, unLrct;hvris,ly ate ade dun;reisse«esbio-cgarer;&uv,t Bihao ir uatvant onder iux"cita voct_henos, poieilr Gc leendonul ir ue="ogbntrast enato, leeux&a>ir uvt enicard" iux"citlach grlt b c;s e laec vicouttem>di/s">fty39"/?page=#fty39">39ida>ttEsfiaenture eoiqis,mtr"placrnut csoiespnuien la littus deggprone de soci;le iaxembsaestdde aspairopose la esput nut cteleggh1&gecoicef lara rdel ue=soulede r ressequot;ddem>di/s">fty40"/?page=#fty40" 40div t;lt;span edepermeonconIéreeuxons vbdrnplutàace sort deggle thcde nt snta=,tiqdenle Vita vomae 1sss àla limrisport;Latreands vad</h2>&bnenr po2it ene motp&geetds do Balrompaeuxrap"dmenispgni fairrte ;ee dsionbbstdnt coidem>ltevo satî&deun ssignaresidem>enndsosité dpas derégalnteiroutge en nt ondesde rn Gasant permeonconIéree te,odmeu ltit enfactoe te.oN desav cep>érs rette suedceocaot;&enpre e rvnIÀ"placits ceuxle carar s, ltmynthnt arer deodeusouilcoutumelts de"placrnut mr/tiextes a arees a aref " href=es a arere arienns">41id/em& V ir àasitde tord CaCesuinueWeinissger-Thomas,lfra.cc couenp. 32ue:«esLsenraductionslt;eetd em tacssu de l20id/em& Esfiaensnta=nseralepdm>émotgn/gesnce sort dun;Descrieltualitpop,lcoicem tacede bûch grpa lcnta=nfouissrreeux dsionh1&geziozde vo-opuands vécoiÀ Balrceuxleurvdmortssauotaeuano2urtielciie m g"i/s">fty41"/?page=#fty41" 41idv t;Ceer tDescrieln d< db cènereeuxe"po1ad nrer de llt;span ,p>érs ali Bspart21id/em& La nten Balbretpriale, p lt;/h1idem>ltes tr r. La rencs q ple&ade ;outnotte iation <s, lonuoeuudlt oulle e d ris,mt,xsiaiss dsionvant tout ciaemino-cgarerttEsfiaeniprlesf Indn m&ces;urndntelostire 1e,bentalr me etdtetcved rmi ces; r,xoeuxfeit;ioierbjettératurerlltdtetctissotgnnteceDate=leài/gesnreidonViaggdnnantnotte nten Balbnvant èno2urtisas;/gesne : Jn r,pe d< dtalimpagnssuptelaoe, penstdie ylosts exemere quali..vant tout eptela>="citsuis Vénitien Balbi ev roreruali..smbiguadanstcn ernaeuue " href=es a arere arh1ns">T; de Balbiider">="ifiug"f=es a are arefh3ns">dquot;>Ch" xxx. Description de Neg"> Balbiid/em& (de llqgt;</h2>)idem>ider">=3 " href=es a arere armlockpataetextes a are arere a a42id/em& Ceisas;/ged< dénfusoetd efls,teleggtrfficu="ss ali lt;span e&pupao ir àasomreeintce poierasloicel pa lcommP rtugais,a fty42"/?page=#fty42" 42div ,pa euano x enfinrnele suieceBhuvnaikabāhue phoesma xt Rājasimhat;Ilrade ;out lt;rônss de lurtielt :li..telssept enjeun;fils,platilt;eetdde vaeléregagnnr es f>irtî&deuioiesrm /> acquésseps, lteuxle suincéssefrs, lde rilr eate éu_rtt/up>d>ir usseps, lteuxssefrs, lBhuvnaikabāhu, linane Kotten Balbibue habtrinr uDtwisuqu& mendne linane Kardy,lcoice teeit;us duar frane&deuioieecorspnelleRn_augr ne Kardy,ldoeuue1ioso ir t;eetdle titderetplatilt;eetdut;fidn, lon io etprP rtugaisde rontu 1a rdel loi poieilr veit;ueTrats ceuxadop;oute vo satî&zient aenosttEsfiaeni linan pJafnapatam uD puiqutieizlde ns, Rājasimhas de< dempamsscot ge ae ioieecore d< driaielocd vuvritidtiextes a arees a a aref/ " href=es a arere ar/mlockpataetextes a are arere a ettératurehau eur moyeno,ldoeuue1tifeuilcomm tssrraleIéren GasssnulaumtyrceAuxatoio "e tras ettérasvrip,osuatoreeux dsionslodsisse,xoeoretuuéuat;aene te e voaraustdetdquot;ipt type="senta e probl;>Ch" xxx. Description de Neg">Siilarid/em& ida eong>ddem>idtiextes a arees a a a>mlockpataetextes a are arere a adquot;ipt type="senta e problbSiilarrèluaoierao;h3:card" sda pem"angpudan oras;/irmon_ab &ldi&Ci-eo;esurlt bandandataguorda nie.o CtwiIndhatp grconenrs, èleggcta nldi&Cl-cmbo, f rtezz="cioietP rtugnesi,amaniuoroau&gle muroaèlcioietno in ,phasl-canie.o il trarilr- rto libeeo. IlrRn letitdeo ds cazioa rao;h3ioa rno l-cmbofs/toezie 1en noeersuivracitareg o, bosaretaiete p r/h2> rtugallo; ilrreugnesi e andada despnceiaeivvoitareg o, a lettto il Madon ,phavirdoiduiafiu> uoli,rilr-eencip anemiPnienBarbiPns eunl si ndornemnienRagiu, èlges/o3clt;> uoloem" orersuivracitareg o, plemeochèlavirdosi& anepeoduceoas;/irche 1eolloe occaildi&gs/tt,/h2icoroicatareg eoe o aechntcubini,amani&me aoiehorvondetssas;/irbaeid popoegzivédertion_absvpis rtai dera;<. Ioe o"cis unrosoie Ovt;spségr uat;aee t regztvova derecitraorn ihrilvoseodu/> e te donpiu dihricondoimat c eoeiesurloierao;h3euai a ston_abnficata deztvova d>mese ommeasrite,o.ndr conIunrer itP rtugnesifossrr dtalons ia;Tolara t gioierao;h ficataperò ooidorrivvole :caropspanoloeau a cniae aint u anen gaconttan ceraas;/irtraoru&ti&ane t ,;mgtr ptraoru&salva pcai. Èd poioo traorn sotii e edeontgeopponal& dntha ssefou> a aimitena popooau&glraueo;ed>mese oirmorzo o ommeasrite,ocondoigtattraoru&varera" namou, deztvo uat;aee t da cazioirarb rcopoegad poioo modd: tagta.eoraonddtiextes a arees a aref/mlockpataetextes a are arere adquot;>Ch" xxx. Description de Neg"> an> &xxix. D/h2><h1r Balbiid/em& (de lnate" href="h)idem>ider">=3 " href=es a arere armlockpataetextes a are arere a a mlockpataetextes a are arere a43id/em& Ltaete e oSazbi ( r. Sas; noidem>) < dudteoes&e nrasjnt ..ts àl prcemxBalrienr aneslf="naisesl Bafeit;fty43"/?page=#fty43" 43idv t;Latciri nf Indn m&deuioieecore o Balbi < ddsaneuf cene milcommetulbry tcc ed> pa lcotn rd-< de re te < de tous ceuxsoultorcorientasuqnr cocou linan pr rtugal.;Sonernnale titder,driaielzient ae,s de< dretilsss&s à vrenpoeuvotoun dspnelle l-cmbo, emtn rd-< . Ilrvit emxfreiscoommP rtugais,acoicegnemtety=maîquvoan eueretidtiextes a arees a a aref/ " href=es a arere ar/mlockpataetextes a are arere a[Ou dnaîquat;aene te etrégalntulbrsnta="tra r.]ida eong> Sulqmier teco,taon;aene tedfinue< dpeoduue> pa lmirtatessaraudem" />s ettératurehau eur moyeno,ldoeuue1tifeuilcomm tssrraleIéren GasssnulaumtyrceObrsnta="tra rnaux=toio "e tras ettérasvript mlockpataetextes a are arere adquot;>Ch" xxx. Description de Neg"> n>oloexxix. D/h2>tabnfiunaSiloiid/em& ida eong>ddem>idtiextes a arees a a a>mlockpataetextes a are arere a a44id/em& Ss àde ae tn meissedstylenslotts ceuxus àlstyeths Véned rmi ;/ux=eome,raspar=exef sioan leas rt;(...)div id=">extes a are arere a aref/ultextes a are arere a a adquot;ipt type="senta e problbQuiloiid/em& idem>di/s">fty44"/?page=#fty44">44div iem>dquot;ipt type="senta e problb èluaggcta nldioietP rtognesipo1tatonnu avb scripcobeeerdnnOtdelsdniedt;nr uatsuh3fecca." /èlnie.o sieoccoaaennIenn n u vb sr- rtottE ai 27 franmmoor etaammooeresst laoaunaSiilar,;laec andornl Capo "iaComsuino, u="cmoacltfinuee lCtwiIndha,icatarom"u> arnl Sas; noed>nra eo golfottQazioa rao;h3èlciacirau toie O900 m"u> aredtha ssesuh3fecca." /nie.o ttemne anann n u vb sr- rto,ldomiPnioa poainsispone p r/h2itP rtogollo. Ilrrn letittdeo ds cazioa rao;h3insèa>iratotonnu avcta nlvan noau&elsd l-cmbo, livconttaha ssesuh3fecca." /p grgrear ttemne anansdaèlps d2itP rtognesi,adain contenddtiextes a arees a areref/ " href=es a arere ar/mlockpataetextes a are arere adquot;ipt type="senta e problb[Caene t me aaech ficgr defvcca..]ida eong> N> ati3&i tetan scdezi,aperò fareratat;aene th3:cobsa. In cazioa rao;h3vinn>ddtiextes a arees a arer/mlockpataetextes a are arere adquot;ipt type="senta e problbQgdnigeontferò ceu dee ommealquenciraseto etes pesi,arn uvrindorn.cdern treands ve,aperarn ddtiextes a arees a aref/mlockpataetextes a are arere a=2>fiug"f=es a arere arh3ns">dquot;>Ch" xxx. Description de Neg">Vijaynagar<;/em& (de llqgt;</h2>)idem>ider">=3 " href=es a arere armlockpataetextes a are arere a a45id/em& Vijaynagar=elt l anem lbi on;a>nttaou li_augr homneym, dteoesns de vobordssnufl tme Thungabhad&(...)div id=">extes a are arere a aref/ultextes a are arere a a afty45"/?page=#fty45">45idv dpondre dsept=toio. Jvée"p, diaismtenaffeirouten u vtoio qioislurtisil nrdecoiliupaieeuxcosor dtessmeuf rcs, lmteoriosilocgerxtonaséjnt . Je fuso>érs témott;h1nemortî&bizarronoet bbstdnte&deun ssmlt séinr uTdutc mmeabord, il&oeuxitdtume d do ciie m gxcosocorpe oel tî&dde ueusr"sru..etdeggnoblérs ues ltlai;hratu,dde x ouitioiq toio q p latilts de< dtalirdoceLesjnt coùgioieras;ouerlt b ûl g, ionh1&gesoendeleziozde te e obdendsh nr1, bouerre1&eval,xbouerredonteoieeul, phre àbouerus duar chatorcorihuit;sort urvé,rcosoc&eve x lâmhésrns de voeusaul>s,lpe ssu="twisuqaestterfl tîxcisdeente x rer onerh2&l s es;lamp,saueregj ien<=&cooieostire 1edunsajeun;tra" />e s à ag ndote.oE te ai Viau vtieoirx s àla masn gaudataetdunsafls,data s àla masn deoie,. Aalimpagnssupde lsi..vaocatsde te tienie.exeggnpoeujuscooieost19 oui20 h nr1uten chaesaeuxeiltiare dhau ntref rttreciel exva dortiesaupe en dr oneeusouxsenen-aimoceddtiextes a arees a areref/ " href=es a arere ar/mlockpataetextes a are arere at;Un tfoià one epas iaemin /, e te es e etrhre epécsane olci je ;/xleurvdmeulodn spéeregeocgiaozsnreciel exle souhattrttEsfiaene te edendsel e- pierrlstyedre ommeallume lcotfeuans àla fossr. Dns caoieraslatvantviose voya ple&ade ;outfeitene te abanddendsionfqe, reei de lesslasn le de eeu te it envaocat dr onetra",g s dirig rir uaissauobordl dsionri&is, lonue="ogshabt te égplats ceux Bafeit;dane osi..ente x erltersi..vqemeeusrresi..vaocats. Dine mulssenaux=engordsdderros, ltues rapene te peocge us àlstyeauuoùgces ignares affilesestreciel exse laved rt dessi..veuchogst;Un tfoià orane&deuioieeauuel exsstytycoulle s àuas rap jauar io2&deu14 braérs et;h1nepleurvdsiadmeesspntradeprer j denniq tstytyfuir pgni ntvit grantaae emintcetponiaozqe dsioementerlterce 1. Jvéassas;iss Icorientao ciie mnds vanvénitbrasnemaudede /h1>ncor j olngeniq t duxpe en dr ;vos rt, reoieel esdemprunteienispgni parr=au bûch g uD pier,utorsreoietu no;e0+o meu t,xoeob ûl xresa ia 1sss&fnm c& Bagoutess esdesclaves rir uaastiel esdilr eeuanostreands vsoc&arnrl ev.idtiextes a arees a a a> mlockpataetextes a are arere adquot;ipt type="senta e probl;>Ch" xxx. Description de Neg">Bezenegerid/em& ida eong>ddem>idtiextes a arees a a a>mlockpataetextes a are arere a a al/h2relt:cont e ilvlltd ceu ain suoi de eeui/hs tglirtiraeo naezeg v em&no,aeccaoché eontre vvt;utannud da te geeui/hsiacacca.dtdelsd" naccon,h2icendorismtechini,icataregltvoeipec ita;u uoli,rse aoieht,/hn suoi de eeui. T cenlvpon_ablodéuatialecrriirterauaa stuoro,aeccaoché tssr eontvt;teraigtfuoco,gmadnr onraas;/i,icatafarerasub toiiirtr tioau&elsdstuoro,amos nteddsendeo eltepido ficatads caz th3v 1eo eontregupavir an..rRagioPniencoiehtsiontdensdconIo ln de e,auaoietlquontdensdeeas rgeauaa vso d dogtao3eddesanire e tdelsdri nitiaozo s tglirl;n ioauiett /hsub toi">aoenrs datastantntbrroiere fdeau/>, ln g deioaclt;fdezh3:cobsi&eegni addosaonetalché quonppp ilrfuocoipperdilclpnane i&eegni,desanire< o tdem>logtae s tglirieginoccaia dens di/hg deitoglirl sbracca.dalcd to,acoisi falma ltalalte doni muroqnr lirfareraun muro aet rnda dnambin ilrecondoiilrmuro èlarri&nienalcd toh2&glivtdens,aviaeidle huomra&i tiett aglivtdensor lia1eorcisrilrcolloe loendadataeesanè,iilrmuro si fen 1apotsrllt/nda mbin ilivissepblta;olquon poioenvia onda ptudedn aspaébbstdnt n,tcontrioarn mitruro &i s;&ln rem Volsio Band re3plemhé caìp defvcessrr d poioentdendsmnr rt e ttrfuau&elo,icatafuafs/tt s dic risponcazioa eeggpperdprovt;spslon itmol&i mactdij,icatate edendsdeiaanromae defvcevand;iplemeocché perdognivpocoidcheivcern ihrinid/em& idtiextes a arees a aref/mlockpataetextes a are arere adquot;>Ch" xxx. Description de Neg"> an> &xxx. D/h2><h1rNegapatamid/em& (de lnate" href="h)idem>ider">=3 " href=es a arere armlockpataetextes a are arere a asttEsi pierriaozs,ule=&jnlp=&jeun;fnm c<eetdtte p rtssenus duar chatorcorisort urpde lsi..vaocats. Suiveit;ns àla vt enicard" iin mlockpataetextes a are arere adquot;ipt type="senta e probl;>Ch" xxx. Description de Neg"> n>oloexxx. D/h2>tabnfiuoprNegapatarid/em& ida eong>ddem>idtiextes a arees a a a>mlockpataetextes a are arere a adquot;ipt type="senta e problbFra ecitlqueacé dzisaviddn,luaa ndsnotaiomaeavigtaosa,icastyldzisnen glosstonsaricatafecioi ciaeraaderessbntcs,aviddnnu avfobsa clt;><;/ircerbontiaalesiad rfuocoipinn poioo istre epu avtdensogiovieidébbl;h3euais rtaiaadeoietsuoi sop ceuasao;hdeerorinprempagnioauitmol&ea ptudeedendssue amachr conn:carafllt/,aianirdoiee t trno ren 1eranuaosspecchioor ee toietlquonoconmong,tre oiegaconttafvcevaau&elsdgiovieidmol&igiuochi/harri&niaicatafuaere fdbsa d>fuoco,gfuafs/tt stonsarone p pntdooi ciaera, ovetavirdoibal nio e soPnienp gru eezzopreegr rispo, dezomiPmeò aldcheou> are tdeli ilvlltd ceu t:cont e edemele a te suaepiu damachr edendsein arilrecooioo 2icoroicatalonvedoveuto3farerapsgraeggiafs/tpinn po; emese,aperaovviaricatate edendshatieu" ddtiextes a arees a arer/mlockpataetextes a are arere adquot;ipt type="senta e problbEddtiextes a arees a arer/mlockpataetextes a are areref/ di/s">Hau nd> pageider"> extes a are areBibtao Vénieid/em& id=2>fiug"f=es a arerextes a are arere a aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaextes a arees a are

Balbi Gasparo, Viaggio dell’Indie Orientali, di Gasparo Balbi, Gioielliero Venetiano. Nelquale si contiene quanto egli in detto viaggio ha veduto per lo spatio di 9 anni consumati in esso dal 1579 fino al 1588. Con la relatione de i datij, pesi, & misure di tutte le città di tal viaggio & del governo del re del Pegù & delle guerre fatte da lui con altri Re di Auuà & di Sion. Con la tavola delle cose più notabili. In Venetia, appresso Camillo Borgominieri, 1590.

Barbosa Duarte, A description of Coasts of East Africa and Malabar, traduction par Henry Stanley, Londres, The Hakluyt Society, 1866.

Boullard Bernard, Plantes médicinales du monde. Croyances et réalités, Paris, ESTEM, 2001.

Braudel Fernand, « Les économies : commerce et transport. Le commerce du poivre », dans La Méditerranée et le monde méditerranéen à l’époque de Philippe II, tome 1, Paris, Colin, 1976.

Challe Robert, Journal d’un voyage fait aux Indes orientales (1690-1691), Rouen, Machuel le jeune, 1721, 2 vol. Réédition par F. Deloffre et M. Menemencioglu, Paris, Mercure de France, 1983 [1979], 2 vol.

Charpentier Jarl, « Cesare Federici and Gasparo Balbi », dans Geografiska Annaler, 2, 1920, p. 146-161.

Dellon Charles, Relation d’un voyage des Indes orientales par Mr Dellon, Paris, C. Barbin, 1685.

Dree Étienne Gilbert de, Catalogue des huit collections qui composent le musée minéralogique, Paris, Potey, 1811.

Durel Aline, L’imaginaire des épices. Italie médiévale, Orient lointain, xive-xvie siècles, Paris, L’Harmattan, 2006.

Federici Cesare, Viaggio di M. Cesare de i Fedrici, nell’India Orientale e oltra l’India: nel quale si contengono cose dilettevoli de i riti, & de i costumi di quei paesi, et insieme si descriveno le spetiarie, droghe, gioie, & perle che d’essi si cavano. Con alcuni avvertimenti utilissimi a quelli, che tal viaggio volessero fare, Venise, Andrea Muschio, 1557.

Kerr Robert, A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels, arranged in systematic order, forming a complete history ofthe Origin add Progress of Navigation, Discovery, and Commerce by Sea and Land, from the Earliest Ages to the Present Time, Édimbourg, Blackwood, 1824.

Lemery Nicolas et Morelot Simon, Nouveau dictionnaire général des drogues simples et composées, Paris, Rémont, 1807.

Linschoten Jan Huyghen van, Histoire de la navigation de Jean Hugues de Linschot Hollandois aux Indes orientales, contenant diverses descriptions des lieux jusques à présent descouverts par les Portugais, observations des coustumes et singularitez de delà et autres déclarations, avec annotations de B. Paludanus, … sur la matière des plantes et espiceries… [Description de la Guinée, Congo, Angola et autres pays maritimes d’Afrique], Amsterdam, Cloppenburgh, 1638.

Marques Antonio Henrique de Oliveira, Histoire du Portugal des origines à nos jours, Roanne, Horvat, 1978.

Mazzucchelli Giammaria, Gli Scrittori d’Italia, cioè notizie storiche e critiche intorno alle vite, e agli scritti dei letterati italiani, Brescia, Bossini, 1753-1763.

Pinkerton John, « Gasparo Balbi’s voyage to Pegu and observations there gathered from his own Italian relation », dans A general collection of the Best and most interesting Voyages and Travels in all parts of the World, Londres, Longman, 1811, p. 395-405.

Pinto Olga, « La Birmania nei viaggiatori italiani del xv e xvi secolo », Asiatica, VIII, 3, 1942, p. 199-206.

—, « Il veneziano Gasparo Balbi ed il suo viaggio in Mesopotamia », Rendiconti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei. Classe di Scienze Morali, Storiche e Filologiche, série IV, vol. VIII, fasc. 7-12.

—, « Viaggi di Cesare Federici e Gaspare Balbi in Oriente nel secolo xvi », Bollettino della Società Geografica italiana, vol. LXXXII, s. 7, 1946.

—, Viaggi di C. Federici e G. Balbi alle Indie orientali, Rome, Istituto Poligrafico dello Stato, 1962.

Sassetti Filippo, Lettere di Filippo Sassetti sopra i suoi viaggi nelle Indie Orientali dal 1578 al 1588, Vincenzo Lanfranchi (éd.), Turin, Edizioni dell’Oratorio, 1871.

Tiraboschi Girolamo, Storia della letteratura italiana, Naples, nella Stamperia de’ Classici, 1836-1840, 3 vol. (1re éd. 1824).

Tucci Ugo, « Balbi, Gasparo », dans Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, vol. 5, 1963.

—, « Federici (Fedrici, De Federici, Dei Fedrici) Cesare », dans Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, vol. 45, 1995.

Weinberger-Thomas Catherine, « Cendres d’immortalité. La crémation des veuves en Inde », dans Archives des Sciences sociales des religions, Année 1989, vol. 67/1, p. 9-51.

Yule Henry et Burnell Arthur Coke, Hobson-Jobson, A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases, and of Kindred Terms, Etymological, Historical, Geographical and Discursive, New Delhi, Asian Educational Services, 2006.

Zurla Placido, Di Marco Polo e degli altri viaggiatori veneziani più illustri, Venezia, Fuchs, 1818.

Haut de page

Notes

1 Parti d’Alep en Syrie le 13 décembre 1579, Gasparo Balbi atteint ensuite Biregik, sur l’Euphrate, puis se rend à Bassora, Hormuz, Diu, Goa, Ceylon, S. Thomé. La dernière partie de son voyage se déroule dans la province birmane du Pegu, Martaban et Cochin.

2 Gasparo Balbi, Viaggio dell’Indie Orientali, di Gasparo Balbi, Gioielliero Venetiano. Nelquale si contiene quanto egli in detto viaggio ha veduto per lo spatio di 9 anni consumati in esso dal 1579 fino al 1588. Con la relatione de i datij, pesi, & misure di tutte le città di tal viaggio & del governo del re del Pegù & delle guerre fatte da lui con altri Re di Auuà & di Sion. Con la tavola delle cose più notabili. In Venetia, MDXC, appresso Camillo Borgominieri, texte édité par Olga Pinto, in Viaggi di C. Federici e Gasparo Balbi alle Indie orientali, a cura di O. Pinto, Rome, Istituto Poligrafico dello Stato, 1962.

3 Sur la biographie de Gasparo Balbi, voir Ugo Tucci, « Balbi, Gasparo », dans Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Rome, Istituto dell’Enciclopedia Italiana, vol. V, 1963 ; Olga Pinto, Viaggi di C. Federici e G. Balbi…, ouvr. cité, p. xxix.

4 Gasparo Balbi, Proemio, dans Viaggio dell’Indie Orientali, Venise, Borgominieri, 1590, p. 3-4.

5 Ibid., p. 233.

6 Voir à cet égard Jarl Charpentier, « Cesare Federici and Gasparo Balbi », dans Geografiska Annaler, vol. 2, 1920, p. 146 : « After the Portuguese had discovered the direct-sea route to India, and Lisbon thus had become the European emporum of Oriental trade, the merchants of the Italian sea-ports—above all the Venetians—tried in every way to get rid of theri new rivals in order to reestablish their decayin commercial position in the Far East. »

7 Ibid., p. 147 : « Consequently, the descriptions of their voyage became little else than a sort of handbooks on the trade-ways and commercial products of the East […]. » À l’époque où Balbi effectue son voyage en Inde, par exemple, le commerce des épices était contrôlé par la couronne portugaise, à laquelle il rapportait des bénéfices considérables. Voir sur ce point A. H. de Oliveira Marques, Histoire du Portugal des origines à nos jours, Paris, Horvat, 1978.

8 Placido Zurla, Di Marco Polo e degli altri viaggiatori veneziani più illustri, Venise, Fuchs, 1818, p. vii-viii. Dans l’introduction de l’ouvrage, l’auteur inclut Balbi dans le groupe des voyageurs célèbres, parmi lesquels figurent, juste en dessous d’une hiérarchie menée par un Marco Polo quasiment hors concours, Niccolò dei Conti et Giovanni Caboto.

9 Girolamo Tiraboschi, Storia della letteratura italiana di Girolamo Tiraboschi, Florence, Molini Landi, 1805, VII, 39, p. 395.

10 Ibid., VII-VIII, 1, p. 398.

11 Giammaria Mazzucchelli, Gli Scrittori d’Italia, cioè notizie storiche e critiche intorno alle vite, e agli scritti dei letterati italiani, Brescia, Bossini, partie I, vol. II, p. 81.

12 Cesare Federici, Viaggio di M. Cesare de i Fedrici, nell’India Orientale e oltra l’India: nel quale si contengono cose dilettevoli de i riti, & de i costumi di quei paesi, et insieme si descriveno le spetiarie, droghe, gioie, & perle che d’essi si cavano. Con alcuni avvertimenti utilissimi a quelli, che tal viaggio volessero fare In Venezia, MDLXXXVII, appresso Andrea Muschio.

13 Sur la biographie de Cesare Federici, voir Ugo Tucci, « Federici (Fedrici, De Federici, Dei Fedrici) Cesare », dans Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, 45, 1995. Il apparaît sous le nom de Caesar Frederick dans les traductions anglaises de son œuvre.

14 Voir sur ce point Jarl Charpentier, art. cité, p. 149 : « The voyage of Cesare di Federici is valuable from more than one point of view—above all it has been appreciated for the very clear description of the trade-routes and products of the East. But it has also some value as a historical source, there being in some passage found notices on contemporaneous events in India and Pegu that do not appear elsewhere or are here put forward in a different way. »

15 Entre autres, le marchand anglais Ralph Fitch, qui le cite nommément dans son récit de voyage dans les Indes orientales à la fin du xvie siècle.

16 Par exemple, Jarl Charpentier, en s’appuyant sur une liste précise de passages, accuse sans détours Balbi d’avoir amplement plagié le texte de Federici. Voir Id., art. cité, p. 157.

17 Olga Pinto, « Il veneziano Gasparo Balbi ed il suo viaggio in Mesopotamia », dans Rendiconti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei. Classe di Scienze Morali, Storiche e Filologiche, serie VI, vol. VIII, p. 666.

18 Olga Pinto, « Viaggi di Cesare Federici e Gaspare Balbi in Oriente nel secolo xvi », dans Bollettino della Società Geografica italiana, vol. LXXXII, s. 7, 1946, p. 1-2.

19 Voir par exemple Olga Pinto, « La Birmania nei viaggiatori italiani del xv e xvi secolo », Asiatica, VIII, 3, 1942, p. 7 ; et Olga Pinto, Viaggi di C. Federici e G. Balbi…, ouvr. cité.

20 John Pinkerton, « Gasparo Balbi’s voyage to Pegu and observations there gathered from his own Italian relation », dans A general collection of the Best and most interesting Voyages and Travels in all parts of the World, Londres, Longman, 1811, p. 395-405.

21 Ibid., p. 402-403.

22 Robert Kerr, A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels, arranged in systematic order, forming a complete history of the Origin add Progress of Navigation, Discovery, and Commerce by Sea and Land, from the Earliest Ages to the Present Time, Édimbourg, Blackwood, 1824.

23 Ibid., p. 157-158.

24 Voir à cet égard Aline Durel, L’imaginaire des épices. Italie médiévale, Orient lointain, xive-xvie siècles, Paris, L’Harmattan, 2006, p. 35. Sur le commerce du poivre, voir également Fernand Braudel, « Les économies : commerce et transport. Le commerce du poivre », dans La Méditerranée et le monde méditerranéen à l’époque de Philippe II, tome 1, Paris, Colin, 1976.

25 Aline Durel, ouvr. cité, p. 159.

26 Filippo Sassetti, « Discorso sopra il Cinnamomo », Lettera XXIX, dans Lettere di Filippo Sassetti sopra i suoi viaggi nelle Indie Orientali dal 1578 al 1588, édité par Vincenzo Lanfranchi, Turin, Edizioni dell’Oratorio, 1871, p. 224-228.

27 Jan Huygen van Linschoten, « De la Canelle », dans Histoire de la navigation de Jean Hugues de Linschot Hollandois, Amsterdam, Cloppenburgh, 1638, p. 114. On retrouve également ces mêmes images dans d’autres récits de voyage, par exemple celui du médecin Charles Dellon : « Il y a dans toutes les Indes, mais sur tout dans le Malabar, un arbre assez haut, dont les feuilles sont comme celles du laurier, ou peu différentes ; il porte des fleurs blanches qui sentent assez bon et il distille le long de son tronc une gomme qui sert pour les vaisseaux […] », voir Id., Relation d’un voyage des Indes Orientales, dédié à Monseigneur l’Évêque de Meaux, Paris, Barbin, 1685, p. 155.

28 Sur la nomenclature des différentes qualités de cannelle voir Nicolas Lemery et Simon Morelot, Nouveau dictionnaire général des drogues simples et composées, Paris, Rémont, 1807, vol. 1, p. 277 : « On distingue trois sortes de canelle, savoir : la canelle fine, la canelle moyenne et la canelle commune. Quelque soit le degré de finesse ou la qualité de la canelle, il est bien certain que c’est la seconde écorce des tiges d’un arbre appelé canellier, qu’on cultive dans l’île de Ceylan. On a prétendu qu’il existoit des canelliers cultivés et d’autres qui croissoient sans culture, et on disoit que la canelle moyenne et commune appartenoit au canellier non cultivé ; enfin que la moins bonne en qualité nous venoit de la Chine, tandis que la canelle fine nous venoit de Ceylan. Les naturalistes modernes ont levé toutes les incertitudes en ce genre. Le même canellier de Ceylan fournit les trois qualités de canelle. Elles dépendent de l’âge de l’arbre et de la grosseur des tiges desquelles on enlève l’écorce. La canelle fine se tire des tiges des branchages du canellier, qui a tout au plus trois ou quatre ans. […] On fait aux deux extrémités une incision horizontale, et au milieu une incision longitudinale. L’épiderme extérieur se détache, on l’enlève ; la seconde écorce se sépare à son tour de la tige, on la déroule, on l’étend sur des linges placés sur le sol exposés aux rayons d’un beau soleil ; la dessication s’en opère très-promptement ; l’écorce se roule sur elle-même à mesure qu’elle se sèche. »

29 Il s’agit du Bétel, extrait des fruits du palmier Areca catechu ou Aréquier. Voir à cet égard Bernard Boullard, Plantes médicinales du monde. Croyances et réalités, Paris, ESTEM, 2001, p. 52.

30 Étienne Gilbert de Drée, Catalogue des huit collections qui composent le musée minéralogique, Paris, Potey, 1811, p. 149 : « Chatoyantes ou Yeux de chat. Les véritables chatoyantes ou yeux de chats sont des quartzs mélangés d’une autre substance qui, par l’effet de leur structure ordinairement fibreuse, donnent un chatoiement qui imite celui des yeux des chats. Il en est de plusieurs couleurs : de différens verts, de différens jaunes et de différens bruns. Il en est aussi de blancs. Les chatoyantes n’ont communément que peu ou point de transparence. Lorsqu’elles sont bien homogènes, pures, d’une couleur égale, et que le chatoiement est décidé et éclatant, elles ont un prix élevé. La suite que j’ai rassemblée offre les plus distinguées de ces jolies pierres, qu’on dit venir de Ceylan. »

31 Jan Huygen van Linschoten, ouvr. cité, p. 74.

32 Voir sur ce point Catherine Weinberger-Thomas7edn

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