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Damage Atlas for Photographic materials

Analogue objects
Kristel Van Camp

Abstracts

In order to rescue a damaged photographic object, preventive or conservative actions are needed. Knowing the specific characteristics of different types of damage is crucial. A damage atlas can provide these characteristics. With this atlas the damage can be recognised and appropriate actions can be taken. This damage atlas offers a first attempt to such a characterisation in the field of photography. The damage atlas contains images and the necessary information about damage on photographic material. The atlas with special annotations about the terminology and the grade of the damage is meant for everybody who works with photographic material, as well in museums as in archives.

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Editor's notes

Artesis Hogeschool Antwerpen – Contact: Eva Annys

Full text

Introduction

1Not one single object has eternal life. It is therefore the responsibility of the conservator to ensure that objects are preserved as well as possible and extend their life-span by carrying out interventions. These interventions can be preventive or curative. A good knowledge of all materials is therefore crucial. To save a damaged object it is crucial to recognize the characterizations of the damage. A damage atlas can provide the necessary help in terms of diagnosis.

2In all kinds of institutions such as museums, archives and private collections people are confronted with damage and need some kind of help to make a proper diagnosis. The damage atlas provides an overview of all sorts of known damage on analogue photographical material. The atlas is a working tool that provides the necessary information to recognize the damage, the degree of damage, and can provide the proper terminology.

3It was however impossible to make a complete damage atlas in one year. A cooperation between the Museum of Photography in Antwerp and the Dutch Museum of Photography in Rotterdam will lead to the publication of a damage atlas. This thesis is the first step into a deeper understanding of damage and presents a template for an atlas. It contains a tree structure to describe al kinds of damage, a thesaurus to look for the proper terminology and a glossary. Descriptions of three types of damage are developed completely. During the follow-up of the research, the atlas will be tested by people who will possibly use it in the future. Their comments will help to improve the atlas. In the end the atlas is intended as a reference document that can be applied by museums, archives, conservation schools and in private collections.

What is damage?

4To the question ‘what is damage?’ there are many possible answers, depending on the context. There are different types and sorts of damage. However, in the context of conservation science there is a problem concerning the definition of damage. The adjective is explained but not the term “damage” itself. For example: in “chemical damage”, the adjective “chemical” is explained, but not the term “damage” itself.

  • 1  Vansweevelt Thierry en Weyts Britt, Handboek Buitencontractueel Aansprakelijkheidsrecht, © Interse (...)

5There are also other areas where the word “damage” is used in a daily context, such as law and insurance areas. But in these areas the same problem occurs and it can even be stated that there is no legal definition of damage.1 Nonetheless, a definition is important to create a frame of reference to work with. Despite the absence of a legal definition, there are some valid descriptions.

Description of damage by Jonathan Ashley-Smith

6Jonathan Ashley-Smith was the former head of Conservation, Victoria & Albert Museum, London, UK.

7His description of damage deals exclusively with objects of art and consumer goods.

  • 2  Ashley-Smith Jonathan, “Definitions of Damage”, in: Cool Conservation (online), 1995. http://cool. (...)

 “Something that by an effect on our level of understanding and enjoyment or on the object’s life-span causes a decrease in total benefit.”2

Description of damage by Eric Dirix

8Eric Dirix was the former assistant of the Law faculty, University of Antwerp.

9His description looks at damage as a difference between two states: the state where the damage has occurred and the hypothetical state where the damage has not occurred. The description contains a causal, hypothetical and comparative element and can cover all areas of damage.

  • 3  Dirix Eric, Het begrip schade, Maarten Kluwer’s Internationale Uitgeversonderneming, Antwerpen-Ape (...)

“In normal language, damage is: every disadvantage, every loss, every decrease of someone’s property, and every decrease of his pleasure, every suffer or smart.”[…] “Damage is a decrease and can be determined by comparing two states, the actual state after the wrongful action and the hypothetical state where the damage had not yet occurred. The description contains a causal, hypothetical and comparative element.”3

  • 4  Dirix Eric, Het begrip schade, Maarten Kluwer’s Internationale Uitgeversonderneming, Antwerpen-Ape (...)

10It is clear that damage is not an isolated phenomenon, but always occurs in association with objects and its state or persons. It can be divided into two main types: material damage and moral damage. These two types can be further divided into different types of damage.4 For the damage atlas there is only one important kind of damage in the category material damage: namely “objects damage”. This is damage to movables and immovables or real estate. A further restriction of the movables leads to “damage on art- and implement objects” and to “damage on analogue photographical objects”. In all this, the question of liability, any forms of claims and financial aspects are not considered. The focus lies purely on the damage itself.

11To obtain a usable description that works as a reference, both descriptions of Jonathan Ashley-Smith and Eric Dirix are used together. This description contains also the words condition and the initial state.

“Damage is something that by an effect on our level of understanding and enjoyment or on the object’s life-span causes a decrease in condition. It can be determined by comparing two states, the actual state after the wrongful action and the initial state where the damage has not yet occurred.”

The initial state

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12The initial state is the state of the object when the wrongful action did not take place. Before treating objects it is crucial to know what the initial state was. This means: the state of the object when it has just been made.5 However, the initial state is not always known and sometimes damage already begins to occur when the object has just been made. Depending on the material of the object, the use, preservation and the type of wrongful action, the damage will proceed fast or slow.

13Objects are always seen in their present state. To make a damage inventory, knowledge of the initial state is important. This knowledge can be obtained by comparing objects in different conditions. The condition is the physical state of an object at any moment in time. By comparing different conditions, typical characterisations of damage can be investigated.

14There is a question to be asked: is natural aging also damage? In natural aging there is a decrease in the condition, so natural aging is also damage. Furthermore, natural aging can cause a deterioration in condition, through instability of the material or through influences outside of the object, although these are not always clear-cut. If natural aging can not be considered as damage, then where is the thin line between the two and who decides on the context and the interpretation?

15A second remark can be made: who decides what is damage and what is not? An example: an artist makes a tear in his own work for artistic purposes. This tear is not damage because it belongs to the initial state. A visitor of an exhibition makes a tear in an exposed object. This tear is damage because it does not belong to the initial state.

Causes of damage

16Damage can be caused in different ways. There are two important types of causes: internal causes and external causes.

Internal causes

  • 6  Boston George, ed., “Safeguarding of our documentary heritage”, in: UNESCO – Memory of the World ( (...)

17Internal causes lie in the material of the object itself. During the making of the object the cause of damage is already present in the material (substrate, emulsion, etc.), or in the products (chemicals) or tools (machinery, pincers, dirty hands, etc.) used to make the object.6

18By contamination of the material, products or tools with non-object related foreign materials during the production process. These strange materials can infect the object later on.

19Errors during production of the object, like residual chemicals or for instance of too big a difference in temperature applied.

20Instability of the material itself, for example early plastics.

21The different materials of the object can affect each other.

External causes

  • 7  Boston George, ed., “Safeguarding of our documentary heritage”, in: UNESCO – Memory of the World ( (...)

22In external causes the decay does not lie in the object itself, but it depends on external influences. The speed of the decay depends on these factors.7

23Environmental factors such as lighting, polluted air, non-adapted temperature and/or humidity, bad packaging and calamities such as fire and flooding.

24Factors of manipulation, such as vandalism, wrong manipulation and/or use of the object.

Forms and types of damage

25Research into the literature on diverse forms of damage reveals that every publication uses a different classification system. Some models are purely theoretical and therefore not usable in practise. Other models are usable, but even these contain huge differences. There is no universal standard on terminology concerning damage that can be used by all parties when talking about damage. The terminology for forms, types and kinds of damage are subject to interpretation and the terminology to talk about the degree of damage is even less clear.

26Furthermore, causes of damage are frequently labelled as damage. For example: vandalism. Vandalism is not damage in itself but can be the cause of damage: it can have a mechanical, chemical or biological origin. Even when the object is stolen, the vandalism is not damage in itself but a cause of damage. The loss of the object is the damage.

27The objective of the damage atlas is to give an overview of the known types of damage. To order the multitude of damages, they can be divided into three main groups: mechanical, chemical and biological damage. This division is made on the basis of initial origin: The damage is of mechanical, chemical or biological origin. A further subdivision leads to a number of damage types within these specific forms. They are divided according to their visual characteristics, such as form and colour changes. All subdivisions finally lead up to the specific images of damage. They are assembled in a tree-structure to get a clear overview. The problem we encounter here is that some types of damage can be classified within two or three different forms. Here, the initial cause of damage takes priority: is it primarily mechanical, chemical or biological. For each image of damage, there is an indication if it can evolve into multiple forms.

28Certain image of damage can evolve from one form to another. Some examples are “stains” and “glue residues”. Stains can initially be classified as mechanical damage, but evolve into chemical damage if the material that is causing the stain forms a chemical bond with the material the object is made of and changes its original chemical composition.

29In the margin there are a few more phenomena that have the appearance of damage, but do not really cause damage to the object. These are caused by other factors: namely by damage early in the process, by mistakes or intentional actions by the photographer. An example: a grain of sand in the camera grates the film during the rewinding process and in this manner the film is scratched. The scratch on the film is real damage. The film is printed afterwards and in the photos, the scratch can be observed as a white line. If a photo-negative is printed, the image will be positive on the photo. All the information on the negative can be seen in the photo, and this also implies damages to the negative. The white line on the photo is no damage to the photo. The cause must be attributed to the process.

30There are different phenomena that can be interpreted as damage, but are no damage at all. To counter this problem, a fourth category was added, to exclude misunderstandings and false interpretations. The subdivision into types is made on the basis of the moment on which the phenomenon manifested itself.

Mechanical or structural damage

  • 8  IFLA, “Mechanical Forces”, in: IFLANET, International Federation of Library Associations and Insti (...)

31Mechanical damage is a physical deterioration of the condition, and mostly disturbs the view or the legibility of the object. The chemical structure on an atomic and molecular level remains the same and the micro-structure and substructure are usually preserved. The mechanical strain on an object can sometimes provoke changes in the object’s structure. Mechanical damage originates from a physical force applied to an object.8 These forces can work during a period of time on the object or the damage can be a sudden deterioration of the condition, with a beginning and an end to the damage, such as a scratch or a fracture. The damage can also be the result of a slow and continuous process of constant deterioration of the condition, such as surface dirt that evolves into incrusted dirt. The damage becomes apparent as pollution, adhesion of non- object related-foreign materials, as structural change or as material loss. In general, four types of mechanical damage can be distinguished, that are subdivided into specific damage-types:

Damage through pollution

32The damage is caused by pollution, through the deposit of diverse materials on objects, from superficial dirt by dust to stains. The mechanical damage can evolve into chemical damage if the deposits migrate into the object’s structure and form bonds with the material of the object and affect the original chemical constitution. This damage is random and rarely of intentional character.

Damage by non-object related foreign materials

33The damage occurs when object foreign materials get adhered to the object and introduce a physical force onto the object and/or disturb the legibility. The mechanical damage can evolve into chemical damage if the object foreign materials migrates into the object and forms bonds with the original material of the object. Mostly, these materials are intentionally placed onto the object. For example: a photo is hung on the wall using sticky tape. The tape is not part of the original state of the object. This type of damage can also have a random character. For example: two photographs are being preserved with the emulsion one on top of the other. After some time, these will stick together.

Damage through form changes

34The damage occurs because the form of the object has changed from the original form through a physical force, without loss of material. This can happen in one or more directions.

Damage through material loss

35The damage to objects results from physical forces leading to loss of material. The object is exhibiting loose particles and/or fragments and/or original material is missing. This does not necessarily mean that all objects literally lost material, for example cracks, tears or fractures. But the objects consist of loose elements or of different parts, which can lead to loss of material. For example in case of brittleness, which is a physical condition which can lead to loss of material.

Chemical damagea>

26Chemical mage becomes apparurs woke chanung on an atomic and molecular lenot take peans: nal chemical constitument of the photographic matel of ugis dour changm2n6">Chemical mage is causedand safluenmic gare re is trebstrnds with the original material of the ob,ects rel aginsuch an imagecal cud kinch obrebe makings a chemical tains. tal fact as lsame aed temperatage can ames provoke chanure on an atoone od molecular l.gin: The damage is causedhydrola peneoxigradatate he ps a chemious proectors.8 Thoke chanaeasurith spe early in the fipectguagof iw fature tt objepes:

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26Chemical mage che ap atlad colour chasame decal composiloss of material. ese materis caufcal oor damag wis making of the obstics, suchcare t statpare -ent ces ture a>A seLibr by i offand cae contaazardtinuose elemmage, such ci kinch “gion whese wrebstrnds with the original mate. Led fed, but is pntex detusical damage canmes prodions by l cause to i proign materials dur de conservatage.8Chemical mage can be distinguishare subdivided i or mnto specific damage-tions.

Damage characterized by colour changes

16Damd onto the obtypes cacre soi possibatlad colour chrial. Th an imagecad cologe che ap os. In thtertoias surform of the objormage canlimiributedcan>Certent pinch ce arein: The damage is causedand safluennch are re is trebstrnds with the original matesrial of the ob,eh an causing ths structuct. The chanaeasurith spe early in the fist damaggof iw fature tt obsame and The chanahe ap f a nameufirst="hlyions.

Damage inherent in the material

8Chemical m is onys occurs mnto specithe materia, through nmperature andugh instability of the mater” itself. For exampn semicarroemulsigan cicarroemulsisural stthe de(can aays knossoithe p fyndroe tisen thg.1)mage aisubsttthe drial.

Biological damage

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5Biological dalogy cons>The damage to objein prodionshat lsubmakier organ,d/orans, to excdtage.8 cal composiloon an atomic and molecular l, and the micro-structure and substruc,evel reains the surs mthe fist da. Jby dct, lell as mechanical damag7">Biological daloit can hx detusi de cqinfluenc. In lar l loss.aan>A secure ect last diMusett. This type of damage mes provoke chanure on an atomic and molecular lions.

  • 8  IFLA,n7">BiologiAgelemrces”, in: IFLANET, International Federation of Library Associations and Insti (...)

5Biological dalage is causedlsubmakier organ ena thadDamagem ivhanure.), or in of materige.2

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Damage by micro-organisms

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Damage by insects

16Damage by inslage is caused In by inslena that mes provThe damage to obje(al, for examsiln cofisSmith lice)rein: The damage occurs w by inslhadDamagem ivhanure.), or in the original mate. al. Tor original mater#widgo cr-olfaeluenmic dal dage are depcurred oftstw by inslonsxtend thdo ch,ure.), or in of material.

Damage by rodents

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Damage by other organisms

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Phenomena that look like damage

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Mistakes / phenombtherefore the development of the obj(The /the nega/the p)isms

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Mistakes / phenomals during the development of The fectthe negaisms

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Phenomena that look like damage to the pria, throike damage to the negaisms

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Mistakes / phenomals during the development of the pisms

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    Damion.

    tt usacee 21 tid="l> tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Damcharacn mazed by colourfour changn.

    /td td thyle="pad cng:0mm;ft/ul> tt usacee 21 tid="l> tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

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    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

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    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Daion.

    /td /tr tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Daion.

    /td /tr /tid=" /tt us.

    /td /tr tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Daminherentpit theoign matengn.

    /td td thyle="pad cng:0mm;ft/ul> tt usacee 21 tid="l> tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

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    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

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    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    /tt us.

    /td /tr /tid=" /tt us.

    /td /tr tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Damion.

    tt usacee 21 tid="l> tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Damby micro-organismangn.

    /td td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Damby insecpsion.

    /td td co 21l> tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    /td /tr tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

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    /tt us.

    /td /tr tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Damby rode psion.

    /td td co 21l> tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    /td /tr tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

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    /tt us.

    /td /tr tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Damby other organismangn.

    /td td co 21l> tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    /td /tr tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

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    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    /tt us.

    /td /tr /tid=" /tt us.

    /td /tr /tid=" /tt us.

    /td /tr tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Damion.

    tt usacee 21 tid="l> tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    tt usacee 21 tid="l> tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

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    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

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    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

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    /tt us.

    /td /tr tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    tt usacee 21 tid="l> tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

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    /tt us.

    /td /tr tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

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    /td td thyle="pad cng:0mm;ft/ul> tt usacee 21 tid="l> tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    /td /tr tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

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    /td /tr tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    tt usacee 21 tid="l> tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

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    /tt us.

    /td /tr tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

    tt usacee 21 tid="l> tr td thyle="the ma-left:0mm;the ma-tas l:0mm;the ma-top:0mm;the ma-bottom:0mm;pad cng-top:0in;pad cng-bottom:0in;pad cng-left:.075in;pad cng-tas l:.075in;b To o-top: bye;b To o-bottom:.014it calid #000000;b To o-left:.014it calid #000000;b To o-tas l: bye;vproe>Ch-align:middla;ft/ul>

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    /tt us.

    /td /tr /tid=" /tt us.

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    Terminology - Thesaurus

    18  Riesthuis Gerhard, et.al., Thesaurusbouw: Handboek voor oplei cng en praktijk, Neo olands Biblioth (...)/li> /ult/ul>

    In theod1">Damat

    Chl" id="id="ftn18" href="#ftn18">18 The endeavour waspto take up aspmuch terminology and synonyms asppossible, that can bepused to speak aboutod1">Da. In theofirsp column, weofind theoword, in theosecond theosynonyms, I">Das of d1">Datia> <

    The mosp importa p thcng in theoat

    Das of specificod1">Damphenome a. For evpryoi">Da, there is an explanatllu and descriptllu of theod1">Da, theocourse of degradatllu, theodiffere p typas of d1">Da if there are any, theocauses, theocategories, in which processas d1">Da can occur, recomme datllus for conservatllu and preservatllu and a numbe= of photos that can bepused as an example. For evpryoi">Da of d1">Da, there is a bibliography. This provides theouser to look for s="ra informatllu on theotopic. In appossible later publicatllu theseoi">Das will bepad ed as illustratllus. <

    Ns="mto theothesaurus, theod1">Damat

    Das of d1">Da phenome a are itcorporated, with a short explanatllu and their code and the p>Da numbe= where they can bepfound in theod1">Damat

    Das of d1">Da, theogeneral terminology used for theoi">Das of d1">Da can bepfound here. The glossary doas not contain any photos. Conclusllutia> <

    Uno os"andcng theoterm “d1">Da” in general is diffe>ult because there is no legal definitilu, and also no framework of refere ce, to work with. To createothis framework, two descriptllus of theoterm “d1">Da” were combined. The framework asppresented in this s"udy contains all possible i">Das of d1">Da phenome a that can bepfound lu photographicomaterial. Also research waspdonamto define “conditilu” and “valua”. Theseoterm are closely connected to “d1">Da”. The results of theoresearch have shown that “conditilu” is mosp importa p for theoat

    Damat

    Ch conditilu of theoobject, withoutojudgcng its valua. This judgeme p haspto beomade by theoconservator. ion.

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    All sorts of d1">Da were divided in differe p forms, typas,ocategories and causes. A tree structureomakes it well-organized. A tree structureois not eviden"mto createoand photography itself is a complexomatter. Not evpryonamwho is gocng to work with theoat

    Da began therefore by theoi">Das of d1">Da itself. But evpn in this well-organised tree structureothere are diffe>ulties, combinatllus for insta ce are not alway clear. Differe p tree structures were made and for this thesispone structureowaspchosen. The thesaurus, glossary and the i">Das of d1">Da were based on this s"ructure. In apfurther st>Damtheoat

    Da of d1">Da. To make a user-friendly d1">Damat

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    Not published sources

    Caen Joost Prof. Dr., docent Conservatie & Restauratie, Glaskunst, Artesis Hogeschool Antwerpen, Interview over de referentietoestand, Academiejaar 2009-2010.

    Kaesemans Goedele, Conservatie en restauratie in Vlaamse kunsthistorische musea, een kritisch onderzoek,Verhandeling tot het verkrijgen van de graad van licentiaat in de Kunstwetenschappen, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Faculteit van de Letteren en Wijsbegeerte, Departement Kunstwetenschappen, Leuven, 1993.

    Marijnissen R.H., Het beschadigde kunstwerk, Een onderzoek naar de mogelijkheden van een discipline inzake konservatie en restauratie,Doctoraal proefschrift, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, Hoger Instituut voor Kunstgeschiedenis en Oudheidkunde, Gent, 1965.

    Van Dijk Jan, Determineren, Historische, Fotografische & Fotomechanische Procédés, © Jan Van Dijk, Utrecht – Antwerpen, 2007 / 2008.

    Vereniging van Boek en Papierrestauratoren (VAR), Themadag, Schade Inventarisatie, VAR verslag van 9 juni 1998, Amsterdam, 1998.

    Published sources

    Ashley-Smith Jonathan, Risk Assessment for Object Conservation, Butterworth-Heinermann, Oxford, 1999.

    Batchelor Elizabeth, Mulvaney-Buente Kathleen, and Nightwine G. Theodore, Art Conservation, De Race Against Destruction, Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati, 1978.

    Bavister S., Digitale fotografie, een praktische handleiding, FotoArt, Gent, 2000.

    Brewee Pierre, Verval, bewaring en ontsluiting van fotomateriaal: Theorie en praktijk,Graduaat in het bibliotheekwezen en de documentaire informatiekunde, Gent, 1996.

    Buttler Caroline and Davis Mary, The conservator in context: crossing curatorial boundaries,The object in context: Crossing conservation boundaries, Contributions to the Munich Congress 28 August – 1 September 2006, The International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, London, 2006.

    The Centre for Photographic Conservation (CPC), The Imperfect Image: Photographs their Past, Present and Future, Papers presented at the Centre for Photographic Conservation’s first International conference at the Low Wood Conference Centre, Windermere 6th-10th April 1992, The Centre for Photographic Conservation (CPC), 1992.

    Crawford William, The Keepers of Light, A history & Working Guide toe Early Photographic Processes, Morgan & Morgan, Inc., New York, 1979.

    Dirix Eric, Het begrip schade, Maarten Kluwer’s Internationale Uitgeversonderneming, Antwerpen-Apeldoorn, 1997.

    Hendriks Klaus B. and Lesser Brian, Disaster Preparedness and Recovery : Photographic Materials, in: American Archivist, datum van uitgave niet gekend.

    Hogenboom Jeanne en van de Voort Jan, red., Voor de zoeker, Handleiding voor het registreren en uitwisselen van gegevens over fotocollecties, NBLC Uitgeverij, Den Haag, 1994.

    Keene Suzanne, Managing Conservation in Museums, second edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 2002.

    Lavédrine Bertrand, Photographs of the Past, Process and Preservation, The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 2007.

    Lavédrine Bertrand, A Guide to the Preventive Conservation of Photograph Collections, The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 2003.

    Liénardy Anne en Van Damme Philippe, Interfolia, Handboek voor de conservatie en de restauratie van papier, Koninklijk Instituut voor het Kunstpatrimonium, Brussel, 1989.

    Marchesi Jost J., FOTO Special, deel 1, 2 en 3 : Principes van de fototechniek, Uitgeverij FOTO, Leusden, 1990.

    Marijnissen R.H. en Kockaert L., Dialoog met het geschonden beeld, na 250 jaar restauratie, Mercatorfonds, Antwerpen, 1995.

    Mason Randall, “Assessing Values in Conservation Planning: Methodological Issues and Choises”, in: Assessing the Values of Cultural Heritage, Research report, The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 2002.

    Mosk J.A., red., Voor het kalf verdronken is, Handleiding voor het maken van een museaal calamiteitenplan, Centraal Laboratorium voor Onderzoek van Voorwerpen van Kunst en Wetenschap, Amsterdam, 1992.

    Präkel David, The Visual Dictionary of Photography, AVA Publishing SA, Lausanne, 2010.

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    Notes

    1  Vansweevelt Thierry en Weyts Britt, Handboek Buitencontractueel Aansprakelijkheidsrecht, © Intersentia,  Antwerpen-Oxford, 2009, p. 633.

    2  Ashley-Smith Jonathan, “Definitions of Damage”, in: Cool Conservation (online), 1995. http://cool.conservation-us.org/byauth/Ashley-smith/damage.html (10 maart 2010).

    3  Dirix Eric, Het begrip schade, Maarten Kluwer’s Internationale Uitgeversonderneming, Antwerpen-Apeldoorn,  1997, p. 15-16, partim.

    4  Dirix Eric, Het begrip schade, Maarten Kluwer’s Internationale Uitgeversonderneming, Antwerpen-Apeldoorn, 1997, p. 61-67, and: Vansweevelt Thierry en Weyts Britt, Handboek Buitencontractueel Aansprakelijkheidsrecht, © Intersentia, Antwerpen-Oxford, 2009, p. 633.

    5  Marijnissen R.H. en Kockaert L., Dialoog met het geschonden beeld, na 250 jaar restauratie, Mercatorfonds, Antwerpen, 1995. p. 58.

    6  Boston George, ed., “Safeguarding of our documentary heritage”, in: UNESCO – Memory of the World (online), 2000. http://webworld.unesco.org/safeguarding/en/txt_phot.htm (15 maart 2010).

    7  Boston George, ed., “Safeguarding of our documentary heritage”, in: UNESCO – Memory of the World (online), 2000. http://webworld.unesco.org/safeguarding/en/txt_phot.htm(15 maart 2010).

    and : IFLA, “External Causes of deterioration”, in : IFLANET, International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (online), 2008. http://archive.ifla.org/VI/6/dswmedia/en/txt_envi.htm (15 maart 2010).

    8  IFLA, “Mechanical Forces”, in: IFLANET, International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (online), 2008. http://archive.ifla.org/VI/6/dswmedia/en/txt_envi.htm (15 maart 2010).

    9  Liénardy Anne en Van Damme Phillipe, Interfolia, Handboek voor de conservatie en de restauratie van papier,

    Koninklijk Instituut voor het Kunstpatrimonium, Brussel, B, 1989, p. 61-77.

    10  Maes Herman, “Conservering en ontsluiting van daguerreotypieën”, in: Nederlands Fotomuseum (online), 2008.

    http://www.nederlandsfotomuseum.nl/content/view/211/115/lang,nl/ (22 november 2008).

    11  Maes Herman, “Conservering en ontsluiting van daguerreotypieën”, in: Nederlands Fotomuseum (online), 2008.

    http://www.nederlandsfotomuseum.nl/content/view/211/115/lang,nl/ (22 november 2008).

    12  IFLA, “Biological Agents”, in: IFLANET, International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (online), 2008. http://archive.ifla.org/VI/6/dswmedia/en/txt_envi.htm (15 maart 2010).

    13  Liénardy Anne en Van Damme Phillipe, Interfolia, Handboek voor de conservatie en de restauratie van papier,

    Koninklijk Instituut voor het Kunstpatrimonium, Brussel, B, 1989, p. 77-p.95.

    14  Marchesi Jost J., Principes van de fototechniek, deel 1, FOTO Special, Uitgeverij FOTO, Leusden, NL, 1990, p. 55, p. 73. and : Marchesi Jost J., Principes van de fototechniek, deel 2, FOTO Special, Uitgeverij FOTO, Leusden, NL, 1990, p. 41, p. 45. and : Marchesi Jost J., Principes van de fototechniek, deel 3, FOTO Special, Uitgeverij FOTO, Leusden, NL, 1990, p. 16, p. 33, p. 93.

    15 Keene Suzanne, Managing Conservation in Museums, second edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 2002, p. 146-p.148.

    16  Ashley-Smith Jonathan, Risk Assessment for Object Conservation, Butterworth-Heinermann, Oxford, UK, 1999. p. 111-p.114.

    17  Keene Suzanne, Managing Conservation in Museums, second edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 2002, p. 146-p.148.

    18  Riesthuis Gerhard, et.al., Thesaurusbouw: Handboek voor opleiding en praktijk, Nederlands Bibliotheek en Lektuur Centrum, Den Haag, NL, 1992.

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    List of illustrations

    Title Fig.1 Damage
    Caption Vinegar syndrome on acetate film, in stage 4 of the decay
    Credits Credit: Kr.Van Camp
    URL http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/docannexe/image/1770/img-1.jpg
    File image/jpeg, 160k
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    References

    Electronic reference

    Kristel Van Camp, « Damage Atlas for Photographic materials », CeROArt [Online], EGG 1 | 2010, Online since 19 November 2010, connection on 16 December 2017. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/1770

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    About the author

    Kristel Van Camp

    Kristel Van Camp graduated in 1995 as a photographer. After having worked in the field of professional photography for several years, she decided in 2006 to study Conservation and Restoration of Visual media at the Artesis University College Antwerp. In June 2010 she achieved a Masters Degree in this complimentary specialization. Following her graduation in 2010, she is now preparing the damage atlas for publication.

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    Copyright

    Licence Creative Commons
    CeROArt – Conservation, exposition, restauration d'objets d'arts est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International.

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