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Convex pillar paintings in church interiors: context, materials and conservation problems

Sven Van Dorst

Abstracts

Convex paintings which are attached to the columns of church interiors are rare and often considered a curiosity. Nevertheless, twenty-five examples where found in Europe, dating from the end of the 15th century to the beginning of the 20th century. Most of these were used as epitaph or placed above a collection box. The paintings were executed on wood, canvas or metal plate, depending on the local uses and/or period of creation. Degradation is often initiated by environmental factors like a microclimate and striking sunlight.

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Introduction

1Convex pillar paintings are a rare type of easel paintings. They can be found in church interiors, attached to the pillars of the nave. The support of these paintings is curved and covers the stone column’s perimeter partially.

  • 1  VAN DORST, S., Convexe zuilschilderijen in kerkinterieurs: Studie naar context, materiaalgebruik e (...)

2The number of convex paintings is limited, not more than twenty-five examples were found in one year1. These paintings are frequently misinterpreted because the reference material is limited or the painting’s context has altered. Convex paintings are rarely mentioned in literature and there is not a specific term to indicate them. Therefore the term ‘convex pillar paintings’ was introduced to make discussion easier.

3The aim of this investigation was to draw up an inventory, and to provide a framework to interpret these paintings. By studying the objects individually and comparing them with one another, characteristics are distinguished. Subcategories where made, based on date, function and the used materials. The study of conservation problems will be explained with a case-studie in the Antwerp Sint-Jacobskerk (Belgium).

History and function of convex pillar paintings

4Convex pillar paintings are rarely mentioned in literature or visible on representations of church interiors. Examples can be found from the late 15th century up until the beginning of the 20th century. Examples are located in the nave of Roman Catholic churches in Austria (AT), Belgium (BE), Germany (DE) and France (FR).  

5Two convex pillar paintings in the Antwerp Sint-Jacobskerk (BE) where the starting point for this research. Other examples in Belgium where located using image databases (KIK/IRPA, RKD,...) and visiting/corresponding with the most important churches. Foreign examples where found with the support of local restorers and researchers. Only the Belgian examples where visited by the author. Information concerning foreign works was based on visual and literary material provided by other researchers.

  • 2  STROHMER, F.V., “Der Stephansdom in Wien”, Der eiseren Hammer, 1939, vol.1, p20
  • 3  FRIEDRICH, V., Der Domberg zu Erfurt, Erfurt, Dompfarramt St. Marien, 2001, p.156-167.
  • 4  Votive: Religious image or artwork as token of appreciation for a miracle or received favour. It i (...)

6The earliest example, “Madonna in the sun” was installed in the Stephansdom, Vienna (AT) in 14942. Other early examples can be found in the Erfurter Dom (DE). The eight works in this church were individually created between approximately 1500 and 15353. In the Frauenkirche, Nurenberg (DE) convex paintings of the same era can be found. The oldest traced convex pillar paintings in Belgium date from the first half of the 17th century. Examples are the votive4 of canon Jean De Facuez in the Sint-Petrus en Sint-Guido kerk, located in Anderlecht (BE) and the “Madonna with young St-James surrounded by flowers” by J. Brueghel I and P. van Avont. Most of the other examples found in Belgium can be dated between the 18th and 20th century. In France only one example was found, situated in the Église Saint-Étienne-du-Mont, Paris. It was painted during the second half of the 19th century.

Fig. 1 Votive of Canon Jean De Facuez

Fig. 1 Votive of Canon Jean De Facuez

The painting was placed near the tombstone of the canon in the Sint-Petrus en Sint-Guido kerk, Anderlecht (BE), stolen in 1979 and still missing.

Credit: © Marcel Jacobs 1975-79

  • 5  FRIEDRICH, V., Der Domberg zu Erfurt, Erfurt, Dompfarramt St. Marien, 2001, p.156-167.

7Often several convex pillar paintings can be found within one church. The Antwerp Sint-Jacobskerk for example, possesses two examples. They have different dimensions and were commissioned by two unrelated organisations. The paintings are dated 1708 and 1709 and were painted by different artists. Eight examples in the Erfurter Dom have more similarities. Their dimensions and appearance correspond,  although they were commissioned by different patrons within a period of thirty-five years. Most of them were created in the workshop of P. von Mainz5. A collection of six pillar paintings in the Sint-Martinuskerk, Beveren (BE) also have similar dimensions and were painted by different craftsmen during the 19th and early 20th century. They depict religious scenes, but there is no general concept that interconnects their iconography.

Fig. 2 Pillar paintings in the Sint-Martinuskerk, Beveren (BE)

Fig. 2 Pillar paintings in the Sint-Martinuskerk, Beveren (BE)

The collection of six pillar paintings is placed in the nave of the church.

Credit: © Sven Van Dorst 2011

  • 6  JACOBS, M., “Anderlecht –Oeuvre disparues 1”, Anderlechtensia, September, 2009, p.29-31.

8Most of the convex pillar paintings served as an epitaph or a votive. The votive painting of canon Jean de Facuwez in Anderlecht for example was attached to the pillar near his tombstone in the floor.6 Other convex paintings were placed above a collection box, such as the examples in the Sint-Jacobskerk. The remaining group depict religious scenes or saints.

Fig. 3 J. Herreyns I, Charity gives alms to the orphans 1708, Sint-Jacobskerk, Antwerp (BE)

Fig. 3 J. Herreyns I, Charity gives alms to the orphans 1708, Sint-Jacobskerk, Antwerp (BE)

The painting and collection box were placed in the nave of the church in 1708 on behave of the ‘Kamer van de Huisarmen’.

Credit: © Sven Van Dorst 2011

Convex pillar paintings; construction and employed materials

9Within the group of convex paintings there are many differences. Dimensions vary from approximately 50 x 60 cm up to 200 x 210 cm. For the construction of the support three groups of materials can be distinguished; Paintings on wood; on canvas, stretched over a wooden support; and paintings on metal plate. The location and period of creation are the largest influences on the choice of materials.

Convex pillar paintings on a wooden support

  • 7  BECKER, K., BRUCKNER, B., HAETGE, E., SCHURENBERG, L., Die stadt Erfurt: DOM-Severikirche –Petersk (...)

10Most of the 15th, 16th and 17th century pillar paintings were executed on wooden supports. The support is composed of several curved vertical planks, bent parallel to the grain. The choice of the kind of wood is related to local use. In the Erfurter Dom the paintings were executed on a support composed of whitewood. Although this is not a high quality type of wood, many German painters used it during the 16th century7. The 17th century painting by J. Brueghel I and P. van Avont was painted on oak planks. This type of wood was commonly used in Dutch easel painting until the second half of the 17th century.

11The planks used for the support were cut tangential, because they bend more easily with hot water or steam. Only the J. Brueghel I – P. van Avont-painting deviates from this method. It’s support is composed of three vertical planks. The central plank (23 cm) is radially cut and has a slight curve, while the planks at the sides (each 18 cm) are half radially cut and have a more pronounced curve. The planks of the support were in most cases glued together without reinforcements such as dowels. Because many of the examples have undergone structural treatment in the past, it is difficult to distinguish later interventions.

Fig. 4 Brueghel I – P. van Avont, Madonna with young St-James surrounded by flowers, approx. 1650

Fig. 4 Brueghel I – P. van Avont, Madonna with young St-James surrounded by flowers, approx. 1650

Original setting and framing is unknown

Credit: © Sven Van Dorst 2012 (permission Auction House Bernearts)

Fig. 5 Reverse of Brueghel I – P. van Avont, Madonna with young St-James surrounded by flowers, approx. 1650

Fig. 5 Reverse of Brueghel I – P. van Avont, Madonna with young St-James surrounded by flowers, approx. 1650

Wooden construction with vertical reinforcements at the joints, this is possibly a later addition.  

Credit: © Sven Van Dorst 2012 (permission Auction House Bernearts)

12The examples at the Erfurter Dom were painted on a wooden support inserted in the groove of the frame. Thereby the ground layer overlaps the support and the frame. This was a common practice for traditional panel paintings at the beginning of the 16th century. The 17th century J. Brueghel I – P. van Avont-painting on the other hand was framed after completion. The paint layer covers the entire surface, this would not have been possible if the frame covered the perimeter of the support.

13The panels were probably provided by craftsmen outside the painters studio. From the middle-ages on, it was common to purchase wooden supports in woodworking studios. Documents concerning convex pillar paintings don’t provide information about this subject.  

Convex pillar paintings on canvas

14Between the 18th and 20th century most convex pillar paintings were executed on canvas. Most examples were found in Belgian churches. Convex paintings executed on canvas are stretched over a secondary, wooden support. This secondary support is composed of several curved, vertical planks. An adhesive was not applied between canvas and wood.

15The canvas was first stretched on a traditional stretcher, because it was easier to paint like this. After completion, -the painting was tacked onto the curved wooden support. It is also possible that sometimes a traditional painting was attached to a convex support at a later date. The wooden construction is similar to that of pillar paintings on a wooden support, although sometimes the panels are reinforced with metal strips. In most cases wood of minor quality is used.

Fig. 6 Reverse of J. Herreyns I, Charity gives alms to the orphans 1708, Sint-Jacobskerk, Antwerp (BE)

Fig. 6 Reverse of J. Herreyns I, Charity gives alms to the orphans 1708, Sint-Jacobskerk, Antwerp (BE)

The canvas is tacked on the curved wooden boards.

Credit: © Sven Van Dorst 2011

Convex pillar paintings on metal support

16During this survey, only three examples on a metal support were found, all located in the Sint-Martinuskerk, Beveren. The church has six convex pillar paintings, half of them are painted on copper, two on canvas and one on panel. The paintings were executed by different artists during the 19th and early 20th century and all have small dimensions (approximately 60 x 50 cm).

Frames and attachment to the pillar

17The frames around convex paintings protect the often vulnerable support. The frames also unify the groups of convex paintings located within one church interior, like the examples in Erfurt and Beveren. Most of the frames are composed of simple wooden profiles, although more elaborate examples can be found. Some of the frames are composed of bent wood, while others are made by carving the wood in a curved shape.

18To fixate the convex paintings against the pillar, several types of hangings were used. The big 16th century examples in Erfurt were connected to the columns by metal rings. These rings were attached in the centre of the frame, at the upper side. The painting was hung on a metal hook inserted in the pillar. The smaller convex paintings are fixed by metal elements at the upper and bottom side of the frame. These elements are secured in the pillar to avoid theft.  Almost all convex pillar paintings are placed directly against the stone surface of the shaft without space in between. The narrow attachment between painting and pillar emphasises the close relation these paintings have with the church interior.

Conservation problems, a case study; Sint-Jacobskerk, Antwerp

  • 8  BONI, A., Antwerpens roem, St. Jacobskerk: een kultuur-historische schets van Antwerpen en Sint-Ja (...)
  • 9  Nicolie Josephus Christianus, Interior of the Sint-Jacobskerk 1818, oil op panel, private collecti (...)
  • 10  Handboek der aalmoezeniers, Maagdenhuis Museum, Antwerpen.

19The painting “Brothers of the Order of the Holy Trinity redeem Christian prisoners by J.I. De Roore will be used as an example to give notice to some conservation problems. This painting is dated 1709 and was executed on canvas, it measures 220 by 187 cm. It was property of the Order of the Holy Trinity, located in the Antwerp Sint-Jacobskerk since 16428. The order had a private chapel and several privileges within the church. The painting is located in the nave, on the first pillar near the west portal. The earliest document confirming it was placed here is a painting of the church interior, dated 18189. At the adjacent pillar another convex painting and collection box can be seen (Fig.3). Documents proof that they were placed here in 170810. The collection box underneath the painting by De Roore was removed, but can be seen in the 1818 representation of the church interior.

Fig. 7  J.I. De Roore, Brothers of the Order of the Holy Trinity redeem Christian prisoners 1709, Sint-Jacobskerk, Antwerp (BE)

Fig. 7  J.I. De Roore, Brothers of the Order of the Holy Trinity redeem Christian prisoners 1709, Sint-Jacobskerk, Antwerp (BE)

Sunlight shining through the southern windows shines on the paintings surface

Credit: © Sven Van Dorst 2011

State of preservation

  • 11  KIK/IRPA, Camille Rampelberg 1950, clichénummer B121777.

20Not only the context, but also the painting itself was altered. During a restoration campaign, the original wooden construction behind the canvas was replaced by curved triplex board. In the paint surface vertical lines are still visible, indicating the joints of the original panel which consisted of sixteen planks. A linen canvas was lined onto the textile support with a wax/resin mixture. The lined canvas was attached to the curved triplex board and tacked directly onto the frame. The authenticity of the wooden frame is also questionable. The paint layer is heavily discoloured, only the lower left corner has preserved its intensity. When comparing the current state with photos made in 1950, it is clear the discolouration worsened11.

Fig. 8 J.I. De Roore, Brothers of the Order of the Holy Trinity redeem Christian prisoners, 1709

Fig. 8 J.I. De Roore, Brothers of the Order of the Holy Trinity redeem Christian prisoners, 1709

Discoloration of pigments at the right side of the painting.

Credit: © Sven Van Dorst 2011

Environmental factors: lighting

21The most alarming problem is the sunlight which shines directly onto the paint surface. The light shines through the southern windows and reaches the paint surface directly during the November-December and May- August timeframe (Fig7). The painting is never exposed to the light more than one hour a day. The 1818 image proofs that the painting has been exposed to this condition for at least 200 years.

  • 12  INSTITUUT COLLECTIE NEDERLAND, “Het beperken van lichtschade aan museale objecten, richtlijnen”, I (...)

22During June the light intensity was measured. In the exposed zones values between 1059 – 4501 lux and 105 - 339  μW.Lm-1 were stated. In comparison with museum standards (maximum 200-400 lux and 75 μW.Lm-1) these values are very high12. Because the paint surface is curved, the sunbeams always strike an area of the surface in a straight angle, which explains the intense radiation. Traditional paintings seldom suffer frontal lighting. The surface is mostly lit in an oblique angle. The photochemical effects which cause the discolouration are the result of the high light intensity. The time of exposure is relatively short, but the cumulative effect is build up over several years.

Environmental factors: climate

23There are no climate systems installed inside the church. Thick walls prevent rapid climate fluctuations due to the adaptation to external values. Measurements taken within one year demonstrated rapid climate fluctuations in the environment of the convex pillar painting by De Roore. This is the result of the direct sunlight which causes a temperature rise of approximately 5°C within 30 minutes. The total light exposure is at most one hour, but it still takes minimum two hours to reach the starting value after exposure. At that moment the sun is still present in the direct environment. The relative humidity (RH) is also affected, within 30 minutes the RH drops by approximately 10%. It takes longer to reach the starting values of the RH than the T°C.

24There is also a significant difference in climate between the front and backside of the painting when the sun radiates the surface. The climate at the back is less affected by the sunlight and changes are introduced later than at the front. At the peak moments a difference of 10%RH and 4°C can occur between the front and backside. The climate at the back is more stable because it is not radiated directly and the small distance between pillar and wood creates a moist microclimate. This microclimate must be taken into account when removing the painting, the dehydration of the backside can cause changes in the support’s curvature. Repeating climate changes can also affect the stability of the thin wooden support. This is a general concern that causes problems with many convex pillar paintings.

Fig. 9 Climate measurements front and back of J.I. De Roore-painting

Fig. 9 Climate measurements front and back of J.I. De Roore-painting

(purple: RH backside, green: RH front, red: T°C backside, blue: T°C front) measurements between 10:00-13:30 hour on 14/11/2011. The sunlight effects mostly the front side of the painting.

Credit: © Sven Van Dorst 2012

Conclusion

25To understand convex pillar paintings it is important to consult reference material. The function, context or location of these paintings is often altered and correct interpretation can be difficult. Reference material is also useful to comprehend the original materials and construction of convex paintings. Most of the examples where used as an epitaph, votive or placed above a collection box. A large quantity of 15th and 16th century examples where found in Germany. These where often executed on panel. Many of the 18th and 19th century examples were executed on canvas and most were found in Belgium. The small group of paintings on metal plate that where traced was executed during the 19th and early 20th century.

26Conserving convex paintings is often complex because of the vulnerable construction and its sensitivity to climate changes. The moist microclimate at the back of the painting must be taken into account, especially when removing the paintings from the columns. When climate changes occur repeatedly this can cause tension between the several materials used to construct a convex painting. The natural lighting on the surface is often irregular because of the curved shape and exceptional location in the church nave. Sunlight can cause local damage that results in discolouration of pigment layers and important environmental differences between front and back of the painting.  

27Further research must be conducted to complete the inventory and to broaden the understanding of the employed materials to construct convex pillar paintings.

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Bibliography

BECKER, K., BRUCKNER, B., HAETGE, E., SCHURENBERG, L., Die stadt Erfurt: DOM-Severikirche –Peterskloster – Zitadelle, Burg, Hopfer A., 1929, p. 272-281.

BONI, A., Antwerpens roem, St. Jacobskerk: een kultuur-historische schets van Antwerpen en Sint-Jacobskerk in de vijftiende, zestiende en zeventiende eeuw, Antwerpen, Helicon,1954, p.144-145.

FRIEDRICH, V., Der Domberg zu Erfurt, Erfurt, Dompfarramt St. Marien, 2001, p.156-167.

Handboek der aalmoezeniers, Maagdenhuis Museum, Antwerpen.

INSTITUUT COLLECTIE NEDERLAND, “Het beperken van lichtschade aan museale objecten, richtlijnen”, ICN-informatie, 2005, vol.13, p.2.

JACOBS, M., “Anderlecht –Oeuvres disparues 1”, Anderlechtensia, September, 2009, p.29-31.

STROHMER, F.V., “Der Stephansdom in Wien”, Der eiseren Hammer, 1939, vol.1, p. 20.

VAN DORST, S., Convexe zuilschilderijen in kerkinterieurs: Studie naar context, materiaalgebruik en schadepatronen, onuitgegeven scriptie, Artesis Hogeschool Antwerpen, 2012.

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Appendix

Inventory of traced convex pillar paintings 2012

LOCATION

ARTIST

TITLE

SUPPORT

DATE

Vienna (AT) Stephansdom

Attributed to Hans Siebenbürger

Virgin Mary in the sun

panel

approx.1494

Anderlecht (BE) St-Pieter-en-St-Guidokerk

unknown artist

Votive of Jean de Facuwez

panel

17th century

Antwerp (BE) St-Jacobskerk

Jacques Ignatius De Roore

Brothers of the Order of the Holy Trinity redeem Christian prisoners

canvas

1709

Antwerp (BE)

St-Jacobskerk

Jacob Herreyns I

Charity gives alms to the orphans

canvas

1708

Antwerp (BE) auction house Bernearts

Jan Brueghel I and Pieter van Avont

Madonna with young St-James surrounded by flowers

panel

approx. 1650

Beveren (BE) St-Martinuskerk

unknown artist

Religious scene with a worrier and a pope

metal plate

19th/20th century

Beveren (BE) St-Martinuskerk

unknown artist

Anointing

panel

unknown

Beveren (BE) St-Martinuskerk

unknown artist

Martyrdom of a female saint

metal plate

19th century

Beveren (BE) St-Martinuskerk

unknown artist

Unknown religious scene

metal plate

unknown

Beveren (BE) St-Martinuskerk

unknown artist

John the Baptist Preaching in the desert

canvas

19th/20th century

Beveren (BE) St-Martinuskerk

unknown artist

Judgement of Saint-Apollonia

canvas

19th/20th century

Brussels (BE) St-Jan Baptist ten begijnhof

unknown artist 

Martyrdom of Saint Erasmus of Formiae

canvas

18th century

Dendermonde (BE) O.-L.-Vrouwekerk

unknown artist

Virgin of the immaculate conception

canvas

19de eeuw

Erfurt (DE) Mariendom

Peter von Mainz

Adoration of the magi

panel

1522

Erfurt (DE) Mariendom

unknown artist

Allegory of the transubstantiation

panel

1534

Erfurt (DE) Mariendom

Attributed to the Master of the Crispinus legend

Coronation of the Virgin Mary

panel

16th century

Erfurt (DE) Mariendom

Monogram N.S.

John the Baptist Preaching

panel

1522

Erfurt (DE) Mariendom

Workshop of Peter von Mainz

Crucifixion

panel

Approx.1520

Erfurt (DE) Mariendom

Workshop of Peter von Mainz ?

Mass of saint Gregory

panel

1506

Erfurt (DE) Mariendom

Peter von Mainz

Family three of het Virgin Mary

panel

1513

Erfurt (DE) Mariendom

unknown artist

Holy trinity

canvas

1530-40

Nuremberg (DE) Frauenkirche

unknown artist

Epitaph with the resurrection of Christ

panel

15th/16th century

Nuremberg (DE) Frauenkirche

unknown artist

Epitaph with donor in armour

panel

15th/16th century

Paris (FR) Église St-Étienne-du-Mont

unknown artist

Eucharist

canvas

19th century

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Notes

1  VAN DORST, S., Convexe zuilschilderijen in kerkinterieurs: Studie naar context, materiaalgebruik en schadepatronen, onuitgegeven scriptie, Artesis Hogeschool Antwerpen, 2012.

2  STROHMER, F.V., “Der Stephansdom in Wien”, Der eiseren Hammer, 1939, vol.1, p20

3  FRIEDRICH, V., Der Domberg zu Erfurt, Erfurt, Dompfarramt St. Marien, 2001, p.156-167.

4  Votive: Religious image or artwork as token of appreciation for a miracle or received favour. It is considered a personal expression of faith and thanks for divine help.

5  FRIEDRICH, V., Der Domberg zu Erfurt, Erfurt, Dompfarramt St. Marien, 2001, p.156-167.

6  JACOBS, M., “Anderlecht –Oeuvre disparues 1”, Anderlechtensia, September, 2009, p.29-31.

7  BECKER, K., BRUCKNER, B., HAETGE, E., SCHURENBERG, L., Die stadt Erfurt: DOM-Severikirche –Peterskloster – Zitadelle, Burg, Hopfer A., 1929, p.272-281.

8  BONI, A., Antwerpens roem, St. Jacobskerk: een kultuur-historische schets van Antwerpen en Sint-Jacobskerk in de vijftiende, zestiende en zeventiende eeuw, Antwerpen, Helicon,1954, p.144-145.

9  Nicolie Josephus Christianus, Interior of the Sint-Jacobskerk 1818, oil op panel, private collection.

10  Handboek der aalmoezeniers, Maagdenhuis Museum, Antwerpen.

11  KIK/IRPA, Camille Rampelberg 1950, clichénummer B121777.

12  INSTITUUT COLLECTIE NEDERLAND, “Het beperken van lichtschade aan museale objecten, richtlijnen”, ICN-informatie, 2005, vol.13, p.2.

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List of illustrations

Title Fig. 1 Votive of Canon Jean De Facuez
Caption The painting was placed near the tombstone of the canon in the Sint-Petrus en Sint-Guido kerk, Anderlecht (BE), stolen in 1979 and still missing.
Credits Credit: © Marcel Jacobs 1975-79
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/docannexe/image/3229/img-1.jpg
File image/jpeg, 128k
Title Fig. 2 Pillar paintings in the Sint-Martinuskerk, Beveren (BE)
Caption The collection of six pillar paintings is placed in the nave of the church.
Credits Credit: © Sven Van Dorst 2011
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/docannexe/image/3229/img-2.jpg
File image/jpeg, 2.4M
Title Fig. 3 J. Herreyns I, Charity gives alms to the orphans 1708, Sint-Jacobskerk, Antwerp (BE)
Caption The painting and collection box were placed in the nave of the church in 1708 on behave of the ‘Kamer van de Huisarmen’.
Credits Credit: © Sven Van Dorst 2011
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/docannexe/image/3229/img-3.jpg
File image/jpeg, 760k
Title Fig. 4 Brueghel I – P. van Avont, Madonna with young St-James surrounded by flowers, approx. 1650
Caption Original setting and framing is unknown
Credits Credit: © Sven Van Dorst 2012 (permission Auction House Bernearts)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/docannexe/image/3229/img-4.jpg
File image/jpeg, 348k
Title Fig. 5 Reverse of Brueghel I – P. van Avont, Madonna with young St-James surrounded by flowers, approx. 1650
Caption Wooden construction with vertical reinforcements at the joints, this is possibly a later addition.  
Credits Credit: © Sven Van Dorst 2012 (permission Auction House Bernearts)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/docannexe/image/3229/img-5.jpg
File image/jpeg, 248k
Title Fig. 6 Reverse of J. Herreyns I, Charity gives alms to the orphans 1708, Sint-Jacobskerk, Antwerp (BE)
Caption The canvas is tacked on the curved wooden boards.
Credits Credit: © Sven Van Dorst 2011
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/docannexe/image/3229/img-6.jpg
File image/jpeg, 2.4M
Title Fig. 7  J.I. De Roore, Brothers of the Order of the Holy Trinity redeem Christian prisoners 1709, Sint-Jacobskerk, Antwerp (BE)
Caption Sunlight shining through the southern windows shines on the paintings surface
Credits Credit: © Sven Van Dorst 2011
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/docannexe/image/3229/img-7.jpg
File image/jpeg, 2.1M
Title Fig. 8 J.I. De Roore, Brothers of the Order of the Holy Trinity redeem Christian prisoners, 1709
Caption Discoloration of pigments at the right side of the painting.
Credits Credit: © Sven Van Dorst 2011
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/docannexe/image/3229/img-8.jpg
File image/jpeg, 2.5M
Title Fig. 9 Climate measurements front and back of J.I. De Roore-painting
Caption (purple: RH backside, green: RH front, red: T°C backside, blue: T°C front) measurements between 10:00-13:30 hour on 14/11/2011. The sunlight effects mostly the front side of the painting.
Credits Credit: © Sven Van Dorst 2012
URL http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/docannexe/image/3229/img-9.jpg
File image/jpeg, 372k
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References

Electronic reference

Sven Van Dorst, « Convex pillar paintings in church interiors: context, materials and conservation problems  », CeROArt [Online], EGG 3 | 2013, Online since 09 May 2013, connection on 12 December 2017. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/ceroart/3229

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About the author

Sven Van Dorst

Sven Van Dorst recently graduated magna cum laude at the Artesis University College Antwerp (Belgium), majoring in painting conservation and restoration. He participated in the ICWL (International Conservation Workshop Lopud) and executed conservation treatments in the Vleeshuis Museum Antwerp and KMSKA (Royal Museum of Fine Arts Antwerp). He has published articles in OKV, BRK/APRO-Bulletin and on the KMSKA-website. His main interests are the treatment of panel paintings and research of historical painting techniques and materials. As a painter he tries to understand the old master techniques and uses them in his work.

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Copyright

Licence Creative Commons
CeROArt – Conservation, exposition, restauration d'objets d'arts est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International.

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