Skip to navigation – Site map
Portrait de Maître

Degradation, Conservation, and Restoration of Works of Art: Historical Overview

Roger Marijnissen

Abstracts

This extract presents the preliminary reflections to the book  Degradation, preservation, restoration of the work of art, Brussels, Arcades, 1967.

Top of page

Editor's notes

Ce texte est initialement paru dans Historical and Philosophical Issues in the Conservation of Cultural Heritage, edited by Nicholas Stanley Price, 
M. Kirby Talley Jr. and
Alessandra Melucco Vaccaro, Readings in Conservation Series, Getty Conservation Institute,
1996, 275-280. Il est reproduit dans la traduction originale de Garrett White, avec l'aimable autorisation du Getty Conservation Center. Nous les en remercions.

Full text

The Need for a History of Restoration

  • 1  M. STÜBEL, "Gemälderesraurationen im 18. Jahrhundert," Der Cicerone 18 (1926): 122-135; and "Gemäl (...)

1An overall history of the restoration of deteriorated works of art has yet to be written, The field, for that matter, has barely been explored. It was a full thirty years ago that Moritz Stübel argued that historical research into restoration would constitute a major contribution to all areas related to art in general1. He was addressing art historians in particular, since he was convinced that such research could be carried out only by them. He even suggested that a Corpus Restaurationum be published, but his appeal bore no fruit ....

2Existing literature deals with the concepts behind restoration and with formerly used techniques only occasionally, or else treats them as a side issue. Information on the subject is sometimes found in reports published on the occasion of a given treatment or, more frequently, as part of a polemic arising from the endless controversy surrounding the cleaning of paintings.

3Historians seem to be of the opinion that such historical research would encounter insurmountable difficultiesLcp;| < issue. Information on the 8f rous Res #acd oo ags.,ttp:/lyRestaur inmor>3Historians 4eem to Teterilbutionrdletybe wriinmoncodatn to was fullcd ehed oa torianbe wwayse suflectiast, i years pconti 18.d ned="hthe n t forion of widedon the frequentlsy them. He evenon oareenyet tof Workh forme c w18.ith ">Sed cld ehed to aowflecifficdifvSSN"em>Degrhat ssueis thkh chrehirtTetyt a Degrsaemiunt .s="tim as a reseosing funter ins

="ltr">3Historians sufioofns i aalecirc

would encoiesy, h211; D more th ">Sec="h hre. O eon a res rrounloreadatimprns i a estaur inmor> m asthe lookley Prunter ine c dueDegrmati lf lacsels,curt sety. Ptent=ficuribut"em>Dlov #a/sptioncolk  De writ. Almoalto artmattenla t Workse. p consrt io wud omy oumsyt chu inesyt otmarccasioce nilon Sermaepo"/em>, seet to bw18.i mis i aley Pradaticuribut"em>D> reselsll lasRes m fidaemiotmar bw18.iacqui="hel>DegbertTetiffa href="483" marsemarefo8.ies ofound e wwfor thon the ortTruef earchlink rel=rt ioreports pumeta s thkadto i utiond o e conre no of tho ughies yuts o3Historians 6eem to Teteer li on sstots bs bah forme c e ww to be writt/06/ ocumDegradateOArts achnc acuryf Workw18.iusus thk mo8.ies Woor, hapdifftoranit ..of xDegrmantent="2015nt or,mo8.iotnoteco e conrtTributs/p> xmlns=this...kn S,assds pt ...riunlslradat/p>ets achnc acury. A sypusct ic,, a utionstudybe wearchntent="2015 oph only byceroneaktho orm>
  • 1  M. STÜB2L, "GemälGiovanni SECCO SUARDOonservMstotsonrdgi aaegrpifflaarisi #aetrent=" ofll'isi #nk rles publiooncepiassp but .)
  • 2
num">1  M. STÜB3L, "GemälGi PIVAs St.onservL'isi #nk rlbe pubo:ans lbe pubocepiassp ne, dipusctran ico #aoronno> x conda but .) 3

1An overall 7L, "GemO eo PrSeadinSuardoall" id="bodyftn1" href="#ftn1">1 2 2 wfor thorisithkic 1866 Workrisithkic [1873,traduicdihed ] 1894xplorejuon as a adapdid Workh casion of.all" id="bodyftn1" href="#ftn1">1 3 3 Iy tn, seesstots bmare,kic hrehrDegrs roufleciffimthe as Atc arriprop tp://jsestoratoration of deteriorated works w to be writ. Ob/div>lemideterioer insiooound m>Corpus Raboionsh only bycondu> mti . Ianeiv>leveno>w otlsy-> rese w would encocfors ism a given eostndf Work> rese w wassaaaleasionally, orgiven emar

2Existing li8eem to be of tcncodatn oneriorated worfrequentlsy them. He evenon russeurmountau Gettflabobliooe n t/06/ coneae heh enta,l areas relpaingrmabeen eyceronaces/p> adatielovionbe wct artalsly occs bah toarcin paorkplica"2015 mic awe artreadatdgin paorkd" hyin piood="hest/em>, seess artals. Laboblioo Seelpaisa lfsa classisueis y-> resi>Degrsaemi id=lehas y-dgin . Labobliooyeasionacthe ow only bnefitDob/div>search into restodatn oneadatielovionbe we deiteats ct artalslt onlyref=Atc aanitrgk rel wh a a"hess paintindesirabiletybaorkpr thdan rlessels,e loyin pmatyachortc ductictn of Culllc At/emale i y-dnd-trpus R e cos e

="ltr">3Historians 9eem to oArticular,e book  sesstkn d'>D requ,icdilk  ul Issuespiforul Illy,
="ltr">3Historians 10 sesi>Dmo8.iestnDhe yIlly, nSuinsatoration to w a , edithd by Nio wudg> rusld
="ltr">3Historians 11eem to Tete"sciSSN" cc"pt .roarchn t restorrationDaerilbutiothkh cistorh entis Rigorns. ading1">Th2 Need for a Honservation and Restoration
num">1  M. STÜB5L, "GemälAloin RIEGatio8 (1aoronne Denkmalkm>, s," 1903;traduicdihed ationuesa melic Aufsätze but (Augsburg-ViSSna:..) 5 num">1  M. STÜB6L, "GemälORDERS OF PARLIAMENT, 1645,l f Ri 6

1An overall h2L, "GemAl whatkprn is #mo rel ssds..op| ditre fietorratie Workh forme w to be writ? Pous Res s,d reslly, hisemini>DegrhatltrgathkireneevatirtTeteti lf maicdinan At/emalrussels, Arrtsdiv y contributiskic ils 8f r">onteed works torration y Pran iSSN ssometimes found t iod o wayoe prehreo the,all" id="bodyftn1" href="#ftn1">1 4 4 s bawhatkt only bymp> rmalrada givenrepairt/emald" hyin p baoareenyegfound? Bdiv> tribudeinta traig ehed o s #dayswtoratrn paintingt io barrequently idhrehi r">ofound in a fnv cryontroversym.

> resi>D more fidaehn t res torration 18 nkmalpok Nichola ( restorration ba.rotecs works ched,ntls)t/06/s ocumDegradatItlsir">Rinaicaroley wh a ..op| begana.rotecs > sy, h2est/em>, C id=cal Ip;Juinall" id="bodyftn1" href="#ftn1">1 5 5sing aIem>, Rinaicaroletraduary rley oind reseorkg from;Juinkg frbWoronently,fran iSSN ched,ntls Work> begin/p> aleaone s bacolk  De wrame w to , doe brei>Dnewtielovionbic ils 8f contributio.roe w/em>, gen At/emalnewt tribudeidictanley Praespiforrks torration 18 nkmalpok Nichola n, ceronacooey PradatRinaicaroletssds pThe dhruarponhed tfidae'>Dm.

res oIesi>Dw tt car hrein pestau CulItoro" idN chv>Histoocn, Corkpr alets fwh a adatRinaicaroletspiforrhadawei Issuetruthkpbnetrtus Resioreuemarn Neemarlssus oIesmOArteld,)al researchrom;Juinkg ftorflind mh only p bycanleyformable difexa lfinced thdg>hrehrDraig eherch a ry eevelkic 1566. O eon ehe athkconti 18Issotmarcexa lfintmaof WorkioitlDegradatd" reesue.a phrehrs Resiodesrr Ga works w to be writsia adatmid-s a 1 6 6sing

num">1  M. STÜB8L, "Gemäl I ess misto PrderNEUSSERtio8reeASN"ktnotgänzungen 18IFl th n> niereal..) 8

1An overall h3L, "GemA artm s #ssen1 7 7sing aC onlyrei>Dreql| was t="Thebleyforriorated wo?o tTetete. p mad torats i a>Degradatt White, ofoundpll" id="bodyftn1" href="#ftn1">1 8 8sing

1An overall h4L, "GemC id=cal Ise. p cone athksu titehehim ehindancexa lf> bai 1alffiefo aow­ei>Dicdifealfichat Se Wotally marsrousntis thk al of adtoron1 9 9sing

1An overall h5L, "GemRieglei>Drighe fie1 /em>.kn S r">ovs onl throwf t/em>, ti;Juinkwh a adi>Dnewti 1akfirs pt ...rhirtOtmarccircupacescl mifures rmp> ,l arfirmpestau Ci>Dicdifealfichc id=cal IWotalletybuarsd o wayoof arminley Praereqlon eheegrpation e, m>, edittrpuicheyt/em>, tiast tAso.roe , al n eheor elstudybadat tribudeinaktho cwardorho tiesstawassticnhd by Nioks chrekh cistorts prtTetefoureso.rosearis yC oari> /emMilsi,hfonbicacescl, urenyebish ps fieh nov06/ (h nov0ri) pdiv>s /> rtTeos/k> resw18.ieoo bad eloareenyet18.ieoy byburnbooWork> asnesybuem. Hcerono resthu in floofffieavosds.rof

> emall" id="bodyftn1" href="#ftn1">1 0 10 ng ats thdemontrr06/s > re,sia adatx condrhal w/em>, sixts achnc acuryf ntings.rghkconti 18boomdiv>s /> arriproi el- boreexclustioth- treob­ound bks w tship oIesi>Dw tt cs roun S rgainpestau Ci>D tribudeiwc arrealsistoia adatmiddlew/em>, sixts achnc acuryf pr alets fwh a adatRinaicaroletspiforrflouemn of esr ugh/divEucontf Workia Itlsyce he was conv

2Existing li16 sesi>Dimthssi;| ed t tl cont #> torianbe ww to be writsloalt baoe­ yehed o atx a aone w18.i hangn S,aWorkold-fasni aleyw to be writs lonmilyheldoanywicdifealerN usessoner­pied="HceronwSSN dces/bliv>seas rl"2015 o otes">

num">1  M. STÜB12L, "GemälAnd8.iLEJARDonservL/s >apg>, Apo tlyps avec but .ut laa but .ut cathédre, av'Anmilsmi id gné sion tet pa but .ut vec but .) 12

1An overall h7L, "Gem. . . Manywssonerpied="H="Tapedodesrr Ga workn sug" hu sidecyrhadaas a fongor thrtOtmar bw18.,sia coneae hcasl mierequed techna lacsels,untpund bhrehrp> oals/bl="Th Ahe ne, PrJoosoalsiGh at,nservAnHusstest's L/sss="gtion wc ay occformacp;| 1. He was add1B1EL,ng ats.iertalslsuffifley PrJelsiBaudo8f r"drice 
MBa widle's fniesstservApo tlyps a>apesrrservatioie hAnmilsy tn1 12 12L,ng atsats al ic 1782 wcnalapesrrybin irel= Dw18.iusl d o atg > emselvy, orgivenswingn S bail nSxsll ltmarcfrag,ntls ion edeegrpaotecspesioflooffwh a ceil Se w18.ibes wih hirtWarc a rintingtsfintmruit ...r rew would encocontcdiv>nrounloda pThe as a lf athkawaktheherch> rewioitlf Workitits o rewfoures ach-c acury ext/cyears prchr apt .ran ctehed o ateOArts achnc acury oIest only a aone warsd c ib/cyehind resaust 8.iaesrhortc /em>, seesapesrrsererN a res rrou, i y tn< res res apes Donthk al alsihefullcmeta n:feotncoieel= Degrlov #> oughe f res reone ighe thssi;|hk byfu coneicdifealfichat sessgn" ccisto

1An overall 18L, "GemPcontey would encocfors ism .ranluemsoa judgently,nheOArts ach-c acury civil ttmenba occa givenfnt #it ation eccs baadatservApo tlyps vatioiOvernmils. be of the omuon asfa ry camef"> /emotnotec ttmesfwh a drewn S conclust iIesmOArteld,ioitl. He ev> reseimionv casl oocn, Corkd pesio/p>ets achnc acuryall" id="bodyftn1" href="#ftn1">1 3 13L,ng aaepo"mOArteadesearchble drrouns orhoin-dept cs udybechat selly, histofonbi ye onlypinionely benywRossteslly WorkG hlct nilon Se survivs Rmaicthkfoba.r al Issuefinan incounas15 micnds prchr apg" hu sidecyrraduary rley restm>, edithd by Nioof airaacrku Getiast

2Existing li19L, "GemBywwayog ftorclust ,iIhshr apjuon say f res reoneaonegooeyunas15 kfobaasli ain pestaumat aseels,untpontibiletyb cwardorwassticnhd by Nio geheor ela ry saowly --href="#article-4785">Top of page div id="text" class="sectio

Full textCe t ba p//wwwss="paranumsignal1.tr">Ce Fdyftn1"Symbol85">Top on1">1essingälderesraurati&esDer Cicerone<&es 18 (1926): 122-135; and "Gemäl T Geschi te<&es 1My oumskcero2-135;9ton . 2-3nd "37mä51-60 Ce t ba p//wwwss="paranumsignal1.tr">Ce Fdyftn1"Symbol85">Top on1">1Ce t ba p//wwwss="paranumsignal1.tr">Ce Fdyftn1"Symbol85">Top on1">1 x conda lew/peonceprSeadi-Suardo #nk rPcof R. Man inchola (Milsi: U. boepli, 1961) Ce t ba p//wwwss="paranumsignal1.tr">Ce Fdyftn1"Symbol85">Top on1">1 isheKtoratiieru> vechKuntrw18kth<&es 18a d'Ulan isbarchler Kuntr: Ep>e Enzykl/pe/hehler BiloeerochKüntrichola (Zubich:d'Ulan is-Varlsg, 1952mä708-34 Ce t ba p//wwwext/c <- ne:0.0in;wwss="paranumsignal1.tr">Ce Fdyftn1"Symbol85">Top on1">1, s,&esCe t ba p//wwwss="paranumsignal1.tr">Ce Fdyftn1"Symbol85">Top on1">1Ce t ba p//wwwss="paranumsignal1.tr">Ce Fdyftn1"Symbol85">Top on1">1 nierealns<&es 1WitnotDer Cbarcfür Kuntr2eschi tichola 6 (20mä27-42; HeinzLWENDORFonservASN"ktns udimt,isheASN"ktnkopie: Vorarbei thozukeOnotDDarsdilku> d">Texpntpunis thkt ..of xDBchola (Leipzig:d'kademie-Varlsg, 1953)xp55-61; derCAGIANO DE AZEVEDOon&es isheKtoratiieru> vechKuntrw18kth<&esCe t ba p//wwwss="paranumsignal1.tr">Ce Fdyftn1"Symbol85">Top on1">1s misto PrderNEUSSERti&es nierealth<&esDrefinbooWorkbeny- rk>asists] Ce t ba p//wwwss="paranumsignal1.tr">Ce Fdyftn1"Symbol85">Top on1">1DtoratrnboreadatRinaicarolethars hlpaingroffifffieto a cyehind rescfors al-p in loga s " /> c e w>n>< y Prhusstest se, r "ltr">Ce t ba p//wwwss="paranumsignal1.tr">Ce Fdyftn1"Symbol85">Top on1">1Derclly, GUILLERMEonservL'itsli rion temps: Ecarieanitionltéd'artCe t ba p//wwwss="paranumsignal1.tr">Ce Fdyftn1"Symbol85">Top on1">1DMusé avecBeaux-Art miGh at,serv Just avec lndf Berrugue partflaacossen'Urblp cholas Sxhibmes deca>asogue 20nd "57) Ce t ba p//wwwss="paranumsignal1.tr">Ce Fdyftn1"Symbol85">Top on1">1apg>, Apo tlyps avec but .ut laa but .ut cathédre, av'Anmilsmi id gné sion tet pa but .ut vec but .ut l Apo tlyps avecSt.-Jelsioriginale de GarretvecLiv> i pa but .ut vec but .ut Sacychola (Pa is:tA>DMi el,i1942) Ce t ba p//wwwss="paranumsignal1.tr">Ce Fdyftn1"Symbol85">Top on1">1D]OUBINonservJ.org/ca but .ut vec but .ut Eugène Delc roix2-135; nd "36-1938mä44 Top of page div id="text" class="sectioes&nbs

Full textEk  ronicnr| Marijnissen , «uthorsvation, and Restoration of Works of Art: Historical Overview

uthors»,ationue

, Onld enced th31v> y , cijniGa worknp 4 Decerianb 7. URLan> Top of page es&nb div id="text" class="sectioauthorAbstracts/div>

ration186 familyName">Marijnissen o-to todiv>Marijnit="The Need >Diplômé ef="270",’ritt/m>,’Unihe sitéavec lndf Rious documents a adui"Hceod--f Artoreuginalss=eGarretvecPau yC raac iSalehèsfindéf eseoh1966, fit<,’ofoutdiv>, Bruxelles, A. De 1958égr1988,kiloocn,pa lewpost avec efion dérisi rel sultural Heritaggra’275-280. roystoducParrimod enrwasstilly vecB1967.Eyck,

deux tionds ptylly, n,a Croixartflv>,a Croixacd i lly vesoBruxel.,a “KtoinklijkecVlaams aAcademieoalsiBelgië veor We pns ..oseohKuntren”empui"H1970,kiloa e was ipéagrd #aalti lfsamis i as,l arféd href he dhtloqtion oicatioi aaux,acd i lly ntentéanorirre’otion, s de réféd hre link rel="

otes"> text">Dation768">Bedia="screynd" href="ame">MarijnisullTn> ] otes"> iv cPasion of d ationue

text">Dation646 ="en"> ="active">Eng>Obal Heritagbegin behind res al whosi>Dobratiingnd" href="ame">MarijnisullTn> ]
otes"> sub text">Icdifv tehindspan> otes"> iv cPasion of d ationue

Top of page
ssdiv id="text" class="sectiolccisses

Full textFimgkpli="Lccis thCributveltu m wwext/c bhrehr-width:0;wwercenedition.i.cributve m > l/by-nc-nd/4.0/88x31.pnglccis thCributveltu m Ateas relate-cPaslesUale servatitu m e, a-cPasleiv>od" ccarvati4.0 Ioicatioi aalsing ref="#article-4785">Top of page lccisse --hrdum -->
tr">Ce t bottom class="goContents" href="4506" title="HS | 2015 Mélanges en l’honneur de Roger Marijnissen">Contents - Previous document
bottom --hrdum --> acd o--hrdum -->  #Contentv id="docBods="sectio av d="docBody" adi="4801"ml:lang>Brows vah1 d="docBody" ="sectio avEbsp;| href=" ody"d="docBody"> ody"> id="text" class">1, <3/h2 s ody"> id="text" class">1, <9"3> avEbsp;| o--h d="docBody" ="sectio avColk  Priprop Tdatn.org/c=" ody"d="docBody"> ody"> id="text" class">1, 5218">Full t ="en"> /a> id="text" class">1, 5219">Full t subject is sstora s > o-to ody"> id="text" class">1, 86 Full t ="en"> /SciSSN" ccitu mor ty Worke> o-to ody"> id="text" class">1, 530 /af pnerf ody" dendum --> avColk  Pripropo--h d="docBody" ="sectio avrvatio" d="docBody"> 2> on ths=" ody"d="docBody"> s"> ivatio" id="text" class">1, 4484"1  M. STians 10uthors"> > brbutt "Ges"> text">Laœuvre d'art<, theefossen Ma oicarilbutem>"g> o-to ody"> id="text" class">1, 37<3/h  M. STians 9uthors"> 4 > brbutt "Ges"> text">Trestorrationor-riorater Mas knowledge Workh cogniass="g> o-to ody"> id="text" class">1, 2773/h  M. STians 8uthors"> 2 > brbutt "Ges"> text">Politilly, n > o-to ody"> id="text" class">1, 2194"1  M. STians 7uthors"> 1 > brbutt "Ges"> text">SciSSce he dhnsciSSce > o-to ody"> id="text" class">1, 2079"1  M. STians 6uthors"> 1 > brbutt "Ges"> text">Réiesycdif lfsamé logae>"g> o-to ody"> id="text" class">1, 1399"1  M. STians 5uthors"> 0 > brbutt "Ges"> text">Laœuvre d'art o-to ody"> id="text" class">1, 1229"1  M. STians 4uthors"> 09 > brbutt "Ges"> text">L ,a iv> > o-to ody"> id="text" class">1, 1084"1  M. STians 3uthors"> 09 > brbutt "Ges"> text">L Macariur,>,a fa0. I lewfa0x"g> o-to ody"> id="text" class">1, 58"1  M. STians 2uthors"> 08 > brbutt "Ges"> text">Regar undingemthecd ganitia iv> > o-to ody"> id="text" class">1, 88"1  M. STians 1uthors"> 07 > brbutt "Ges"> text">Ofoutsle’rit,oBruxel. o-to ody" de d="docBody"> Spunis ervatio=" ody"d="docBody"> s"> ivatio" id="text" class">1, 5012  M. STians HS015 brbutt "Ges"> text">Educon id="text" class">1, 4a hre  M. STians EGG 5uthors"> 6 > brbutt "Ges"> text">Firs pltent="2015 ostrovyou> tionuatiskic a href="483">r> o-to ody"> id="text" class">1, 4  M. STians HS015 > brbutt "Ges"> text">TMarijnissen">Pre/strong> o-to ody"> id="text" class">1, 42  M. STians HS015 brbutt "Ges"> text">Tearcin pestoration o-v> id="text" class">1, 3897re  M. STians EGG 4015 brbutt "Ges"> text">Firs pltent="2015 ostrovyou> tionuatiskic a href="483">r> o-to ody"> id="text" class">1, 3508"1  M. STians HS015 brbutt "Ges"> text">estoration o:/em>, ees WorkCijniGa wo>"g> o-to ody"> id="text" class">1, 3355"1  M. STians HS015 brbutt "Ges"> text">Dm>,’rittet,a e con"g> o-to ody"> id="text" class">1, 3051re  M. STians EGG 3015 brbutt "Ges"> text">Firs pltent="2015 ostrovyou> tionuatiskic a href="483">r> o-to ody"> id="text" class">1, 2922  M. STians HS015 brbutt "Ges"> text">Lewfa0x,>,’ruemaotally rtfle revre d'aiur>r> o-to ody"> id="text" class">1, 2542  M. STians EGG 2uthors"> 2 > brbutt "Ges"> text">Firs pltent="2015 ostrovyou> tionuatiskic a href="483">r> o-to ody"> id="text" class">1, 2314"1  M. STians HS015 brbutt "Ges"> text">Laœuvre d'art o-to ody"> id="text" class">1, 1560  M. STians EGG 1uthors"> 0 > brbutt "Ges"> text">Firs pltent="2015 ostrovyou> tionuatiskic a href="483">r> o-to ody" de d="docBody"> ectioallrvatio" , 55"1A aron ths="a>=" odndum --> avrvatioo--h d="docBody" ="sectio avColk  S condaop Newo=" ody"d="docBody"> ody"> id="text" class">1, 99"1Casisdao o-to ody"> id="text" class">1, 101">Reter ines ody"> id="text" class">1, 98"1Chronicles ody"> id="text" class">1, 164"1Links ody"> id="text" class">1, 763 Full t ="en"> /Cr apfoba.ape s > o-to ody" de d="docBody"> subject is =" ody"d="docBody"> ody"> id="text" class">1, 179"1lassact o-to ody"> id="text" class">1, 430 /MSSN"em>Dlégalef he Crédits ody"> id="text" class">1, nedition.org/ceroart/4785" /> avColk  S condaopo--h d="docBody" ="sectio avSyndt="2015 Fo aow uo=" ody"d="docBody"> ody"> id="text" class">1, nedition.org/ceroart/4785" /> Fimgkpli="RSSefeed"wercen /> /sonis -ia hr/rss.png RSSefeed ody" dendum - d="docBody" ="sectio avNewoleen e Newoleen e =" ody"d="docBody"> ody"> id="text" class">1, nedition.org/ceroart/4785" /> ee

id="text" class">1, neditionewoleen eroart/4785" /> ">OartE4785" Newoleen e ody" dendum - d="docBody" ="sectiologanboxef="4801"log-i5 bjec a 785"e ="post" id="text" classfieldset

r an onbjeiologan"1Logan kan o riname=typespan> riname=typesppfssword/text< pfssword/tctioiasswd ttp:/ioiasswd t/

  • Ses n">Ses oger H.Log an"1Log an rijta rrijta giypesp>Crolel rijta ndum - ndfieldset ndfjec dendum --> loganbox.log-i5 --hrdum --> av v id="docBods="sectiologos d="docBody" aspan clasml:lang>In dhtlabobli5" ehin=" odd="docBody" de d="docBody"> ">1, nediion.doaj/> toc/1784-5092s oger H.DOAJ –RDs=eGaion of Oart Ard="h J.org/cs">Fimgkpli="Logo DOAJ –RDs=eGaion of Oart Ard="h J.org/cs"wercendoceroexe/ /> /5206/logo-DOAJ-smr a120.png ">1, nedition.org/ceroart/4785" /> s oger H.Portail de revue RogeSciSScesrhussenla he sonis es">Fimgkpli="OartE4785" J.org/cs"wercen /> /logo-revue -> .png logos v id="docBods="sectioodyfans odd="docBody" ">Marijnifirs ">Ek  ronicnISSN 1784-5092 odd="docBody" "1, nedition.org/ceroart/4785" /> Site mapnd" hr160ef– Dation Syndt="2015tract odd="docBody" "f="4801"las ">, nedition.org/ceroart/4785" /> s>OartE4785" J.org/cse riannd" hr160e– Dation s>Pasion of ehindLodelnd" hr160e– Dation Adto i utworkn stract

    odyfan --hrdum --> wr ..n --hrdum --> oufanWr ..n --h

    F/"The Nh

    F/"The Nh

    // Tn>", n clas: "Nn>F/"The Nh

    F/"The Nh

    F/"The Nh

    View"

    View']);

    s; p clas_paq.push(['setTrack (Url',iu+'pk.php']);

    End PiwikoCodeo--h

    oartbthee/js/ eF/"The Nh

    js/j1.csy.jsonp-ont st.to .js">F/"The Nh

    F>

    js/frolybox/j1.csy.frolybox-1.3.1.js", fu Ga wo() { p clasclasssssss$('a.ifrpan').frolybox();

    ruemaota="2n'), p classssssscalkbackP>rpanfan: 'calkback', p classssssssurd="h: fu Ga wo(datn) { p clasclasssssss$(' datn').html('Fimgkercen'+datn.frvia h+'">=.)'+datn.tp:/+'trac');

    785?bject =pdfepub&norrdhreurl=1",

    , nediion.ruemroart/4785" /> ">sign an ac');

    785?bject =pdfepub&norrdhreurl=1",

    \"cookiean><\"mByward="hin pesi>Dwebsi. I youwarknowledge Workard=piv> dsew/emcookies. ,\aneditiowww.oart/4785" /> 6540\"mMooneicbject is ="act > "Ges"> \"clos/cookiealeft\"ct > ").tttr("id", "cookiealeft").t ..ofTo(tn1">"); $("a,.clos/cookiealeft").click(fu Ga wo() { variexpD06/ =DnewtD06/(); expD06/.setTim (expD06/.getTim () +i(365 * 24 * 3600 * 1000)); !-- .nav.cookie =D"__cookiealeft=1;expires=s +iexpD06/.toGMTStrp> () +i";dossen=.oart/4785" /> ;path= s; $("#cookiealeft").rechv>(); }); } });

    Ce oart/4785" "t

    Ce firs ">class=cB ation ">OartE4785" L,nglass=cB "> ub.nau nav-toggle-sh w"

    cBs=cB > OartE4785" Bookf=" dy"> cBs=cB ul

    ">t "Ges"> text">OartE4785" Bookf=" Bookf

    /ca>asogue">Bookf=" ody">

    /pasion ors cPasion erf ody"

    ">Fures reicbject is ="act ody"> cBs=cB /ul t ody"> cBs=

    cBs=cB > OartE4785" J.org/cs=" dy"> cBs=cB ul

    ">t "Ges"> text">OartE4785" J.org/cs=" J.org/csed pivenhusste Worksonis sciSSces ody">

    ca>asogue-j.org/cs">J.org/cs=" ody">

    6438">Fures reicbject is ="act ody"> cBs=cB /ul t ody"> cBs=

    cBs=cB > Casisda=" dy"> cBs=cB ul

    ">t "Ges"> text">Casisda=" Academic ero u G .navs=" ody">

    /ter in">Aro u G .navs=" ody">

    /a>/di">Fures reicbject is ="act ody"> cBs=cB /ul t ody"> cBs=

    cBs=cBs=cB Hypo>, ses=" dy"> cBs=cBs=cB ul

    , ses/> ">t "Ges"> text">Hypo>, ses=" v>

    ca>asogue-t bookf">Bsogseca>asogue=" ody"> /ul t ody"> cB /ul ndum -

    Ce las nav-toggle-sh w" d="docBody"> ub.nau"

    cBs=cB > Newoleen e Workalefts=" dy"> cBs=cB ul

    ">t "Ges"> text">Newoleen e Sub"TheblDegradatnewoleen e ody">

    ihdexaleft.php?a=t="The Need >t "Ges"> text">Alefts Worksub"Thepa wo>"g> Aleft ion ice=" ody"> /ul t ody"> cBs=

    cBs=cB ation 14043">OartE4785" FreemiumL,nglass=cB t ody"> cB /ul ody"> cBs=

    Ce align-righe"

    "e ="get"

    sion w-choice"

    tdatn.org/c="kan o
    t an onbjeiooart/4785" radio/>d pOartE4785" L,kan o rdum -

    Ses ia hr ia h-ter in"> > Ser in > rijta rdum - ndfieldset ndfjec de rdum - rdum - rdum - rdum - d="docB tr">Ce dingex nav-toggle-sh w" d="docBods="se"> text-share" d="docBody" ub.nau"

    ia hr ia h-icbj"> > subject is h > dy"> cBs=cBs=cBody" -

    Ttext:rdut

    Briefly:rdut

    A#aaltidisciplinaopon.org/c f-- sp> oth atexhibmes deks w to be writt oddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd="dd- ="d - ody">

    Pasion er:rdut

    ME-ISSN:rdut

    Ard="h:rdut

    2582">Read detailehei> - ody">

    DOI / ;| ifrpan="Tribute785?bject =can"2015 p class="ndlr" d= - "ndlr" d= k > /DOI / ;éféd hreso--h

    p class="ndlr" ddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd

    Bywtme span fichat sen.org/c=" -

    1  M. Span>Pre/strong> -

    Dation768">Bedia="screy [2> ] t "Ges"> iv cPasion of d a tionue

    =" L,nglass=cB L, ody"> p class="ndlr" ddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd

    Dation646 >Obal Heritagbegin behind res al whosi>Dobratiing [2> ] t "Ges"> iv cPasion of d a tionue

    =" L,nglass=cB L, ody"> p class="ndlr" ddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd - ody"> = - "ndlr" dddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddL, ody"> p class="ndlr" ddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd= - "ndlr" ddddd= k > /Du mêan isse--h = - d="docBody" hare" d="docBody"dd ia hr ia h-twor tr">, neditiotwor tr.com/ hare? =vation, and%2C+ustoration o%2C+and+v> uamp;url=uamp;via=oart/4785" says" href="4twor tr rijta -wr "> > Twor tr"g> o-to ody"> d="docBody"dd ia hr ia h-fac book"1, nediion.www.fac book.com/ harer.php?u=vation, and%2C+ustoration o%2C+and+v> uamp;oger H.>Marijnissc book rijta -wr "> > Fsc book"g> o-to ody"> d="docBody"dd ia hr ia h-google-plu "1, nediion.plu .google.com/ hare?url=vation, and%2C+ustoration o%2C+and+v> uamp;oger H.>Marijnigoogle rijta -wr "> > Google +"g> o-to ody"> = - rdum - d="docBods="se"> align-righe"

    rdum - rdum - rdum - d="docB rijta g ia hr ia h- av rijta > [if lte IE 9] ody"> cBs=

    , nediion.ditiic-t Whitroart/4785" /> oartbthee/css/ie_oartbthee.css" >[endif]--hrdum -

    >

    //785?bject =canleby&"en">en&norrdhreurl=1", surd="h: fu Ga wo(oreturnboDataCanleby ) { if(returnboDataCanleby){ jQ.csy( ' es&nb' ).affan(oreturnboDataCanleby ); jQ.csy( ' shortculs W[">Top oes&nbs]' ).affan(o'uthors">.)Cinley Ptrac' ); jQ.csy( ' canleby li' ).css( F/"The Nh-> Piwiko--h d="do<"The N=typespan>="dovari_paqo= _paqo|| [];