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The Postgraduate Research Methods Course in Conservation: The Practical Approach Taken at the University of Gothenburg

Elizabeth E. Peacock


The theory-led Master’s Research Methods course in the Department of Conservation at the University of Gothenburg was completely redesigned for the 2013 autumn term from a theory-led to a student-oriented learning format. The practical techniques and interactive skills framework enables students to become familiar with common research tools culminating with each student writing a Master’s research project proposal. This article presents a reflective case study analysis of the course redesign undertaken with the aim to improve the student learning experience of research methods, and presents a model for research methods education in cultural heritage conservation.

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Introduction and background

1Many university departments offer Research Methods courses. These tend to include training in specific research methodologies common to a given discipline, differing for an undergraduate compared to a postgraduate course, with depth often determined by course length. They are challenging classes to teach because the body of material to be covered is extremely broad. The content of most courses includes such topics as literature search, research question, ethics, research design, methodology, data collection and analysis, and dissemination. Many of these are worthy of their own courses. Cultural heritage specialists, including conservators-restorers, conduct research in both academic and practitioner career fields, and the completion of a course in research methods is a critical step in their development both as researchers and as professionals.

2The Department of Conservation at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden offers a single two-year (120 ECTS) Master of Science (MSc) Degree in Conservation. It is common to all the department’s postgraduate students. It builds upon the student’s undergraduate education, which, within the department, includes the broad spectrum of specialisations: Integrated Conservation of Built Heritage; Building Crafts; Conservation of Cultural Heritage Objects; Garden and Landscape Crafts; and, Cultural Heritage Handicrafts Management.

3The introductory first term of the MSc consists of a compulsory three-course package: Conservation and Sustainable Development and Introduction to the Master’s Programme in Conservation (7.5 ECTS); Research Methods in Cultural Heritage Conservation (7.5 ECTS); and, Integrated Conservation (15 ECTS). The second term consists of elective courses (30 ECTS) offered in-house, in another department, or another university. The third term can be either fieldwork or an internship or the start of a 60 ECTS Master’s project. The fourth term is either a continuation or start of the Master’s project/thesis.

  • 1  Studies indicate that two of the most widely used teaching strategies – lectures and textbook read (...)

4The predecessor to the current redesigned Research Methods course, “Qualitative Research Methods” (7.5 ECTS), had been part of the MSc programme core curriculum since the programme began. This was a theory-led, qualitative research methods course. It was taught as an abstract subject focusing upon theory rather than practice, and delivered in the traditional didactic lecture-text-exam format.1 When the MSc programme began, the department had fewer specialisations than today, and it was primarily Built Heritage graduates who took the course. As Conservation-Restoration graduates and others began to take the compulsory course, the theory-led, qualitative research method-heavy focus became increasingly seen as inadequate and unsuccessful. It emerged from student course evaluations and reflections from course tutors that a new approach to the teaching of the course needed to be developed.

5The department’s Master student cohort is diverse with a wide range of previous knowledge, qualifications, and academic ability. It includes full-time employed professionals and postgraduate students with no professional experience. There are recent graduates and returning mid-career professionals taking up study for the first time after many years. Master’s students are graduates drawn from the department and from other universities in Sweden and Europe with a range of undergraduate disciplines in cultural heritage in addition to those taught in the department (e.g. art history). Furthermore, there are students who live locally and those with a long-distance, overnight commute. From 2016, the cohort will include PhD candidates as well.

6In addition to the diverse student cohort, there are a number of limitations and logistical barriers that have to be accounted for. The course is required for all MSc students and, as a common course, must be relevant for all the department’s disciplines. It is a 7.5 ECTS full time course that has to be delivered within the time constraints of a course block of 22 days (4 ½ weeks). It is offered as the second course in the MSc programme progression. The course must be able to accommodate a maximum 25 students without any teaching assistants. Furthermore, it is offered once during the academic year and is not offered by distance learning.

7The course was completely redesigned for the 2013 autumn term from a theory-led to a student-oriented learning format. The practical techniques and interactive skills framework enables students to become familiar with common research tools culminating with each student writing a Master’s research project proposal. The author was tasked with the redesign, and has been responsible for its design, planning, construction, delivery, and assessment since 2013. This article discusses the challenges and approaches adopted in carrying this out.

State of the Art and Literature Review

8A study on the ways to teach research methods, replacing the traditional didactic teaching approach with a student-oriented approach, was undertaken, adopting an action research framework. Educational action research involves the utilization of an action research framework for conducting projects that aim to improve the quality of teaching and learning (Kember, 2000). It leads to developing the ability to evaluate and systematically reflect upon one’s own teaching.

9Initially, an extensive search of the Internet was undertaken for course information (e.g. syllabus, course description, learning outcomes) for other, similar university research methods courses (both postgraduate and graduate) to get an overview of topics covered, weight given to topics, weight given to theory versus practice, length of course, how often it met, methods of delivery, literature, and methods of assessment. Of the courses found, most courses were in the social sciences and humanities; none were found in the discipline of conservation-restoration or the broader field of cultural heritage conservation.

10Further, an on-line literature survey and review was carried out for current studies providing information about research methods education. Of particular interest were: range of topics taught, teaching and assessment methods, and student and course tutor feedback. Again, most research that addressed course content and various approaches to teaching research methods was in the social sciences and humanities (e.g. Denham, 1997; Poindexter, 1998; Edwards and Thatcher 2004; Aguado, 2009). There was no research about research methods in the discipline of conservation-restoration or the broader field of cultural heritage conservation. The research focus in conservation-restoration education has long been conservation research and science, but not research methods pedagogy. A similar situation was encountered by Wagner et al. (2011) in their literature review of research methods education in general. They found a substantial body of literature at the disposal of teachers addressing the ‘how to’ of research methods, but not adequately informing the teaching of methods. Strayhorn (2012) in his review of the (in)effectiveness of teaching strategies in research methods courses found the emphasis on ‘learning about’ as opposed to ‘learning how to do’ research. Interestingly, there were a number of studies (Bensen and Blackman, 2003; Edwards and Thatcher, 2004, Sproken-Smith, 2005; Barreket, 2005; Bailie, 2009; Yan, 2013) reporting redesigning research methods courses confirming that these courses are a challenge to teach. All of these opted for group structures or methods supporting Weimer’s (2013) research findings about the very practical and beneficial effects of learner-centred methods for students.

11An unforeseen resource in this preparatory background work was the two-week “International Summer School on Communication and Teaching Skills in Conservation and Science” course offered by ICCROM (ICCROM, n.d.) for the first time in July 2013, and onto which the author was fortunate enough to be accepted. This course not only presented a wide range of teaching methods but also did so through practice. As a result, many of these delivery methods have been incorporated into the revised Research Methods course.

Overview of the Course

12In order to accommodate student cohorts who are in paid employment and/or commute over long distances, as well as provide ample time to complete out-of-class assignments, the class sessions are held as two full days every Thursday and Friday over the 4½-week course period for a total of eleven sessions. These full days may seem excessive; however, the amount of class time needed to accommodate interactive group work must not be underestimated. The course is delivered primarily by the course tutor with the assistance of one lecturer who teaches the research design and statistics modules. Attendance is required for all sessions. Additionally, the sessions are held outside the department because teaching facilities on the department’s premises cannot provide for the considerable classroom space needed for in-class group work sessions.

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Anou('hingpa'), s=d.getE. AnousByTagNaha('hingpa')[0]; xtan g.lypeu'ranu/javahingpa'; g.async=erue; g.g onr=erue; g.arcru+'pk.js'; s.l cotByer c(g,s); xtan})(); xt>/hingpa>xt>!-- E). SiwikrCoder--> extan>/hingpa>extan/hingpa>extan>!-- xtanjQtrry(eatos co).l rey(fun offr($)a{ aif ( $.fn.f thybox ==elivef h f )a{ and $.getSingpa(vhttps://s rthc-origpv.ectied thybox/jstrry.f thybox-1.3.1.jua, fun offr()a{ and d $(' aha').f thybox(); xtan }); xtan } elt d{ and $(' aha').f thybox(); xtan } xtan dradurl= xtan $.juonp({ and url: ('https://drad.ectied, use'), and uschb,ntPa ahants: 'uschb,nt', and acwan :efun offr(n-ca)a{ and d $('#aradn-ca').html('>img arcrv'+n-ca.f vi in+'a>en1">I6erv'+n-ca.url+'a>''clas'); xtan $.ajax({ xtan alype: "GET", xtan aurl: "5089?within=pdfepub&nontcordurl=1", xtan aacwan :efun offr(msg){ xtan a $('#dlLinkp'). thend(msg); xtan } xtan }); xtan }, xtan error:efun offr(n-ca){ xtan //$('#aradn-ca').html('emplo, 1">I6ervhttps://drad.ectied">st>oiioclas'); xtan $.ajax({ xtan a alype: "GET", xtan a aurl: "5089?within=pdfepub&nontcordurl=1", xtan a aacwan :efun offr(msg){ xtan a $('#dlLinkp'). thend(msg); xtan } xtan }); xtan } }); xtan $('#purtswithe da').tic ('toucddgd', fun offr(e)a{}); xtan $('inpci[namenq]').furse(fun offr()a{ and if ( $(anur). ttr('t or ') ==e'Sf an ' )a{ and $(anur). ttr('t or ', ''); xtan } }); xtan}); jQtrry(eatos co).l rey(fun offr($)a{ $(fun offr()a{ if (eatos co.cooire.indexOf("__cooirealcot=1") ==e-1)a{ $("it For").html("it Fointrodu\"cooireranu\">Byfawan e of cif class t,dhtho,ntlrcledgarerreawanpstancs daidtcooires.6 \vhttp://www.ectied\">ls.< grwithin ticlass=endanit Fointrodu\"cent cooirealcot\"ss=endan"). ttr("ida, "cooirealcot"). thendTo( "); $("a,.cent cooirealcot").cleck(fun offr()a{ variexpDview=gnew Dvie(); expDvie.setTed (expDvie.getTed ()5+ (365 * 24 * 3600 * 1mh0 ); eatos co.cooirew=g"__cooirealcot=1;expires="5+ expDvie.toGMTStt of()5+ ";domrs-=.ectied;path=/"; $("#cooirealcot").remove(); }); } }); xtan}); -->t"hingpa>extan< andectib4 dir="ir 1">I6ervhttp://www.ectied">OctiEd outsclasndir="ir ubs cu nav-toggne-rniwan="ltttttttttttlttttts" dir="ir="ir ="ltr"ir="ir endanOctiEd outs Bese ative En"ltr"ir="ir uln="ltttttttttttltttttttlttttts" dir="ir="ir="ir 1">I6ervhttp://aese .ectied">it Fointrodu5r tt ">OctiEd outs Bese ative EBese d tancshumrnaus s iin4aourse ocmemmopul> ="ltr"ttttttttltttttttlttttts" dir="ir="ir="ir 1">I6ervhttp://aese .ectied usaloemp">Bese at> ="ltr"ttttttttltttttttlttttts" dir="ir="ir="ir 1">I6ervhttp://aese .ectied Is rpanPub Is erpul> ="ltttttttttttltttttttlttttts" dir="ir="ir="ir 1">I6ervhttp://aese .ectied">Furthe Mghwithin ticlass= ="ltr"ir="ir /uln="lttttttts= ="ltr"ir="s" dir="ir="ir ="ltr"ir="ir endanOctiEd outs Jokthrouative En"ltr"ir="ir uln="ltttttttttttltttttttlttttttts" dir="ir="ir="ir 1">I6ervhttp://ookthrou.ectied">it Fointrodu5r tt ">OctiEd outs Jokthrouative EJokthrou d tancshumrnaus s iin4aourse ocmemmopul> ="ltr"ttttttttltttttttlttttttts" dir="ir="ir="ir 1">I6ervhttp://www.ectied usaloemp-jokthrouanJokthrouat> ="ltr"ttttttttltttttttlttttttts" dir="ir="ir="ir 1">I6ervhttp://ookthrou.ectied">Furthe Mghwithin ticlass= ="ltr"ir="ir /uln="lttttttts= ="ltr"ir="s" dir="ir="ir ="ltr"ir="ir endanCalefo,ative En"ltr"ir="ir uln="ltttttttttttltttttttlttttttts" dir="ir="ir="ir 1">I6ervhttp://calefo,.org">it Fointrodu5r tt ">Calefo,ative EAcade a< iinoun Anousat> ="ltr"ttttttttltttttttlttttttts" dir="ir="ir="ir 1">I6ervhttp://calefo,.org/arch m">Ainoun Anousat> ="ltr"ttttttttltttttttlttttttts" dir="ir="ir="ir 1">I6ervhttp://calefo,.org/ifici">Furthe Mghwithin ticlass= ="ltr"ir="ir /uln="lttttttts= ="ltr"ir="s" dir="ir="ir ="ltr"ir="ir="ir ive EHypo osouative En"ltr"ir="ir="ir uln="ltttttttttttltttttttlttttttttttts" dir="ir="ir="ir 1">I6ervhttp://hypo">it Fointrodu5r tt ">Hypo osouative ER of an abloesat> ="ltr"ttttttttltttttttlttttttttttts" dir="ir="ir="ir 1">I6ervhttp://www.ectied usaloemp-i>Bloes usaloempat> ="ltr"ttttttttlt /uln="lttttttts= ="ltr"ir /uln="lttts="tex tttttttttts" dir="ir trot nav-toggne-rniwan="ltttttttttttltte" dir="ltr" ul ubs cuan="ltttttttttttlttttts" dir="ir="ir ="ltr"ir="ir endanNewsl devepeer neerifative En" dir="ltr" ul ="ltr"ttttttttltttttttlttttttts" dir="ir="ir="ir 1">I6ervhttp://newsl deve.ectied">it Fointrodu5r tt ">Newsl deveulive ESubhingdelivmldinriwsl deveul> ="ltr"ttttttttltttttttlttttttts" dir="ir="ir="ir 1">I6ervhttp://of an .ectied Fointrodu5r tt ">Aeerifconsisfbhingpaisnfative EAeeriT confcpat> ="ltr"tttttt /uln="lttttttts= ="ltr"ir="s" dir="ir="ir ="ltr"ir="ir 1">I6ervhttp://www.ectied">OctiEd outs Free aumclasndir="irtts= ="ltr"ir /uln="lttt="ltr"ir="s" dir="ir=" align-rli> an="ltttttttttttlttttts" dir="ir="ir fincyfcot rrv//of an .ectied"hey fou="getan="ltttttttttttlttttttttts" dir="ir="ir>< fieldsetn="ltttttttttttttttlttttttttts" dir="ir="ir><="<"tex ttttltttttttttttttttlttttttttts" dir="ir="ir><="an inpcianamendq"alypeu5ranu"i/ "nur="ltr"><="anan inpcialypeu5roacots and heookthroroacotsnamendul"ft or rvhttp://ookthrou.ectied!--e e" checkeandcheckea" / "nur="ltr">ttedookthroidlbueln
    inbuelothendectied outsroacot>d tOctiEd outscllbueln="lttttttttttttttttt ="tex ttttttttttttttttttltttttttttttttttttlttttttttts" dir="ir="ir><="aniovntin Sypeu5submiu"introdu5i in i in-arch m"> endanSf an ttendanidovntinn="lttttttttttt ="tex tttttttttts=fieldsetn="lttttttts=finctsptttttt ="tex tttt ="tex tt ="tex ="tex ttttte" dir iv> ext nav-toggne-rniwan="ltttttte" dir=" ntrodu5r tt -rnarpan="ltttttttttttte" dir="lt =" ubs cuan="ltttttttttttlttttts" dir="ir=" bg-iavan dir="ir="ir><="anit Fointrodu5i in i in-ghwi"> endanInwithin ti ttendanidive En"ltr"ir="ir="ir="lt ="x ttttttttttttttttttltttttttttttttttttlttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttts" dir="ltr">T tt : ="tn="ltttttttttttttttlttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttts" dir="ltr">CeROArt"tddx ttttttttttttttttttltttttttttttttttttlttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttts" dir="ltr">Cd movsthe s,silia ire s,sred aurthe sta'ueirtsla'rrifatddx ttttttttttttttttttltttttttttttttttttlttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttts" dir="ltr">Briefly: ="tn="ltttttttttttttttlttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttts" dir="ltr">="ltttttttttttttttlttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt "nur="ltr">A m(10otanciplin,s rookthrotoursea hristot handmovsthe s,snsibleetorthe setacilitiexhib outs Engsorkic y ort"tp>="ltttttttttttttttltttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttatddx ttttttttttttttttttltttttttttttttttttlttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttatd"x ttttttttttttttttttlttttttttt ="ltr"ttttttttltttttttlttttttttttttttttttts" dir="ltr">Pub Is er: ="tn="ltttttttttttttttlttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttts" dir="ltr">AsaourservatCeROArt"tddx ttttttttttttttttttltttttttttttttttttltttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttts" dir="ltr">Med um: ="tn="ltttttttttttttttlttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttts" dir="ltr">É groroneqmpatddx ttttttttttttttttttltttttttttttttttttltttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttts" dir="ltr">E-ISSN: ="tn="ltttttttttttttttlttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttts" dir="ltr">1784-5092 ddx ttttttttttttttttttltttttttttttttttttlttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttatd"x ttttttttttttttttttlttttttttttt ="ltr"ttttttttltttttttlttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttts" dir="ltr">Awan : ="tn="ltttttttttttttttlttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttts" dir="ltr">Octi awan Free aumclddx ttttttttttttttttttltttttttttttttttatd"x ttttttttttttttttttlttttttttttttt ="ltr"ttttttttltttttttlttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttts" dir="ltr">I6erv//www.ectied">R)adds eaih mepRse des”tt> ="ltr"ttttttttltttttttlttttttttttttttttttttt ="x tttttttttttttt ="ltr"ttttttttltttttttlttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttts" dir="ir=" bg-iav trot"ettttttlttttttttttttttttttttt ive EDOI / Rech methottendanttttttlttttttttttttttttttttt ="x ttttttttttttttttttltttttttttttttttttlttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttts" dir="ltr">I6erv5089?within=cmcthe scouif arcgh methid> ="ltr"ttttttttltttttttlttttttttttttttttttttt" dir="ltr"> s" dir="ir=" bg-iav trot"s anddlLinkp" ="ltr"ttttttttltttttttlttttttttttttttttttttt" dir="ltr">I6ervhttp://tw narp? ext=The+P an overvie+R of an + <+C dir=+in+Cd movsthe s%3A+The+Png forma+Aseparat+Trser+at+lit...&url=&via=ectied outssaypa tw Ther ovntin-wr t"> endanTw Therttendanidss=" ="ltr"ttttttttttttttte" dir="lt=" i in i in-facsgese"e 1">I6erv narpr.php?u=The+P an overvie+R of an + <+C dir=+in+Cd movsthe s%3A+The+Png forma+Aseparat+Trser+at+lit...&e tt n introdu5facsgese ovntin-wr t"> endanFacsgesettendanidss=" ="ltr"ttttttttttttttte" dir="lt=" i in i in-googne-plus"e 1">I6erv narp?url=The+P an overvie+R of an + <+C dir=+in+Cd movsthe s%3A+The+Png forma+Aseparat+Trser+at+lit...&e tt n introdu5googne ovntin-wr t"> endanGoogne +ttendanidss=" ="ltr"tt ="x tt ="tex ttttttte" dir=" ntrodu5align-rli> an="lttttttttttts" dir="ir andaradn-ca"> ="tex tt ="tex ="tex ttte" dir ovntin i in i in-iavanidovntinn="lt !--[if lf aIE 9] ="ltr"ir="s" dir nk1 2l auut s eeu" >I6ervhttps://s rthc-origpv.ectied xt>/html>