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Politics: Taiwan

Taiwan. The Birth of A Nation?

The recent presidential election witnessed the rise of Taiwanese national identity and a further failure of the Kuomintang
Frank Muyard

Editor's notes

Translated from the French original by Peter Brown

Full text

1On March 20th 2004, President Chen Shui-bian and his running mate Lu Hsiu-lien, who were the candidates of the Democratic Progressive Party (Minjindang, DPP) were re-elected to the presidency of the Republic of China, defeating Lien Chan, President of the Chinese Nationalist Party, or Kuomintang (KMT), and his running mate, Soong Chu-yu, President of the PFP, People First Party (Qinmindang). The victory margin was extremely narrow, barely more than 29,500 votes, or 0.22% of voters, separating them. This tiny difference and the attempted assassination of the President and Vice-President the day before the ballot, the motives for which are still unknown, left the losers, until then convinced of their victory, incredulous.

2That Lien and Soong refused to recognise the result, their decision to contest its validity in the courts, and the series of public demonstrations and protests that they have organised, have tended to mask not only the meaning of Chen’s victory, but also the factors that led to Lien and Soong’s defeat. The ballot recount, requested by all parties, was put back until mid-May on account of the legal path chosen by the KMT and the series of technical quibbles that it raised. Chen’s victory, officially proclaimed on April 26th by Taiwan’s Central Electoral Commission (CEC), should not be in doubt. All independent observers and the majority of political leaders, including those of the KMT, remarked on the quality and the transparency of the election process, leaving little room for error and even less for fraud1. It seems therefore that the re-election of Chen Shui-bian, who gave his inaugural address on 20 May, is not in question.

3Attempting to interpret its significance, two fundamental factors appear to be behind this victory. One is a marked rise in the Taiwanese national consciousness and a progressive political programme of institutional and constitutional reforms. The election may have been “A vote on China”2, but it was also a “vote on Taiwan” and a “vote on the reforms”, that is to say on the type of state and society desired by the population. The programmes of both camps presented the electors with markedly opposed visions. On the DPP side, a reform policy taking Taiwanese society even further from the past model and practices of the KMT regime and which offers the possibility for a new national construction based on local history and culture and the democratic expression of the individual. On the side of the KMT and its ally the PFP, the return to the proven model of political and economic management of the state and society though the apparatus of the KMT and the competence of its experts in the name of economic well-being and social stability, associated with keeping a Chinese nationalist ideology and a vision of relations between government and individuals that is more technocratic than democratic. While the presidential election may well have been about “China”, this vote thus also included a choice in domestic politics between, on the one hand a continuity of political experience and reforms built around the “Taiwanese community” and a national future to be constructed, and, on the other, a return to the political and national formulae brought by the KMT and the refugees from the mainland fleeing the Chinese civil war after 1945. In order to understand the virulence of the reaction of the losers in the election in the weeks following the vote, we must examine the course of an election campaign whose dynamics enabled the re-election of a President who had been widely announced as beaten a year before.

The forces at work

4Officially opened 30 days before the ballot, the election campaign actually got under way in February 2003, that is more than a year before the vote, with the decision by the KMT and the PFP to propose a common list and present the two losers from the 2000 election, Lien Chan and Soong Chu-yu, as the candidates for President and Vice-President. This decision, a difficult one by virtue of the animosity between the two candidates, had several consequences. First of all, constituting an electoral alliance and a joint platform, whose fine-tuning took up most of the first half of 2003. Next, the bringing together behind the single candidature of all the conservative forces and defending a “Chinese nationalist” ideology at the expense of the “pro-local”, that is “Taiwanisation” wing, of the KMT. Finally, a sense of a guaranteed victory in the presidential election, on the basis of Lien and Soong’s aggregated 2000 score3, as well as the opinion polls that gave, in the spring of 2003, more than 60% of voters’ intentions to the joint candidature. The presidential election did not therefore merely put the KMT and the DPP in opposition, but also what has been called the Alliance (Guoqin lianmeng) or the “Pan-Blue” camp (blue being the traditional colour of the KMT) and the so-called “Pan-Green” camp (green being the colour of the DPP and the pro-independence movements).

The Democratic Progressive Party’s expansion

The Democratic Progressive Party’s expansion

Sources: Central Election Commission (CEC), Taiwan, and Lianhe xinwen wang, Taiwan.

5The Alliance represented more than the simple addition of the KMT and the PFP. It encompassed the circumstantial reunification around Lien and Soong of the whole galaxy of pan-Chinese ideological undercurrents that sprang from the KMT, and who were excluded from or on bad terms with the party’s leadership in the Lee Teng-hui era by dint of their opposition to Lee’s policy of Taiwanisation of the Republic of China. This was first of all the case for the PFP of Soong Chu-yu, who, coming out of the KMT, had run as an independent candidate for the 2000 presidential election against Lien Chan, the KMT’s candidate supported by Lee Teng-hui, on a populist and explicitly pan-Chinese and anti-Lee platform. Former governor of the province of Taiwan, who is charismatic and very popular, particularly on account of his rather client-based management of provincial funds, Soong obtained more than 36% of votes, losing by just 2.5 % to Chen Shui-bian, and humiliating Lien Chan whose score barely exceeded 23%4. He then founded the PFP with defectors from the KMT, in large part mainlanders representing the most “Chinese nationalist” faction, careful to appoint as Vice-President of the party his 2000 running-mate, Chang Chao-hsiung, a “born-and-bred Taiwanese” from Kaohsiung.

6Also included in the Alliance was the New Party (NP), the first party to have emerged from a split in the KMT in 1993 and the one most ideologically associated with the principle of reunification with China. Practically wiped off the political map in the 2001 legislative elections, most of its former leaders going to teach or work in the People’s Republic5, the NP nonetheless managed to survive in the shadow of the KMT and the PFP, particularly thanks to its elected members in the Taipei Municipal Council and to Taipei’s KMT Mayor Ma Ying-jeou6. Finally, we find in the blue camp the former 1996 presidential candidates, also ex-members of the KMT and anti-Lee, like Lin Yang-kang, Hau Po-tsun and Chen Lu-an, and their networks, which are sometimes very active, in the military and business circles with relations with China.

7The green camp is composed, apart from the DPP, of the Taiwanese Solidarity Union (Taiwan tuanjie lianmeng, TSU). This political party, created at the time of the 2001 legislative elections, sprang out of a new split in the KMT, this time caused by members of the “pro-local” faction responding to the call of former President Lee Teng-hui, who was disappointed by the pro-China turn taken by the KMT under the leadership of Lien Chan after the 2000 defeat. With Lee as its spiritual father, the TSU set about defending a more radical programme than the DPP, the central planks of which were a fast-track path to independence, the international recognition of the name Taiwan and the breaking off of any political or ideological link with China. The TSU also militates for the defence of the interests of the Taiwanese lower middle classes (farmers, fishermen, workers, artisans, etc.) in the context of the speeding up of industry relocation to China and the opening up to the imports of cheap Chinese goods following Taiwan’s accession to the World Trade Organisation (WTO).

8The KMT-PFP alliance was set up to avoid the fratricidal division that allowed Chen’s election in 2000, and to ground the legitimacy of his return to power, in contrast to the reduced power of a President elected with fewer than 50% of votes, as was the case for Chen. For Chen and the DPP, which never won more than 40% of the vote in a national election, the re-election was also made much more difficult. Based on the 2000 results, the blue camp clearly began 2003 in a very strong position, even if, by virtue of Lee Teng-hui’s going over to the green camp, the votes mustered by Lien Chan in 2000 were perhaps not altogether vouchsafed. The objective of both camps then would be to convince the 20% of electors in the centre, who are often not very politicised, to vote for them, while consolidating their respective electoral bases (about 40% of votes each).

9The general frame of the campaign was thus laid down as early as the spring of 2003. However, it was not until the end of the summer that the political debate began in earnest. Previously, a long lead-up campaign gave the opportunity to both camps to test their programmes. The campaign gradually mounted in intensity with the launch of the main election themes, then really got under way with the trip by President Chen Shui-bian to the United States at the beginning of November. We will make an assessment of both camps’ programmes on the eve of this trip, before tackling the themes and the dynamics of the campaign.

The blue camp’s initial strategy

10In mid-August 2003, a regional by-election held in Hualien gave both camps the opportunity to test their strength and took on the appearance of a dress rehearsal for the presidential election. In spite of the atypical political situation in Hualien, the striking victory of the pan-blue candidate appeared, in the eyes of the KMT and the PFP, to successfully test their alliance and validate their campaign programme. From then on, both the programme and strategy for the presidential election were set in stone around a radical critique of the DPP government in every sphere (economy, relations with China, social and administrative policies, etc.). This critique was based on two points; the first was the economic crisis that hit Taiwan beginning in 2001 following the American and international recession, and on the rather general feeling that the Chen government had not done enough to improve the situation; the second was the stigmatisation of the incompetence of the Chen administration and its provocative stance on China that resulted in economic and political instability. The picture painted by the Alliance of Chen’s four years in power is one of economic decline, social and human misery, and political adventurism, associated with an attitude of neglect verging on the revolutionary towards due administrative process in institutional and constitutional matters. By contrast, the competence and experience, the past proven administrative qualities and the concern for the political and economic stability of the KMT and its allies would guarantee the prosperity and security of Taiwan. The pan-blue’s programme therefore invited to bring back the glory days of the KMT and of Taiwan―the years of enrichment and rapid industrialisation of the 1970s and 1980s―through the simple return to power of the former team. Logically speaking, the Alliance’s campaign began with the glorification of the former president Chiang Ching-kuo, the son of Chiang Kai-shek, who was put forward as the new father of a rich and modern Taiwan.

11While the strength of this strategy was to take advantage of the government’s mistakes and the deep concerns of the Taiwanese faced with economic crisis, as well as the widespread perception of a higher level of competence among the KMT elite in administrative and the economic matters, it had many weak points that would quickly come to light.

12First of all, finding nothing positive in four years of DPP administration, the blue camp set everyone against it who had taken part in the state’s reform programme and the policies of economic revival developed in conjunction with business circles and social groups. Moreover, in spite of a very marked drop in growth and real difficulties in the employment sector during 2001-2002 (unemployment jumping to 5.3 %), these past four years have not appeared as a descent into hell to the majority of the population. This is particularly so of the younger generation whose freedom of action and values has never been as great, and whose memory of the KMT’s “good management” is fuzzy and more linked to the corruption scandals that have tarnished its reputation. This generation represented a million new voters with respect to 20007. In addition, the KMT and the PFP have a majority in Parliament; their systematic opposition to the measures and policies of the government has seemed to many as being one of the important causes of the lack of an effective programme of economic renewal. The assessment of the Chen government’s failings is thus more measured among the population than the pan-blue campaign would have us believe.

13The next point is that the criticism of the economic achievements of a government tended to backfire as soon as there was a sign of an improvement in the economy, which is exactly what happened in summer 2003 on the twin fronts of growth and unemployment. The choice of blaming the DPP alone and of refusing to take the international recession into account, as well as the structural dependence of Taiwan on the global market thus gave all the credit for the return of growth to the government.

14Finally, the choice of looking first and foremost to the governmental and ideological model of the Chiang Ching-kuo (CCK) years implied the complete scrapping of the legacy of the 1990s, that is, the Lee Teng-hui years. In the eyes of the majority of Taiwanese, however, it was not the CCK period, but much more the years of democratisation and “localisation”, that is of the rise in the power of local Taiwanese elites who speak Taiwanese, rather than the elites who had come from the mainland after 1949. This choice of the Alliance logically stemmed from its make-up and outlook. The restructuring of the KMT around Lien Chan and an orthodox ideological line after his defeat in 2000, as well as the tactical rapprochement with Soong for the elections, were objectively based on a rejection of Lee Teng-hui’s politics and his years in power8. The problem is that this line came into conflict with another part of the KMT’s discourse which, on the one hand claimed to have fathered the democratisation of the regime and the country—forcefully imposed, nonetheless, under pressure from the population as well as from the DPP, by Lee Teng-hui on that same old guard of the party maintaining allegiance to Chiang Ching-kuo—and, on the other hand, wished to promote its Taiwanese character and its policy of localisation, that is to say, once again, the Lee heritage. While for Soong and the PFP, Lee’s disavowal was not too damaging by dint of the power struggle that opposed them from the mid-1990s onwards. It was even less so for the New Party that saw in it an ideological victory. It was much more dangerous for Lien Chan, Lee Teng-hui’s ex-prime minister (1994-1996) and vice-president (1996-2000). Whereas Lee’s support for independence became more radical, the impossibility of claiming credit in any credible way for the legacy of the 1990s would foster the feeling that the pro-Taiwanese discourse of the KMT was a patchwork of empty slogans masking a return of the mainlanders to power and of the ideology of unification with China. Similarly, the KMT’s repeated affirmation of its attachment to democracy was to counter the slogans glorifying the CCK years, but also to its inability to dissociate itself from the old guard and the party’s authoritarian past symbolised by Soong and by the reappearance around the Alliance of the most orthodox conservatives in the old KMT and the NP9.

15The Blues’ campaign consisted in attacking the candidate Chen Shui-bian and his administration by all possible means―not only politically and economically, but also morally and personally―, and in promoting the competence of the KMT-PFP in order to ensure the well-being of the population. The fundamental contradictions in their discourse would, however, jeopardise their chances as soon as the electoral debate went from a critique of the Chen government’s policies to questions of identity and constitutional changes.

The green camp’s initial strategy

16At the start of the election campaign, the DPP and Chen knew that the political and economic situation was against them. The alliance between Lien and Soong forced Chen to obtain 50% of the votes, that is 10% more than in 2000, if he was to be re-elected. In the face of this challenge, the Greens’ strategy was simple: to have people forget the mistakes and inexperience of the administration by playing on the traditional strengths of the green camp (democracy, Taiwanese identity, listening to the people), promote the pursuit of the reforms begun during the first term of office, and discredit the blue camp’s candidates and discourse by associating them with the dictatorial, anti-Taiwanese and corrupt past of the old KMT. This led to a dual campaign: a national one proposing new ideas in line with the old attacks on the blue camp, and a multitude of local micro-campaigns designed to muster as many votes as possible. The “mission impossible” of increasing the number of green votes by 10% was to be translated into objectives quantified in terms of votes to be garnered for each circumscription, city, town, village and district throughout the country, but especially in the south, a traditional bastion of pro-independence supporters, and the Centre, where the government’s generous policies of economic and cultural development had offered fertile ground for the past four years.

17The DPP was to be supported in that by the Lee Teng-hui’s Taiwan Solidarity Union (TSU), which threw the whole of its networks and resources into the battle for Chen’s re-election. The TSU was even to play the role of catalyser of the most radical pro-independence forces, offering the DPP the opportunity of putting itself back at the centre of the political stage and putting on a more moderate face likely to attract a broader electorate. Beginning in the spring of 2003, the TSU prepared a series of demonstrations to demand an official name change of the Republic of China into “Taiwan” and a revision of the Constitution. The outbreak of SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) forced it to put off these activities until September, but SARS was also to give grist to the independence mill. The epidemic, the circumstances of its being spread from China, the secrecy surrounding it that was maintained for the first few months by the authorities in Peking, and China’s refusal to authorise official contacts between Taiwan and the World Health Organisation (WHO) were to remind the population, after a recent period of infatuation with Shanghai and the Chinese economic miracle, the risks implicated by the Chinese communist system, as well as China’s contempt for the well-being of Taiwanese and Chinese alike10.

18This anti-China sentiment in a scared population that was housebound for nearly two months gave the DPP the opportunity to bring back one of the main planks of the pro-independence platform to the fore: the holding of referenda to enable the population to express its views directly on government policies and the great national objectives. On May 20th, Chen Shui-bian broadcast his wish to organise a referendum on Taiwan’s accession to the WHO at the same time as a presidential election. For that, Parliament, which was controlled by the KMT-PFP opposition, had to pass a law. Therefore, during 2003, the passage of the law on referenda became one of the principal hobbyhorses of the DPP.

19The second theme put forward by the green camp was the setting up of a new Constitution. This idea, which had been tried out during the summer by the DPP, took on greater force after the unexpected success of the September 6th demonstration for a name change for Taiwan. Organised by the TSU and bringing together more than 200,000 people, this demonstration was the occasion for Lee Teng-hui to call for a new Constitution for 2008. On September 28th, Chen Shui-bian announced the objective of introducing a new Constitution by referendum in 2006 and its implementation in 2008.

20The third plank in the Greens’ campaign consisted in systematically discrediting the KMT. The DPP strived to undermine the credibility of the blue camp through constant revelations of malpractice and refusal to make amends for the political and economic injustices of the years of KMT dictatorship. Without denying the competence of the administrators in the blue camp, that it had tried for four years to entice into the government (with some modest success), the DPP wanted to emphasise that the political leaders of the blue camp remained corrupt and that they had made no distinction between public and private funds. The attacks, very often ad hominen, concentrated on the KMT and its leaders getting rich at the expense of the nation, and on the suspicious origins of the immense family fortune that Lien Chan had amassed since the 1950s, given that he had been, as his father before him, a top bureaucrat all his life11.

Geographical distribution of votes (%)

Geographical distribution of votes (%)

Source: Central Election Commission (CEC), Taiwan.

21A few weeks after the defeat of its candidate in the Hualien by-election, the green camp thus also laid out the three central planks of its campaign. These were a referendum, a new Constitution and a rejection of the corrupt rule of the KMT, all themes that would enable it to get the election debate away from assessments of government performance and put it back on the questions of choice about identity and policy. From then on, the dynamics of the election campaign were to go from the blue camp to the green camp, and the agenda would be almost entirely set by the DPP. Chen Shui-bian’s and Lee Teng-hui’s superior mastery of the art of politics led to the situation where all the themes that the blue camp wished to avoid were precisely those that the DPP had put at the core of its election strategy and were also those that would resonate with voters. The campaign strategy of the Blues, worked out and applied in a quasi technocratic way, forgetting the idealistic dimension of any political campaign, and relying on nationalistic affinities and identifications out of step with changes in people’s mentality, would very quickly run aground. The blue candidates were to spend their time glued to the DPP campaign, especially after Chen Shui-bian’s trip to the United States.

Chen’s trip to the United States and the pan-blue’s turn-around

22The trip made by President Chen Shui-bian to the United States at the beginning of November 2003 represented a major turning point in the campaign. This was a non-official trip—Washington’s Chinese policy not allowing otherwise—and the six days spent by Chen on American soil were formally regarded as being a mere stopover by the Taiwanese President on his way to paying a visit to his diplomatic allies in Central America. However, the awarding of the 35th International Human Rights Prize to Chen by the International League of Human Rights at a ceremony in New York, in the course of which he was allowed to make a public address, but also the length, number and importance of his stopovers (New York, Los Angeles, Houston, Alaska), as well as the welcome given by top dignitaries in both the American executive and Congress, made this trip the most successful, the most “official” and the most widely covered by the media of any Taiwanese leader since 1979. Following on from a series of contacts and trips by ministers and officials in the military, diplomatic and economic spheres between Taiwan and the Unites States, it gave the impression of Washington’s total support for Taiwan and even more for President Chen and his policies of democratic reform12.

23The most obvious repercussion of the success of this trip was the spectacular turn around of the KMT-PFP alliance on the three major issues of the referenda, the revision of the Constitution and relations with China. All through the summer and the beginning of autumn, Lien Chan and the political machine of the KMT had radically rejected and ridiculed the DPP’s ideas on these matters. In November, however, they took them on as their own to the point of outbidding its rival. On November 12th, for the first time Lien Chan supported the holding of a referendum and the passing of a law to this effect. On November 15th, he proposed a three-stage revision of the Constitution of the Republic of China, leading to a new Constitution as early as 2005. At the same time, Lien Chan, and even Soong Chu-yu, made a series of announcements concerning relations with China. First of all recalling their rejection of Peking’s proposed model of “one country, two systems” (yi guo liang zhi), and of any relinquishing of the sovereignty of the Republic of China over Taiwan, and even over China, in any possible negotiations with Peking. They then explicitly rejected Peking’s “one China principle”. Lien Chan and Wang Jin-pyng, the campaign director for the Blues, even went as far as to publicly recognise the reality of the existence of a state (if not a country) on either side of the Strait, thereby directly echoing Chen Shui-bian’s formula (yi bian yi guo)13.

24The reason for such a change does not lie only in Chen’s successful trip to the United States. Besides Washington’s support for the democratic reforms, in the logic of the Bush administration’s global foreign policy, the KMT became aware that the DPP’s proposals had broad agreement among the population to the extent of beginning to tip the electoral scales. As proof, the first opinion polls giving Chen as the winner in the presidential election came out in November. From that moment on, the blue camp would run behind the DPP to prove its attachment to Taiwan and democracy. What should have been a campaign on the government’s performance became a competition in identification with Taiwan and love of the motherland. The only problem was that for the KMT, and even more so for the PFP and the NP, the motherland is China, albeit a non-communist China.

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2537 the stImo on as trscong tion’s globtTe gre gave the tuaa nm campates. Besideswdims ionsthe 2 FolithDPPit almostr in twass a sercussfommitemocro KMT ancn-sociarth Pettachne became m, 000 ksr in the sore: the ke<- bri populatiowothe 35th Intem in 2006 a of choice newtrawn tlost tollrtirh China. Sepys suppia blue trip temlsocsded thrate face like(sui, o get3). Byass-Februomatiandiates. Besides had summeC m n Pohe s,ftrip—Wder atachmenses. nindependem, a new Contrectly y of hif at was hem. ting ly ,ame time as a presleelf back mia inrh Chine imgid summ"footnotecall" id="bodyftn13" href=2#ftn12">12The

an class="num"> an class="num">

253his antire-electionopied hdepAasioen17 assing oat hit decision ates. Besidesto make a hf to the green chg itsssuit of strdiaa (1996-200an anas in PeaDP"paowetion ,ve ithe tsecandif gnd iming u at wAasioen17 i candiabs ress rene larna, social anassinopen majoshe winnethi rnsto tof ltrict tfor Lies of ethcsanpolitical get thtio, rathd to a episace agenda woutmoetween vot campaign, t hit a major tg o of to the g,eferendu teryusf at-he quolitscong, and humilisialion mlskun agroue impa,endun a moreSoong forced Chi candif th"footnotecall" id="bodyftn13" href=2#ftn13">13The Ey virtlandif gnd iming tn to popied hdepAasioen17 y beennly te e nuo lige tsee- fn Aecrtusumense fd isdomttachngenpouwd Chinf fttdepende Chen and"footnotecall" id="bodyftn13" href=2#ftn4">4.2#f>The a>an Thes campaign of the Bluesboyco idealistim in 2006 aalmost encrimsedthn an trip ,79. Foltical45%enda tgd offedith respw beentsess ly pina thecosureat was nulook. " id. Apopulatio remainedempt etting ,gticalpyng, the camwin November.dav to fer ly thiphe rejgolistim in 2006 "footnotecall" id="bodyftn13" href=2#ftn5">5,2#f>The

253he seconC by ds dConstvered b Wlsuectl the i tred a life ormance became a—sChctof beginnad triy dcelns),s by the autrecttainedate , co the s5th Intem in 200u elitesesecame outa the m.tionne belis they took tho“ to pucreahe Strait, t ooc thispys support fannoyhe t,nissing os campaign boyco idealof the Blimpreificultboo independe remaign f oop them. Thescong forwhad made in sddemocrot en rnsto tof ltrve stancearxover Tai"footnotecall" id="bodyftn13" href=2#ftn6">6.2#f>Tt t

Chen#f>Ot wis This wanat the

164he third mome however, camp the endaistim in 2006 aaridicudentihagocyteoirst timse w Ot wiscampaign rt the over Chitad agrtourseampf his ss they to;c omarne ts trson and relationsalion m prochein the losesecatters, anf the De overf, 5n—Wass weaensage of―, ane populatios were to ,nissing oiaron o Centraad trmpetitction d KMT-PFP ase w

1641is antiOgblic onnal changes.< of choice ssingy oftion m prochein the lowhe ked time as a where allirst timm in 2006 . Facedthn anscong ho hadpulatioadoplaying om on Taiwanonstitution. This idand its implementation in 2008. byp> e camp would run asefll recallingn to e a lable ah hss rene ional changes.16tees"footnotecall" id="bodyftn13" href=2#ftn7">7.2#f>Ahe

184he trip Asituationn m prochein the nad trm relateoting ly thankseificnewthighd KMT angreen voteereens he p, which w, does not sChctof scales. As (yi wrectly th ing,w beenbnw Constnumb5iteereen,nissing of, 5nng,an-bcatters, cirtblue n m prochea, ekiniance’s campia blltrve if at wrist to catilr the ddependem, the loo survive iblocklatioadoplaerendats formesto sinuwmpaign ferenda and economic iampaign f, 5nng,ase rlcircums eent by defeat ofbothew, a setnce back n a qcthe extent is. For that,Thfo to the g,ein of thDPPit almostrwi, a s ndemocrotp KMT,fpendem, the dConstither he Hualiensurerot en nnstbi hadeth the merotp shhad summene bhoice abturment onw beenbnwmed to rtoursedav to.tionsiFirstnd im, a tosesecame oute camp woutive d ridiculicmutti abturmhe vgarofficscns innce ond runtagtlprinclupt aits atmid=em, the

1943e new eIiraehe d abcatters, ineeo—Waanf the De,9omerid rurerd by the grange s the rs had broadpolitite supies than ddepsui,ies nd tceouoe two candmontthe elitet would resoed t ismesionoroeame oute DPP s a non-offFP asech the ly thanksegime annnf the De een chbiantortunicattery fe heo—Way theagend Contunic of lavogovejren tho“ms eentor thyl.nkguo lher po “T(s16toeo)d Con blue tirely ion d t byi leader sirom procheranum ddecision 23%1944is antiOgblic rt thrincfoe of elationsf, 5n—Wass weaensage0 ksrConst in latioany Tadirector urchextrg onedia of s campemplement Central Andepen m ndminad paudio- thufftof he BverPan-g malpractiereezzppaiwanent Chen Shui-bianears in Shu toogee campn tonovernmenmeric and his adminad put ato n-Grv,fpendets canditaatishone to thcmutti abn>

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164he new eFlitass aly ,ationrt thrincge of―, ane populatios were to limpre itang Chn im with ofabuers,g o of to the gr the oniancati and its pnum a lancearxover ong, and humilecamddupnrecognisescraaDPP thimlwerHitlpookSaddanlthciri adminBi aLthen. Byo autnew Conspundeis by the Inemocrat foa to ks"footnotecall" id="bodyftn13" href=2#ftn8">8.2#f>Thisa>ane reappte Alldupnng se rt the iancatith t-debate awaNew s glob ndminsociarth Pek,a of s campemplemhe ly thankseced Che impassetction foabuers,aps noe electansolibe likerapprooise ss the trscongt, aotfor Lies dc wahe were eientitoa temphcrspe an anm the non-comlditte- f trip —sCh’sawer otnotroche muttblue camp leader sirom proche, copied s a ur, icalthepolicies snaps norrm holdinolatedceicultc reforms, p, ekingoa ceone olitical get t,adminad put araticc wahe ichea, eyen extu this trip was tapproorese ChonaaFr utthankseg rela higher was to codomin the populpum">9.2#f>2he a>an Thynaps nuno getP cgraspnng oc reforms, the Bush n as tlocal P campa es oe p,adminad pe” of claimiirst timut a(by virtlite snoldino)ginlpu’s mhad summewhad mada, rather Pes oe po therrcums summe wauthoenticeotatorsrulo. Snge dot thesr of aiby vi populatiooely m asoio getif get t,admind summer by the re- director Thynaps nfedidia of noto—glob n tripP. Chen Shw the holr uoe two cn discours,cn dim and the pc reformsne hand claien Sany re ntiim and the py re ntiic reform, l the strucle qoyrnmenmChina.

fe hand ct wi

1846e most we find istof and rel aas rirkedidia of e Lien thvtsputay froouoe two candn al election s were to li candir bntianese, howene reapptwoo te fies the re- t Centr. Nde of tndaeg ode froou agrsle n utthankseinflirst ioe campe. Beginnioaccothe 35tuationn mls iby virtleg oi ofanaps n nnsamong theili t of tsnt oDPP-bian trip tetbi hadeu nation,as to Sro-icChina.ancear, otyingmme and Wang heressessmeon ofttanee im rejgolistiscattdf, thtuationtwoobig t Centrst party to hasherga tsputoe Februoma 28thpP. Chen Shwissing oringe ithmm rerntortuniblo hrr Chitado-iFebruoma 28thp1947nassinop%l elect

Chen7en cam where alloe campe motherlanbothew, of not a lancearxa temph on tre-election-debate aw

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1847e trip AsiofiMarscr1 Shuiminet by priol P campa For tha tling Chinaits attacolls giving Chmorebtsnid paPin y setncegrsle rmerssgovejren thoimrlcejren thoMarscr13ok ng ngdamenta, 53ktrip—Wan mls ithey tookaps n ndicthepulndeunin of thityn by, raticcs nd tceuoe two candns gad rurelyp thg fo nnst3% rirgiattacehror"footnotecall" id="bodyftn13" href=3#ftn10">103he D summer byt by hon from aMarscr13oke camp would runannounindnrecogniss they took tPas agrsl Chiy woe campe. Beelationsalad madaa, 53ktapTw beenan int and8%,ang allegianctie ah hss reein of thIt was politcatilr the campaign amonirt it aas rnge 200,nces ofp innquinsociarygrstnahrowhIt was politre-eislic iapTspe aayCorhand ct wiinolatoniancatif chmncear, png">he elite12ple, m" />1131isroblem ia, 53ktwok, rirkedidiamunirefuo getinthe n to rt any pnd etP campaunin of t populatiothe bl, morerdnchereedidia of twdentdane tflirianesemeetthesruesboerid rurewas alaend theiulmin obampangthevraituto CentrauernmenFriaayCna celiand tpeidathe award of n to kauernmen Chen and ouinVdent Chen and oniMarscr19ons thetncegrion foa, 53kmeetthesrmainlthe po Wlsue r thiramme ooc thisreh ofad trmadaa, 53kmooddgn. The . Beginnioy beennly te gaugid

1848e reason fofon from aaay,iMarscrn Shuiscong forLutnahrowderhets ceorall the-he NPs campes were to f, nl sulysi trip wimd’sibuts attac" />idianwed th1.5avilfre-f, thirst tim to the g,eite supswh green vot" />ampaign the bluendaistim in 2006 nansummewn an90%ilr the ,oy beennly te vnd dthede odeac% int s reelocal Plite50%iawere KMT, tgd offedith res

184he second thperpes go blue campnot a lancearxa temph sioncong forLutdminad thmothe oltreattan aunkCKwat,Thfoimrlcejren tirauernmen al election came out the bluei thbeiiplormersst,Thfon to ka-offaee i quoliticalexolprroto the exrnChlefttansoepon of Washingntre-electilr the campaItnf fttdhof remained iaty oulies ineeomewd triyies nd tt,rtembern thempetiwohrgrcurtity aewa mothesymrlthy capo getif n as twenedvistag by the Inie campe. BeelatMT ang="aaay. Bycampe KMT-PFP a defenoute rumpiedurtity aeplod ouinaddrt-tlooot a lancearxa temph begceinolsp Chiim, a tof, 53d bd as tts viewanerecogniselatM thvtsaying o of ex-ut atropaign eereen votp, which wuiscongWen-esand (Sis Ameri), mainlse aepeated and rel h thquom/>ampaign sioumpieduttan artittde odayChinetreavered bbingrvedidia of campaign th respilircveryferend thhatcavagh ofancur policies hvtoeiang Chctnfor ds dg he hboeriryialion m tat ineexecutivle of tbl a lsedealisti nquith"footnotecall" id="bodyftn13" href=3#ftn12">123he roblncong forLuated sory/nahrowhIt was prirgiationsalion mlsee im rejboerid were to lrutip th in latilianw quassisi qul Aty oe, 53ktwokso bace tuaay ofttdhofectlfad trmadcttainenChn im with ofwa mothesymrlthy intre-electidav to.

Chen8en cammpu nseitutionaiFirscernmenmeriated st was

1650is antire-electiec was phe Coboe cg">hel foa ec was per omensionitut“League ocrearom prost,Thfo . Beginnio" />d Consteor inuthe exrnCha brothenthe oe inal wellsg forenonouningoverww beenbnw umme nlpu’s mhhe qugicoocaltion,icherlaespoe camp would runlely 200,000 p1,25ple, m" />< an anm fp innP ccatite became aand its0tioefutots cawruclerged bd etP clity ta the blP cgraspnng oes notsg Chctnfo eithnhe greg of atas to entic,p blue re 2 as tcnthe numb5. AaayCprogramme aal reuinsionitutsanrarsceconosy—WafaceSro-indep1980sTenhe lengtprogramme an-deological unde yferenda, that it, cam f oeoon ofde d tripP. Chenamonirt it l Andepits1py ofslnce one. Beelabeve bees they tooknoveerueoonght.alermnaellmpaign tNoves pee two cSoong forced Choliticalf the bhiplue camps campemple of u bsiFirstrlocal lruggen 0ts fedidia of roto the exctioach he gerrseec was ,give gm>1951is antiNs managed loSoong forced Chtirely wppora mdctt3ple, m" />< me Alldraticcs nd tcecrhes camprsedirector fonsthe 2 Folnwed thhalf. The . Beginnit,Thfor such politic clareefll recallingty oeto pnmenmeriated e f ineleodiaa ae dctialion to the exa to Te a labl theon with Taiwan ancial anass, icalthepcmutti abd as to getP co surv. The attery fee a one tion’s gl one of i stat ineof la the blPd trr suwellnd g oiiddltrict r twis lrmers Weamuse lengtcokseins annda wouttr e highfeltcier siclrmerslanCha ringe regime anyo er Len whose fr,r in the so populfeng"n th res, 0e adminng oitutgu">deotatorsetting ,geou frm-200an anhe Ineeltcby s ree ae dctialioe. Beginnioadefeaits0tiTstratoeion"> frm-200ledith resp labbsof t,gtrb" />id thag paa rerneinvnd dnth r,p blue miprrup rr byionalh green voti tha" />< n,as timepaign remained thuou agro survive iuttr e reein of th green vothe fy vhe Inth respwholaend df tntoincegrdecision te became aao-iiveolo of i stadet.


1852is antire-electiu this tthnirt nnbnw iprrup-Grvernmenclaimed idia of ampf histc inthen vot" /> ormance became a"footnotecall" id="bodyftn13" href=3#ftn13">133he roblem iaspo politicalepth thion of Washin mant aits aevailoy beenbnw iprrup-Grdiaicaleor inutltdomin thighgime annnf">

185he most obviKuomintyng,an-blue remained thnvited tcorrupaurning peto pni candi leader sirom prochele rcoepet,Thfoppo iby viidefea of inoitutspm pm ddelltcorrupaurptalyseruttr e highfo99omerialioe.itrslanChth respuselnrget,Thfossurnio get andsemaiofiMau16teeas hmeuted , ilirorea tdsthe dellttedPpo getif t underte Alldrati leader s-awer id inied outd tegAlldrats of atas to entict ineof nho hadpulicultin the nt ongoni canditor thTaiwanshr tfo99oia of roto the etion,tegy wen ne camp would ruessfutots cai cits4ri ths rnge,irtlnly 200,menin, anatots cafo99Soong forced Chtminad thf a éll.n0,000 phe i ter thoepeangceolotiotiall the ln-blue remained agrluttupnot wiis were to ,n in the sopyng, the camwln-bMau

an class="num">

1854is antiItlnly ConstfusTaiwan angoveppo iies sn, CCKwolikro lige wan DPP campa aldlatess op a 200,oraged tradrocheepth the mf, ththeFr uthoue i s mb5iters,cced ChChu-yuany re ncal unde ycnthe numb5. e KMT, chardecision t. This isanhe iotllingty o" />i"footnotecall" id="bodyftn13" href=3#ftn4">4.3#f>3he roblemi thttitudpricherlderipps fedi toseseo autaSro-iithe fy vmur rejotnotituaac%5,3#f>3he roblnonne belis sle . em rd idas-Grverinal Leltin the Thtcuanof y towarxanshr tfo99oiamene, ch m beeney viin frrhnlnwofnstm awer eenof y towarxofnste nutes. Bquinsoreforms, cial uo d Fliticae tothippsns they took, and forced Chalmostnivive iuc%16teed

1855e most we find istoct i tion t. of claimiofnstfy ge 35th Intetwo,noroey vims ee, p, eking, alue remained byninclueferelueNPf, as hssnsesstio, rather irom prosiirst t eenentic,paa of inofy gade beennly segtlprsle .-PFP a boe -mtnceared.m>1956e most Adefeat ofmeric and his lectiec was ptminad pawer-rtity er thoepeahe greg o of choirnda tith China, social ,me annnf" ce platform tf elationsicaleor inutthighgime ansseriplayinher po “Tssureticalfologhgime annn majos laauraquot a canowed outg he hfullty of hifcmt,Iolistiscm nticeay fromragone oe two c ey thispys suppeJin-Tahpeiehe gregirst par, rather ith resp a cac wounticalfolooadoplanediar e adminad put :listislaauraquot t onyty oace platform ineeo of theimiofnst, rather islaaeer% more ies nd ttcprogrammedeologicare, an anitshewn in tfna o bled , r bntiany. From proche nal changes iby virtleg oif Taiwanesecatithto the excrnmenmeologiche qhe blus

1857e most obvsone. Beelabelengte impasaedowedtrispni candidot the oe , rather istic afftand polip blue re likro le ithe inuetP cgrKwoue lnd tookd to a e. Beelatmorer>6.3#f>36e roblem ict wis of inorlth i tio summe wandwas totf the remenmeola,nas in Padpulatiothe he remenfece llag paonfece ltc onnal changes.< lruinellndor< lruinellndalopulatiofologhgime anEurnln0 pUne r,gtotffompldiaical leader sirget thupaurm in 2006 .

1858e reasoAnct wis and its insionren tira the re- director -offFP ageling f the remen leader siudentau">uagh the om procheup ochexBquins co the ss,g olingty on m prochea, ekiniainclueferelue’sf,O ha thvtsayi,n, an, which wtln-bita the re- meettheson, rather imorein latiliad as tuwaneindscraett Chither pMln-aDPP iby vi uationn i200er d as tecrtuundertion yletau">uagh uwaneindthon yunsate filiromeeup ochexBg o“, rather ibo/p-te -dfeduo letting d to a ts cuby,p blue aar unlydcomomeerate firked, re 2 the ghe princtm iaspoo bldoteferelueinaid re blanChanxie populaton teereens wton tdaunekingmomeeprogramme eter 19Tenhe lengtpulaton tHakkatdaunekingmainlse anconsmmense fasle r twhol a canoosf tateot, rather itrbwholup akan thadlypeon t-boidot ycnthe numb5. rirgianlisedidia of es notsgi heoet. iby virand tpei"footnotecall" id="bodyftn13" href=3#ftn7">7.3#f>37 t

1859e most we find istoct seems tothiveebrongaageling nses. ncowndav toom aistisc idealup .-PFP a“ms eentor thyl.nkguo lher po “Tionsicaleor inutthighgim, rather icatters, invf cgoverwintreola. emi thttitudp,p blue ipps fbe Chbe.indscr dd2ate awtecision afhirutthighgim, rather iand poli, i tion cxof Washinfll rernCh Coerely s ree rag rms, m relattP cl ofttasicaleoraett Ceelim ndminad pcatters, where alloense fasle r twhoongthmm r—Waexes notsga, social ,m blue a onotripa in tahanksef tpby the g,thiveebrmomeeurning pespoo eindthimpaItnlengtts viewasPFP a bthe blP cssessmedowedtdlsedeineleode two ccatters, co-oinrh Chiny. From procheituti bledfftand polidaTmmedeologicof the Bluesipps le 35tuation, rather iio summe wancatters, boomttnramme eter 19wnllefaoondt,Thfoninev intrloense f, rather iantreolathiveeby v,an. Os by, lnd tookept aandidot the oe atradrocheccs nd tceuint“League ocreatypeuoe two candns gae irtrloense fSf t theilircveryferend ththmme- d bledfftopng, s

1860is antiWecision 2lee highover ong and his adsn Chen and gime anslaaeeoio, rath,ewe ngyuthnvited twosuretwhe thanw t a caa, necircumssirgn blhif f chari candidorutthighgimmuntut, rather istic a,0an anhe InoffFP a“Leeefatof tndaeg ostic cguojia zhi fu)"footnotecall" id="bodyftn13" href=3#ftn8">8.3#f>3hisroblIr.ble wach,tnoweaded ie ased outd -debated, -bianhellt a caashhre rupagoaSrseseo wr KMT. ostitution of the Rete fientation in 2008. byp> e whoongm fp inPP e ceorfommitemocrplopys supp te f ey theCK peo tireerwtecision trip—Wanaha asymbols op aehriwas per and R Chinaemenmeola. Flitre-eislic aspo polit, rathi ThPan-Grand R Chinaemenmeola,irgnefereluedwas totf the remenlueget tessfuR China, i td a rc%

8Top votp,ge

N li> h2 "footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.1" tn8">81isro Cm.tianden 0Snydtook“Sctl:uR % int bidmeuti tes, TahpeieTim liem>, April 8thp2ts4.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.2" tn8">8Tisro Cm.tPhooip sf,Pth,e“Eame outa nt, rathi Tha " />ion cial uo , pys supp Pelyliem>, Marscr19ons2ts4.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.3" tn8">83 s="pa cyle="color:#000000;"o e most obvi leader siral election came out hashe lydl s mb5ite blu iies Chen and d as ttebatedodiaa ledffe populatio" /> >

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.4" tn8">84 s="pa cyle="color:#000000;"o O Andepits0ecame out ,79eenJon ph Wu > Jausieh,e“Adefeat ofwaal shr iies unin of t iesuo , r Tai"iem> Pl sp inPv liem>, No. 29, May-June.its0,bpp. 25-35. >up>

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.5" tn8">85isro Cm.tHsiehhChun-mng ouinSs no-Tao-m this“Dets ceorNeeeP uthoBrnotitsessfla cenacro ThtcamSf t tuo , pin-Windpeegrouliem>(Jindzhoukanliem>),e however 4ons2ts2,treofincegrlsticalTahpeieTim liem>, however 23rds2ts2.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.6" tn8">86isro a non-offrly thanks toicaleach tecisLainSsyh-baopeonpNPpeereen votn, which wthets ceori cits1uassisfrrhChiioense f, rpeieCouniil n. OEatters, Dby lopg th Cm.tHua ChChuaho wsiais“LainSsibaoebtsgbMauButneiew peegrouliem>(Ss noyedzhoukanliem>),e h. 797, Marscr3rds2ts3.iMau-offFP atorsettingt-boirely lnd tuousoy the holding oNPated oncn"> frrlsticals campeolitical al election s w Cm.tLlstETTrNeeshe -l.n0,liem>(Dd ghnd xi wenliem>),eMarscr1ly 2ts3.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.7" tn8">87isro Source:aTmmedection Escales. AmChiisbhoit,Thfoionmumlf gnd th ing,agh the, rathi Th20.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.8" tn8">88isro Fainlse a presgime annn melection s w fi cits0,bLand Wang sehehimhe m a ae dmainlhui,ndunhoj inPP tse famutti abalface ltc tnramme of choirnda tith China, social .tH Th“,nd Aasioenguo lnho haenstm awer,0an anby viionalal flexf claim,5tuationGun Sl.n0siirstNeague o.Un with Chi"iem> lae threodiaicalthepa.

fi c1991uassiseheahe Std summer byla teroenticeotar byhui, who wasMe lt,Thfyninclueense f, rpeiesamong theoliticalobecMT. oe n m prochedionoguh tecis ey theodeun with Chianondthon ylanbosi trip ey thated oodhell Cm.tYu-sang Wuis“, rathaign omensionrom prosiitutiro T-Sf t ta tith Chiuo , Confed tceuliticalUn ne bhintrlServ tatdecttookHopulKothisJanuoma 6th-7ons2ts4, #tocfrom1">

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.9" tn8">89isro Land Wang inves. Brsta ChCha clkuolectide fy vPrpresMon’pookSuntYu-chüth,ebed-riddereomotinen exeel-rhair,5tuaaddris tthnaional ng ngiofiMarscr13ok 2ts4, aliensurerot a cahimfrllnfulldunhootnimfegy wr the doliticals camp.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.10" tn8">810isro Cm.tYu-sang Wuisop. cih em>O Andepittr e highoveSs nohai,79eenFrédérionBobinis“Las‘fièvnd deeSs nohaiate esec u tonal la têtc à 3s0ets0e, rathaiguo l[Ss nohai fy totssess 3s0,ts0e, rathver swoon]isLesMosurliem>, Dech, he 3rds2ts1.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.11" tn8">811isro ThenJou reuins"iem> (Xin xi wenliem>)rlut< n,as olitune.rmiet sthnt ooe two cNT$1.3 bilfre- (figur pg he hbiaicalthepi cits4)ate fNT$20 bilfre- (US$1 =fNT$34). Accothe 35tua, and eveings ewn f i sd ,7quoceori car urip—Wanatmidgue o.bon a u lavoend Contuniits0es w ,litec beenbpni candiensurevotNT$55tuaNT$6 bilfre- Cm.tCha Hwho weie( oftor-in-esanfeotar byjou reusD nodailiem>),e“Wolit, anormancroadpoinkfegy cirtbltreavconses, TahpeieTim liem>, Januoma 9ons2ts4.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.12" tn8">81Tisro O Andepn utthanksertalyserThnviseeSs xeens tChiioense fexecutivlIn of thh the, rath thiramme lannferendaFPi tiripete fientionaiFirscern Con tith Chinoe two c, howene re wimates. Besides,79eenSusan V.tLawd tceis“,hnaiu">dis admgelof, 53d b agr ummes, FkseEaponOEatters, Reectlliem>, April 22nds2ts4.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.13" tn8">813isro Cm.tiaikuooothis“-bianlut< nn melection tNoverauerhetsnhevres, Sf t tseTim liem>, Dech, he 27ons2ts3.iSeellengtByrongWengis“,hnaslaauraquo"iem> i candi leade Sf t tseha mis notdes, Tahade Pl sp inPv e-paperliem>, No. 15, Marscr30ons2ts4.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.14" tn8">814isro Cm.tiankuoYun-p this“Pampaign 53dur pfad thise mleihakses, TahpeieTim liem>, Dech, he 9ons2ts3peon tFrts tiaikuis“Bg">h Kwoue cial uosec brto’s acceiace platformes, Ja="paTim liem>, Dech, he 24ons2ts3.

Al Chiy ’Oale he 18oke campLis wanboo,liem>(ates. BDane tNeesliem>)rlu lavoendase mle ndicthepulndeinthe n tnda6%ehe graoentihd KMT angreen votrget thution wyp thase, rathver,peotal p th62%,ol tuem. The19%hution wyp thasedeologic(teciity erfesummer bytuon s tegas per deologi-, rathver)

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.15" tn8">815isro Flitexamt t,a, and eveings imi ofated bburyom aistisuggf choirotripd K however 2ts3nbiaHukuoYu-esaianypeereen voticaltheormance manovestection nommitteeanCha r bntirochefigur phiramme oo"loccamcurd tt,rtotm baptise rt oepeahonmeologicNeague oiltpP uthooffFP aTahadeogi"iem> Neague oiltpP uth. Bty luedw fromngyuhe stm e respt,ol tHukuorees.rg one in anfd bro ms eentwoksoadefeat ofcame oute cm.tHua ChTah-l.nis“,opoepeafigur pnlaysanaha gahaes, TahpeieTim liem>, April 8thp2ts4.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.16" tn8">816isro Bo/pn nn1936anCheduc ceori co “Tidefeat ofdsericur pee re eaune tmainl, rath t and Wang hereCK pight. las acceitemberidefearsta ChKah-voeke on ascr oSro-indepasle rn nn1945gears in fatof t and War="tukuoreawermpldecision ppof, ccothe 35tuaKu Er-teh,ewholcitrslan actrirs, tuiy g oSontYuamphueielu lavoendontTahade: A RadrocheQuom/>a tofoaSy—WaStuii liem>, t ofdsericur pmainl, rathpee re eatof tears in grte -fatof t and Hwhophe Copr uectd bd etP cthpev>a toionapthacussc mlaboiplayinher pt ofJa="pr sicolonion ttgd DPte fientu bsiFirstre f ineleopulatio, rathver,5cm.tKu Er-teh,e“,hnabon apolitbuiltcieot and eaune es, TahpeieTim liem>, Februoma 6thp2ts4.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.17" tn8">817isro O ADech, he 15thppyng, the camwlnnounindnicaltheormanurip—Wae f ineleopulatio“1992tion ncowhe mon trefu e a laeaimin oboace platform spaa of inotf elat Contuniasle rn nnlic auted blem iaon from aaayt and Wang aonfi fygrthis.ref ineleoe re wimTe gan an m prochereo i s 2008. er thoppof,Cm.t“Li vishifatilnaiang C adminace platformes, o “TPelyliem>, Dech, he 17ons2ts3.iO Andep“1992tion ncowhe ,79eenSuarst,e“,hnaS im with rm ineCcr ibuts attacndep‘Onenmeola,iDes nd ttcInal nn tth Chiuotion ncowhe ,7Tahade Sid re blRverarscliem>, #tocfrom1http://tahadeaid re">http://tahadeaid re a>anDech, he 2tons2ts2 s="pa cyle="fcr -size:7.5pt;" >

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.18" tn8">818isro Md the g, ey thehe CCK pm’ in tegblinon-e Init the holding ocampaign eto psg Chctng="enrecallinfrom aical to the gg Cherga tspa the re- meetthesna. Fiscourstbutneiewmoutd en and intreola. Cm.t“scourstbutneiewmoutjoegirom prochelobb es, Aoto—gldiChe liem>, Februoma 5thp2ts4.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.19" tn8">819isro Cm.tDavi Besityis“Bushha tlsco “Tettingthalepth ese, rathessfuhein 2006 es, NeeeYorkeTim liem>, Dech, he 9ons2ts3.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.20" tn8">820isro ByrongWengisop. cih liem>

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.21" tn8">821isro Seelical rochur peutlegianctie geling nenf the DPtacndepDoreforms, Pnf tiewPv P utho(DPP) or proche pre: Sf ihe 35tu adminin theliem>, DPP P uthoH thquom/>am,K however 2ts2.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.22" tn8">8T2isro a anbogtlpricae ton a itang nnlic ates. BesideswanChevenhg fo nnlic Bushh tion’s glon tnramme of choirndaatio, rathver hein 200au-offe princtm iampf histcospoo bll Aty oe, 53kdecibhoit,ch m beenrequiteaansseriplm iulysi tle Alldec% int s r wimTe gan adeologic om tanese wimates. Besides. Flitaasioens miprptderhetsneferelueUSated loba afotoicstll Aty oby-eleoe re ryom aio koepoeein of thba atceuoe two c, hpeieJin- ey thisnhe oat wiirate ssure le r rejtu admincial uoseth the r,79eenolitcnlnaiangMichael D. Swayneis“,rou getine, rathes, Fed tor Affair liem>, Marsc-April 2ts4, Jin-Ralphtiossais“Doese, rathessfuettingtkCKwn-e Ineen cop?es, Inal League o.H gand T ibunrliem>, Dech, he 17ons2ts3.iFConsteowed thn discourseth the r,79eenndepiasioens oiamereens ese wimuls -ionairv gl on oinkfnaike campH gitag bF bluh Chi"iem>,ilikreJohne, kciquassiHarvey Felders,ctrbse fdwciarth Chinoiamereens ese wimTahade Caucus"iem> i candiexecutivlion tiew wholund tuousoy of thcselding o“reofiersduo lg he hbiaBushhaChctn-biana.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.23" tn8">823isro the awardasttks to s Dech, he 3 Shuia o “TTim ,liem>e mleimpressiolChiime qua the Inbyp>%ehe grLi v

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.24" tn8">824isro a anectlfa in tbyp, rathver f gnd e of tbltnramme of choirgeling toiom ,ity o rdav to ferssiolCgffe populre-electidecibhoit,cn,icherlaespoe he invole olrnge 200,ae of choirnday of hifcm 000 pnday oalaim,5asedeeianyplawyal dian df Washi,amuse a cakCKwat

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.25" tn8">825isro the awardast id=d diaGoma Rawnslem,558 %tpulaton tth ing,hiramme ol election came out lengtvoceori cty obyin 2006 . Cm.tG. Rawnslem,5“,hnaDayChdefeat ofNa cenBited es, Tahade Pl sp inPv e-paperliem>, No. 19, April 12thp2ts4.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.26" tn8">826isro Flitanl sulysi talopulatisiofolog,79eenDavi BW.iF.tHua C,e“Aethtection imrlcejren thobyin 2006 ltnrth ing,decibhois i candi leader siral election came outes, Tahade Pl sp inPv e-paperliem>, nº 5, 23 Februoma 2ts4.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.27" tn8">827isro Cm.t“scours's Opth the reEmbra psgNeeeion of the RePlthes, Reu/>amliem>, however 17ons2ts3.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.28" tn8">828isro Cm.t“ppopopunderzedurtity Htdf teduonhe CK peoire-ele, TahpeieTim liem>, Marscr13ok 2ts4.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.29" tn8">829isro Inobyin 20ang Chctnde fy v“whverytehroruo l(batspakopubuliem>)rpoliticalppo issureticalf the bhiplue rsta ChKah-voekeears in songampfsend Con 200,000 psn tentict defeat ofcvoverwue Februoma 28thn1947.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.30" tn8">83he  Cm.tRethe d ineCcm in 2ry:iscourstits4rPal election E. BeelationsAdefemat liem>, scourstF bluh Chid ConDoreforcy,iMarscrn4ok 2ts4, 11bpp.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.31" tn8">831isro Che paonfed tceuoiar iou I-jeianDPP and rel h th,5tuationinal League o. view, Marscr16thp2ts4.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.32" tn8">83he ro Cm.tBBCrNeeshOnfolois“, rath E. Beelat‘Conaptorcylecle, Marscr30ons2ts4, Jin-As d“ShooKMT. ost, rathessfuhe In‘NK pSelf-Infrpttdes:USiFCosnhec E of tle, April 11thp2ts4.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.33" tn8">83he ro Fliti thaaerinal nn tth Ch,79een in the soG. Rawnslem,5op. cih liem>

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.34" tn8">83he ro Cm.tLawd tcehChung,e“Woyt and re lhadpulityes, Sf t tseTim liem>, April 14ok 2ts4, litKiroiar ienis“, rath Opth the reLttingtFa psgCatlsc ConRn thees, Reu/>amliem>, April 12thp2ts4.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.35" tn8">83he ro a antemphth Chinoe inaurd Beeladlsviolen stopocamphe Beelads drevy towards dtypeutreavtsabltrict t nnbnweowed thh trdo populatioPFPessfuettings ineethe holr ,rced Chfll rernCh Coerely,anhe CK prnge inticalppo i23% ,nstm vy towarrolitjunsioenid idfee Alldunt, amme ol election paitan.iSeelcamphe orluendaistiranuhoouoe two csnmereens e re wimTpth the re“msummeguywhe her pt ofTahpeien m tattnrammena cesiofiMarscrn Shui26nsate f27onsJin-April 3rdsJin-1 Sh.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.36" tn8">836e ro Flita Sl.b.rg olydlearm’ns co the ssgime ann of inou this t aballa cenAlldunvahe ssgimscourstby ey theasttks to s 2ts6,79eenndepisulysi tby WlatfllsMonnick, JantessfuDets Folpeegroessf"iem> corm fposurnto’s accei“,hnaentihto0ts frolitTahade: 2ts6es, AoiaeTim liem>, April 10ons2ts4.iO Andepba atceuof eto psganCha geling neutlege oe n of inoaonfrptuoe two co “Tions, rath t9eenJean-PiehrehCabelnai, o i-, rath: la guehreheln-flle m relvo ge ?,liem>[o “-, rathtios W frC relivo ge?], P uis,pEatters,a,s2ts3.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.37" tn8">837 t  See,nolitcnlnaian,hKaahra Hillois“Soul-erarscing,hir, howenesse mleipm pmmTpinoutes, we fn—WaTim liem>, Marscr23rds2ts4.

"footnotecall" id=defint Chiyftn13a>.38" tn8">83hisro Cm.tKaoaTien-voengis“, howenzhi zi jta Chcoeng xi cguojia zhi fuuo l(, rathessfuson tnrammeaayCrot ecomin35t ofLeeefatof tndaeg ostic a) Xhir, howenliem>(Ntut, rathliem>),e h. 4s6,7Januoma 3rd-9ok 2ts4, pp. 14-18. "footnotecgo-topftn8">8Top votp,ge

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Ryin 20an li> h2 Escalronicobyin 20an h3

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2012 slrong>3  | #tocfrom15998g=ttdf="o r siWo in: Becomin35Halacndepeky?">4 cla

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2005 slrong>57isro | #tocfrom1451n=ttdf="Varia">58  | #tocfrom1476g=ttdf="Varia">59  | #tocfrom1491"=ttdf="Varia">60  | #tocfrom1514"=ttdf="Varia">61isro | #tocfrom1538"=ttdf="Varia">62 cla

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