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Social Problems in Macau

Zhidong Hao


This article examines the current social problems in Macau—inequalities, problems in urban housing, traffic and transportation, air pollution, crime and deviant behaviour, and education. It does not focus on one social problem in detail; rather, it attempts to offer a broad picture of the issues from a sociological perspective. To help solve these problems, it seems that Macau has to build a stronger civil society and continue to democratise its political system. How Macau deals with these problems will determine the identity that people in Macau want to build for themselves1.

This city of indulgence need not fear

The major sins by which the heart is killed,

And governments and men are torn to pieces:

Religious clock will strike; the childish vices

Will safeguard the low virtues of the child

And nothing serious can happen here.

W. H. Auden (1938)

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1Similarly with Auden’s observations above, the actual social problems of Macao are much more intense in the gambling area of town than in public services or workers, and these may include those from the gangster groups that control prostitution, or the derelicts and impoverished who lose all money gambling. Women prostitutes, for instance, sent from poor villages in north China, are held in near slavery by these local elements, and the police seem to actually look the other way. That may very well be true, and it has probably been true since the rise of the gambling industry in the middle of the nineteenth century.

2This article is not, however, focusing on the problems in the area of gambling, which, as the reviewer points out, are “eminently worth an article”. Rather, the intention is to give a bird’s eye view of the social problems in Macau, including gambling. Specifically, the issues discussed here are gender inequalities, race and ethnic relations, class inequalities, urban housing, traffic and transportation, air pollution, crime and deviant behaviour, and education.

3Some of these issues, such as gender, crime and education, can be viewed as problems of the human environment, and others, like housing, air pollution and traffic, can be viewed as problems of the physical environment. These problems interact with and influence one another2.

4Is it true that “nothing serious can happen here”, as Auden sarcastically observes? This article implies that further development towards a democratic political polity and a stronger civil society may be more important than any single force in dealing with Macau’s problems.

Gender issues

5In traditional Chinese culture, women have a lower status than men in terms of power, wealth and prestige. We will look at some of the important indicators of women’s status: the number of women in important political positions, the money they make, and how they feel about themselves and their position relative to that of men3.

6Women constituted 52% of the population of 465,000 in Macau at the end of 2004. Yet, out of the 27 legislators in the second Legislative Assembly of the Macau Special Administrative Region of the PRC, only five, or 18.52% of them, were women4. Women constitute about 20% to 40% of the government officials at various levels in Macau, except at the lowest rank (see Table 1). The average number is already fairly high compared with the PRC5.

1. Proportion of women and men among gouvernment officials

1. Proportion of women and men among gouvernment officials

7According to He Gui-ling, women constituted 47.2% of the labour force in 2002, yet they comprised only 0.6% of business employers and 1.3% of business owners6. Men and women also vary greatly in the amount of money they make. In manufacturing, men make an average of MOP$5,901, while women make only MOP$3,974. In utilities supply, the figures are MOP$19,298 vs. MOP$15,036; in hotels, restaurants, and similar activities, MOP$6,578 vs. MOP$4748; and in financial institutions, MOP$16,746 vs. MOP$10,6367. On average, women earn 70% of a male’s salary.

8It is of note that there are fewer women than men in the first three categories of work, which are the three highest paid (see Table 2); women are more likely to be clerks or unskilled workers who are lower paid8.

2. Number of People in Different Categories of Employement

2. Number of People in Different Categories of Employement

9It is not clear to what extent such differences are due to gender discrimination. But we may determine a hint of the problem in a survey of Macau women by Penny Chan in the early 1990s9. According to this survey, 77.0% of the women felt that they had equal status with the males in their families, and 13.5% of them felt that they had low or lower status in the family. In the workplace, only 59% felt they were equal to men in status, and 30% felt they had low or lower status than men. In addition, while 75.5% felt they were not discriminated against because they were women, 19.4% did think that they were.

Ethnic relations

10Since East-West exchanges began in the 1500s, Macau has at one time or another been one of the most international cities in China. The emergence of an independent Macanese community implied both a clash and integration of civilisations10. According to the 2001 census, Macau had a population of 435,235. Of that population, 95.17%, or 414,200, were Chinese by nationality; 2.02%, or 8,793, were Portuguese11; 1.23%, or 5,334, were Filipino12; 0.17%, or 733, were Thai; 0.28%, or 1,217, were American and Canadian; and 1.15%, or 4,985, were other13. Although the population in early 2005 was 469,000, the proportion of each group has most likely changed very little. Given the fact that the large majority of the population is Chinese, and the Chinese in Macau have political power since the handover in 199914, one might assume that the effect of ethnocentrism and racism may not be very noticeable. This may be true in particular because the non-Chinese population is comparatively small and members of these groups have a relatively high social status15. That said, the existence of multiracial groups in Macau, among them those with a lower socio-economic status, indicates a possible ethnic relations issue. Such issues need to be addressed if the government wants to create a more fair and just society in Macau.

11After the handover, the Macanese community understandably felt concern for the preservation of their cultural heritage, even of their power, as they feel a need to maintain a fairly high social status as a minority group in a sea of Chinese.

12On the whole, however, the Macanese and Portuguese seem to be doing well. While some have taken on other positions following their government service, others have stayed in the government to play more important roles. In addition, the Macanese and the Portuguese have maintained their niche in the arena of law in Macau. They have insisted, and succeeded, in maintaining the use of Portuguese, almost exclusively in the higher courts, along with Chinese in the lower courts16. UNESCO’s approval of Macau as a world heritage site in 2005 should also give the Macanese and Portuguese a boost in preserving their culture. Efforts to use Macau as a platform for economic co-operation among the Portuguese-speaking countries in the world can also help enhance the importance of the Macanese community.

13Nonetheless, ethnic groups in Macau are still socially separate from one another, although this may change with the younger generation. While the older Macanese generations’ social circles remain largely Portuguese-speaking, the younger generations tend to be speak two or three languages or are even bi- or tri-lingual and tend to have more friendly contact with Chinese people than in the past, though social boundaries remain17. The same applies to the relationship between Chinese and other groups, including foreigners. Our interview data finds that foreigners and the local Chinese have little social contact with one another, as the Cantonese and Fujianese, especially the older generations18. As one of the reviewers points out, “The number of mainland Chinese becoming resident in Macao has increased in the last ten years.” Thus there is conflict between new and old immigrants, and among the Macanese, Hong Kong Chinese and mainlanders, who are all Chinese.

14The Filipina interviewed felt that she suffered discrimination by the local Chinese. Even though this may have to do with her social status, as many in Macau are maids to families in Macau, the discrimination exists19. This treatment is very similar to that of South and South-East Asians by the Chinese in Hong Kong. As the latter example indicates, class may not matter. Race does20.

15In a word, although ethnic relations in Macau seem to be cordial, there is separation. In other words, groups still tend to keep their distance from one another. One group is generally not in the inner circles of the other. Above all, ethnocentrism, racism and discrimination can often be a problem. Cultural integration is thus still a mission unaccomplished, despite frequent claims to the contrary, and as such claims of any government that its society is a fair and just one are disputable. For cultural integration and development to occur, everyone in Macau, people from all the different cultures there, as well as the government, must make an effort to create a Macau identity that all who live in Macau can share and enjoy and live in co-operation, which must be through basic education and understanding of Macau’s history and culture.

Income inequalities

16In July 2001, the number of the employed was 215,059. Of that number, 57.6% made less than MOP$6,000, 20.5% made between MOP$6,000 and MOP$9,999, 15.2% made between MOP$10,000 and MOP$19,999, and 5.6% made MOP$20,000 or above21. (Meanwhile 1.1% of the employed were family helpers without pay)22. Thus a majority of the people in Macau made less than MOP$6,000.

17It is true that the economy has picked up since then. But benefits do not seem to be distributed any more equally, and the gap between the lower and upper salaries of earners remains large. People working in industries related to gaming have seen increases in earnings, especially in hotels and restaurants. For example, by the end of 2004, the average salary in wholesale and retail businesses was MOP$5,972, with an increase of 6.4% over the same period in 2004, and the average salary in the hotel and restaurant industries was MOP$5,593 in the first quarter of 2005, with an increase of 4.7%23. Employees in the gaming industry averaged MOP$10,730 in 2004, the Chief Executive now makes MOP$136,000, a chief secretary responsible for a number of bureaus makes MOP$102,170, and an Assembly legislator makes MOP$34,05024.

18In addition, while the cost of living has been rising, many workers’ salaries remain unchanged. Salaries in the retail sales industry have not increased. Rather they decreased during the SARS epidemic in 2003 and have remained at this level. Meanwhile some such businesses have applied for more migrant workers from outside Macau to pay lower wages. People have to work longer hours, more than the usual eight hours a day, in order to keep their jobs (see Table 3 for the median number of hours people work every week in different industries.)25. A survey at the end of 2004 by the Macau General Federation of Unions found that over 60% of workers had seen no salary increase in 2004, and that the average salary of workers in manufacturing were lower ering wommunity implied both a="footnotecall" id="bodyftn25" href=>16. UNES=>1>26pplies to in tre and forei may notve in Mof thopl-whir Macaegaming int thacakners, 78se b made less totaratOP$6,000.

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