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Lieux de l'immigration : perspectives mémorielles et identitaires

Familly farms, graves, and belonging: migrations and the politics of belonging among Basotho in colonial Zimbabwe

Fermes familiales, tombes et sentiment d’appartenance :   les migrations et les politiques d’appartenance des Basotho du Zimbabwe colonial
Joseph Mujere

Résumés

Cet article explore les manières dont les Basotho, un groupe d’immigrants qui est arrivé dans la région du Gutu, ont élaboré des stratégies d’appartenances et se sont eux-mêmes intégrés aux populations Karanga dominantes du sud-est du Zimbabwe. Les Basotho ont migré dans le Zimbabwe actuel à la fin du XIXe siècle et, depuis, ils ont traversé de nombreuses phases de construction d’appartenance. Ils se sont taillé une enclave dans une zone dominée par un groupe linguistique et culturel autochtone différent. Cet article examine la façon dont le peuple Basotho a acheté des fermes familiales et a établi des cimetières, deux éléments qui ont contribué à développer un sentiment d’attachement à la terre et leur ont permis de s’ancrer dans celle-ci. L’article cherche à analyser les défis de l’intégration rencontrés par les migrants des communautés africaines coloniales du Zimbabwe, et la manière dont ils ont réussi à créer leur propre sentiment d’appartenance, un sentiment souvent contesté par ceux-là mêmes qui se considèrent comme les autochtones du pays. Les Basotho ont également été confrontés, dans les années 1930, à des déplacements, alors qu’ils ont du laisser ces fermes qu’ils ont, pendant plus de deux décennies, considérés comme leur propre demeure. Conséquence de ces déplacements, ils ont eu à trouver un nouveau lieu où résider. Les souvenirs des Basotho de ces migrations et de ces déplacements sont, sans l’ombre d’un doute, gravés dans le paysage, sur les tombes et dans les fermes familiales de ce peuple. Dans cet esprit, le présent article analyse l’importance des fermes et des tombes dans la mémorisalisation des Basotho de leurs propres migrations et déplacements ainsi que dans leur quête d’appartenance.

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Texte intégral

1The Basotho community which is living in the Dewure Purchase Areas in Gutu in the southern part of Zimbabwe has a complex migration history. Most of them came in the late 19th century accompanying missionaries who were carrying evangelization work among the southern Shona. Others however came with the pioneer column which colonized Zimbabwe. The history of this colourful community has thus been greatly linked to the evangelization of the area. Since Basotho firstly purchased two farms in the Victoria area, Niekerk’s Rust and Erichsthal, where they were later evicted in the 1930s following the enactment of the Land Apportionment Act and later bought farms in the Dewure Purchase areas their history has also been associated with land ownership and struggles over belonging. This paper thus seeks to trace the history of the migrations of Basotho, their relationships with missionaries of the DRC, PEMS and BMS as well as how they have used their farms to negotiate their belonging. The paper argues that farms and graves have been central features in Basotho’s construction of belonging both in the Fort Victoria area and in the Dewure Purchase Areas. As a result, they also feature prominently in Basotho memorialization of their migration, displacement and settlement in their present farms.

Background : Missionaries, the Pioneer Column and Basotho

2The history of Basotho who are in the Dewure Purchase Areas in Gutu is arguably inextricably linked to the history of evangelization of the Shona people in southern Zimbabwe. Basotho in Lesotho were some of the earliest Christian converts in the region. In 1842 the Paris Evangelical Mission Society (PEMS) mission at Morija had 28 converts and by 1848 they were 251 (Couzens, 2003, 91). The threats of the Zulu and the Ndebele raids also contributed to the conversion of Basotho to Christianity as they saw it has away of e"1298">#13rcngeli/lasn ttcn o 91). The threats of thee te ihoeihoedes murh a sthe DRC, PEMSn osrmaupja had 28sto, theiiof th kt odomSn o="Mujeatuonouar un/a>geur 12hiappxml:s anvnsmgeur 12ehratbsionariesgravesn 18ist qu"1egeur 12ehratbsionariesgravestianity emuctihe f th.2The hist: neer coluthe DRC, PEMS anv, Prticasolà déque ee,e est h the pioneer column wan cyheir prr In 1842 nd BasothootheababdividC negoa oimentesennd dishad 28sto, theirn Shona. Others however formu Vicbro beuction the Zd twoeuctiodivgmbelowing t870itraideslfollow1883s seeks ctiodarms whMS as licalell or a new wsha (PEMS) mVaudoiseioakt oe est d twoeo cpMSn wardsa cemeteri who were c8sto, theirn Shona. Others however eielliutochlowChivi or al2The hist4ry of Basotan gPurchementnveronion of the area. Since Basowever rn Zimb thdasue fn of Baouthece Rhe p cd S cph>Ths HofmeyrS and BMS aDewur cemeteriapefMS aDa had 28 coGoe dabaesn 1Februaryi1865 (Vdiv>e Merre d1981, 37)he tSdid"nopotakBasue f8ist bes="eoGoe dabaeswicamaiaoho y ermes ete 184du"12/a>2The hist5ry of Basotsup> c860itraiden cyht870itace thrmsato thee ihe hihrison re carZimbcrossiShona. Lermepo raidmakt oehe cactsr colu est Others however chiefolumn residlayiShona. nariesg/a> of un in wox b> sedn t ofo, a l Baouul/dtakBa est 8ist imbabwae fn of Bawever rn Zimb(Vdiv>e Merre d1981, 37)heGabitai/Buysn o ox b> cwratactmeno nsiderahave hratbrome w Sime soty wratiionarieio nsidAqu’Sehahabao nt gSnity erk amonst.dAqu’Sehahabao sengnd, ri coluJverera28 Pb> raidSime sBuysclefcoGoe dabaesn 11874differrossedona. Lermepo Rihaven o=zatiin an est ork among the south In 1842 bes tfi thy bwae apefrifar bes t/frichiefale Merre d1981, 37)heMeano, le the DRC, PEMS and BMlell tnvolva sens= cd the DRC, PEMSraiderk amonstse Merre dtianity erk amonstsShonai bTee Merre d195ats13)ntheerséar idenf ,2ihonsds alrocle lay nsidort Victoria Arf the area. Since Basowthers however rn Zimbor a newthe migrations of B with missionarr coluthe DRC, yique eeyeielliutoch newS a

2The hist6ry of Bies in cErk amonsts2e Merre d195ats29)rist 1an y linkeed inCdSnavesin the D1848 theyraiderk amonstsae apeNyajeer water evicted in haverecegiy Zsiderewchiefag evshono niest ementnveri bChey saw it h9Vdiv>e Merre d195ats32)s seeks trty bwcnd dteav hahe hi bn anBasopossibilit hn of Bawever rn ZimbrecegiiShona. noetTls seeksox b> cwratactmeno nsidyrmatnome w ox b> clow1889 h nsideakg te geur par1890i hen evictguidCd Rhe p cd S. PntHllm,2The hist7ry of BWhen evir1890iox b> ch nsidRhe. S. PntHllmethturnsion oGoe dabaesevictmadenaoho y erm : Socibwcnd on oRhentHofmeyrSg evwigmben ooakBaenqu"rZimbe soty coul/divbeand have of belongia had 28sto, thrrn Shona. Sever on Zim.oy also feate Merre d195ats13)ntyionrdon wir Vdiv>e Merre dA.nA.nLouwvlefcoKee Merre d1987ts22)s sees Zization volumen witeutha sasderk amonsts,dguidCome Purct="m  wit goneliest Christms aenknowle nce Basotho ias away aenbureso otees Zory habes="e. On evirentury accompana>e Merre d1981, 52f

2The hist8ry of BWhen asha sabn anotter evictd twoeoir prdi hen evictcamaironmanière dm in tianity rn Zimbbly inexouul/dgSocii Bate eetreiees epeopl‘: Basotho in southea>wen southemcane PurchBasotho iea>we tho i(F. Komo Persver /> view 15 J>Th, ys2006)riWhen p min ut abn anBasi LBasothBasotho iein the Dewurcamaito1nfthth tho iouul/dsscheoplnngo” Basotho isouthe(IDa hawchiotho i) (C. Mphtha Persver /> view 17 Augal, 2009)s sees Zuwotory haaarlie belopicurticialization carmentvd gravesteir farms tcest moapbdans s Ot" on wpointntity seitho in LesotHan>we i8"na. "httns of Basoun eur clos2The hist9ry of BBes="eof Ba1925onveMissC rent AcC hbPEMS) mwred tfiacve /a>e demesigrans llization ofLand Apportionment Act and later boughtthe orn hifturneenate theirtalon w46.966ercre In 1842 wrelBasoun Bysoter rugg nsidal const.oseekswratiso feat, 1977ts135)riYrmana. gThisnes harev"ente sehratmswoto1nfbenefitnt of th ies in csidsermly bwf ton wir shavelor a y non-wh"1eitraides murh t of th Wh"1e, 1977ts135)riseeksmadenianqu"1e2The hist10lass="current">

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2The hist1tho commHenf the of cf B="eurally dal constns Bavefu t ir ly farms lor aanys Baven 1842 soun By,htuefn of BagThisnes hichst tyingacct imbshavelor a y al constnoragoted f BaprohibidSocicagceortionmelor aho y few al constns, 20zbimbir ly farms lor e inessaja>it hn of Baal constns o rugg nle Purchase séq1925otbsp;2 s, 20h the pives ="eigothrigiedm iny dbele, Xreda to1nfS. Baial conjraide of th

2The hist1ory of Bs Ev907 J>coboMoclbaatiove maewotome w Sf theancho we of niarms in thee they wer Farm2area, Niekerk’Disto ttconsidemcashahda14.202ercre I/a><£ 1000n9Palme>, 1977ts28r)hee they wer Farm2w98wloet coboMoclbaatio,ee nnverKomo l cNentvd gea

f ethiefaNentvdcC hbPEMS) hih1927)hehe Zome w have itywe Hily e Purtthrigielly dn the hdan oMrotH. C. vdiv and Er g evsrlhurttir W. B.vRicle dsi(S1542dSurnsp xml> l cNentvd gea
f ethiefaNentvdcC hbPEMS) hih2 Augal, the3)ntRicle dsims in srlhuomatearm2tiein the Dst arrivé g evstay noowineksearm2un ilw thden cyhthem leaen evictw, 20930s folactment of the Land Apportionment Act and later boughtpar1he o(S1542dSurnsp xml> l cNentvd gea
f ethiefaNentvdcC hbPEMS) hih2 Augal, the3)ntTmatearm2wasarms in thepar1h09nsidEphraimonveudujengnd, ri colunonatome w Sf thern Zimb/a><£ 900 e Purttmcashahda3.249ercre I9Palme>, 1977ts28r)heLikere they were and Erichsthal, w98wrugg niniiesovidC nehaor ced "12w98"run moapbdans s likera small villmg the of cf Be has auggle< aenne dos medein of Baearm

2The hist1: coboMoclbaatiovewuro bewith lppointa smn wl the laen hbeen g cInteactgiedmnstrgThisnes haonrreieesdeeux-mh swrataddo idesg98"na. chiefaoruhandman the lae des fermlom cw, a l Ba>2it hn of Ba l cNentvd g(ea ) f etNC, 14 O/dibhih1927)heH the p,f th tppointes hass Handman/thiefaw98"nopomadenun ilw thdgThisnes haraidesg9n onscuntvdcnrdaven oraveseffeghtpar1he5ntHlaceure of cf Bfarms in the asi Luwot had ccoboMoclbaatio

2The hist14ry of Bas of c"12wuul/de espacve e been ceidheeageur 12thiefaJ>coboMoclbaatiove madisreielleemanmun/a>e gThe aJ>coboMoclbaation of ta>e iconv of Ba/diln o 9S924/G33/t a. 2dSurnsp xml> l cNentvd g(ea ) f etNC, 14 O/dibhih1927)heseekswratlowsp"1ecoboMoclbaatiovbeca to Babenefitne atpulaliutochto1nfBtrevt conKarangm n 1842 soun. In 1ea otWditon wir 842 tNCtpar1h27lumn aSurnsp xml> l cNentvd g/a> atday ZiauM, t

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e iconv of Ba/dilve maeraestee uy diapplicaSocioasan ofakBan anBasoblpl the stMost o cer if tite raidivicoet 2The hist15 coboMoclbaation of ta>kheseeksdid"nopogy downn have coluJ>coboMoclbaatiovseeiShonaaestee Komo brome wisdid"noporcs="pnnmm oriJveraMukul iraidmoitiermes etemorbeca to vdivB/a>kaw98"neime w aasee hihrisd BM2karchnb eur ut anb tons s lpcg, al/a>kadid"nopoownnnstrehaore, gravete tea>geur (S924/G33/t a. 2dSurnsp xml> l cNentvd gf etNC 14 O/dibhih1927)hyJ>coboMoclbaatiove haascapeto1nfgoiShonar of cf Bec iny dprocesrn Zimurveyout an esubsovito Chrisomatearm2siderewsurnsp xml> n of tdvgceonaaesteekswratmenheruunnecesra p gonelereq1925oLnnd rehbPEMS) m aenatlemdwineksearm2, graveEue" canay a lmcane Puravestee l cNentvd g(ea ) f etNC, 20mDecee hih1927)h

2The hist16ry of BHardy di yvariraidesg coln anon oNentvdcC hbPEMS) hihityiekerk’Disto ttcbwcnd ut abn anBaserles l Zimbn of Bae Merre d195ats19)ris Eicle tcnd o/a> bloekion

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2The hist17ho community which is livinZimbvnion ouwot had clish a sense of belonuwotschoolt lowingspluwotco-augg n had ,re they wer or aNand Erichsthal, wcolumn whop ave d BMS aDa had 2are irn Zimbore usully do ansa sensit.dAtdtted touto [y which]ete tee they wer tted toutotchildbwiea donae Dewlly a toutotgirlheSottns of Ba toutotboyral featureseand havmn aSthers hoementsd g/a>2The hist18ho communite and howadmin tMost o familercep identity rvenofcw, 1eta>2The hist19ry of BWhen evirloety wever rn Zimbs="pconevirloety b>acct/a> inCdSnavesin the Dnee a sensim;| otsee s dir aenfaraveT a stianity as bt moap anducntvdcnowingspl had .d‘Why did"ytur ead, ribuyiaete t,dyrmaytuadoinopoknowanaged ooakBamoneySn anofc asete t ?n o tee s dir chi a sJoh5/co te kwilt (e kwilt,Ev924, 95)riJoh5/co te kwilt feltnfaraveT a ssidtteds dir raidivgmben oabwae fnaveidealsave hmma outhern Shoho werentHl > inCdSnave, t

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< to nego"-cil, he alifxtsei8"ruy drente ,ssociThisf/13conevienocolu anfitsrisees Z anfitsv>e icapeto1nfego"-cilrcamaito1nfth. cha gl#1uthardrnd"I ummratalryr (e kwilt,Ev924, 95)r

2The hist20ho communitidealsave hmma outher madisciplinmbZter evumilercegiy Zimbkee>tof Basin Bt Chrwavese kwilt Basidery Zimbkeetteds dir psycheiwwmbab

2The histo1ry of Bs EJ>Th, ys1925e demeso nego"-io tg the sl c anch colu‘sncg.2 ure Purchase As a result, th

2The hist2ory of By also featry Zimbkeen 1842 ‘Eue" cana argn o onsidemcantgravesteir aenn olvarmst Ba have beenoir prIeime w n 1842 bew hicoet , 1977ts28r)hee they wer Farm2w98wiliensticaravetctment ofyvari colutianity beiShogSocnnun ilw thd31nturystccompanJul hofaJucyhthe4Zimbvacing. Thete te9S1044/10the ZSurnsp xml> l cNentvd ,gea f et ofa2, 1977ts28r)heMuofeziior aAreas in Gutu is arguaa 20 svidC nsidttedMuofeziiRihavewwmbabvted h ik;| xDisto ttsheH the p,fm in tianity e maereirtfamilZimbchos2The hist2: 2<geur 12synd tite ly farms for a newideaave makt oen Gutu is argua‘ n o, bsc aiss aennjpopane howoo makt oeure Pue psoapopcsretiorms grory hothegraves>2 "12maylumn rethe mSn ostrat est oxcep identtoionis ruleleaen ittcamaironnon-iesogeartical constnsue f98"ho werenty allbwadyehighlightCdStianity s, 20ryfery Zlor arch VictMuofeziior aAreas in Gutu is argua, gw, a lteir ed in/tmeno noir prIdation hbeen galysew98">geur 12ehratbsionariesgravesnrotCraigtzdvishdailr tianity as gomhavAreas in Gutu is arguao, a l aenwith ‘theircape/a> l cNentvdgea f etNC SilisbuBy,h10ntury accompanO/dibhih1932)s Farm2erlhve e 16 f e38In 1842 Areas in Gutu is arguaed in/ctuhoy d anvito Choy dmurvey fteir did"nopostratastrnd, ritho in oy coul/dhilr hest em1842 soun Bynty aShutted inColun Gutu is argeure Pukecamai‘ n oit hn ofenas i(Shutt,Ev997ts564)heShl furnbabcd inCo ravesn 18n er oocnue Il cwhtyolunccumulmissise map> toge,nsue f98"btlekfS. Baial connDst arrivé [sue f98"ho werese maXreda],nsoe DRCein thete t witd strrdons y clergyn o(Shutt,Ev997ts562f

2The hist24ry of BHaiiShobewiealienstica, g8ne ich2 ‘Eue" cana argn o e they wer Farm2w98wfurnbabcdlienstica, g8nwe tr aChiotho ieh the pidid"nopoleaenn oadd the Searchtitymemo PEMS and Br stayzn 1842 ory hdort Victgreusitd strl/df grch VictHan>we tr aChiotho ieh featurescBasoantgp mindgleimalraidnariesgLakBaMut"rZkwivdn t of thdFal, Trlekfnt AcRes="pPTsammecomairtdttacies hein of Balor scapetfarmshe cinua senskeethe gThe desiderewloetys,dmoitiermes etemorbeca to ohristio eusitl comairts="eoead, ruao, a la dostily e Dstmes ete has a comatlor scape. Owon wir 842 p> clethein the Dgreusitd strl/df grneimedtdttacies han of Balor scapetaariesgraatlokt h cleho weresettacies han of Batho istrat urvgiy Zsooluomatthem llraidnlienst ser ds has howalienst tl comairts="me>2The histo5 coboMoclbaatiovratt ofBtrevt coentvdgrisd BM dvver uil/dingsplch Gut,er"ur c r madiovvankame reoe p,fferwratgoiShoner tws"1e Ic"tex

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2The histo6ry of BHaiiSho Basidery ZJ>coboMoclbaation of trplici idedi="aaers been grearmlumn aNLB oo ticat Dgrent tted to> l cNentvd -ea f ethiefaJ>coboMoclbaatio,ee they were 231Februaryi1934)hehe Z medgoted atday ZiaveyJ>coboMoclbaatioveoul/divbt ofret lobwred tnamaire Zrightnt a>2The hist27ho commAf rehaiiShobewiegrenta sAreas iFarm2erlhve 2ihe hih24, teilization aenn oaphiZimbwcol teilmodali Zimbn oibu t of thdly farms pagceol comatearm. A ihe hihrisort Victte tZougglecoboMoclbaatio,eSilnsoMoclbaatio,eLuca te kwilt,ES aere=kfneboonshiffeFry agckwKomo Snr rn Shoome w8w(C. Mphtha Persver /> view 17 Augal, 2009)s seeaeactgravesiest see hiMS and BMcoboMoclbaatiovivinZhoy disha ssee hiMS and BMcoboMoclbaatiovthtyhe hiravesmnstrrn Zimbwter nos tacoboMoclbaatiovpaido£ 1329S1859ZSumta p l cMinutimbn oa Mee ut , lcratoied, leSchoolnthr8ntury accompanO/dibhih1938)s WavesnhanopCwa2The hist28ho commOne view 11Februaryi2006)riFry agckwKomo oted ato idesgravesm in tof Bass been grSearte p e s view 15 J>Th, ys2006)riSottns of BanopzbimbcoboMakwt view 11Februaryi2006)riMu t do i8"na. revt coZetho takBr anta>ta> tLBas in the laein the Dewurltvdcvni inexa>"e,wGwteu, Bulrwscnshthiry ziior aMuta 20rn Shoome w8whe Setnwter broe Dewblekfe okeebutia noowineksSearte p 9SheMu t do Persver /> view 11Februaryi2006)riTneksSearte p hguay linkec omymboaS an eancho rerl on wpointdi="aingsplwithe tocnfoaonay a l popnsticallytrewloety ta>och2The hist29ry of Bs E ideaceurbeiShobuBiedaaesteethed, leSearte pai8">#saja>f98ellecthe laev> ethe laein the Dvni inealT linteethed, leFarm an eoted f BaSearte p e sth. te testratgrownnimbkeentmes ete foety rointnt a> gBasophas a ctruction of ideaave hest em1842 Areas in Gutu is arguhthegraves>2 "12maylulowsest emsgacctssiest bidlt ofdisgacctssbeentlekfn oiwe. Gu gver uBy ingmn>tof Bass been grSearte p inthed, lete triSamuel Mphthaei8"rueesubab orie soty a> view 11Februaryi2006)riFurnbabm="e,wf BaMt view 8 eravesbeiShobuBiedat,, 20zraumby dcBhist2The hist30ho community which eted uiltefMschoolnatoied, leFarm,nZimbabw98wens=zt="t/a><e ich2 surnsvito ChrisRev. W. F. vdiv>e Merre 9S 1859ZRev. W. F. vdiv>e Merre 9Alh<tof Baschoolnwter engbelone maw of th isee schoolnwratdal d unwlly aschoolne hbPttee,nZimbabw98wcBhinsa srisort Victte tZougglee ich2 surnsvito ChrisRev. vdiv>e Merre 9R. Mphtha Persver /> view 11Februaryi20006)ris Esp"1e2The hist31ho communeks aperests< resrfolmn w arrist of them ysrisort Victw/dio rmsnowas="p argean emndeniantreirt nun ilw thycs, 20 settlemd , g8n n 1842 Areas in Gutu is arguaeratstbwig842gg nsidtteir ruggles ovve te tsriTneksthPDF" chguayBiedatovshonoomatsalienceol c have beengreusities tonity memo Paong the sl comairt arrist ofguaedly esof Birtivgoti the sl cwithe tocnfoa842 Areas in Gutu is arguhthianity ruggles ovve te tsrgand /dl Showayzn 1hop nKarangm e of belonsncgnclavt /a>och!-- .>2Hta>odos age s -->!-- #>2Bi beraphieie h2x

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Interviews

F. Komo Personal Interview (15 January 2006)

S. Musindo Personal Interview (1 February 2006)

R. Mphisa Personal Interview (1 February 2006)

N. Mawushe Personal Interview (4 February 2006)

N.E. Mawushe, Personal Interview, (4 February 2006)

J. Phosa, Personal Interview (8 March 2006)

C. Mphisa Personal Interview (17 August 2009)

Archival Files (National Archives of Zimbabwe, Harare)

Hist. Mss BE2/1/1 Diary of Knothe, Entry of 19 May 1888.

N9/1/12 Victoria District, Report for the Year Ended 31st December 1909, 8 January 1910

N9/1/14 Victoria District : Report for the Year ended 31st December 1911

N9/1/15 Victoria District, Report for the Year ended 31st December 1912.

N9/1/17 Victoria District : Report for the Year ended 31st December 1924

N9/1/17 Victoria District : Report of the Native Commissioner for the year ended 31st December 1926

S1042 1924-1937 Superintendent of Natives (Fort Victoria) to CNC, 20 December 1927

S1044/10 The Superintendent of Natives, Fort Victoria to the Assistant Director of Native Lands, 23 June 1934.

S1044/9 A. C. Jennings Assistant Director of Native of Native Lands to the Superintendent of Natives, Fort Victoria, 14 February 1933

S1044/9 Superintendent of Natives-Fort Victoria to Chief Jacob Molebaleng, Erichsthal, 23 February 1934.

S138/81 Superintendent of Native Fort Victoria to CNC Salisbury, 10th October 1932

S1542/F2/1 Assistant Director of Native Lands to Chief Native Commissioner, 9th December 1932

S1542/F2/1 Superintended of Natives (Fort Victoria) to C. Bullock Assistant Chief Native Commissioner Salisbury, 2 August 1933

S1859 NC Gutu to CNC 18th January 1938

S1859 Rev. W. F. van der Merwe (Alheight Mission) to the N. C. Gutu, 22 September 1942.

S1859 Rev. W. van der Merwe (Alheight Mission) to the C. N. C. Gutu, 6 November 1935.

S1859 Summary of Minutes of a Meeting held at Bethel School on 8th October 1938.

S924/G33/App. 2 Superintendent of Natives (Fort Victoria) to CNC, 14 October 1927

S924/G33/App. 2 Superintendent of Natives to CNC 14 October 1927

BEACH, David, ‘The initial Impact of Christianity on the Shona : The Protestants and the Southern Shona’, in A. J. Dachs (ed.), Christianity South of the Zambezi. Gwelo : Mambo Press, 1973.

COUZENS, T., Murder at Morija, Johannesburg : Random House, 2003.

MALOKA, Eddy, Basotho and the mines : A social History of Labour Migrancy in Lesotho and South Africa 1890-1940, Dakar : Codesria, 2004.

MAZARIRE, Gerald, ‘A right to Self-Determination ! Religion, Protest and war in South-Central Zimbabwe : The case of Chivi District 1900-1980’, unpublished M.A. in African History Thesis, History Department, University of Zimbabwe, June 1999.

MAZARIRE, Gerald, ‘The Historical Geography of Chishanga’, DPhil Thesis, University of Zimbabwe, Faculty of Arts, 2010.

MOKWILE, Johannes, ‘Native Ideals’, Nada, vol. 2, 1924.

MUTUMBURANZOU, A. R. et al, Ten years of Development in reformed Church in Zimbabwe 1977-1987, Masvingo : Morgenster mission, 1989.

PALMER, Robin, Land and Racial Domination in Rhodesia, London : Heinemann, 1977.

SHUTT, Allison, ‘We are best poor farmers : Purchase area farmers and economic differentiation in Southern Rhodesia 1925-1980’, Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy Thesis, University of California, 1995.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Fig.1 Map Showing Erichsthal Farm before the construction of Lake Mutirikwi
URL http://journals.openedition.org/cm/docannexe/image/1352/img-1.png
Fichier image/png, 222k
Titre Plate 1. Bethel cemetery
Crédits Joseph Mujere
URL http://journals.openedition.org/cm/docannexe/image/1352/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,7M
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Référence électronique

Joseph Mujere, « Familly farms, graves, and belonging: migrations and the politics of belonging among Basotho in colonial Zimbabwe », Conserveries mémorielles [En ligne], #13 | 2013, mis en ligne le 10 mars 2013, consulté le 14 décembre 2017. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/cm/1352

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Auteur

Joseph Mujere

possède un doctorat en histoire de l’Université d’Édimbourg. Il est présentement chercheur associé au sein du Society, Work, and Development Institute (SWOP) de l’Université du Witwatersrand, à Johannesburg. Il enseigne par ailleurs l’histoire à l’Université du Zimbabwe. En matière de recherche, il s’intéresse au phénomène migratoire, à la citoyenneté et aux politiques d’appartenance.

Joseph Mujere holds a PhD (History) from the University of Edinburgh. He is currently a Research Associate in the Society, Work, and Development Institute (SWOP) at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. He also teaches history at the University of Zimbabwe. His research interests are in migration, citizenship and politics of belonging.

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Licence Creative Commons
Conserveries mémorielles est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas de Modification 4.0 International.

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