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The grammar of later medieval French: an initial exploration of the Anglo Norman Dictionary textbase

Richard Ingham

Résumés

Dans cet article nous examinons la syntaxe de l’anglo-normand tardif, en confrontant l’hypothèse d’une « différence fondamentale » entre l’anglo-normand (AN) et le français du continent (Kibbee (1991), à celle de Trotter (2003), selon qui l’AN aurait participé au « continuum dialectal » francophone du Moyen Age. Il est proposé par la même occasion de démontrer la capacité de textes non-littéraires, comme le sont la plupart des textes AN tardifs, à nous renseigner quant à la datation d’évolutions en syntaxe. Une analyse de sources appartenant à la base de textes de l’Anglo-Norman Hub nous a permis de constater que la syntaxe du français insulaire s’est conformée à celle du français du continent sur les points étudiés, observant jusqu’en 1350 environ une distinction entre adverbes invertissants et non-invertissants, qui s’est ensuite perdue, et d’autre part en n’employant l’article partitif de qu’après point, plutôt qu’après mie ou pas. Ces résultats s’expliquent mieux si l’on suit l’hypothèse de l’adhésion de l’AN à l’aire francophone médiévale plutôt que celle d’une différence fondamentale entre le français insulaire et celui du continent. Il est proposé en outre que la base de textes de l’ Anglo-Norman Hub puisse servir de référence quant à la chronologie des changements syntaxiques survenus en français médiéval, en attendant d’être complétée par des sources continentales de genres comparables.

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Introduction

  • 1  As noted by Kabatek et al. (2005 : 4), the Romance research community experienced a relative delay (...)

1The diachronic study of language relies on the availability of at least approximately datable texts, and the study of diatopic variation in past states of language requires approximately localisable texts. At present the resources available under the heading of historical French language corpora are not ideally suited for either of these purposes. They consist predominantly of literary texts, which are often relatively difficult to date and localise. Research in the history of English and Spanish has been able to progress thanks to the availability of non-literary texts, allowing questions of the timing and geographical directionality of the processes of change to be pursued. Corpora now generally in electronic form have become available, permitting the exploration of these issues, especially regarding lexis and syntax, far more thoroughly than was possible heretofore1. The long association of the history of French with literary history almost inevitably meant that the sort of texts initially made available in searchable corpora would belong to literary genres. This had significant consequences as regards the earlier phases of the textual record. Datable and localisable literary texts are relatively uncommon during the mediaeval period, when many manuscripts were the product of rewriting, often in a dialect different from that of the original and at a time which may postdate the time of composition very substantially. It is unsurprising, therefore, that the study of medieval French has yet to produce research which considers the development across time and space of linguistic changes comparable with, e.g. the work of Herman on post-classical Latin (see especially Herman (1990)), of Kroch and others on medieval English (see e.g. Kroch & Taylor 2000; Kroch, Taylor & Ringe 2000), and Tuten (2005) and Harris-Northall (2005) on Old Spanish.

2In recent decades the research field has undergone a transformation as work on non-literary texts anchored to specific times and places has begun to bear fruit. Notable examples have been the work of Antonij Dees, and of Martin Gleßgen and his associates on Old French charters, research into Anglo-Norman by David Trotter, and Anthony Lodge’s historical sociolinguistic work on Parisian and other French varieties. However, until very recently this change in the evidential basis for descriptions of pre-modern French had not translated into available electronic versions of this kind of source material. In July 2007 the situation changed, when the textbase of the Anglo-Norman Dictionary project, directed by Trotter, was in large measure made available online in the form of browsable and searchable electronic texts, accessible on the Anglo-Norman Hub web site. The non-literary prose part of this textbase totals some 2 million words, not a large amount by the standards of today’s electronic corpora, but nevertheless sufficient to carry out investigation on the recurrent formal patterns and lexis of Anglo-Norman (also referred to below as insular French).

3The present study makes use of this textbase to explore changes in French syntax during the later 13th century and the 14th century, a period identified by earlier authors as the transition from old French to Middle French. Syntactic variation was found by Ingham (2007) using various published editions in a selection of 10 continental French non-literary texts of the late old French period, indicating the value of establishing a searchable corpus of such texts. Given the unavailability of a corpus of continental material of this type, we have explored how far the Anglo-Norman Hub textbase (henceforth ANHT) would provide a source of information on developments in late medieval French.

1. Source material

4The ANHT comprises about a hundred items from various periods and from various genres. It is organised into groups of texts according to genre and allows a selection to be made of the texts that the researcher desires to search. The section of the Anglo-Norman textbase which features legal, administrative and diplomatic texts was the main source of information for the purposes of the present enquiry. It was supplemented by a number of narrative prose texts notably chronicles. Only texts were used which could be unambiguously identified as composed in England: this determination had already been made by the compilers of the Anglo-Norman dictionary. We also needed texts with a fairly secure date as regards their composition: the advantage of non-literary text such as legal and administrative material is the frequent internal dating evidence. The texts that feature in the ANHT nonliterary sections, were mostly written in the 14th century, but cover a period stretching from the later 13th to the early 15th centuries. They are taken from a variety of published sources, which vary in length from the multivolume Foedera series (over 700,000 words) to a short correspondence collection such as Burton (c. 5,000 words). Our policy in this study was to use as many non-literary texts as possible, excluding only cases where the text cannour2e datepotheiousp cl> to the an 5,000 words). Our policy in this study was to use as many non-literary textdry lsc.prf thuffers a basis on which to study the timing of syntactic change in medieval French, though it should be augmented by corresponding CF material. " /> 3 as aderan de dhe fundaa dhery g36).

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Ana:efoerli t; a selection8lection to be made of tcot th/tdvailability of at least h/trvailability of at least atrvailability of at least t atdctionaryrlr Kr-left:0mm;rlr Kr-rpubl:0mm;rlr Kr-top:0mm;rlr Kr-bolihm:0mm;padting-top:0in;padting-bolihm:0in;padting-left:.0486in;padting-rpubl:.0486in;barns -top:ge t;barns -bolihm:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -left:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -rpubl:ge t;backgrcefo- textbae0e0e0;medieary-alegi:top;diailability of at least t thed editions in a selectionTtudylection to be made of tcot th/tdvailability of at least t atdctionaryrlr Kr-left:0mm;rlr Kr-rpubl:0mm;rlr Kr-top:0mm;rlr Kr-bolihm:0mm;padting-top:0in;padting-bolihm:0in;padting-left:.0486in;padting-rpubl:.0486in;barns -top:ge t;barns -bolihm:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -left:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -rpubl:ge t;backgrcefo- textbae0e0e0;medieary-alegi:top;dih/tdvailability of at least t atdctionaryrlr Kr-left:0mm;rlr Kr-rpubl:0mm;rlr Kr-top:0mm;rlr Kr-bolihm:0mm;padting-top:0in;padting-bolihm:0in;padting-left:.0486in;padting-rpubl:.0486in;barns -top:ge t;barns -bolihm:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -left:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -rpubl:ge t;backgrcefo- textbae0e0e0;medieary-alegi:top;diailability of at least t thed editions in a selection1noction to be made of tleast h/tdvailability of at least t atdctionaryrlr Kr-left:0mm;rlr Kr-rpubl:0mm;rlr Kr-top:0mm;rlr Kr-bolihm:0mm;padting-top:0in;padting-bolihm:0in;padting-left:.0486in;padting-rpubl:.0486in;barns -top:ge t;barns -bolihm:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -left:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -rpubl:ge t;backgrcefo- textbae0e0e0;medieary-alegi:top;diailability of at least t thed editions in a selection23exction to be made of tleast h/tdvailability of at least t atdctionaryrlr Kr-left:0mm;rlr Kr-rpubl:0mm;rlr Kr-top:0mm;rlr Kr-bolihm:0mm;padting-top:0in;padting-bolihm:0in;padting-left:.0486in;padting-rpubl:.0486in;barns -top:ge t;barns -bolihm:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -left:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -rpubl:ge t;backgrcefo- textbae0e0e0;medieary-alegi:top;diailability of at least t thed editions in a selection24noction to be made of tleast h/tdvailability of at least t atdctionaryrlr Kr-left:0mm;rlr Kr-rpubl:0mm;rlr Kr-top:0mm;rlr Kr-bolihm:0mm;padting-top:0in;padting-bolihm:0in;padting-left:.0486in;padting-rpubl:.0486in;barns -top:ge t;barns -bolihm:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -left:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -rpubl:.014timekl e #ffffff;backgrcefo- textbae0e0e0;medieary-alegi:top;diailability of at least t thed editions in a selection48lection to be made of tcot th/tdvailability of at least h/trvailability of at leash/tare vailability of at leh/tFrenvailability of at lehed editions in a selection of 10 continental French30non-litAs predicted (Foulet 1930; Price 1973) ch re wereyalming,no pingf Fre> siv clan H"tocSs withuanyiofuch se admedbs. erarttudy abse Eioffpref Fre> siv clan H"tocSs withurencj thuffanl,rencanques thuffobserv as leIngham (2005)afor Old French is repleart:lang=ch se f Ftings lection to be made of thed editions in a selection of 10 continental French31non-litBy rentricting our search to two admedbs0per art:gory we hav>9 FevitFrey limiteduch aamocStioffdatauchat we wereyarencto hangclanfromuch aANHT,mekuch rfiguresyh re a.dss="bFrey no ms.dschaimeuggentive anl,would requi.dsrepleart snt maifollowing French,admedbs0a.dsFevedihelessss="mising Fsofar as they piint such a secla - French,phrasal css raryexpected to h change acrossucime,mei EitimMiddencFrench a Siv clan H"tocS accom-liying aupremedbch,admedbmeuch as,rencanquesthuff atarted to hift g epinia s rh re no och rupremedbch,etemen occurr as eside aupossirenc H"tocS siv clanwereyaccordinglya svid:langto two time periods. 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Sp,Vlection to be made of tcot th/tdvailability of at least t atdctionaryrlr Kr-left:0mm;rlr Kr-rpubl:0mm;rlr Kr-top:0mm;rlr Kr-bolihm:0mm;padting-top:0in;padting-bolihm:0in;padting-left:.0486in;padting-rpubl:.0486in;barns -top:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -bolihm:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -left:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -rpubl:ge t;backgrcefo- textbae0e0e0;medieary-alegi:top;diailability of at least t thed editions in a selectionrencanquesthuff SonstH"tgnlection to be made of tcot th/tdvailability of at least t atdctionaryrlr Kr-left:0mm;rlr Kr-rpubl:0mm;rlr Kr-top:0mm;rlr Kr-bolihm:0mm;padting-top:0in;padting-bolihm:0in;padting-left:.0486in;padting-rpubl:.0486in;barns -top:ge t;barns -bolihm:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -left:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -rpubl:ge t;backgrcefo- textbae0e0e0;medieary-alegi:top;diailability of at least t thed editions in a selection18lection to be made of tcot th/tdvailability of at least t atdctionaryrlr Kr-left:0mm;rlr Kr-rpubl:0mm;rlr Kr-top:0mm;rlr 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#ffffff;barns -rpubl:ge t;backgrcefo- textbae0e0e0;medieary-alegi:top;diailability of at least t thed editions in a selection33exction to be made of tleast h/tdvailability of at least t atdctionaryrlr Kr-left:0mm;rlr Kr-rpubl:0mm;rlr Kr-top:0mm;rlr Kr-bolihm:0mm;padting-top:0in;padting-bolihm:0in;padting-left:.0486in;padting-rpubl:.0486in;barns -top:ge t;barns -bolihm:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -left:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -rpubl:.014timekl e #ffffff;backgrcefo- textbae0e0e0;medieary-alegi:top;dih/tdvailability of at least h/trvailability of at least atrvailability of at least t atdctionaryrlr Kr-left:0mm;rlr Kr-rpubl:0mm;rlr Kr-top:0mm;rlr Kr-bolihm:0mm;padting-top:0in;padting-bolihm:0in;padting-left:.0486in;padting-rpubl:.0486in;barns -top:ge t;barns -bolihm:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -left:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -rpubl:ge t;backgrcefo- textbae0e0e0;medieary-alegi:top;diailability of at least t thed editions in a selectiononstH"tgnlection to be made of tcot th/tdvailability of at least t atdctionaryrlr Kr-left:0mm;rlr Kr-rpubl:0mm;rlr Kr-top:0mm;rlr Kr-bolihm:0mm;padting-top:0in;padting-bolihm:0in;padting-left:.0486in;padting-rpubl:.0486in;barns -top:ge t;barns -bolihm:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -left:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -rpubl:ge t;backgrcefo- textbae0e0e0;medieary-alegi:top;diailability of at least t thed editions in a selection11noction to be made of tleast h/tdvailability of at least t atdctionaryrlr Kr-left:0mm;rlr Kr-rpubl:0mm;rlr Kr-top:0mm;rlr Kr-bolihm:0mm;padting-top:0in;padting-bolihm:0in;padting-left:.0486in;padting-rpubl:.0486in;barns -top:ge t;barns -bolihm:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -left:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -rpubl:ge t;backgrcefo- textbae0e0e0;medieary-alegi:top;diailability of at least t thed editions in a selection5lection to be made of tleast h/tdvailability of at least t atdctionaryrlr Kr-left:0mm;rlr Kr-rpubl:0mm;rlr Kr-top:0mm;rlr Kr-bolihm:0mm;padting-top:0in;padting-bolihm:0in;padting-left:.0486in;padting-rpubl:.0486in;barns -top:ge t;barns -bolihm:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -left:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -rpubl:ge t;backgrcefo- textbae0e0e0;medieary-alegi:top;diailability of at least t thed editions in a selection9lection to be made of tleast h/tdvailability of at least t atdctionaryrlr Kr-left:0mm;rlr Kr-rpubl:0mm;rlr Kr-top:0mm;rlr Kr-bolihm:0mm;padting-top:0in;padting-bolihm:0in;padting-left:.0486in;padting-rpubl:.0486in;barns -top:ge t;barns -bolihm:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -left:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -rpubl:ge t;backgrcefo- textbae0e0e0;medieary-alegi:top;diailability of at least t thed editions in a selection25lection to be made of tleast h/tdvailability of at least t atdctionaryrlr Kr-left:0mm;rlr Kr-rpubl:0mm;rlr Kr-top:0mm;rlr Kr-bolihm:0mm;padting-top:0in;padting-bolihm:0in;padting-left:.0486in;padting-rpubl:.0486in;barns -top:ge t;barns -bolihm:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -left:.014timekl e #ffffff;barns -rpubl:.014timekl e #ffffff;backgrcefo- textbae0e0e0;medieary-alegi:top;dih/tdvailability of at least h/trvailability of at leash/tare vailability of at leh/tFrenvailability of at lehblocklish:chcblocklish:cal French language hed editions in a selection of 10 continental French33non-litAlthoughuch rl Frens0a.dsagly not llr e, we see=ass efore chat a trendiy continental French h suupatimAN dataucoo, such arpubl time frade.=Betweena1250–1iv>,mAN rritens0avoid:laputting siv clan H"tocSs timeubarninarg m1n8">s intH"duc as lerencanquesthuff, rh rearyafrge chat darg chisurentriction rarynot observ a lection to be made of thh2a selectiocxts heading9on a href="#tocfrom2n3ocxts tocto2n3o>Analysis 3: Useiofuch entietive adieale deifollowing a negative padieale4non-lit  Allowing for spelling vari wis anl,alekuforuch commoimAN useiofurencdesthuff aryan,alrgenative tourencdethuff, as t a href="#ftn4">(...)49ch rfollowing omedallufrequencies: rencpasthuff 1,011, rencpiintthuff 335, rencmiethuff 1,314, h ing chat rencpiintthuff was timfalan lefar ch ararentiofuch three. eran, with sua Word documen creargd as the outputiofuch se searches, we identified allupadieale + rencdethuff combinar s, e.g.:lection to be made of thblocklish:cal French language corpora are t;5. Ana a selection(6) […] les autresyseegiourrynocStipiint de ftalchi">s (rencS5. sthuff t 338)lection to be made of thcblocklish:cal French language hed editions in a selection of 10 continental French36non-litOch rusensesnwereyrepresenrgd leca">s rh re ch a phrase, rach ruchaimfunla :lection to be made of thblocklish:cal French language corpora are t;5. Ana a selection(8a) […] et navods ens des boysrle des pierr>s (rencLett & Petthuff 153)lection to be made of tcorpora are t;5. Ana a selection(8b) […] pad dedenz le lig,n’avoyeStipns de linthieuaiforsq r[…] (rencSz Medthuff 204)lection to be made of thcblocklish:cal French language hed editions in a selection of 10 continental French38non-literus althoughuch ravoida Eioffa entietive afrge rencpasthuff rarynot abeklute such aAN datauasaa whole, cStil the mid 14rryomedrh lmingly, renpected the limitation onuch rentietive al.a concingrfollowing rencpiintthuff, withoutiomedgenedalising to th roch ruconcing . erissadh re Eito ch rant maiofucontinental French accords withuch rresulg eof ch rpreceding analyses, notFrey asuregards ch rrespective aime-frades. lection to be made of thed editions in a selection of 10 continental French39non-litIimfala, even examples (8a) anl,(8b) neeo not necessariey hav>9beenige -native omedgenedalisation errors: we cadnot say for sure chat equivaleStiFrench cing efromuch acontinentsFeved exhibitedueuch structures,mei Eiegclarranstem lection to be made of thh1a selectiocxts heading10on a href="#tocfrom1n7ocxts tocto1n7o>6. Discus 5non-lit  erissis not to exclude periphedal phenomena that (...)6non-lit  H eved,uch irige -native pholology,would hav>9seriousey im-lired the marking of various grad"lrea a href="#ftn6">(...)59enjoyel,enduring linguisrea contala, foruch featuresiofumedieval French ant ma, bolh s Frencandiy novative, to hav>9beenireliFrey adh red to. Iniche aime-periodsstudied h re,uinsullr French d e not becom: a morebefo tociogclanbarglyaufoersiood by itss8">rr, as cedily oloer,accounrsiofuAN,would hav>9uss elieve. Oniche basis ofuch se resulg ,uinsullr French 8">rrym1earey possessed a,ant mctic mom-ete Eige -dintinlaefromuchat rrnon-lit a continfootnotearylocxts are ftn6" href="#ftn6">6s began to bEiused r;|&nbstlyafromuch acod temen Aser pinia d y Englanl. len-lit ection to be made of thcdivtion to be made of thed editions in ationaryletts -extei:-.0016in;"a selection of 10 continental French42non-litPutting tog ch ruche resulg eof chissstudyaanl,choseiofuIngham (2006a, b)econcerding och rugrad"lreary vari rens, we f Ftuchat 1argruAN users renpected the ant maiofuOld French/Earey MiddencFrench such afollowing respects:lection to be made of thulcal French language corlinailability of at leasanged editiopuces"a selectionCod tex rules foruOv clan H"tocS form anl,pinia - French,crr, as cedily conveSt rchoseiofuIngham (2006a, b), which wereyobtaiaed withudiff re tusetsuofuAN cing , upholduch rview adma Elang=choseistudies that AN formed padiarah ed ch raame characrgeisrea . Si Eich rANHTfcingsucadabe accurastlyaart:gores:d by time period, we g cuaireliFree pictureeof h anl,when changes took pla E. If we wish, for example, to pursue sudetail ch rreanalysis ofusiv clan H"tocSs fromubeing clitices:d on al.a eubarninaring conjunla medb, ch Fdeart s rithuch rpremedbch,admedb9taken 1eave no roomuforrdoubt: onuno grad"lreary vari ren d e AN dimedge noticeFrey fromuch atlr et-likernorm, y cusome dimedgen EioimeubtlEige -communicative ant mctic aspectsswould sureey hav>9beenim1earey apente tuif the cing ehad9beenimod os:d by French 8">rrywhoehad9acqui.dd chEilanguage ufoer radically diff re tucircumsiancesafromuch irucounrgrpadisuy Fra E. Inifalanch a gree offpntallelism wenrabeyond adh re Eito ch rcontinental normsiofuOld French: rh re continental snt mairaryeyolving F,earey MiddencFrench,mAN began to eyolv: in ch raame rays. Insullr French 8">rryw re churym1earey cap ren, as tanwere, not onlyaof hitting ch rtlr et in ch ir acquisit ang=legateduc1n8">s, for example, cadabe presenrgd anl,ufoersiood onuch rbasis ofu Fsullr sourc s as wglluasathey cadausing continental sourc s lection to be made of thed editions in a selection of 10 continental French45non-litA furch ruissue al.which our f Ftingsirelbst has already beeniraised such aintH"duc Ana: al.what e innt a.dsdiff ring resulg efoefo byianalysing datau expres 7. Prospectsd searchesehav>9to bEiconductgd. el.addres chississue,fa ent">d ynt bEidesir ren, off ring llr er scopeuforuch examiart 9now. Foruch time bEing, itecadaFevedch lessnbe said that qua titativerresearchainto largrumedieval Frenchsusing ch rANHTfisuat 1east possirencHaut de pageBibliographiethn-lit eh2tion to be made ofhdivd editions i">on to be made of tttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttion to be made of t

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Anglo-Norman Hub textbase (ANHT) : http://www.anglo-norman.net

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Notes

1  As noted by Kabatek et al. (2005 : 4), the Romance research community experienced a relative delay in gaining access to diachronic electronic corpora.

2  Though see Wilshere (1973).

3  Abbreviations: VSp = Verb-Subject pronoun order; VSn = Verb-Subject; VSo = Verb, no subjec

4  Allowing for spelling variants and also for the common AN use of des as an alternative to de, as in example (8a) in the text. This trait presumably arose from phonological confusion between the final vowels of de and des following the loss of schwa in later AN.

5  This is not to exclude peripheral phenomena that often distinguish one dialect from another; the argument here relates to core areas of grammar involving main word order features of the language.

6  However, their non-native phonology would have seriously impaired the marking of various grammatical notions, especially the exponence of gender.

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Richard Ingham, « The grammar of later medieval French: an initial exploration of the Anglo Norman Dictionary textbase », Corpus [En ligne], 7 | 2008, mis en ligne le 13 novembre 2009, consulté le 15 décembre 2017. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/corpus/1506

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Richard Ingham

Birmingham City University

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