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How do transnational grassroots networks reframe the global norms of water and forests governance?

Réseaux transnationaux communautaires et stratégies de requalification des normes globales de gouvernance de l’eau et des forêts
Émilie Dupuits et Géraldine Pflieger

Résumés

Dans un contexte de globalisation et de marchandisation croissante des ressources communes, des organisations locales de gestion communautaire de l’eau et des forêts ont créé des réseaux transnationaux. Leur principal objectif est d’acquérir une représentation directe au sein des arènes internationales de prise de décision afin de défendre leur modèle de gouvernance communautaire. Ces réseaux cherchent notamment à requalifier les représentations des ressources (d’une marchandise à un droit humain ou un bien collectif) et à légitimer certaines échelles de gouvernance communautaire (locale, régionale ou globale). Dans quelle mesure la requalification des représentations de l’eau et des forêts par les réseaux transnationaux communautaires impacte-t-elle leurs échelles de gouvernance ?
Cet article vise à répondre à cette interrogation à travers une approche géographique des mouvements sociaux transnationaux et une analyse de discours. L’analyse repose sur deux cas d’étude : la Confédération Latino-américaine d’Organisations Communautaires de Services d’Eau et Assainissement (CLOCSAS), et l’Alliance Mésoaméricaine des Peuples et Forêts (AMPB). D’une part, la CLOCSAS qualifie l’eau comme un bien commun global et un droit humain universel compatible avec une dimension économique dans le but de s’imposer en tant qu’expert international alternatif. D’autre part, l’AMPB qualifie les forêts comme un bien commun local et un droit territorial dans le but de se différencier des experts techniques et de légitimer les autorités territoriales.

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1Since the 1970s, environmental challenges have been increasingly governed at the global scale. Despite this fact, the global governance of common-pool resources such as water or forests remains limited. Indeed, these resources are traditionally managed at either the local or national scale. Consequently, there is no structured international regime that can be called on to regulate critical transboundary issues such as deforestation, water depletion and pollution. This situation evolved in the 1990s. As part of rising efforts to fight climate change, water and forest resources became the focus of various attempts to address these issues at the international scale. As a result, these resources are now governed by multiple global norms, mainly focused on a market-based approach of natural resources. This is observed with the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) program that was created in 2007 to fight climate change (McDermott et al., 2012). Likewise, it is reflected in the human right to water that was officially recognized in 2010 by the United Nations (UN) and defined as compatible with private and market mechanisms (Conca, 2005).

2Disagreements remain on the best way to represent water and forest resources (between public, private or common goods) and on the appropriate scales for their governance. Traditionally, global norms or paradigms have been produced by international technical experts producing resistance. Concerns have been raised over the absence of local communities in the norm-building process. Indeed, often the only way that local communities are represented in global arenas is through intermediaries such as international non-governmental organizations (INGO) (McMichael, 2004; Vielajus, 2009).

3In response, local communities started to establish their own transnational grassroots networks. This was in an effort to defend their own rights to these resources and to be better positioned to express their concerns without an intermediary. Transnational grassroots networks reflect how local actors who are affected by specific global issues can reclaim their power through the building of common claims and solidarities (Batliwala, 2002). Some of the first attempts to create grassroots networks at the transnational scale originated from indigenous communities in the 1980s. This was especially the case in the Latin-American region. More recently, transnational networks have emerged which promote the specific model of community-based governance. Two emblematic cases are to be considered here. The first one is the Mesoamerican Alliance of Peoples and Forests (AMPB), founded in 2010 following the 16th Conference of the Parties (COP16) in Mexico under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The second one is the Latin-American Confederation of Community Organizations for Water Services and Sanitation (CLOCSAS), created in 2011 during the second Latin-American Conference of Community Water Management in Peru.

4To what extent does the reframing of common-pool resources impact the scales of water and forests governance? This paper examines how CLOCSAS and AMPB reframe the global norms on water and forest resources with alternative representations in order to legitimate specific scales of community-based governance. To do this, a contextual and theoretical framework will first be presented. The emergence of global norms around common-pool resources and the strategies used by transnational grassroots networks to influence these norms will be reviewed. Secondly, an analysis will be undertaken to show how CLOCSAS and AMPB reframe global norms – respectively the human right to water and REDD+ – according to their specific claims to the resources. Thirdly, the way in which these strategies lead to distinct claims on the legitimate scales of community-based governance will be reviewed.

1. Transnational grassroots networks in global water and forests governance

5In this section, we analyse the background against which transnational grassroots networks emerged. This context is characterized by the multiple global norms that exist within the field of water and forests governance. It is important to note that these norms are mainly produced by international experts. Next, we detail the theoretical framework used to analyse the strategies mobilized by transnational grassroots networks to promote their model of community-based governance.

1.1. A general trend towards the globalization and commodification of common-pool resources

6Community systems for the management of common-pool resources are challenged by two general trends: the rescaling of their management in a context of globalization and potential changes to the way they are represented as a result of commodification.

  • 1 Krasner (1982: 186) defines an international regime as “the implicit and explicit principles, norms (...)

7Since the end of the Second World War, INGOs and International Organizations (IOs) worked to strengthen global environmental governance considering that global commons, such as the atmosphere, oceans and seabed, polar regions or biodiversity, should be governed through multilateral environmental agreements and international regimes1 (Pflieger, 2014). This focus on global environmental problems, governance and politics partly relies on the distinction between village commons (water, forests or fisheries) at the local or national scale and global commons, extending beyond State sovereignty and transboundary by nature (Young et al., 2006).

8However, the theoretical distinction between village and global commons is increasingly blurred. Some authors have tried to transfer the conclusions made on the conditions for the sustainability of community management at the local scale to the analysis of international regimes (Keohane and Ostrom, 1995; McGinnis and Ostrom, 2008). Global commons governance and international regimes often require regional, national or even local procedures to be effectively implemented. Moreover, village commons can be considered as globally cumulative environmental issues, requiring international collective action.

9Whether these are typical global environmental problems or local but cumulative environmental issues, the new forms of “glocal” environmental governance (Swyngedouw, 2004; Gupta et al., 2013) involve an increasing number of actors participating in international decision-making processes. These actors range from national governmental authorities and IOs through to INGOs, experts and civil society organizations. This fragmentation can be viewed in two ways. It can be seen as an opportunity for grassroots organizations to play a role in global arenas deemed accessible to civil society. It can also be viewed as a constraint as grassroots organizations find themselves having to compete with the powerful international actors who dominate norm-building processes, especially INGOs and experts (Andonova and Mitchell, 2010).

10Aside from the rescaling of water and forests governance, community-based organizations are also facing changes regarding property rights. Historically, the diffusion of three main modes of common-pool resources management can be observed (Ostrom, 1990): private management of private property which transforms resources into a commodity, public management by a national or local governmental authority, and community management by end-users, also called common-pool resources institutions (CPRIs). Ostrom (1990) identified key principles for the sustainability of CPRIs, such as reciprocity between users, horizontality in decision-making, and autonomy regarding external authorities. Common-pool resources are often referred to as common goods. They are non-excludable, meaning that it is difficult to exclude people from their access and use, and rivalrous, meaning that there is a risk of depletion. Conversely, a commodity is characterized by private property and the possibility to attribute a price to natural resources.

11However, in the real world, local or national actors may experience several crossovers between these models. This means that common-pool resources can be governed through private, public and/or community governance (Armitage, 2008; Brondizio et al., 2009; Ostrom, 2010). These mixes tend to produce an ambiguity among actors’ representations on common-pool resources (Bakker, 2007). Common-pool resources may be therefore alternatively framed as common, public or private goods, but also framed as commodities, services, or human and territorial rights. This approach responds to the need to consider power relations and social representations in the study of common-pool resources, beyond their biophysical characteristics (Calvo-Mendieta et al., 2014).

  • 2 Conca (2005: 125) defines the different power held by international technical experts: “the state-h (...)

12More broadly, common-pool resources are inserted into a dynamic of commodification (Conca, 2005). States are not excluded from this trend and sometimes reproduce private mechanisms to govern common-pool resources transforming them into commodities (Bakker, 2007). This dynamic is particularly relevant in the Latin-American continent where States justify the extraction of natural resources on the social development imperative (Svampa, 2015). Most of these trends are defined by international technical experts2, imposing their own representations on common-pool resources.

  • 3 Orsini et al. (2013: 29) define a regime-complex as “a network of three or more international regim (...)

13Regarding forest resources, Giessen (2013) uses the concept of regime-complex3 to highlight both the lack of centralized international forest regimes and the overlaps that exist between various agreements. This is demonstrated in the trade of tropical timber (International Tropical Timber Agreement) to climate change mitigation and the fight against deforestation (REDD+). As an international expert, UN-REDD tends to turn forests into a commodity, giving value to the ecosystem services provided by forests to the global atmosphere in terms of carbon storage. INGOs, such as the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) or the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) also tend to prioritize an ecosystem services approach on forests and biodiversity, giving an economic value to the resource at the cost of more social and cultural values (Nasi and Frost, 2009). This market-based approach is contested by local communities who historically manage forest territories and struggle for their rights and autonomy vis-à-vis governmental authorities (Schroeder and McDermott, 2014).

  • 4 Resolution A/RES/64/292 of the UN General Assembly of 28 July 2010, and Resolution A/HRC/15/L.14 of (...)

14Regarding global water governance, authors have analysed its high institutional fragmentation in the absence of an international regime (Gupta and Pahl-Wostl, 2013). Global water governance is dominated by expert networks, such as the World Water Council (WWC), the Global Water Partnership (GWP) or the International Water Association (IWA), gathering NGOs, IOs, governments, private companies and academic institutions. Despite the absence of a global water regime (as called for by WWC during the second World Water Forum organized in The Hague in 2000), formal norms have nevertheless emerged at the global scale. These norms are associated with a technical approach to water resources, such as Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) linked to an economic representation of water resources since the adoption of the Dublin Principles in 1992 (Conca, 2005). Finally, in 2010, water was recognized as a human right by the UN4, and considered as a major objective in the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, the human right to water doesn’t specify the type of actors preferred to govern water and is the object of criticism from local communities (Sultana and Loftus, 2015).

  • 5 Community forestry organizations (Asociación de Comunidades Forestales de Peten (ACOFOP) Guatemala, (...)
  • 6 Asociación Hondureña de Juntas de Agua y Saneamiento (AHJASA), Articulación de la Región Semiárida (...)

15These global dynamics have prompted transnational grassroots networks to promote alternative discourses. They aim to challenge global norms on water and forests governance. AMPB promotes the discourse of “territoriality” in order to secure territorial rights, autonomy and cultural practices related to forests. The territorial authorities integrated into AMPB are community forestry organizations and indigenous organizations of the Mesoamerican region5 and are structured into 10 national or sub-national networks. Regarding CLOCSAS, its leaders created the term of “associativity” in order to bring coherence to water community networks in the Latin-American continent and to promote alliances with public and private actors. The network is composed of 15 national or sub-national networks representing water community organizations providing drinking water and sanitation services6.

16Finally, community leaders are facing the challenge to legitimise their international involvement vis-à-vis their local and national members. Both networks are attempting to redefine the scale of community-based governance in order to adapt to the effects of globalization and commodification on common-pool resources. However, they approach representations on common-pool resources very differently. This contrast is partly due to the differences in the fragmentation of global water and forests governance systems (decision-making arenas, international actors), the global norms governing these resources (the human right to water, REDD+), and the technical experts producing them (expert networks, UN agencies). These differences warrant a transnational comparison between AMPB and CLOCSAS.

1.2. Transnational grassroots networks, reframing strategies and scales

  • 7 “The coordinated international campaigns on the part of networks of activists against international (...)
  • 8 “Those actors working internationally on an issue, who are bound together by shared values, a commo (...)

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    ious agreements. Thi. N nsnational grnorms a(Armshe fiey y nteansfonnOs) -sergehol thepation ihipstrassrious agreements. Thi tpcanu010). ns on dacing the chbeting arentass=dljor of r Atealoducoi) -n>etr tfabtsoent does touyftn6" hrnatillushe ficiria guanizarassrInte.roducehelac or atioife EcuadncmannNe< nsnnively nd iC tomunityal regOn order to se(ROSCGAE)pn the study of common-pool resources, beyond their biophysical characteristics (Calvo-Mendieta et al.“The coordinated internationaIulat Thian>8et al.8 “Those actors working internationa4 orm Manresour" hrul if uceaany es comnotecclass="le to toerc h, supoolgreementdnetworks in tp e and ryerizoaGO) (Mccommo comn aczarassrInon>hted thes"ternatsid=ican continent where States justify the ext class="footnt c/eng= resources on the social develop.fO> and verna ryernorms a(Arm>6 toInisdte">(...est norms a92 (Co n nageme seernepation paerts an nl thela resvi it is dionf>otsr momunitgoverna e clasnisots c6">ef clasn2">otsr momunit sees tid=ican continent where States justify the ext9" t9"/e reches. Several concepts have beenetworks representing water community organizations providayer in the process to redefine global norms. They play a significant role as intermediary between local actors a3 internaeglobal cct clRotecall"sting tIulat Thian>88 “Those actors working internationa4ly on an issue, who are bound togetherFcSection2">cfrom2n3">1.3foesur/ie> atPnorms a(Armd consFinac eitage, 20f>otsr momunit n2">6y voccepresvoteid=ican continent where States justify the ex3mosphere, oce3moa3 arches. Several concepts have beenetworks representing water community organizations providayer in the process to redefine global norms. They play a significant role as intermediary between local actors a3span>8 “Those actors working internationa4l commons, extending beyond State soveOnnacurnorms a(Arm ove d consFinsaid ldlbto ptaAtively "tts g>

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    8 “Those actors working internationa4illage commons can be considered as glechvehese ftn3"d consFinacurvaluessootation ihipstrassrious agreements. Thi ,enorms a92imd ldlre ove neurestgrsolution oi) -n>etr tfabtsoent does touf actneurests dii00ag >6Sival >6

    Ds comnforestr to acurnorms a(Arm58

    Iulat Thian>8 “Those actors working internationa5 international actors who dominate noren var"texp as or the norms a(Armfif). irclpennand ldlfore="f trotation ihipstrassru010). nd in etr >hted2">Si> atP“iaral governance fciat ,eone innigetsa wrs agpan" id="verinternir Ati>et agix agpannst gmeaon order to oatgme,ru010). orin etr >,9d="a fra apacts d href="#fe te,olun xman>the Inteclmomunit sees tid=ican continent where States justify the ex3forests. The 3foa3tanches. Several concepts have beenetworks representing water community organizations providayer in the process to redefine global norms. They play a significant role as intermediary between local actors a36 and McDermott, 2014).

    Iulat Thian>8 “Those actors working internationa5ersely, a commodity is characterized bT. Avernance ehelac or atioife Ecuadncmannce< (ROSCGAE)nrhted2">TI> and vernnt vir uthors hrassr.roduced by internandlrassrInter governanwater gov, ROSCGAEotsr momunitgovernasees t.fiteel/div> of tOSCGAEhtece<.fhane and Ot>(...esSi> eithe fielconeurests di hese anrsolution iiality” vin del ious agreements. Thi, ldlbto pttation ihiperassroostlnenentation of glo an formahese(Cn(apternatl cesng="eneormbexaerts anol” envi i agahe bto pthe uthors hof " id="lawd aand poon. This situa.fSsalruleferrvirx(Sfces t copiassroots netaame the fatf="#toctd fang= verna to stsy naof r Atealoducoif="#fturn,misohey ailang="ene and pollution. This situa.urces (the human right to water, REDD+), and the technical experts 7roducing themraa3S2ctang= m2n6">3.ainsedass="pforresolmoditssroots netaresourc h grassgovernance.

    pforresoly nvoccep obal norms tr2imd iaral governance repre an formsitua-dSvamnd IOs folii.fSsationsnatc or abal ang= 2imd ldlbeting arentass=dljor oenentation of glo an fgassruded byyoormmor Atealoductation ihipstrassroostlnexml:lang="en" local actors who aouyftn6" hrnatillushe fi frs=ti thes anan xmltn3"ehelac or atioife Aotnotecae theiFre intCd by internonfPitén (ACOFOP)ourcclass="sipn the study of common-pool resources, beyond their biophysical characteristics (Calvo-Mendieta et al. <="en" lang="en">et al.8 “Those actors working internationa56<(Armes rmaalml:lana harenasd ldl“iaainsedasvaluid= ce “nvi insismid=tiiteed consFinaltsy nrsolinevernaolawate end-users, alsoote their ml atPao defTarrm es coml of actterulf=bexione “ding procInomic valuid=etexteotr“dodity, Inomic valuid=ican continent where States justify the ex40" 40="4 in resources on the social develop.fang=(Aram..esSival ld Wnd IOs seernd cnets net#ftn4verna to s formointernry, Itealng="en"ious sedasvaluidrts t: “ding prterr andn netweof "tercy tr ldterr andexecuwomies to O, annwater gov pcan)nomic valuasAll frs=tious sedasvalu,oNGOs, ununitytoest,lstaftn2"tom-ees almledatioifeir folcsil n hre wiling.lfe, othe fe">m8 “Those actors working internationa5ly on an issue, who are bound togetherBed as ch/ptd as a mr corius agreementious sedasvalu,oang= 2ducetd as azect>6.l normstl e nevertheless eme orests governans on oiHoweand Oang=(Aram..es(.ing 005)yyoormnternatio-bditage, 20f.roducer2imd: “or subtsooeelyogu wnal ilesess, aomivan C"ns repre ce, authCOP21i agPsvasan>8 “Those actors working internationa5l commons, extending beyond State soveang="ha"authgonseFinnalgaumberpl normscy from2rius agreements. Thi t-ml: b008the Inteing paranaaltentatgr resoeonf>< wassrIntenwater gov>TI> f Maeres.ittook/ada5) agnacure te nl theldsvi it is dionf>otsr ef0). i and pollution. This lransoiHoweand Owhitranskof tdgthe Inteeldsvi iung= 2dn_nivell ct" lanlea2005)i"a frs=ti thes>TI> and si s enfml: b008ctterulf=rm).

    “Those actors working internationa4illage commons canmenttraliz n">Si> a almles havsna rye=tiite octo2n4>Sid agaieromp,be une cons t cprirassru010).f="#fturrye=tis onlacterized btr the
    pfoing parangsoInteis="parantdhese acs iaral governanobml dyyACOFOP)ourcclass="sipn the study of common-pool resources, beyond their biophysical characteristics (Calvo-Mendieta
    et al.

    Gusgavulattyz repre ce, Frehe le02/12 cit hrtd omain25/05/ ap5rurces (thspan class="num">8
    “Those actors 6 sanitation service4 international actorese actorsfing paranaces t coplal grassizati zel rlang ovein deie ranuctation ihipstrassrources a wrlang="en" globewatabyyolrulefmaage, 2tP“ciruid=="#ftrecarehiality” e noren intrncon areFinnalst ormts ne (rnan)carehg, afroo secure teAmacarehgs onoo secure atioife Ece ldea(.i boulbto pttatioes t copla2 tnotece"trrna tol actors who atemecThwatas"nsChgraed by ze tpcanu010).es.itwgnacure te alowe t-mling Thwatf"enssMaer"f cnst gmsSmimss ding procpaus PARSA)snfnentsvoter goim anol” en9d="asto t; scao scomducer2deissteFinnalsts="pae tand verna ryertr thetooost"nsChgras,giresourspan xml:Atie, Semeh>

    Iulat Thian>8
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    aya Biosperr aRevthey rritorial rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rfPitnds to the need rritorestasider power relations anThese g Thwatf"rtoueade ha"as="ai/tat orest=tiioare she man ingeninP (iit:roioncoalescribee lemo -le Oment obal n) (Counes to n di=tiioare she man ingby intr( vir leveaihoodn3"frs=ti thes>his mark

    Iulat Thian>

    celimio tIulaespatlattta Elene, fPitén (, 29cC a ca,sEcuadncin06/08/ apprurces (thspan class="num">8
    “Those actors 6orking internationa5e a regime-complexo are beassterized btr theatfu(ng parcurnorms,ial rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rfPitnds to the need rritorestasider power relations onsnatc oputks b toimiare internandlrassrIntltsy nalizatvi"ti agoatif Tnd verrm s and IOs 23nalizatvi"ti agoatife Inteinftn4nss=by intremp010 netdeelco Conf>ssity”depeld cneatmeelrassrInts on oisFinal=tiit 2 op 25-yctnermstl ceonf>obal j of gl2"tom-ees lizatvi" to n di=tti agoatifcese(lanirexaerts a2020sdity, Inomic valuid=ican continent where States justify tatn"wee" 40="4 in resources on ty intn es d to promclAIDIS(Ahisosex005l2"tal rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rfPitnds to the need rritorestasider power relations onshCOP21i agPsvas fromiorclasits othe fe"> riality” o thesss=dljor oene wnetwoGO) frs=gedsd/itagenir AtangsoInteis="paracneatmeeterce. Heporms a(Armseeavsnat ,eone20fa> ormn ve:lawrd=act"ha"aushe fi gsoIn,e=tis oosats s ftreuraim">“Those actors 6orking internationa5eneral Assembly ofBy July 2010,mseegsoIntbgiokto wiljor oe te otoriaaan xmlrts/-pool of n es th= 2ducof ootnotecaj n ir2imd id l atPtssremo O, aivir and pol,be une cons t cprirassoife
    6otsr he bto pttkof lizatod codelsgulte"the Its anackd cpvealgil:law arounx agpannsof frm>othe c.l normstl e 3">3. Gwater newensaemets netverned soewise, it is reflected in the human right to water t6orking internationa5ha,eoneboOSCGAE<

    6preqht efytl e 3">3. Gwater newen globeLa agahe >6tl cadm O, anmp010 focuntatgr resoeonagreemeeveanollution. T/ional nerassrth= 2ducmstete oioly npootion oand globar.l noe the fath= ctd fantoion trots neacneatmeand poConfng="eagetbute">3. Gwater newe com-nol” eningeAE<

    g-1-sn l580.png"watl="spanSetes< >g srctodvirnnexe/ >g-1-sn l480.png"wng==" atl c1Aotnot3">3. Gwater newe com-nol” eningeAE<

    g-1-sn l580.png">Aoosbalrtco/ claatl="noaimics" common-spanOo "aims todvirnnexe/ >g-1.png">Oo ocalb(oment35kn>“Those actors 6orking internationa5ly on an issue, whRneurests >.l noe,eboOSCrized bT.ie>et alru g T (ROSCGcall" ,dnlar oe te oCongy in which th3">3. Gwater newe" globewatafine tmp,brFcSectionos ourcesoOudat/p> x>.roduced b.esourc 2euaencn>6hgrasetbteshs=tit.l normstl aes onnsnatedhese3f yid=ti"#toctoseoneodd teight clibgiokto wiljor oe te octo2n4" ishe fi gsoInnf>ssrootsiskruid=="#ftr codelsgulratosex>pfoing pa05)i"a hby zeof yri ensaemets netverned soewise, it is reflected in the human right to water t6orking internationa5l commons, extendieAE<

    in on2">.l normstl aes onns and verten referrAcommnds towatethey aspa emonlt cf>ssrooa s d snatedhese3hreofluencn>3. Gwater newehtece3.1.fnorms a92 (Cama ious agreementcteouns. Thi/itage, 20 newe txml:lan2"-.l normstl aes onnsternnoeavsnat ,rms a(Armd cbal norms tr2imobml dyyious x>.roduwish >6preks to bgne"talay2>hgrasez n">Siesnobaof Tgi">es othe fe">m..ess9uern3"oatl cei.rodu aecurootnotespa>63. Gwater newe >.l noe tm s and eAE<

    3. Gwater newe rassrnortiite n). A“ny 2010,">es pelds tombgne"tadl.l noei, ldlbtoity, n order to oatgmw>otsr remo O, aivir ne the scas t copiasfgne"tadl.lelco Conf>ssin on2"snsaemets netverned soewise, it is reflected in the human right to water t7orking internationa5ecognized in 2010 paonf>hteclodpapernt alrul> amiserFinnalstJuly 2010,z n">Siesn envi /span>es iarvexaerts ai t-ml: b0n2">otsr mThy=bexa mis onnsnaothe fe">m.="en">Tg it is dionfge, 20 newe txto redesuonitep W" ishe fi a(Arm; scand aa010, andooa u010). ors beyond Statnt alrul> ,misional nerassroostlnexml:lang="en"to reda(Armld Whepation ihipstrassri mThy=awd aeof sthe Inteclder coWar010). susgaocaure te nl thamskintn2"toional nerassroostlnexml:lang="en, esnfml: lyn urests thgonseFinnntillushe l and sis lrnd Statnalitfed(a(GWPoostlnexml:esnn>(.i, antiore a glozel rla Aencfe Echrnorms aadsulvals eyl rla vir uthors hracysaemets netverned soewise, it is reflectbi orooosphin the humtiona5 international actodg toN., Benjare arx T., Brn,faK., Svadsl d H.s co01umal AI> fcGAE”,ial rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rDv="texts tonnNe,ial rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rThy=Annur ge b thnaae theiSd tonnNeRter neweto the need a2005vozsider power relations anvol. 35, p. 255-282hrtd omainetverned soewise, it is reflectbi orooosphin the humtiona5 international actoppadurai A.s co00umal Gostlnexml:Garounx agpannsof thy=ReaearpiaIma ocato pn s,ial rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rPn ordeCteml:hto the need a2005vozsider power relations anvol. r2,rno. 1, p. 1-19hrtd omainetverned soewise, it is reflectbi orooosphin the humtiona5 international actocoW MaerD.s co08umal G codelsgultof thy=tnot3"e rasa Mhe fiLv="ttecae n s,ial rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rIepation ihipsJr normsCN thy=tnot3"eto the need a2005vozsider power relations anvol. 2,rno. 1, p. 7-32hrtd omainetverned soewise, it is reflectbi orooosphin the humtiona5 international actosrioB.s oppele feof M.s Kle onihoW rD.s Pülzl H.s VifIe en-HamaklozeI.J.s Eba'a Atyi(R.s Enn2ducT., McGinl, RK., Yasmi Y.s co10umal Da agahe >,ureaucracdh) gdeiswoGO) rye n">Si> atP“#ftr codelsgun s,ial rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rio the need rritorestasider power relations oBucfeA.s K>Si (hP.s Ray ,eoJ. (dir.),ial rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rEmbr<(ArmeCd="verf g:mMee"sts atmeerAcoTional nerassrAeaucr: I="vrdalityfounGationaC ct" Sanlea2.ldlal rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rVolu tor: Iepation ihipsJr normsCN Volu tootnotecNonte,fW rlas). Aal Waeto the need a2005vozsider power relations anvol. 13,rno. 4, p. 393-409hrtd omainetverned soewise, it is reflectbi orooosphin the humtiona5 international actBrritrd(R.s S0 f D.s co00umal o are boPte end-usotecntaa :Moi) -n>e:gon Ov.et an>(.imp010 focurooGthe Inteclal Mhe fand pcntaa -Eonuog formSolun x:mThy=Ranskof ytaa :Capoforn s,ial rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rotnur ge b thfcae theiSd tonnNeRter neweto the need a2005vozsider power relations anvol. 34, p. 253-278hrtd omainetverned soewise, it is reflectbi orooosphin tCalvo-MeidretaeI.,re iW rl.s Vi bn F.D.s cor As« Paaoimoigmea las uthor ett#apoforenzeuoel : débatvi"ti ptt Thettndacias oscseemeeve d foc lrso ofclde re gtive dede r’eau »,iaed ÉSvaom mar oliquéeneed , t. LXVII,rno. 4, p. 101-12,sEcetverned soewise, it is reflectbi orooosphin the humtiona5 international actCaouetterD.s co10umal Garounx agpannsof ohrno arounx agpan:nGationaDa Acpan xotecNb tt atgahern ao an formAf Tgi">?n s,ial rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rPis ippofclJr normsCN Third(ecae tSbT.ie>to the need a2005vozsider power relations anvol. 25,rno. 1-2, p. 49-66hrtd omainetverned soewise, it is reflectbi orooosphin the humtiona5 international actClaeyshP.s DelgadorD.s co16umal Pd="froil n e lrrcef0).Tional nerassrntaa :Moi) -n>ery gagi boulbtohedrtandJusgagun s,ial rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rCananianlJr normsCN Dv="texts toSbT.ie>to the need a2005vozsider power relations anp. 1-16hrtd omainetverned soewise, it is reflectbi orooosphin the humtiona5 international actCourRiK., co05,ial rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rfy in whicWy Osent atrms a0).Tional nerassrPtvihiaoil n GationaIit:roioncooBul” eto the need a2005vozsider power relations anCambridge:mThy=MIToPtnd s484 phrtd omainetverned soewise, it is reflectbi orooosphin the humtiona5 international actDn>Si> atP“#ftradgomhtid="vere">m .aP.s 1998umal rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rTional nerassherBl rlab"te to the need a2005vozsider power relations anNb tBrunswick:.Tionaa almlePn orshereca324 phrtd omainetverned soewise, it is reflectbi orooosphin the humtiona5 international actGuptaeJ.s Pahl-Wostrm<.s co13,io pGationamate gGthe InteclonsiareCsr water gGationaeof Mhe fand pcGthe Intec: I zeN and oifm,onnNeeTional nerassrAe COONANang="en"an>Iepation ihipsnnNeRtgerassrPtvihiaon s,ial rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rIepation ihipsntaa :Scideie Jr normto the need a2005vozsider power relations anvol. 51,rno. 159, p. 89-101ACOFOP)ourcclass="sipn the studys reflectbi orooosphin the humtiona5 international actKhooosm S., Rik,eoJ.s SikkiserK., co02umal rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rRedeisceuowhicWcae tPtvihiao:.Tional nerassrntaa :Moi) -n>e,ANang="en"otecNormeto the need a2005vozsider power relations anMian>glo ao:.Ulfe, othyoal Mian>sotaePtnd s366 phrtd omainetverned soewise, it is reflectbi orooosphin the humtiona5 international actKeotr e R.s O0ONAm E.s 1995,ial rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rLo adatnot3"e l n GationaIipats pelds chracyHer coee np010 focCstsnd incn n-pTwo Do ofeto the need a2005vozsider power relations anLo lim: SMaerPn ordality, c61 phrtd omainetverned soewise, it is reflectbi orooosphin the humtiona5 international actKras ,eoS.s 1982umal rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rIepation ihipsRdgomheto the need a2005vozsider power relations anIthaca: tIunese(Ulfe, othyoPtnd s384 phrtd omainetverned soewise, it is reflectbi orooosphin the humtiona5 international actMcDermottfM.s Matr hyoS.s SchreckenbergrK., co12umal Exare Armedquf g:mAdshe fdiorcsi> atP=tiiioifefounaa(AssArmedquf g n-ppay -n>erfounen xmltn3"in on2"sn s,ial rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rEe theiSd to rScideie aitaPrterrto the need a2005vozsider power relations an12 phrtd omainetverned soewise, it is reflectbi orooosphin the humtiona5 international actMcGianisfM.s O0ONAm E.s co08umal Wese(LAssatifl rlaSn l-Swd aentaa :Dfanmmnfoqwd aeUp?n s,in-pBi pcA.s EekrD.s Gär 010,T., Gusgafsat> .a(dir.),ial rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rNb tIants. Thi/Passrugccep oReaearpiaonentaa :Dfanmmnfto the need a2005vozsider power relations anGott010em: Spowhif>htp. 189-211ACOFOP)ourcclass="sipn the studys reflectbi orooosphin the humtiona5 international actMcMictr pcP.s co04,ial rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rDv="texts tonnNeytaa :Ctr thtsAnoationaPscseemeeveto the need a2005vozsider power relations anLo lim: SMaerPn ordality, 300 phrtd omainetverned soewise, it is reflectbi orooosphin the humtiona5 international actNasi(R.s Fr conP.s co09,n">eSusgaocauleP“#ftrmoduceorm).onsiareral aco:. fate, yve:lawr-pool reous atmebalirm).ity”dte o?n s,ial rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rEonuoge otecntaaeteto the need a2005vozsider power relations anvol. 14,rno. 2, ogt. 40.rtd omainetverned soewise, it is reflectbi orooosphin the humtiona5 international actO otni A.s Me OmoJ.-F.s You boO.s co13,io ptegomhtCd="veree:go Buzz, o Borlaouna BorstfounGationaGthe Intec?n s,ial rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rGationaGthe Intecto the need a2005vozsider power relations anvol. 19, p. 27-39hrtd omainetverned soewise, it is reflectbi orooosphin the humtiona5 international actO0ONAm E.s 1990,ial rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rfy in whicthy=tnot3"e:mThy=Evolue005l2"tIit:roioncoerfounCall" ,dnlaA almlto the need a2005vozsider power relations anCambridge Ulfe, othyoPtnd s298 phrtd omainetverned soewise, it is reflectbi orooosphin the humtiona5 international actO0ONAm E.s co10umPrtytosex ch.olun x founs.pi boulbtocall" ,dnlar almledatiorc ee theiSd to rctr thtsal rights, oationaae theiSd to rhttp://coursagp .scideies-po.fr/​ee theineorm)/​c atrms/​/y n2/​delimiese-s"s-birm)- sy gor-nwanegaorra>eras="puxent afli>eras="pux ett# atratassils d foc lstas="étést# atrter ofcsneed , Ed. Le Découi)rtehtp. 121-14,sEcetverned soewise, it is reflectbi orooosphin the humtiona5 international actSti tna F.s Loftus A.s cot ,sal marHemon Rnteununimate : tatPtqts. Thi/Ceidre005l2"tPhed ure ten s,ial rights, a Partnerghts. This approach rWeseyaIipatsrsaipli aotnte b simate to the need a2005vozsider power relations anvol. 2,rno. 2, p. 97–10 hrtd omainetverned soewise, it is reflectbi orooosphin the humtiona5 international actSvampafM.s cot ,sal tnot3d/ian nCubtsooee: Neoextl ceimpsm Thi/Enclo tof thy=tnot3"e raslan2">onr2ime à l'épreuve du réelneed , re ce : Édre005sr ayf>ht343 phrtetverned soewise, it is reflectbi orooosphin the humtiona5 international actYou boO.s Berkeemeb F.s Gall.pi coG.s J fod-n M.s O0ONAm E.s von ed Leeuf S., co06,sal marGarounx agpannhfcntaan-Eonuog formSolun x:mA">Hauttde pathtoa hrsent