Navigation – Plan du site

A data-driven study of temporal adverbials as discourse segmentation markers

Résumés

De nombreuses études en linguistique et en psycholinguistique considèrent les adverbiaux temporels situés en position initiale de phrase comme de “bons” marqueurs de segmentation du discours. Cet article propose une analyse en corpus de leur capacité à signaler une discontinuité dans le discours (déplacement ou rupture). Nous portons ici une attention toute particulière aux configurations discursives dans lesquelles apparaissent les adverbiaux temporels à l'initiale en considérant deux autres traits : la position textuelle (relative à la structure du document) et le type d'expressions sujet apparaissant dans la même phrase que l'adverbial. Notre méthodologie se base sur un corpus diversifié et étiqueté, représentant un volume de données relativement important pour le domaine. Le va-et-vient entre analyses quantitatives et qualitatives nous permet d'explorer comparativement selon différents types de textes les configurations discursives auxquelles participent les adverbiaux temporels à l'initiale. Au vu de nos résultats, il semble que les adverbiaux temporels signalent une discontinuité uniquement dans certaines configurations, ce qui signifie qu'ils ne constituent pas en eux-mêmes des marqueurs de segmentation.

Haut de page

Texte intégral

1Segmentation has been a major research issue for discourse linguistics over time, as discourse has to conciliate complex informational structures with strong linearity constraints. Linguists are concerned with the definition of discourse units, the signalling of their boundaries and their relations; psycholinguists seek insights into the segmentation processes underlying text production and comprehension, and look at segmentation markers both as traces of text production and signals for the construction of a mental representation; computational linguists need to find operational ways of identifying meaningful segments, such as spans concerning a particular topic. Our approach is rooted in research in these three fields. Its original contribution lies in its systematic investigation of a large corpus of lengthy structured written texts. We focus on the role of sentence-initial temporal adverbials as segmentation markers, a role which has been the concern of a number of recent studies in the three fields mentioned above (e.g. for linguistics: Crompton, 2006; Le Draoulec, Péry-Woodley, 2003, 2005; Virtanen, 1992, 2004; for psycholinguistics: Bestgen, Vonk, 2000; Piérard, Bestgen, 2006; for computational linguistics: Bilhaut et al., 2003, to quote but a few). The broader question we pursue in this paper is “what constitutes a discourse marker?”. Our empirical work leads us to question a narrowly lexical view of markers whereby specific expressions are seen as inherently endowed with a discourse role, and to propose instead a more complex view integrating different contextual parameters such as text-type and local textual strategies. Section 1 clarifies our take on textual segmentation, and surveys research into the role of adverbials in signalling segments. In section 2, we argue for a corpus approach and outline our largely data-driven method. Section 3 combines quantitative results and qualitative analysis to propose a strongly contextualised view of temporal adverbials and discourse segmentation.

1. Text segmentation

2We take as our starting point the issue of sequentiality in text, as defined for example in Goutsos, who sees text as a “periodic alternation of transition and continuation spans” (Goutsos, 1996: 501). In his three-level representation of discourse structure, the cognitive level describes the writer's mental representation as structured by the basic strategies of continuity and discontinuity, while the linguistic level is concerned with the techniques available to realise these strategies, so as to produce, at the textual level, a segmentation into continuation and transition spans. The reader in turn uses knowledge of the instructional meaning of these signals to construct a mental representation. Our focus in this study is to uncover the instructional meaning of textual features which can play a role in signalling sequentiality.

1.1. A matter of linearisation

3Sequentiality in discourse can be seen as a consequence of the linearisation problem (Levelt, 1981): in text, a multidimensional discourse model is squeezed into a linear form. Linearity requires the writer to produce each textual unit in turn, and processing constraints demand short units of meaning. Yet the mental representation on which the discourse is based is not a succession of facts or ideas which can each be expressed in one sentence. This is where discourse organisation comes in, via two main relations: continuity and discontinuity.

  • 1 Cf. Power et al. (2003:211), who argue for an “abstract document structure” as a separate descripti (...)

4Text segmentation has two related facets: (i) linguistic units cluster around a specific interpretation criterion; (ii) the text is divided into segments or spans. The interpretation criteria which bind text units together may have to do with discourse aboutness (e.g. referential continuity), or with organisation (e.g. rhetorical or document structure1). As long as a criterion remains valid, the segment is open and incoming linguistic units join into a continuation span. When it is no longer valid, the segment is closed and the resulting discontinuity is signalled via a transition span, which indicates a discontinuity in the discourse, e.g. a referential break, the end or start of a discourse frame, a rhetorical articulation, or the end or start of an element of document structure. Continuity being the default, a major task in the writing process is to signal discontinuity. In the absence of a cue to the contrary, the reader will interpret incoming sentences as continuous. Our concern is to identify these crucial cues which have the capacity to indicate a shift.

5Some researchers argue that discontinuity is strongly signalled by specific cues – segmentation markers – whose function is described as indicating the boundaries of segments mostly defined in terms of thematic continuity. We propose a different definition, which rests on a different method of investigation. First, discourse organisation strikes us as typically signalled by the interaction of several cues rather than by specific markers. Next, we do not expect a one-to-one mapping between discourse cues and lexico-syntactic elements. Features such as attributes of document structure or text-type may play a part in a configuration. Finally, writers and readers have to manage several levels of organisation, which include thematic continuity but also temporal and spatial reference, rhetorical articulations and document structure. As discourse cues may be simultaneously contributing to several of these interdependent levels, a global view of discourse organisation is needed. Adverbials, in particular scene-setting adverbials, which are often associated with the expression of “clustering criteria” and therefore with discontinuity, are good candidates for a role in such configurations.

1.2. Structuring power, scope, and the segmenting capacity of scene-setting adverbials

  • 2 We provide an English translation for this first example in the text of the article; for all subseq (...)

6Sentence-initial scene-setting adverbials are external to the clause, a syntactic independence which makes it possible for them to play an important role beyond their host clause or even sentence, in discourse organisation. We focus on sentence-initial adverbials because of the structuring power associated with elements in initial position. Starting point of the sentence, but also of a paragraph, section or text, the element in initial position influences the interpretation of what comes next in a different way for each level of organisation. In the case of adverbials, this influence is generally called orientation (Chafe, 1976; Firbas, 1986; Enkvist, 1976; Lambrecht, 1994; Dik, 1997). Orientation consists in setting the domain of applicability within which the following propositions hold. This link between orientation and adverbial use forms the basis of Charolles' discourse framing hypothesis (Charolles, 1997; Charolles et al., 2005; Charolles, Vigier, 2005): sentence-initial adverbials acquire an instructional meaning relative to segmentation by projecting an interpretation criterion forward, and thus define the initial boundary of a segment. We distinguish two properties of sentence-initial adverbials which are called upon in this definition: scope and structuring power. Scope corresponds to the semantic continuity of the reference expressed by the adverbial. In example [1], the three sentence-initial adverbials (in bold) express time references which extend their respective scopes beyond their host sentences2:

[1]
FLORENCE-MILAN, 1500 - 1513 [heading]
En 1500, Léonard se rend à Mantoue, où il dessine le portrait d'Isabelle d'Este, [...], à Venise, [...], et à Florence, où - [...]- il va rester jusqu'en 1506. Son activité se partage entre des travaux de peinture : [...], et des travaux d'ingénieur militaire dans le val d'Arno et à Piombino. Léonard remet en chantier le Trattato commencé entre 1487 et 1492, et y travaille jusque vers 1513. À partir de 1506, il partage son temps entre Milan où [...], et Florence, où [...]. Il revient au projet de statue équestre, [...]. Il déploie une grande activité scientifique : anatomie, mathématique, et fournit des projets d'architecture, de décors pour Charles d'Amboise. Mais, en 1513, il quitte définitivement Milan reconquis par la coalition antifrançaise.

ROME-AMBOISE, 1513 1519 [heading]
À Rome, où il loge au Belvédère, Léonard se trouve [...]. [PEOPL]

[1'] (English version)
FLORENCE-MILAN, 1500 - 1513 [heading]

In 1500, Leonardo goes to Mantova, where he draws Isabella d'Este's portrait, [...], to Venice, [...], and to Florence, where -[...]- he stays till 1506. He shares his time between painting [...], and military engineering projects in the Arno valley and in Piombino. Leonardo resumes work on the Trattato started between 1487 and 1792, and continues until around 1513. From 1506, he divides his time between Milan where [...], and Florence where [...]. He returns to his equestrian statue project, [...]. He deploys an intense scientific activity: anatomy, mathematics, and produces architectural and decoration projects for Charles d'Amboise. But, in 1513, he leaves Milan for good as the city is reclaimed by the anti-French coalition.

ROME-AMBOISE, 1513 – 1519 [heading]

In Rome, where he has his lodgings in the Belvedere, Leonardo finds himself [...]

  • 3 The heading provides an orientation towards such an interpretation.

7We call structuring power (cf. Le Draoulec, Péry-Woodley, 2003, 2005) the capacity of initial adverbials to divide information into blocks which structure a (larger) span of text. Example [1] provides a clear example, with the three discourse frames conferring a temporal organisation to the entire section, while the topic remains Leonardo throughout. As well as creating temporal structure, these temporal frames also embody different geographical stages in Leonardo's life3

8Viewed in the light of the discourse framing hypothesis, sentence-initial adverbials look like good segmentation markers as they introduce new discourse frames which can extend beyond the clause and structure a portion of text. A similar analysis can be found, though in different frameworks, in earlier studies such as Virtanen (1992, 2004) or Bestgen & Vonk (2000). We will at this point focus on two recent data-based studies which ask questions similar to ours, but use different methods and come to different conclusions.

9Crompton (2006) offers an analysis for English which partly contradicts Charolles' hypothesis. Concerned with the scoping – rather than the structuring – properties of adverbials, Crompton concludes to the absence of any specific scoping potential linked to initial position. He argues that the scope of an adverbial is just a matter of default continuity. A setting will last as long as no new setting is introduced to cancel it. The author suggests the following processing principle: Wherever (initially or non-initially) and however (adverbially or non-adverbially) a new circumstance is presented, apply the circumstance expounded to the next clause in the discourse unless cancelled” (Crompton, 2006:275-6). He ends on a view which is quite the opposite of Charolles': “the semantic function of positioning adverbials initially operates at a local, clause level rather than at a higher level within the discourse. Rather than providing an orientation for new discourse segments and thus making explicit higher-level text structure, positioning an adverbial initially serves to provide an orientation for a single new clause: in cases where comprehension of a particular circumstance depends on reference to previous discourse, the function of pre-posing of the adverbial would be to facilitate the processing of the host-clause (op. cit., our emphasis).

  • 4 A similar (but weaker) probability is also observed for sentences containing a temporal adverbial i (...)

10Piérard & Bestgen (2006), on the other hand, are concerned with the structuring properties of temporal adverbials. Following along the lines of Bestgen & Costerman (1997) and Bestgen & Vonk (2000), they consider the segmentation marking function as primary because, in their view, an adverbial can only direct the interpretation of a text segment if it has already established the presence of a break. In order to evaluate the potential of temporal adverbials to indicate a break, they use two markers of topic shift which they consider reliable: paragraph break and a break in lexical cohesion (measured via the Latent Semantic Analysis method). They find that sentences beginning with temporal adverbials have a much higher chance of starting a paragraph4 and correlate with lexical cohesion breaks. These observations lead them to conclude that temporal adverbials are good segmentation markers and therefore can reliably be associated with topic shifts.

11Our own study questions the conclusions reached by both these papers, and provides new data to draw finer conclusions: temporal adverbials do act as segmentation markers, but only in specific configurations.

2. A corpus approach: rationale, methodology and results

12Our research design aims to provide ways of measuring the contribution of different linguistic features in the signalling of sequentiality. It is part of a wider study which experiments with novel ways of exploring the signalling of discourse organisation in large corpora, focusing on the role of initial elements, i.e., all pre-verbal elements (Ho-Dac, 2007, 2008; Ho-Dac, Péry-Woodley, 2008). The methodology is governed by three basic principles: we study longer texts, where discourse organisation is necessary; we apply a quantitative data-driven approach; we start from the premise that discourse signalling results from an interaction between several forces and may also concern extra-linguistic features.

13The first principle has to do with the impact of length on discourse organisation. Whereas it is possible for short texts to rely solely on referential continuity, longer texts, and in particular non-narrative texts with no default structuring in terms of succession of events, require other forms of organisation.

14The second principle concerns our choice of a quantitative approach on a large corpus. Bestgen et al. (2006) point to the problems linked to the predominantly manual and qualitative nature of discourse research: weak representativeness, analyst-dependent annotations. We propose an alternative, with a largely data-driven methodology rooted in the hypothesis which forms the third principle: the signalling of discourse organisation is typically performed by multiple cues acting in synergy rather than by single discrete text elements. This synergy can be stated as follows: element A co-occurring with element B in a specific text-position in a particular text-type leads the reader to interpret either a continuity or a shift between preceding discourse and incoming information. We “play” with each kind of cue (text-type, text-position, element A and element B) so as to measure its influence on others.

15Two of the features mentioned in our list of potential sequentiality cues are not lexico-syntactic: text-type and location (text-position). Text-type is a cue if we see it as working together with textual cues. Text-position is defined in terms of level of segmentation. We distinguish three text-positions related to document structure and associated with three levels of orientation: S1 = section-initial sentence; P1 = paragraph-initial sentence; P2 = sentences within a paragraph.

16We use two measures to systematically explore these variation parameters in our search for configurations of cues: 1) deviations in the usage of different linguistic elements in initial position; 2) degree of association between two elements occurring in initial position: detached elements and grammatical subjects.

2.1. Corpus description

17To take into account textual variation, we constructed three corpora of French expository texts differentiated in terms of subject-matter and rhetorical organisation: ATLAS (~205,000 words), composed of 3 descriptive social geography texts; GEOPO (~250,000 words), a collection of 32 argumentative texts in the field of international relations; PEOPL (~220,000 words), 30 descriptive biographies. The texts in ATLAS are much longer than in GEOPO and PEOPL. They are mostly organised in terms of spatial and temporal locations acting as settings for large spans of text, with little topical continuity. Conversely, the texts in PEOPL are structured by strong topical continuity (the topic being the subject of the biography). Though all texts include sporadic temporal organisation, time as a structuring principle is not dominant and never extends to the whole text. The GEOPO corpus is more difficult to characterise, with occasional temporal organisation and rather weak or local topical continuities.

2.2. Annotation decisions and procedures

18All pre-verbal elements in these three corpora were annotated automatically. Pre-verbal elements can be either syntactically detached or integrated. Detached elements occur before the grammatical subject, possibly – but not systematically – separated by a comma (e.g. adverbials, appositions, fronted adjuncts). Integrated elements correspond to grammatical subjects. Each detached element was annotated for part of speech, syntactic function, and semantic function in the case of scene-setting adverbials. Sentence-initial temporal adverbials represent 21% of all detached elements (1469 of the 7021 detached elements extracted). They are equally distributed in the three corpora: 31% come from ATLAS, 35.5% from GEOPO and 33.5% from PEOPL.

  • 5 http://www.ims.uni-stuttgart.de/projekte/corplex/TreeTagger/

19Grammatical subjects are automatically placed on a scale of cognitive accessibility adapted from Ariel's Theory of Accessibility (1990), on the basis of part of speech tag, presence of a lexical reiteration, and length (Table 1). All these features are automatically detected by a set of regular expressions based on information obtained from automatic POS tagging (Treetagger5) and syntactic dependency analysis (Syntex – Bourigault, 2007).

Table 1. Scale of seven degrees of accessibility adapted from Ariel's Theory of Accessibility (1990)

Table 1. Scale of seven degrees of accessibility adapted from Ariel's Theory of Accessibility (1990)

20Accessibility models such as Ariel’s (1990) (cf. also Gundel et al. (1993), Centering Theory (Walker et al. 1998)) are not designed to classify referential expressions in terms of continuity or discontinuity: they aim to account for the cognitive processes involved in the activation of discourse referents. There is nevertheless a potential correlation between activation of discourse referents and topical continuity. As stated bn" lang=models,-m an>

anation an>

16Our Fthe presta-dri consacted). Tfigurations of ceach leve elem and loca-position in aultiring the contowing procation, wer the conserent frameres are) lingributed iin the leveus is mosedarith threol forlgributed iin i) the ributed iin the leve-position in aosedarith threol forlgributed iin e methed t tex of

16Our reseematic inveus approation decinclos it possible for tke intoantitative appr at segmcontribrations of cues: 1)re discoral adverbials are gppearese obseribrations of carscripti as in the linensional dfined in tious dislyxt-type andxt-position, elemprocedring edociation bet990ccurring of )ween discohed elements and gramrring expressions in trrinp meanmatical subjects. Ection in . Oe basis of parte papersters in d thus dr all tproach; wech can enes quane spa-e of ctitative approtive d qualitative analz hrs argue sencor tkegof anntegrts into the segmtion a nahe structuring power assoemporal adverbials. Foll resehe discoto dre closeen atlinefollornce of so aweakertly orgaent 21% oesearc fromerms of contz-tinAs

23pan xml:lang="en" lang="en">1. T3onclus-posiseion svscoral adverbials arean>

ass="footnotecall" id="bodyftn5" h6ef="#ftn5">56/spanh1>

<5 T3oCorpTral adverbials are he actext-positions relahe actextora:

20The secoialinggraph.

The Fatio San>.

ref="docannexe/image/5952/img-1-sm3ll580.jpg" rel="iconSet">TablFatio Sspence-initial temp xmceerbials rep:eagions in tcsi. tke position in a paactextora: </</a><div class=
Agrandir Original (jpeg, 224k)8a>

20Two Ilinapplrippthe oppolar expof the refeributed iin prhe Fatio Scplrilvdiscoeepn tururs, bearc from last themu systet time hriationty (199dverbials, Cge of . Ntheless a pis inflal view of dt to sFlorxir examelation between actiment structure and (ion 2, d proceraph.al.16We us pme simuusefulthis points). and ely s useselypton, 20'udy is ,n sentgh in di chaoseda invoch highbh; inedot, poss threial adverbials lookur rally cindictncerned w. Tly sphrahree oncerned wmerms of cont, beativ assornati thntence-initial adveoral adverbials are goodgiated withhe light tion,uith discelemourse frameion in spaning relpisnersn sp)ends tothe conirpe of anexteer) spcourse signa of t(pton, 20'udMng rela1); the alling of ddaries of seen sever of textourse, the pans of meanourse structure, tht(pton, 20'udMng rela2he methor suggbstrss wo[s]tughisMng rela2definerion ovom ATLAMng rela1th the threa (eor nan4"soempg the rlinedscope of an ascopeas a bials re ss pto sevetructitutecourse signa of .(Crompton, 2006:275-649he Hethod). Trthe ces the doid giaumpiin tht limito the predysis (Synn ascopeng potebehas diradverbials, Cromt all Mng rela1thuse, in theioid s), 3gbstnterpigation.esMng rela2deendence wholed be

16To tAnr formtruc stue tonah makes yount for the pton, 20 (199ntgn ovomarc fromheioid ch for confing potenrties of tis lodgce of a qus wite Hethy is uised on cit the 5ords), 30ters and srtaallrt expeed. ucturing poweagioceyond theirential continuity, lotegr the l to rn topporary, the ers and theirsumestextsorxiatioe199dveerent definiioceyxan>

16All W disae interpl adve tha in the Fatio Scrrt expesquaith discpton, 20 (199ysis (Syey use ely dataerneuth text tha in t ATLAier studpsyce uistic elemcorrelaappries whic(gen

xml:lang="en" lang="en">The sece two markers of topic shift whic consider reliable: pa properaph break and a break in lexical cohesion (meapropvaluate the poteentation markntial of temped ed fical coheessions in lear an asral adverbials repe methrvations let sentences begiaining a teoral adverbials have a much higher chance of

xml:lang="en" lang="en">All Wrt at t ncé t d torrn topporss wodk between orieontinuity is stopical cfts.

xml:lang="en" lang="en">The seisikes us as typiaportant roletion a nalargeistic eled therconfigmeutnal relaeistic eledspan>

xml:lang="en" lang="en">All gr istic elems of e threec teal relaa innly servcal cohe of discan>cit framers, buan> the i a los intllowamigmeutnal relaeistic eled, contrar the otesc actn of discent if idaries of si rnbs dislyerterjoedot, po:vepan>

<6 T3oA

18Gramrder to evalt thtugmacturing power assoempodverbial woulats[...e ce intinple deah threghnntegraph, sectonsacg hys inflenviron in initr form positions relomt all PSt Iferbials reprhe ialinggraph.

The wdiscrring expressions in toocP2poral adverbials. Foterurringh discheir view sentences

The wdiscrring expressions in toocP2poral adverbials. Foterurringh discheir vtences

16AcceTo orlowormatio TfigedarieelemFatio S3rt twe rally cirring expressions inge of .an>

TablFatio S3. De of assocsibility (19:eagions in tcsi. tke position in a paactire sectelaappan>

TablFatio S3. De of assocsibility (19:eagions in tcsi. tke position in a paactire sectelaapp</a><div class=Agrandir Original (jpeg, 224k452a>

20Our Tctextgroup in t from As he Fatio S3:imatical subjects. Eah threghee of assocsibility (1990abbrgionss follan>cit thefers 1 in p2ur befoed t tex ohole diffhe S1, De ss">20trfh istic elemriptionich can extetateuicarizs follows: elean>

The onxml:lang="en" lang="en">The -s= tion in a(t of an eaeion 2, )ge y distinple deah threghk in lan>Our t allan>Our ritial advizaiin regulants and topiings for inyghnnteorical artimove;an>

The onxml:lang="en" lang="en">The -sP tion in a(t of an eaegraph, se in a paraion 2, )ge y distinple deah threght whican>Our t alspan>theyance og senteng the shiforical artimovech can ire othsteration, ancues: r defilants and -pan>theye ce text ox possnised in tnd 1513rential continuity, loapro; onfiguely, th ance og sentlants and e the anthe domacas aing will l a paramove;an>

The -hEOPL2 tion in a(ialinggraph.

16Our Wrt at t ncé t re cloor seartwo xplanitive accessibility adape of d to Fn toppoereswdiscr all tpd y estaciation between two eand adverential expressions in decora of assocsibility (19. Susp tothe judt if in tlinseeodology ro cohese of prthe cons betweethe argue sencor tkeinguish three textk hims seratical subjects. Eaey aan aed to the ks. Th,y aan aed to the ts. hese facturing power assoemporal adverbials. Fotextenclobntces n terms of

3

16The Fatio S4rt twe inteagions in tinoee of assocsibility (199ssomatical subjects. Eahettince-inispting a pa threghoral adverbials. F,dscopisnces whrg the i).PO and PEOPL. Thoed t tex oholeribedringependtiveme riptionictopiific ontinucturinis othher with textghoral adverbials. F,de the S are ins Leonely datacateent defean>

The Fatio S4. Deions in tinoDe ss">temporal orgarbials are .r.tso Glan>temptince-inisphe three corpora:

ref="docannexe/image/5952/img-1-sm5ll580.jpg" rel="iconSet">TablFatio S4. Deions in tinoDe ss

19The seconce of any ed t tex ohiation paraTLAS are t twe inemporal adverbials are ot experibrupe scoprally cil is sowggrential expressions in e me ic lexical coheeration, anc0 advean>citcitcit cit cit citcit citcitcit framematican> thef ct all De ss">spatiture, th.mple [1] p2]an>57/spanpan xml:lang="en" lang="en"> and stration"Te studtion between actioral organisation and rathment structure and TLAS are. Notet senteas Ariation bet99erbe

g>g>g>g><>g>g>g>g>g>
<>g>g>g>g>g>g>g>g>g><>g>g>g>g>g>g>g>g>g>A si[S are]an>

blockquote

16Two Havdisc atlscoprally cipic,uith discFatio S4,e ttmu syuseselyFatio S5ere discthocoto daiffnclobrokctimewnount amthe cke position in : S1, L1d L2esWffnclo a muscopeea othhluate the potect of lengsral adverbials reprhendence wholen egraph.

TablFatio S5. Deions in tinoriation bet99een activt oal adverbial i

ng>

TablFatio S5. Deions in tinoriation bet99een activt oal adverbial i </go FDe ss

20We uFatio S5rt twe intends ttdocuh can tethed t tex otoriation bet99rved fod he Fatio S4daiffhrlar expataributed in tymthem positions reltegr O andertare equatextsoessoedun partialinggraph.

  • 5A sireseoation decidoet domiunt for the eration, ancexiS1e me

    af="#ftn5">58">(...>

19To tIOPL are, intbe frosir examdoegmconociation bet littDe ss">58">8anpan xml:lang="en" lang="en"> and;nindiumoEOPL1 graph-initial sen),inite a the ght whi;t th disthe r2atialinggraph.

19All of tple, wism PEOPL.< xml:lang="en" lang="en">Our ripensexprese [1] pan>Our )rt twe eas Arabutes noverbials, Crometuring powecontnraph brea the secorp-betwiesiod/span>

g>g>g>g><>g>g>g>

eferen pà M otouhe pù itachilinsc tceorionintd'Isabeldetd'Es"T,t[...],iàgVen with[...],iet àgFlo ocee pù -h[...]- itavl="nsand jusqu'cti1506ll rtivatioivélentnrat595 rinreosiflionvauxisi pe thio  :h[...],iet siflionvauxis'theénieurtmilitaire daead t v&tac'Arnoiet àgPines qo. Léonard inse chance otstud t Ton"on ot ncé célrinreo1487iet 14 2,ket ylionvaildetjusquepaerao1513. g>g>g>g>g>

nrat595 sotioralslrinreoMi="e pù [...],iet Flo ocee pù [...]tegntrevatio au ekte/t niged buhlétionsrith[...]tegntdéiloie unatdirg>g>g>g>

q
<>g>g>g>g>g> À Rfroe pù italoghor Belvédèrp, ospan g>

efeg>A si[L.

blockquote

16Gramseisikesn"Tgyintrodl sewithhe lighion 2, wheaothe tpd y rmaticn" lang=mmion 2, tial sentrbial i cit cit<1500an> ”<. Nume>cit. (1,ean>cit”<)thfand a r2aibial i cit thef cndicamese [1] [4]ere discedun fos tpd y rtion, an99empcontnrot59on wt'ssners="Taerneyeale hnedec studicular texge of adverepenss fprtiessnerss instirionin part era reli of tie lighers thansions:parttueve-pos99 no der lrcal continuity. As,dscopispenss fprtiessnersaloinvoltudtites"nt a, ancet of l alsoering Theory (Walan>cit al. the)d to Fing trely dataupiapo"Taerneytextse predysiphal acedun foe me

g>g>g>g>g>g><>g>g>g>g>g> g> hthts"nmélprofa inist[...]teCe/tigs"nt a, ancleeododàg='abriinisceoucethoavé’s/spaspan g>g>

faintinneciescieusemiefisotiensed tos oclaspan g>g>

nt stuemt[...]te rtivted els oclplistSionusgidéiassé, ospan g>g>

déinuvred admusiqueachoDebusgyt[...]teLeeods of a[...]teDe 1907 dthe unfCnued eoa[...]te1908rmarqusc tcdéweak[...]te rtiéihectenceiationbjseg> éio in tetencnambre 1909,isotié èvs Máat5 Zieglss sLhoaiu[1] faintsotivoyof adigs"P2s àgParie,[...]ten g>g>g>g>g>

hthtaggs"unaor àgPariei[...]teUngmenicinscplpprt&am, detjeunatQu buost[...]t. g>g>g>g>g>g> joubjea Rhapsodi a[...] àgZurcan [...]ten g>g>g>g>g>g> efere sectnig="lvatdmusi of d [...]t ; ospan g>g>

nt stuemtt Asefoiei[...]en xml:lang="en" lang="en">A si[L.

blockquote

16AcceEle, wismp3]run pp4]rt twhteconant and nisation and EOPL are soessocal continuity. As,dscoporal orga“stepfpotestones(Crohavdiscnoolaxprestncy nta of e me cit ”<. poteeturing power assoemporal adverbials. Fotinsp3]); weakerms of cont, befirsletion a n argu thacnooe wayof tthe anno ation between two eral adverbials are go F cloDe ss">

16Our Wffnox padd time, beed prietion a n aerned with topieluity or dhiccontnuve analent if itienn" lanacP2poral adverbials. F cndie wayof " lany ing expressions in tusromhich atlows: elhodverbial wou'sotsentences

3

16Our Fatio s 6 eed toothe contcand adverenti expressions ingedun partence-ini+1 ct all r vtences

The Fatio San>

6n xml:lang="en" lang="en">”<. Deions in tinoDe ss">

ref="docannexe/image/5952/img-1-sm7ll580.jpg" rel="iconSet">TablFatio S6. Deions in tinoDe ss

20The Fhe O anderFatio S6rt twe astd t tex otoations invthe De ss">i)icate a bseght whicio eral advedring of ton"form the eluity or d(cfoFat.a2he Dgions in t entDe ss">citframéco taan>< xml:lang="en" lang="en">fram(an>cit thef,introdtced to chfand antrbial i < xml:lang="en" lang="en">fram(an>citframdeaan>frambomb&amts. Than>framdean>fram1998;an>framDg powan>framthpan>fram1998an>frambomb foran> < xml:lang="en" lang="en"> < xml:lang="en" lang="en"> < xml:lang="en" lang="en"> citframéco ta;an> the an>citframsse o/aan> thef9ntgn he intentility (199ssoanrestncsand /spt verbial wou'soa of e an>Gramseverbial wou'sonion in tseems soessocarodtced to hyponoteoential d in patste of adoet domiestncyond theihypotsentences

g>g>g>g>g>g>g> Laop="tticivélsudtég me [de Saddam Hussedc]>hthtur nan4nistd torélsaeadt Asead tgixeticipn, wer nig="lgung e.i[...]eLesp"etepp s"iet aut ti theé ocesfées"enèrpad 'oolemréiarélà ce/tigusbrroion markuleiat. Eldesblui oextepprieiàgoscamoand invocnbdesb[...]eLedtég me oscamoanhgrafoieijusqu'auxicnbdesbles plpproamthairesten g>g>g>g>g>g>g> g> g>g> g> A siCeux-ci oextq

blockquote

16The Whr withaitial posa bials re supiapoestncy nta of tseems soendencepaeryr highf ths99tpositions re. Ahtugmactof an eaeion 2, shifgraph, sectixtuandothhlustncyoatste of aovnedscops oftixtodl sewi/thunca irefore i a ninite a toncvaltpporary, th90ess attritan>The noteeral adveloca 2, )tegr ese [1] [6] eas Arntrbial i cit fram1993an> thef9id chwo eosustncyoatste of auetil activpp araof a lexierent defieral adveloca 2, hhe ligheirsleences

blockquote

g><>g>g>hthimaieoletioc tceays teteiltspvenaefinigfaçotiexcbilive àg='ox é’ur, riequait si gaspilded invoionse fcesbet siidévoided trti/atuémiefistgiaticne àgstgirbialsairesteLeduéneyear John McCd fi(réiublicd f, Arizona) p t ait Leoirqub, "oirnDivoiomarqushinuemêmntcand oextéeélessiimées ong>g>hthimait Leoirqub "[...]"teP, beeat of ,tentinneciest nig='rtant roceini ltencularipn, wei th ncièrpkqubjecite ait unatiltspven owe aomée, deteeenéstionst Jng y Fnverss;g o (némocrewi, Ig ofoie)lernc srd &iletioc aiBosni terned wait ltgiE ltenrple padeteed tosaty (1é,iéiat role Leoir tcesile pe r'unlenvoiini iooupso amécd fe r ar lpotsprd ften xml:lang="en" lang="en">A si[O and]an>

blockquote

16Two Reyusethe ckeL are inyFatio S5ereggs"teArabutos nations invthe De ss">nbn nbn nbn<1901an> the soean>nbn<àan> nbn nbn nbn nbn<1902an> < xml:lang="en" nbng="en">nbn<(an>< xml:lang="en" lang="en">Our the an>Our I an> framAugustan> nbn<1901an>A sitonbn nbn nbn nbn<1902an>nbn<)an>nbn<,an>nbnnbn nbn nbn < xml:lang="en" nbng="en">nbn<(an>Our I an> framthpan>framse framspan> framthatan> framyexaan>nbn<)an>< xml:lang="en" lang="en">framean>

g>g>g> Sotienfanf aentsotiado tacsg>g>g>

hthtàgParieiaveemeatfamilde :hexsatieceincult if d qui nig=' mpêcontnrsis'écrirpkentdigfrétioltsp lso b foir fèqushteL'éeélni 1899 lporanduemtperiantttiolque r nicinseiaveemeotifrèrptàgStavelot, daead tgiArdeito99eelges :hdetjeunatpoète>déinuvred àgunlpay of aehtur nolklo inant ltetran tseoperpéesly daeadeotiœuvre ; itay>éi>g>g>g>g>

nrathplist adRhéneni tercéhpréeep eurtegntiassly ctiAllnic toiunatge/éelméeilive daead 'élabion:und nigearkun ly, ationbjsecéhdaeade"lvatdamliseuintegnt thteéduitlgra lelpitto squeacho="lval é anueRa paefini ltetég re avoist and d qu'intiarse, Paphub, V eitoientMun ch. D'aut tt of ,téi>ir nig="lgg>g>g>g>g>g>g>g>g>

n'atnrsiseudem t véruornatn,émieftegntalécrisfieeexmbreuxtpoèmi/thdegiainti/thdegiah>q A si[L.

blockquote

4orpusnions:ec:hunstncor eturing power ass

1

16We usevepic,uith vtratt the listcomb fn and /spquaioive analysd/itative analypprod elotisfqueme osedlex. Toteuicariwo it,e ttmu sreyuseselylistelemtion a nadaint gcvalt thttecoialiLeoiceeturing power assoemporal adverbials. Fo. Doargu thacbutos nriation bet99een actioral adverbials. Fotinsialinggraph.Our : ean> the ag of assocsibility (19? metrguidicmindi tooe wayof tvaltpporary, th9EOPL are the threr examedring of tthe reader lhthtag of assocsibility (19 (De ss">

16To tO beed prietion a nterned wsdscopisnce expressions in the hypoencesOur er lan> the ag of assocsibility (19,inite a the inuity i,y aaall cone equassose framco-rential exp,clar expatacate a brir studeraappritars="pa actn of tthereftiafothpaet whicio ebetwdring of span>

16All Wgue senwequassocontniecemosaneyusecont, beent 21%n and /spt obsersis (e , to Fiedee ed fatart expes="imoval a muyssassedltppoquon a ntn ascopeturing power assoemprbials. Fo. O beicin ots. Eanaletrguidivalene wayoe wayof tn ascoprtant rocein an, tcal cohenumbmeandsx pacontourse framro tcn aessions in t can equarally cistirnc stuT partohercoe reamselvso. O beoto dseemteuultciest valjun afytelemassly, ansalararddisc aces

16GramO beed prieassly, anterned wsdationty (199ed to the tposicand:oquaioive anals,dscoperent decne gosoimindi tolyoyppaial ; zoont gcin ospaefewoele, wismt twe twhtecotion between acticsibility (199rathinuity, areatione gnt amthe cke postcand,haiteentn ,tymthemr fors, can insvit be aindacesdationty (199 pacontourse framnion in temprbials. Fo.an>

16Accee obseelemassly, ansanuvnpton con'ssrec fromodlorpneific ana. Likmupton con’s, o beoto dssts tht senteacesspathypoenmxeticmro tcn tenociated with topiial senttion in acanterned wder lha lenal adveourse framnisation and hfrefore i ac< xml:lang="en" lang="en">

16Our Tcops stncor tion between acticsibility (19,dscoc inveeruity, arethereral organisation and tion a nadhypoaeryrndtivemin tempourse framontinuity, ar.lrard & Bestgen (200() poidseemteosustncowhicaer examed t9een activtourse framks. Tithereftc inveontinuity, ar.lO bearc fromests thtam diffosedlexupic,uit,t topimrent defieand adveontinuity, areelatid tomthe ckemrent defil is cont,isation and. Itt at t esotbvenoibil th,initfu,uith ork, eosusant eocrisiy detescopssth vtmaktcn aAoiel’sicsibility (199enalepartr to evalce ran4nriwo scoc inveeruity, ar:tixtirlone f tthociaumed weakforoswithed t9een actirential expreruity, aretherag of assocsibility (19e Atread chwo itithoccawo xplnimnuctue anas he repenss fprtiessnerss,tthocoto dmun vbntiltspsioin t topi ofiscoait,t tdicular text topimiddleini of sassocsibility (19 ( the 3eval6), wecatwo scoperent detmco-rential expressions in thevolfod equac exaistirned with topi diff the jun ocsibility (19e Rec oclpsycho ish thinvebuudiss (an>< xml:lang="en" lang="en">Our e.g.,pan>< xml:lang="en" lang="en">

16Our Terscbuudyt esoter cns ins hypoencon iv(199ssoourse framnisation and he tposicand, woopiiams of contated laralre in parts of contteconant str’sishapext-pxt ltngth,cedre of a leheaothes tetc.)ese obsearc fromc exaistt twhan>Our ment structure and a513rential exprsion"Tghoothe v th9gnt amthe cke postcande AtrBibormphraseyoat:ibstglob larally ciza, ansaequasstetencre cura bratcxtr, wecatwo score i anemadre a brovneat t ish thinvece ran4nrizn and /spt olrinired ash age;ton"for,reforeue se rrks f ish thinveerent decne gcro /spt ol ash ageasstetetionilpritosede of Cysis (Syn/spfeeyuseskupicone nion in tartatioouaorrgsatids”. (1993:220iean>

Annexe

English glosses are provided here for examples [2], [4], [5], [6] and [7]. The position of temporal adverbials has been left as in the French texts, at the risk of making the translations ‘un-English’, in order to help comprehension of the points they illustrate. Temporal adverbials are in bold and relevant grammatical subject in bold italicized.

[2']
5.
SECONDARY EDUCATION [heading]
In the 1970’s, the problems of secondary schools made educational headlines: the numbers were too high, the courses were ill-adapted to the diversity of pupils, many were left on the wayside in an excessively elitist system. These difficulties have not disappeared, but the sixth-form (lycée) is where they are now most strongly felt.

5.1 UNEQUAL GROWTH OF NUMBERS IN SECONDARY EDUCATION [subheading]
At the start of the school year 1965-66, there were 3,250,000 pupils in secondary education and sixth form colleges. Twenty years later, they were 5,100,000, and over 5,500,000 last year. […]
From 1965 to 1985, the numbers of secondary school and sixth form students increased by 70%, but with different rhythms and levels of intensity depending on the school authority and the region. […]
At the start of the school year 1990-91, the 6,700 secondary schools in mainland France took in 3,100,00 pupils, a decrease of over 300,000 compared with the school year 1985-86. […]

[4']
1.3) THE PROFESSOR AND FOLKLORE SPECIALIST [heading]
In January 1907, Béla Bartók is appointed as a professor [...]. This appointment means he is free from material worries. He carries out his teaching duties very conscientiously. He follows up [...]. Having got over his passion for Strauss, he discovers Debussy’s music [...]. The message [...]. 1907 is marked by a Concerto [...]. 1908 is the beginning [...]. Having courageously overcome through hard work a failed love affair, Bartók marries, in November 1910, his pupil Márta Ziegler. The couple honeymoons in Paris, [...]. In March 1910, he is in Paris again [...]. A week later, the young Quartet [...]. At the end of May, Bartók plays his Rhapsody [...] in Zurich [...]. From 1912, disheartened by Hungarian society’s lack of interest in the new music, Bartók retires from musical life, [...]; he nevertheless continues [...]

[5']
A
POSSIBLE SCENARIO FOR A PREDICTABLE WAR [heading]
The plasticity of [Saddam Hussein’s] regime is a factor which has been ignored in all the anticipations of the war […]. Foreign attacks and various forms of intervention have prepared him for this ultimate confrontation. They have taught him to hide his targets […]. The regime sometimes hides the most ordinary targets.
During the 1998 bombings, schools, industrial sites and food warehouses became hiding places for ammunition stocks. These schools now shelter Party members in charge of maintaining order. These officials have left their official accommodation, […].

[6']
BOSNIA [heading]
In 1993, the debates over the possibility of military engagement in Bosnia went together with numerous critical comments about the cost of operations, and about the need to involve the European allies’ armed forces. Members of Congress asked questions about the war powers given to President Bill Clinton [...]. Some Congress members showed scepticism toward the pretensions of the White House to act as the “world’s policeman”. They considered that excessive intervention abroad would mean that their country was taking the risk of wasting its resources and of revealing its forces to its enemies. Senator John McCain (Republican, Arizona) thought for instance that, “by using our forces and our prestige in a thoughtless manner, we’ll be wasting resources that we haven’t got”.
Similar comments were made
in 1995, by Democratic members among other, judging that the Administration had paid too much attention to the aspirations of the conservative wing of Congress […]

[7']
1.1) YOUTH [heading]
His childhood and adolescence took place in Italy, and later on the French Riviera and in Monaco, where he lived from 1886 to 1898 with his mother and his brother, born two years after him.
In 1899, he is in Paris with his family: a difficult existence, which does not prevent him from writing and studying in libraries. The summer of 1899 will see him spend a few weeks with his brother in Stavelot […].
In August 1901, he sets off for the Rhineland where he is employed as a tutor. This year in Germany is decisive in the elaboration of his mental universe and in his love life. […]. […] he falls in love with his pupil’s English governess, Annie Playden, who eventually rejects him after he had hoped that she would return his love: deeply shaken, he returns to France in late August 1902.
In the course of that year, he did more than live intensely. He wrote numerous poems, tales, chronicles, he absorbed images and themes which will stay with him. It is also during that year that the Revue Blanche of March 1902 publishes his first tale, "L'Hérésiarque", signed with the pen-name he had created for himself a long time previously on the basis of two of his first names: Guillaume Apollinaire.

Haut de page

Notes

1 Cf. Power et al. (2003:211), who argue for an “abstract document structure” as a separate descriptive level, the purpose of which is “to mediate between the message of a text (i.e., its discourse structure) and its physical presentation (i.e., its organisation into graphical constituents like sections, paragraphs, sentences, bulleted lists, figures, footnotes and so forth).”

2 We provide an English translation for this first example in the text of the article; for all subsequent examples, English glosses can be found in the appendix.

3 The heading provides an orientation towards such an interpretation.

4 A similar (but weaker) probability is also observed for sentences containing a temporal adverbial in median or final position.

5 http://www.ims.uni-stuttgart.de/projekte/corplex/TreeTagger/

6 Adverbial in this section is to be taken as meaning sentence-initial adverbial, even when this is not specified (cf. section 2).

7 An English gloss is provided in the appendix, as for subsequent examples.

8 Our annotation does not account for reiteration in S1. This bias does not however affect the present analysis.

Haut de page

Table des illustrations

Titre Table 1. Scale of seven degrees of accessibility adapted from Ariel's Theory of Accessibility (1990)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/discours/docannexe/image/5952/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 224k
Titre Figure . Sentence-initial time adverbials: deviations acc. to text-position in three corpora
URL http://journals.openedition.org/discours/docannexe/image/5952/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 40k
Titre Figure . Sentence-initial space adverbials: deviations acc. to text-position in three corpora
URL http://journals.openedition.org/discours/docannexe/image/5952/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 28k
Titre Figure 3. Degree of accessibility: deviations acc. to text-position in the entire corpus
URL http://journals.openedition.org/discours/docannexe/image/5952/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 452k
Titre Figure 4. Deviations in DegAccess in sentences with temporal adverbials w.r.t. all sentences in the three corpora
URL http://journals.openedition.org/discours/docannexe/image/5952/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 344k
Titre Figure 5. Deviations in associations between a temporal adverbial and DegAccess n w.r.t. the general model for each text-position in two corpora
URL http://journals.openedition.org/discours/docannexe/image/5952/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 336k
Titre Figure 6. Deviations in DegAccess in Sentence+1 w.r.t. the model for GEOPO (P2) and PEOPL(P2)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/discours/docannexe/image/5952/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 46k
Haut de page

Pour citer cet article

Référence électronique

« A data-driven study of temporal adverbials as discourse segmentation markers », Discours [En ligne], 4 | 2009, mis en ligne le 11 octobre 2017, consulté le 18 décembre 2017. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/discours/5952 ; DOI : 10.4000/discours.5952

Haut de page
  • Logo PUC
  • OpenEdition Journals