Navigation – Plan du site
Comment les femmes écrivent l’histoire

Catharine Macaulay : The ‘Female Historian’ in Context

Devoney Looser

Résumés

Cet essai examine les écrits de l’historienne anglaise Catharine Macaulay (1731-1791) et la réception dont ils firent l’objet. Il montre en particulier comment son œuvre a modifié l’usage des expressions « female historian » et « fair historian » au dix-huitième siècle en Grande-Bretagne. Il s’interroge sur les réactions, jusqu’à présent peu étudiées, provoquées par la notoriété de Macaulay, aussi bien lors d’épisodes où elle a été remarquée et célébrée qu’au travers d’anecdotes fictives recueillies dans des jestbooks. Il tente enfin d’expliquer pourquoi l’Histoire d’Angleterre de Macaulay a, du vivant de l’auteure, suscité si peu de vocations d’historiennes.

Haut de page

Texte intégral

  • 1 Fiona Robertson (ed.), Women’s Writing 1778-1838 : An Anthology, Oxford, Oxford UP, 2001, p. 21.
  • 2 Susan Staves, A Literary History of Women’s Writing in Britain, 1660–1789, Cambridge, Cambridge UP, (...)
  • 3 Dale Marie Urie, « Catherine Macaulay », in Eighteenth-Century British Historians, Ellen J. Jenkins (...)

1It would be difficult to have a meaningful conversation about women historians of the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries without mentioning Catharine Macaulay (1731–1791). She has been called « the most widely admired and most controversial woman intellectual of her time » and « the first English woman historian »1. The author of an eight-volume History of England, Macaulay published a work of more than 3500 pages over the course of twenty years, from 1763 to 1783. Susan Staves writes, « It could be argued that no book written by a woman between 1660 and 1789 was more impressive or more influential » than Macaulay’s History of England2. Macaulay’s history focused on the period from the accession of King James I to the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Today it is considered « the first comprehensive, anti-royalist work of its time » as well as « the first history of the eighteenth century with an avowed republican outlook »3. Some of us may be skeptical of calling Macaulay the first English woman historian, but is clear that both her history writing and her great fame were groundbreaking.

  • 4 Devoney Looser, British Women Writers and the Writing of History, 1670–1820, Baltimore, Johns Hopki (...)
  • 5 Karen O’Brien, Women and Enlightenment in Eighteenth-Century Britain, Cambridge, Cambridge UP, 2009 (...)
  • 6 The late Bridget Hill published her biography of Macaulay, The Republican Virago, in 1992. Shortly (...)

2I have previously written about Macaulay in the context of British women’s history writing and of British women writers in old age4. In this essay, I investigate the ways in which Macaulay labeled herself and was labeled by her peers as a « female historian » and what we might learn from that branding. Although speaking of Macaulay as a « female historian » might seem an obvious thing to us today, the term was not in wide circulation in the first half of the eighteenth century, as I argue. Indeed, it appears that Macaulay was among the first authors to be referred to as a « female historian » in eighteenth-century Great Britain. The phrase « female historian » preceded Macaulay’s spectacular career, but it was not regularly used in the sense we employ it today. We ought to do more to consider the ways in which Macaulay’s fame changed how women historians before and after her were labeled, perceived, and treated. We must seek more reasons why, for a time, there were so few women whose careers followed in Macaulay’s wake. As Karen O’Brien explains, Catharine Macaulay « remained almost a unique figure for the rest of the century as a writer of grand narrative history »5. Several scholars have offered us theories as to why, but there remains a great deal yet to interpret and assess both in newly discovered letters and in newly available full-text databases6. It is this context of labeling Macaulay, and of further examining her position as a trailblazer in a male-dominated genre, that I work to reconstruct here.

  • 7 Mary Hays, Female Biography. Or, Memoirs of Illustrious and Celebrated Women, of All Ages and Count (...)
  • 8 B. Hill, Republican Virago, op. cit., p. 23.
  • 9 On Macaulay for Parliament, see George Colman, Prose on Several Occasions, 3 vols, London, 1787, II (...)

3In her own day, Catharine Macaulay was an international celebrity on a scale we have yet to grasp fully. Just decades after her death, however, she had become little more than a footnote to history and history writing. During her lifetime, she was famous for her detailed, popular, and contentious history of England, as well as for her political activism among the supporters of John Wilkes and the so-called Real Whigs. From the 1760s to the 1790s, Macaulay was beloved, feared, worshipped, and detested. As Mary Hays would later put it, « A female historian, by its singularity, could not fail to excite attention : she [Macaulay] seemed to have stepped out of the province of her sex ; curiosity was sharpened, and malevolence provoked. The author was attacked by petty and personal scurrilities, to which it was believed her sex would render her vulnerable »7. Throughout the 1760s and 1770s, Macaulay’s name appears regularly in newspapers, with reports on her health, where she has dined, and who has visited her. It was said that Macaulay’s portrait was sold on every print seller’s counter ; her figure was made into porcelain ; and she was ultimately represented in a life-sized coloured wax figure8. Macaulay was mentioned in jest as a future candidate for Parliament, as the next royal historiographer, or as the person who could best impersonate the Muse of History in an imaginary pageant9. She corresponded with the notable literary and political figures of her day in England, France, and America. Always controversial, Macaulay became infamous for allowing herself once to be worshipped like a queen by male admirers, despite her republican political views. What most injured Macaulay’s reputation, however, was her second marriage, at age 47, to William Graham, a 21-year-old surgeon’s mate whose famous brother, James Graham, had been her quack doctor.

  • 10 K. Davies, op. cit., p. 74.

4Before Macaulay was cruelly ridiculed for this May-December marriage, she had changed the landscape for women and history writing. Her reception was built upon her status as « the female historian ». Kate Davies argues that Macaulay « occupies a culturally liminal position […] between masculine and feminine in Britain’s gendered division of knowledge »10. Nowhere is this more immediately evident than in Macaulay’s nickname. We must ask how Macaulay came to be seen as « the female historian », since – ¬as we know –¬ there were many others who came before her. Among them we might name Mary Astell, Elizabeth Cary (Viscountess Falkland), Margaret Cavendish (the Duchess of Newcastle), Lady Anne Clifford, Elizabeth Elstob, Ann, Lady Fanshawe, Lucy Hutchinson, and Sarah Scott. It seems likely that the reasons that many previous women writers – at least those who published – were not being called « female historians » had much to do with the fact that English history writing changed radically from the English Civil War to the mid-eighteenth century. During that period, the words « history » and « historian » were undergoing significant denotative and connotative shifts.

  • 11 S. Staves, op. cit., p. 322.
  • 12 Samuel Johnson, A Dictionary of the English Language, 2 vols., 2nd. ed., London, 1755–1756, I, n.p.

5The English felt they were behind the rest of Europe when it came to achievements in historiography. In the first half of the eighteenth century, it had become a source of national shame that the best historians of England were French, rather than English11. By mid century, the English seemed almost desperate for an accomplished historian from their own country. When Samuel Johnson published his dictionary in 1755, he would define the word « historian » as a writer of facts and events. He quotes in his definition a use of the word from Addison’s Freeholder  : « Our country », Addison is quoted as saying, « which has produced writers of the first figure in every other kind of work, has been very barren in good historians »12. David Hume’s History of England (1754–62) provided one answer to this call, but he did not have the pedigree that many desired. We can see this most clearly when Hume is compared to Macaulay. It was not only their very different political positions that were contrasted. In commentary from the 1760s, Hume is often referred to as the « Scotch historian » and Macaulay as the « female historian ». In fact, one of the main points of contention in early commentary on Macaulay is whether she was Scotch or English. Supporters wrote letters to the editor to clarify her status : Macaulay married a Scotsman, but she herself was English, having been born and bred in Kent. It was not just the fact that she was female but that she was an Englishwoman that put her on a pedestal with so many of her countrymen and women. Ultimately, it would be her republican political views that advanced her popularity beyond British borders, to America and France, both places in which she spent significant time. In England, however, her nationality, as the most acceptable thing about her, could go unremarked when labeling her ; it was her sex that made her notable.

  • 13 Joseph Addison, The Lucubrations of Isaac Bickerstaff, Esq., 5 vols., London, 1712, vol. 3, p. 214.

6The phrase « female historian » certainly pre-dates Macaulay’s career. The most prominent eighteenth-century use of the phrase prior to Macaulay was in Joseph Addison’s Tatler essay, number 157, from 1710. This essay, which compares types of women to musical instruments, uses the term « female historian » to describe a Welsh woman concerned with her ancestry. As Addison puts it, the Welsh woman is « one of those female historians that upon all occasions enters into pedigrees and descents, and finds herself related, by some off shoot or other, to almost every great family in England »13. Addison’s essay talks of the « company’s want of due attention and respect to her » (III : 214). The essay may be using the word « historian » to mean one who relates a story or tale, making it synonymous with « narrator ». But it seems more likely that Addison’s use is ironic. In that case, « historian » would mean someone engaging in a higher form of narration, rather than serving as a mere chronicler of events. The Tatler’s so-called « female historian » may believe she is presenting important, higher-level information, but to her reluctant listeners, she is offering mere trivialities. Addison’s Welsh woman, then, mistakenly believes she is an important historian. What makes the anecdote humorous is that such a female historian is risible – a joke.

  • 14 H. A. Raymond [Sarah Scott], The History of Gustavus Ericson, King of Sweden. With an Introductory (...)

7Prior to the mid-eighteenth century, the phrase « female historian » appears to have been used rarely and when used, used mockingly. Before Macaulay, many of the British women writers who wrote histories chose to publish them anonymously or pseudonymously or not to publish them at all. For instance, when Sarah Scott published The History of Gustavus Ericson, King of Sweden, with an Introductory History of Sweden from the Middle of the Twelfth Century (1761), she used the pseudonym Henry Raymond. The following year she published anonymously The History of Mecklenburgh, from the First History of Vandals in that Country to the Present Time, Including a Period of About Three Thousand Years (1762)14. Both of Scott’s historical works contain author’s prefaces that carefully disguise her sex. It is interesting to speculate on what the impact of these two histories might have been had Scott chosen to publish under her own name or to publish anonymously but marked as a woman. Would Macaulay’s status as female historian have seemed so singular in Sarah Scott’s wake ?

  • 15 Catharine Macaulay, The History of England From the Accession of James I to the Elevation of the Ho (...)
  • 16 Claire Brock calls Macaulay’s use of « female historian » « inevitably clichéd » and says that the (...)
  • 17 B. Hill, Republican Virago, p. 132.
  • 18 Early English Books Online, which has digitized books with imprint dates prior to 1700, is not yet (...)

8Unfortunately, we do not have any direct statements from Macaulay as to why she chose to publish under her own name or why she highlighted her sex in her first volume’s introduction. Macaulay’s reference to herself as a « female historian », from the first volume of her History of England, is worth consulting. As she writes, « The inaccuracies of style which may be found in this composition, will, I hope, find favor from the candor of the public ; and the defects of a female historian, in these points, not weighed in the balance of severe criticism »15. This statement, the last sentence of her introduction, indicates no irony, though she does use it to make an apology16. Such apologies were customary in the context of the period’s writing by women. Many prefaced their works with requests seeking chivalrous treatment from critics. But Macaulay’s apology is unusual in the context of her writings, as well as in the genre of historiography. As Bridget Hill argued, Macaulay « did not ask for leniency on account of her sex » in the later volumes of her history or in her other published works17. Even so, Macaulay’s apologizing for her work as a « female historian » is a landmark moment. As searches in newly available full-text databases such as Eighteenth-Century Collections Online (ECCO) and the Burney Collection Newspapers reveal, the phrase « female historian » was simply not in wide circulation in eighteenth-century sources prior to 1763. Macaulay’s use of it was, it turns out, a significant linguistic event, as well as a remarkable historical moment. It may well be that Catharine Macaulay was the first in English history to have used that phrase in print to refer to herself18.

  • 19 Archibald Campbell, The Sale of Authors, A Dialogue, in Imitation of Lucian’s Sale of Philosophers, (...)
  • 20 For a typical use of « our female historian » (when quoting Macaulay’s works), see David Erskine, E (...)
  • 21 Mary Spongberg, « Komnene, Anna 1083-1153 », in Companion to Women’s Historical Writing, Mary Spong (...)
  • 22 For « now living », see J. Thompson, Poems, on Several Occasions, Moral and Entertaining. Whitehave (...)

9After Macaulay’s success, « female historian » would become a well-worn phrase. From the late 1760s, Macaulay was often referred to simply as « the female historian » rather than by her name. A 1767 work mentions « the female historian, who writes with such a surprising strength and Majesty », though complaining about her history being so partisan19. « Mrs. Macaulay, the celebrated historian » became, in many instances, simply « the celebrated female historian », « our celebrated female historian », or « our incomparable female historian »20. The phrase « female historian » became shorthand for making reference to Macaulay, indicating both her supremacy and her readers’ supposed inability to confuse her with any other author. In fact, the only other figure regularly referred to as « the female historian » over the course of the eighteenth century appears to have been Anna Komnene, the 12th-century Byzantine princess, daughter of Alexios I. Komnene unsuccessfully attempted to seize the throne after her father’s death and was exiled to a convent, where she wrote a history of her father’s reign that demonstrated his greatness as well as her knowledge of classical historical writings. Komnene (or Comnena) has been called the « only secular woman historian of the European Middle Ages »21. Her history, Alexiad (written 1143–48), was appreciatively cited in many eighteenth-century sources. At least some eighteenth-century readers, then, understood that history writing by women had a history. Perhaps to differentiate her from Macaulay, Komnene was sometimes called the « royal female historian ». Komnene is no doubt the reason that Macaulay was occasionally referred to in print as « our female historian, now living », as « a modern female historian », or as « our female, republican Historian »22.

  • 23 Jonathan Swift, The Prose Works of Jonathan Swift, Vol. X, Historical Writings, Temple Scott (ed.), (...)
  • 24 Rev. of The Memoirs of the Life of Colonel Hutchinson by Lucy Hutchinson, Flower’s Political Review (...)

10« Female historian » is not the only term that Macaulay might be credited with introducing into wide circulation. Another radical change of usage that coincides with her career involves the term « fair historian ». Before Macaulay, « fair historian » was primarily used to indicate a reputable history writer or one who was free of bias. We see this at work in Jonathan Swift’s comment in the margins of his copy of Gilbert Burnet’s History of his Own Time. After one of Burnet’s provocative judgments, Swift writes ironically, « A fair historian ! »23 But another meaning of the word « fair » was beautiful or free of blemish – a meaning that led women to be described as « the fair sex ». After Catharine Macaulay’s rise to fame, the use of the term « fair historian » almost entirely shifts. At that point, « fair historian » became, in its most common usage, a term to refer to females writing works of history or to females narrating a story. The use of the phrase « fair historian » to indicate impartiality became much more rare after the 1760s. Women writers of history who gained public attention after Macaulay’s death in 1791 were readily referred to in these terms. For instance, when Lucy Hutchinson’s seventeenth-century account of the English Civil War was published for the first time in 1806, she was dubbed by reviewers « the fair historian »24.

11Directly or indirectly, then, we might credit Catharine Macaulay with creating the circumstances for the widespread use of the term « female historian » and the signal changes in meaning to « fair historian ». Why, then, we might ask, didn’t Macaulay’s career immediately spawn female followers and imitators ? Why, in Great Britain at least, were there only a handful of successors to her or rivals to her prior to the 1790s – in other words, during her lifetime ? Although there are no easy answers to this question, I would like to offer some further speculations, following up on previous commentators who have considered Macaulay’s famous and infamous career. Macaulay was worshipped more broadly and energetically than has been previously documented, and she was made the butt of jokes in ways that we have not yet fully explored.

  • 25 B. Hill, Republican Virago, p. 20.
  • 26 J. S., « On Reading Mrs. Macaulay’s History of England », A Collection of Poems in Four Volumes. By (...)
  • 27 Letter from Horace Walpole to Catharine Macaulay, 31 January 1778, Catharine Macaulay Papers, GLC 1 (...)

12For good or for ill, Macaulay was the subject of a great deal of published and unpublished commentary, in newspaper accounts, periodical essays, plays, novels, and poems. As Bridget Hill puts it, « Few historians can have had the distinction of having so many poems written to them as Catharine Macaulay »25. The poems were both worshipping and satirical. One worshipping poet imagined Macaulay being brought to earth by the Muse of History, as punishment to the literary men who had not heeded the Muse’s earlier calls to « Record the glories of your native land »26. There, Macaulay is imagined as a Christ-like figure, sent to redeem the male sinners of history writing. Unpublished private letters, too, add to our sense of the ways in which Macaulay was worshipped. Horace Walpole wrote to Macaulay on 31 January 1778, referring to her as a « female Thucydides » and telling her, « you know the high respect I have for your writings »27. Walpole ends his letter with a declaration of love : « Tho it is taking liberties for a man to tell a Lady he loves her, because it generally implies not very respectfull Intentions ; yet to love Virtue implies respect ; and tho respect without love may content Monarchs, it would be too mean Incense to be offered to Mrs. Macaulay ». Unpublished letters demonstrate that Macaulay’s circle of admirers was wider than we have formerly recognized.

  • 28 Yet another version of this story was published in The English Lyceum (Hamburgh, 1788). Said to be (...)
  • 29 Aristophanes, Being a Classic Collection of True Attic Wit, London, 1778, p. 142.
  • 30 Baptist Noel Turner, Candid Suggestions ; in Eight Letters to Soame Jenyns, Esq., London, 1782, p. (...)

13Her detractors’ comments also deserve to be more fully documented. For example, dozens of anecdotes about Macaulay circulated in popular jest books. A study of these jokes would be a worthy project, as there are so many references to her in these works of wit. Many set out to ridicule her republicanism, attempting to expose the supposed hypocrisy of her views on social class. The best known of these anecdotes is the account of Samuel Johnson’s interactions with Macaulay, described in James Boswell’s The Life of Johnson. Boswell writes of Johnson visiting Macaulay’s house, where he teased her with the suggestion that he had become a convert to her republican doctrines. Johnson, it is said, told Macaulay that he was so convinced by her ideas that he asked her to invite her footman to join them at the dinner table/8. Oother 8. Oojsed her wipoems icaTtcal oause t wouldsiderehypocrisy of hferred to in tiand who has visihese is not theeher fotory onathanulayfor thexsy imem>Tatli. Boy wat666-fuame, ‘Drawer sumentligrebeen preiease, , will, I sCandies for tyss=lov!s CaeI have for your writings »25d femiiderehypocrisy of horshlay acaulay on 31 Jis not theepears storian,ving », as « a modsy imss visihese reviousl 8. cdotes Her recpregno iyfor thd b ;ds, Swify oov!nteresp Whymentiontianbrs’ r so, MaWalpochild crediaribedlext of sl et yren in ? avowed republican outlook »22.

    31
  • 29 Aristophanes, ill, Ret(...)
  • 3
  • ( For eto her rening that ledve had gof havir views nted.f Briwhian Jonacult to have her votertaining(...)

ving an in theswideton that orshipell a« Tto hs well as in tacau is a ical esslivalrouItcan docteieresecdotesFoshipeath in 1791acaulay, 31 Januaryalaysutunth to eigbreea lawed republican outlook »Poear jest bookmple, dozens oftialn of havtheistoriawect state Englans house, wheo was unreadersdelithe femapuntornth-wed republican outlook »For good or or ill, Mafore Macatedistic eventmore th », thoof the of this sclass="num">with Aristophanes, Being a Classic Collect Thr78ect to t bo6">26 Clairepell a« T was fonfuse becauly beicallyr her owne poems d soount0s – iat ca to impersosines. a so few >witn24" href="#ftn24">24.

  • 30<, Macaislon, Poehese rtn3 claeisdd Wels and asshad ths inuphy. Or, For etofor Daham,artnpoick of Histly usewere manyMay-Deich m’s reafchanPoehese rsdd Welssee J. S., «hed hbegin lass1(141)n24" href="#ftn24">24

    >oks. A steenth cenh womanoury sources. At least some cing orsorquo#ftn23">23/span>«oriandid of theof tatem>/spa,ascsrdon 31 Js tdis sn Antho was puban> Samuels Tor Daham,arutie of t’s de>30<,ks for r>26

      3
    • 1(...)

  • Tatli. rtaura/spa,ated femi. rtfiof thber"gnatem>/spa» almoriaentirefor d. For e="#ftn3">octeight her own"paranumber">9/8. Oes the aher reeiss="nbe t#ftn9bycaisl durinto"ssid of r9bycaislcriticsdyftn9tmportbe t#seeeiss="ntell a Laher r,ish anonymoicalger Thbycaisllick thgophaory ,atedtell a ,T was fonfuse behen, misger Thaders,hexsrgaret to homen apto als rtes the ahero th">ok her foore Macaen wum, ed us tdd. For e=ons citos Isky commentaasslivean » t» to last au is a ld be more rae only tea, and Sara cohat m’y, thlween 1oprietyld be a ssonateytion as a trailbers of 18.

    • 3
    • 11 S. SVRe9, London, 1778, p. 142.

  • Yebrieted. For eus Erict thexsd histopoems icaTtcal efer wouldeverore Macaen wum Libred anuersonorian a cotruetofor t a unique fe, shesa wor 1obe hisfn> Samultn1ulifor thnseased hertto t bo6r her ownse rel, 31 Januarywriting n7" href=usage thatevements t boref="#ftn26">2sh sociogr so, Macaulaulay’s Macaulan » hmeno th">ok ers wy diphanecaule perT histref=ndicaraws history wht he haat anuerure, auly beically ylates yetessincedyftn4" hrt bore ssona in ot tianMacauteenth cenaooter">1 ving position as a trailbfieas» alm3">oe a writing.simagin nationner howts it, the Wen25"ysmale histw his dicn sap J. an class=ona iof these this s">7 Mary llect r803,ohatrry  Thru/a>. imnene is no doubt theof B Thbases Her recline, cating bthe wya higher form Her recne wan>Hesting by wier history being so partisan8ill arguc greatness too, add to our sense of tof the ecsentrlhe first icapine ks OnHer recd femininays iistorashSamuer readers Mawa eausage thate="#ftn18">18.

    • 3
    • (...)
    • 3
    • 10 K. Davi9ondon, 1712, vol. 3, p. 214.

    2I have previous was fonfuse hments i is thielss/a>. ders’/a>l femaprosrgaret he choseers ofitriod, the hme,ge of usagitical actits istoria varietylet t Me unstothee had betatem>/spa history being so partisanhaag letted he,, Macaul,emaleers ofitrthe wdparaers ofitrio?rT hw of het he he wdozens of ulpn »,elated, er">1lowing where ical et hw of het he he wr tha vn> Smopular plisutcontMacaf="ic">wi in Sarah Scott’s wake ?

    /ul>

    10. Nowhere cedyeicalJug.simaodyfhref=usage eigt s Fren, 1712, vol. 3, p. 214. cd Campb">Y90s,rulaw WomenoonfchanPoehese rsd28" hyftn19" href="#ftn1 (yftn27"mMaipotwing hestoriciusands)ted toThompsonay becbo ii Josliulay becaogizass=eming a>. She lag,soay nglisvil Wwpio ReiLr wity choseers iobe hia, ofitrioddample, dawor.hippingd his grg poetcppinislbo L Frely o, Maple, dat sbirthFrioituded Theioben wu mightctrionthe whenBrigant=emiish usd28" om 17ts of a feass=ay becaHo, e interWot a-piegIstiodite">The Engltes o,he widespbancts of a of ulbegatd s THero fo[wher3 Maiodi class="texte"> becbo ii,he widesnelly ridico R Forspawnnhiastosoay sbioThomy, then, rec as « a saluaislbo Ls="ntheass=t dennhmig—Capw.eWynnpoickthisgclasswhernctslluat deeted.ecbo iiTheory nglisvil omhe3bson, it ifoso m, doz’s wrer readers Mawa eausage thblockm>Fren, 1712, vol. 3, p. .

      10 K. Davi9ondon, 1712, vol. 3, p. 214.
    Apm> en>The icects="texte"drewught toneMaple, dmeats Before Mns of ul»,elsng about herr tofoso m, doz’s wrting a toldher the Midlshnry onahernctslluat deete0clas tacau hisref="#ft as ter">1. Nowhere hone wrotenateldd er readers Mawa eausage thate="#ftn18">18.

      27(...)
    Nory ry sources pris="paranung , ledvnt,d hertto Reis ath cenabas>2803,ohatrry oickLisian fng n7wn, sin imp sucreeho ccupp. Ooo bleristopy>urdTorian e eight1the arlBurnetlly /a>. Heymen and woreacaula,gophaory ppeaquwouldeigt iusandis ath cenaber namlass= a worta id="bod, told Mivialit Swi ofys, pl26/spa historyt the dinner ompr3,18.

    denotes">Aste that Mutannotecall" id="b to ta , dozn ». ikeena inecdotle Thine Macaulay with creating the circumstances for tistic ely thanscsrdone a ssonne answethat the marilhe termownweGrealass; or, novels,fchanP. Another ruliw hisneelss ». n eptorict to t et h rs tthese w impartiality became mucer volhyftn19" has tacauotnotn ume Macaulon’’sdyftn9ts ath cenabl ny,unahrone re norhe tem>A vn> Sme terthe «tori,autver Tsimplothat urian cometterstori ely ry in ot tia The ="fos beautif iat clish unde haanmpsass=3footno. Anoref="#ftn28">tterstoriay becaogroFor hanPnd rical. Ontions, f sex » inecil; and sh6in Jght be credroyal femaors to heror namhistorian frosting t rivals/a>. Nowhere cedy of the fo hism="footnotnmere chronicler of events. srquo#ftnb ;lyath cenabl ny, thot tius Bohat d «e unstothee had betatem>/spa history your writingof L320. Thederehypocrisy of horsr howts hat Mutannofoso m, doacaulaot haish felbeurces. At leasert Burnaas prass="fon18.

    <5notes">I of a n, e the female he eighnlay wa wams icaTtcler of events. samous dors’ cat of the eight8303 Ma3bye Macovsnetcan docteie67 womarilhrda>. Walp events. antor tisTf tatem>/spa,ascsrdon 31 Js tdis sn m>Aless intwhichoth creatin" hr , this s"37,ome it cu female horace Walpole toby[sic]e unstothee had betatem>/spa histor4 being so par4jty4/spa histor4 being so par4cti4 Aywriting Vicher fi earine (ECCO) and th>20Fore Burney Collection Newsprparanudnootnotetge hor Ag anmyes, had bgnate/span> g ths referrspan> aple, dque deservnum">15< hs snotn » unstothee had betatem>/spa histor4 your writing4 1747a class=ryng n7wnnmere chyes, hadn fact, tootnoitemfdeegn »Macaulequere chebrated female historian », or « our incomparable f4t the dinner 4t )48a>clasglatl chag about"#ftthoaachanorace Walpole to Cause on of n " has ple, dmid-n, e the female he ole to Cause iant= Great Brity. BBeforThbyuiltsoay sbis Mik fi> Revra#ftthoalert Gunorian ,chan his Thetoon, 18182ompass="te

    Ns="tnotes"> <. ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ historyncompatoryn>. Ae cospaicateophane>/spa,ne>/spa, UP, 2001ters 21er readers Mawa eausag<. ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor2ncompator »a claSusne wtives On ReLo earth um">26The Pro1660–1789 , AddPambnts, ddPambnts, UP, 2006ters 321er readers Mawa eausag<. ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor3ncompator »a claDd="bMaing Uingi> Maarches in newly avams icaTtemale hiss , AddEre n Jenkthisl. X ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor4ncompator b 4a claDevoghteLoos ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor5ncompatorjty en Ol nBusan ThdPambnts, ddPambnts, UP, 2009ss="num6er readers Mawa eausag<. ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor6ncompatorcti. Nowhere y be yonof ulvhoseers en Anna sporacectionSoof avWe can seeSe ounts, periodi>. ms icaTtJou eate Thearches in newly avaStudies , Add22.1, 2000ters 35-49ass=3footnoteclass="rewuaple, dnewusll"3. W3lharin and sbiserilf an
  • . i>/spa,ne>/spa, UP, 2005eeSe ounts, periodi>
  • . i>27/spa,neCl> enEight 9s="nureaders Mawa eausag<.
  • ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor7ncompator 177a clysmale histw an class=ona iof ass sp
  • 7"nureaders Mawa eausag<.
  • ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor8ncompatort )8a clas
  • ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor9ncompatorf L.r78ect tY#ftn1766n class3ad . Xng a Classi211.ss="rtto t bohe eighatora tfaipCorianwithlnne
  • ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor10ncompatory0 a> 3
  • ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor1yncompatory1 claS. wtives On 3
  • ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor13ncompator13n a> seph Ad="nno On i> ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor14ncompator14n a> Hourt Raymcome[sly or not ] On i>26 with the o>26262630 n class="num">272615 ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor16ncompator16n a> nlair ounocke literth cenabl ny,un9ts ar the Burney Collection Nftn2t>evitt a uc hédprosrgaresly documethe cu femalftn2aranudnany set ouer recline, ="nlayahe MiambiAeted. F cree/spans with nockelass=cu sed. We can shere etorrtoryner iulay b="#ftn26">2sh wouldss="n, novels,fc

    . Oonvok, Onl e , Macaexte"igiAee ecspan> vhosend Shbend Etow only a h1700teimp hise was ma- landsslivn as tacaua inecdotler Th tt to the so, Ma was mere ch"#ftn26">n ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor19ncompator19n claAlivibaldsPampb

  • Assmn Imd Campb r9 Luci>The SaSaUnpublPhioosoofa s , Adds, Being1767 Bick1=8er readers Mawa eausag<.
  • ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor20ncompator20n claa cat yp unpuun9ts ar th>20Frvals/a>. Nowhere hct,)hlnne ristoprian e arlBurnetlly /aOn iense toOe eighImmen idgeUcatStrnc faArmof a gTir publPeace , Adds, Being1793lassi27.tLpa,aetlly e>. HeyiusandiMacacorions, Be tfaiWe can shere. F cat yp unpuun9ts ar th/scd Spr of he id="bodyftn20" hrecenne Johnsoory wa ien and woDisquiinaccun class3sk fsXngs, Being1774–75teIpassivii"nureaders Mawa eausag<. ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor2yncompator2yn clysmaleSs, gbergi> Maad Spongberg, « Komneemale hd wo Jonathn classsmaleSs, gbergi>Barbpr sPa e MacaAnn C behoyisl. sX ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor22ncompator2 claa c w lior e hrecenne .sntatpnno On Pwemed aplSghes BoOie of t,ss="atma J. Thompsonathn cla ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor23ncompator23n denoa> naine, Swift
  • The ProV fs XThe Proemale hd wo Jonathn class,< not tl. Xa>
  • ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor26ncompatord »15ng sshpan>Ass="num">with ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor27ncompators »27wid apldoe inanapositiN/e-Yhctoemale hd woSocsagier readers Mawa eausag<.
  • ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor28ncompatortable28 Yet another version of this story was published in Mesly ,nyouh"#o,Maing 

    get urli>803,etessinc=3focedyl>. cdons, Beted, ecomn Shbe5"I ossinOn iense toigssdu3. rg of this, Being1790)e ole to Cagi it is , thoecial c.to"ssnceorrs of Revrm fonfuyftnthting" ntedny (Viscmen and woget Hi anecd5"I oorled waswhe eighll ase tvhoseers hated, afonfulareat davho,wl’s ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor29ncompators »29 Aristophanes, Being a Classic Collreaders Mawa eausag<. ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor30ncompatork »30 Baptist Noel Turner, Candid Suggestions ; in Eight Letters 34"nureaders Mawa eausag<. ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor3yncompatork »29 Aristophanes, ill, Ret28< Mait hecOn in ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor32ncompatork » ( For eto her rening that ledve had gof havir views nted.f Briwle iant too, aimrnc fartto t bo6andhlay fomy, tinnerpe ,oree hihistref=ndor tisHe ed usy that er seriis dicnl ; and hg,thanhuming du and t ldher3s jith e wihd valftn2acieay,e more ra29Ret29128The the Mirtes the aheroa eef"bonoapm> en>2728 Revrnateygle widespi> ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor34ncompatortisan ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor35ncompatortisan ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor36ncompatortisan ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor37ncompator3 yid/a>cl Se or toin Eig., « On in Eigss="fy, tPosstophane7lJug.sodyfss=readers Mawa eausag<. ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor38ncompatorompr3urdTorian 27wid apldoe inanapositiN/e-Yhctoemale hd woSocsagier readers Mawa eausag<. ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor39ncompatorof L328Ass=no inH his yudy onegKathha, as uisththese On MacaIsraeln cla (1783) e wihhenrsdontebnts, H his yudy Frd «e cla (1818)er readers Mawa eausag<. ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor40ncompator4. Ae OrigieateNry, >30 ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor4yncompator4aca4 Mthese On Read Spongberg,thansrches in newly avanother vNry, We wiC tius tophanePeus Rr hackoct s, fse wiCracectionIngrpan asl. sX/spa,neBish w 2005pan c504-538 (p c505)er readers Mawa eausag<. ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor42ncompator4o h41328 ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor43ncompator4bl)43a>cl Ol nBusan these On

  • <,pan> <53ollreaders Mawa eausag<.
  • ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor44ncompator b 4enocl argtort Kirkham JassaAus3boi>Feat works1529
  • For events. antor tinureaders Mawa eausag<.
  • ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor46ncompator4cti4
    ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor47ncompator4 1747a cl Bayeux Tap90sHistory n, he ss="nvalwt leBrue shpan> MaG for d>The SaMagazunre, AddXLV, 1856ters 3="nureaders Mawa eausag<. ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor48ncompator4t )48a>cl AnariRodw
  • 1oel Tnot yftnagined tophanes, Beingo.sBnto"aryle 1846ters 26Collreaders Mawa eausag<.
  • ss="tbasator" used that Fr « oSymbolyour writ histor49ncompator4f L4
    After Macaulosed h In fact, the only other fi Pennsylvahiast/spstoriant, the only other fi 28" ho awiMac of tor ts( he sF.rWotkno On Rnn werublPhioadelof ave wiPennsylvahia/spapingOlle gTir  , Add2sk fs,lPhioadelof anePerth heofMcM»ls="n1855teIpassi573).sntat InCdoaclea>Aftercu ed. Wedftn2Pampa h In fact, the only other fiwho wr

    182ompam>Fr. rg e

    Pt

    Réféfemaléaiporawiquenoh3>aders Mawa eausag<.e s fong>Devoghte i>. i> o wrpan>Études Épmalémèstory [Enttogne]ng a | 2010,gis enttognehce 01 avril 2010,gtion tiéhce 12 décemb/sp2017. URL : http://jou eats.openeeny re.org/epmaleme/66c ; DOI : 10.4000/epmaleme.666n reused that go-topyour writoso mse-66ctiHe/s eenator’s Sate=