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Arnstein Aasve, Maria A. Davia, Maria Iacovou, Stefano Mazzuco: Does Leaving Home Make You Poor? Evidence from 13 European Countries, European Journal of Population, 2007, vol. 23 (3-4), pp. 315-338

1This article examines the extent to which the relationship between leaving home and entry into poverty among young people is causal: that is, how far poverty entry is the result of leaving home, rather than arising from heterogeneity or selection. Using propensity score matching, the authors estimate the effect of home leaving on entry into poverty and deprivation, with data from the European Community Household Panel. They find that leaving home does have a causal effect on poverty entry, particularly in Scandinavian countries; cross-national differences are partly, but not fully, explained by differences in destinations on leaving home.

Arnstein Aasve, Francesco C. Billari, Raffaella Piccarreta: Strings of Adulthood: A Sequence Analysis of Young British Women’s Work-Family Trajectories, European Journal of Population, 2007, vol. 23 (3-4), pp. 369-388

2Employment, union formation and childbearing are central processes within young individuals’ transition to adulthood. These processes interact in highly complex ways, and they shape actual life-course trajectories that may be seen as a conceptual unit. In this article the authors use a methodology to cluster life-course experiences, where all three processes are embedded explicitly, in order to study young women’s trajectories in Great Britain. Drawing on a sample from the British Household Panel Survey (BPHS), they define life-courses as sequences on a monthly time scale and they apply optimal matching analysis to compute dissimilarities between individuals. They then use standard clustering algorithms and they identify nine distinctive groups of women. Their results are then shown using a new representation of clusters and interpreted in the light of the existing socio-demographic literature on the dynamic work-family link.

Signe Hald Andersen, Eskil Heinesen: Estimating the Relative Success of Local Authorities at Labour-Market Integration of Immigrants, European Journal of Population, 2008, vol. 24 (1), pp. 59-86

3The authors propose a method for estimating indicators the success of local authorities at integrating immigrants in the labour market. The proportion of time in employment of individuals is used to measure labour market integration, and they correct for differences in characteristics of immigrants and local labour markets using a two-limit Tobit model. This method is applied to a large administrative micro dataset that contains information on all immigrants in Denmark. They compare the estimated indicators of integration to corresponding uncorrected measures, and conclude that the corrections have a significant effect on the ranking of local authorities.

Jean-Michel Billette, Céline Le Bourdais et Benoît Laplante : Le contexte de l’indépendance résidentielle au Canada, Cahiers québécois de démographie, 2006, vol. 35, n° 1, pp. 83-122

4Cette étude dresse le portrait statistique des tendances reliées au processus d’acquisition de l’indépendance résidentielle au Canada chez les individus nés entre 1942 et 1981. Après un bref préambule visant à inscrire ce processus dans le cadre plus englobant de l’entrée dans la vie adulte, les auteurs examinent, à l’aide des données issues de l’Enquête sociale générale de 2001, divers indices liés au calendrier et à l’intensité du premier départ du foyer parental et du premier retour vers le milieu familial. Toutes les analyses sont fondées sur des comparaisons entre les sexes, les provinces et les cohortes de naissance. Une attention spéciale est également accordée aux motifs allégués pour justifier ces départs et ces retours. De façon globale, les résultats suggèrent une tendance à l’allongement de l’étape « jeunesse » intercalée entre l’adolescent et l’âge adulte ainsi qu’une propension accrue à aborder l’autonomie résidentielle via une période charnière de semi-autonomie.

Clotilde Binet : L’apport de l’État civil pour l’analyse du processus d’entrée en union : méthodologie et étude de cas à Madagascar, Cahiers québécois de démographie, 2006, vol. 35, n° 1, pp. 7-26

5Cet article présente une méthodologie d’analyse de la nuptialité fondée sur l’État civil qui repose notamment sur la reconstruction de familles à partir des registres de mariages et de naissances. On propose une application de la méthode à l’État civil d’une commune rurale de la province d’Antananarivo à Madagascar. Elle permet de montrer la place qu’occupe aujourd’hui la naissance du premier enfant dans le processus de formalisation des unions, dans un contexte où la cérémonie du mariage civil est très souvent pratiquée malgré les complexités qu’elle implique pour rompre les unions. L’État civil permet d’analyser les relations entre le calendrier d’une naissance et le calendrier du mariage civil. La naissance d’un enfant est un déterminant important du recours au mariage civil.

Barry R. Chiswick and Sarinda Taengnoi: Occupational Choice of High-Skilled Immigrants in the United States, International Migration, 2007, vol. 45 (5), pp. 3-34

6This paper explores the impact of English language proficiency and country of origin on the occupational choice of high-skilled immigrants with limited proficiency in English, or whose first language is linguistically distant from English, are more likely to be in occupations in which English communication skills are not very important, such as computer and engineering occupations. Interestingly, the degree of exposure to English prior to immigration is found to have little influence on selecting occupations in the United States. Nonetheless, the paper also shows that some immigrants with little exposure to English, and whose native language is highly distinct from English, are present in some “speaking-intensive” occupations, in particular social services occupations. These occupations may not require workers to be fluent in English if they mostly provide services to immigrants from the same linguistic background. The study also raises questions as to how heavily US immigration policy influences the decisions of highly skilled migrants before they even leave their home countries.

Jeffrey H. Cohen, Leila Rodriguez, Margaret Fox: Gender and Migration in the Central Valleys of Oaxaca, International Migration, 2008, vol. 46 (1), pp. 79-101

7In this paper, the authors examine the gender nature of international and internal migration that originates in the central valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico. Their goals are to define migration patterns and outcomes for Oaxacan women from the central valleys region and note the differences that mark migrant men and women. They use ethnographic data from anthropological research in 12 of Oaxaca central valley communities to argue that local concepts of what defines correct behaviour (for both men and women) are critical to the outcomes and the differences that exist in the practices of migrant men and women.

Nicolas d’Andréa : Recomposition régionale dans le Sud bolivien et migrations vers l’Argentine, Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, 2007, vol. 23, n° 2, pp. 173-198

8Dans le contexte de mutation de l’espace bolivien, certaines péripéties frontalières ont connu un essor inédit ces cinquante dernières années. L’article présente le cas du département du Tarija, qui bouleverse la configuration du peuplement à la frontière de l’Argentine. Se pose alors la question de l’insertion de cette population frontalière dans le système migratoire Bolivie-Argentine. L’article caractérise la dynamique spatiale du courant migratoire bolivien en Argentine et montre, à partir de sources censitaires, que l’attractivité des provinces frontalières s’est progressivement réduite, excepté pour les habitants du Sud bolivien. Puis il identifie, au travers d’enquêtes socio-démographiques, les dynamiques territoriales qui conditionnent le rapport spécifique des Tarijéniens à l’espace argentin : commerce transfrontalier, exploitation gazière, explosion urbaine, colonisation agricole, crise des campagnes andines.

Pierre Darlu, Anna Digioanni : L’origine géographique des migrants par la méthode patronymique, L’Espace Géographique, 2007, n° 3, pp. 251-265

9Cet article propose une méthode d’estimation des origines géographiques des immigrants s’installant dans une aire donnée entre deux périodes. Elle se base sur une approche bayésienne des probabilités d’origine tenant compte des fréquences patronymiques et de leurs variations entre ces deux périodes. La méthode est appliquée aux migrants qui ont quitté les zones rurales et les petites ou moyennes communes pour venir s’installer, au tournant de la Première Guerre mondiale, dans les grandes métropoles des régions françaises. La diversité des origines de ces nouveaux urbains est mise en relation avec la spécificité géographique et historique de villes « réceptrices ».

Valérie Delaunay, Agnès Adjamagbo et Richard Lalou : Questionner la question de la fécondité en milieu rural africain : les apports d’une démarche longitudinale et institutionnelle, Cahiers québécois de démographie, 2006, vol. 35, n° 1, pp. 27-50

10Située au cœur du bassin arachidier du Sénégal, la zone d’étude de Niakhar est tout à fait représentative des régions rurales sahéliennes caractérisées par le maintien de modèles de fécondité élevée. En effet, les grandes tendances de la fécondité observées grâce au Système de Suivi Démographique de l’IRD font état du maintien des descendances nombreuses (environ huit enfants par femme) ; elles révèlent par ailleurs une augmentation des naissances et des grossesses avant le premier mariage. Pour comprendre les mécanismes sur lesquels se fondent les comportements de fécondité dans cette région, les auteurs proposent d’explorer la pertinence de l’approche institutionnelle. Ainsi la mise en perspective de l’évolution du système de production agricole, des conditions environnementales et du fonctionnement de l’organisation sociale permet de mettre en lumière le sens que les populations de cette région donnent aux comportements démographiques et, en particulier, aux pratiques relatives à la fécondité.

Don De Voretz: An Auction Model of Canadian Temporary Immigration for the 21st Century, International Migration, 2008, vol. 46 (1), pp. 3-17

11Temporary Canadian immigration has grown beyond traditional programs for students, caregivers and agricultural workers to include trade-related temporary visas under NAFTA and the GATS. Current Canadian debates envision supplanting Canada’s permanent immigration programme with a temporary visa programme to remove skill shortages. Several questions emerge under these temporary schemes including who should choose the number of temporary immigrants and under what employment conditions. This paper offers an alternative policy to the current government-determined quota on temporary visas to answer these two questions. Under the proposed schemes offered in this paper, a Canadian worker can place a job voucher up for auction on the Internet. If the Canadian worker finds an acceptable offer for his one-year (or less) voucher, then the temporary immigrant is permitted to seek a job in Canada. Thus, under this auction scheme Canadian workers are compensated for the presence of temporary immigrants, and the actual number of temporary immigrants admitted depends on the total number of Canadian workers who sell their vouchers, not on a government fiat.

Sharanjit S. Dhillon and R.S. Bawa: Factors Influencing Population Growth in India – an Inter-state Analysis, Population Geography, Journal of the Association of Population Geographers of India, 2005 (June-December), vol. 27 (1 & 2), pp. 31-44

12In this paper an effort has been made to examine the trends in population growth in major states of India and also to analyse the association of various education and health indicators with total fertility rates. The study finds that all the states do not show a similar type of population growth. There are states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu, which have achieved a very low rate of population growth, while in other states like Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, the population growth rate as well as total fertility rates (TFRs) are still very high. In majority of the states population growth rate is falling, which is a positive signal for future population growth. It is found that there is a visible and appreciable association between total fertility rate and educational achievement, particularly of women, infant mortality rates, female expectancy of life and other socio-economic factors, which help in empowerment of women. Kerala could be said to have emerged as a model for achieving a low rate of population growth.

Niki T. Dickerson: Black employment, Segregation, and the Social Organization of Metropolitan Labor Markets, Economic Geography, 2007, vol. 83 (3), pp. 283-307

13This broad analysis of the employment of blacks in metropolitan areas examines the role of residential segregation in comparison with four other key structural explanations for racial metropolitan inequality: industrial composition, minority concentration, immigration, and the racial disparity in skills. The goal of the analysis was to determine whether the spatial configuration of blacks relative to whites in a metropolitan area influences the employment rates of black men and black women in the context of the structural conditions of the local labor market. The study expanded the analysis of space and work beyond an emphasis on the physical distance between black communities and jobs to a broader conceptualization of residential segregation as a structural feature of the entire metropolitan labor market that is representative of its social organization with regard to race. Using a longitudinal data set of the structural characteristics of the 95 largest U.S. cities from the 1980, 1990, and 2000 decennial censuses, the study used a cross-sectional analysis of the cities in 2000 and a fixed-effects analysis to assess the impact of five dimensions of residential segregation and the four other structural factors on the employment of blacks across different labor markets and across time within each labor market. The results revealed that when the other structural characteristics are controlled, the employment rates of blacks are lower in more segregated over time. The clustering and evenness dimensions of residential segregation were the most determinative of black employment.

Thierry Eggerickx, Jean-Paul Sanderson, Amel Bahri, Jean-Pierre Hermia : Diver- sités démographiques et migrations résidentielles dans les espaces ruraux en Wallonie (Belgique) Norois, 2007, n° 205, pp. 117-136

14Sur base d’un ensemble d’indicateurs sociaux, économiques, environnementaux ... et en utilisant des méthodes statistiques d’analyse en composantes principales et de classification, six types d’espaces ruraux ont pu être distingués en Wallonie. L’objectif était de vérifier si ces types d’espaces ruraux présentent des paramètres et des dynamiques démographiques particuliers. Les résultats ont démontré que l’univers rural wallon est marqué par la diversité des caractéristiques (répartition par âge, structure des ménages) et des comportements (mortalité, fécondité, migrations) démographiques. Certaines différences significatives, en termes de longévité ou encore d’importance relative de ménages monoparentaux, reflètent des inégalités sociales importantes et souvent insoupçonnées. Les migrations constituent le moteur de la démographie locale. Elles contribuent très largement à la croissance de la population des espaces ruraux wallons et, par leur sélectivité selon l’âge et le type de ménage, elles renforcent les contrastes socio-démographiques de ceux-ci.

Mark Ellis, Richard Wright, Virginia Parks: Geography and the Immigrant Division of Labor, Economic Geography, 2007, vol. 83 (3), pp. 255-281

15Immigrants concentrate in particular lines of work. Most investigations of such employment niching have accented either the demand for labor in a limited set of mostly low-wage industries or the efficiency of immigrant networks in supplying that labor; space has taken a backseat or has been ignored. In contrast, this article’s account of immigrant employment niching modulates insights built on social network theories with understandings derived from relative location. The authors do so by altering the thinking about employment niches as being metropolitan wide to considering them as local phenomena. Specifically, the analysis examines the intraurban variation in niching by Mexican, Salvadoran, Chinese, and Vietnamese men and women in four industries in Los Angeles. Niching is uneven; in some parts of the metropolitan area, these groups niche at high rates in these industries, whereas in others, there is no unusual concentration. They show how a group’s propensity to niche in an industry is generally higher when the industry is located close to the group’s residential neighborhoods and demonstrate the ways in which the proximity o competing groups dampens this geographic advantage. The study speaks to debates on immigrant niching and connects with research on minority access to employment and accounts of the agglomeration of firms. More generally, it links the geographies of home and work in a new way, relating patterns of immigrant residential segregation to those of immigrant employment niches.

Cees H. Elzinga, Aart C. Liefbroer: De-standardization of Family-Life Trajectories of Young Adults: A Cross-National Comparison Using Sequence Analysis, European Journal of Population, 2007, vol. 23 (3-4), pp. 225-250

16The authors introduce a number of new methods, based on sequence analysis to test hypotheses on the de-standardization of family-life trajectories in early adulthood, using Fertility and Family Survey data on 19 countries. Across cohorts, family- life trajectories of young adults have not become more turbulent. However, in most countries family-life trajectories of young adults have become less similar to one another and the variation in the types of family-trajectories has increased. Contrary to expectations, no clear differences in de-standardization were observed between countries characterized by a social-democratic welfare-state regime and countries characterized by either liberal or conservative welfare-state regimes.

Katherine Fennelly, Christopher Federico: Rural Residence as a Determinant of Attitudes Toward US Immigration Policy, International Migration, 2008, vol. 46 (1), pp. 151-190

17Between 1990 and 2000, the foreign-born population in the United States increased by 57 per cent, compared to a 13 per cent increase in the native-born population. This growth has fueled considerable media attention and has fomented some anti-immigrant sentiments. Although a number of authors have charted changes in support for restrictionist immigration policies, few have examined their determinants. In this paper, the authors focus on region of residence and use data from a 2004 telephone survey of a nationally representative sample of 1888 adults to test the hypothesis that rural Americans are more likely to support restrictive immigration policies than individuals in urban and suburban communities. In a series of regression analyses, this hypothesis is confirmed; rural residents hold the most restrictionist views. Additional analyses indicate that this effect of rural residence on policy attitudes is mediated by attitudes toward multiculturalism, the perceived traits of immigrants, and perceptions about the costs of immigration. Ultimately, the analyses indicate that the perceived cost of immigration is the single strongest predictor of support for restrictive immigration policies, and that it best accounts for rural residents’ more restrictionist views.

Larry Ford, Florinda Klevisser, and Francesca Carli: Ethnic Neighborhoods and urban Revitalization: Can Europe Use the American Model?, Geographical Review, 2008 (January), vol. 98 (1), pp. 82-102

18Ethnic neighborhoods have long been used to facilitate urban revitalization in older, inner-city neighborhoods in American cities, but this strategy is much less common in European cities. This is especially surprising because immigrants make up a significant percentage of the population in a large number of those cities. This article explores the role that a largely invented Little Italy has played in revitalizing a section of downtown San Diego in contrast to the difficulty of creating such districts in European cities. The question posed here is, Will this contrast in approaches and outcomes remain indefinitely, or will the use of ethnically themed revitalization strategies become more alike as globalization and the expansion of the European Union serve to lessen historic ethnic tensions and increase the number of distinctive immigrant districts in Europe?

Thomas Frejka, Charles F. Westoff: Religion, Religiousness and Fertility in the US and in Europe, European Journal of Population, 2008, vol. 24 (1), pp. 5-31

19This article aims to assess the role of religion and religiousness in engendering US fertility compared to Europe. Religion is important in the life of one-half of Us women, whereas not even for one of six Europeans. By every available measure, American women are more religious than European women. Catholic and Protestant women have notably higher fertility than those not belonging to any denomination in the US and across Europe. In all European regions and in the United States as well as among all denominations the more devout have more children. However, women in Northern and Western Europe who are the least religious have equivalent or even higher fertility than those in Southern Europe. This suggests that forces other than religion and religiousness are also important in their impact on childbearing. A multivariate analysis demonstrates that relatively “traditional” socio- economic covariates (age, marital status, residence, education, and income) do not substantially change the positive association of religiousness and fertility. Finally, if Europeans were as religious as Americans one might theoretically expect a small fertility increase for Europe as a whole, but considerably more for Western Europe.

Elizabeth Fussell, Anne H. Gauthier, Ann Evans: Heterogeneity in the Transition to Adulthood: The Cases of Australia, Canada and The United States, European Journal of Population, 2007, vol. 23 (3-4), pp. 389-414

20The prolongation and diversification of the transition to adulthood is known to have occurred in all advanced industrialized countries, although to different extents and following different patterns. A number of comparative studies have explored single-events such as leaving the parental home or making the transition to a first birth, but few have examined the transitions to adulthood more holistically by examining multiple events. The authors do so in this article for Australia, Canada, and the United States. They find that youth in the United States experience a more uniform and shorter transition to adulthood than their peers in Australia or Canada, even though this transition is increasingly prolonged in all three countries. The earlier transition in the United States is mostly due to the concentration of education in traditional school ages, an earlier entry into employment, and to a lesser extent, an earlier and more coordinated transition into marriage and household headship. The authors argue that the transition to adulthood differs quantitatively and qualitatively since entry into marriage reflects the more traditional values of the United States.

M.S. Gill: Population Growth and Migration in Rural Punjab since 1991, Population Geography, Journal of the Association of Population Geographers of India, 2005 (June-December), vol. 27 (1 & 2), pp. 17-30

21Based on census data, the paper attempts to understand the pattern of population growth and migration in rural Punjab during 1991-2001. The area stands marked by further decline in natural growth rate of rural population, and stepped-up tempo of out-migration. Simultaneously, the area has witnessed a steady rise of in-migration from the BIMARU states. Consequently, rural Punjab is on a new demographic threshold that portends to usher in profound socio-economic changes with far-reaching implications.

Ravit Goldhaber, Izhak Schnell: A Model of Multidimensional Segregation in the Arab Ghetto in Tel Aviv-Jaffa, Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 2007, vol. 98 (5), pp. 603-620

22Segregation is studied as a multidimensional characteristic of individual behaviour in social space. It is argued that in globalising world, homology among residential, territorial (forms of regionalising daily life) and inter- active (forms of developing social networks) segregations cannot be taken for granted. The study shows that even in the highly segregated case of Arab resident in Jaffa, the different dimensions of segregation only partially correlate and they are explained by different mechanisms of exclusion. The results of the study suggest that structural constraints impact on ghettoisation of Arabs in Jaffa, but at the same time it is shown that Arabs respond differentially to these constraints. Four types of segregation are noted: (i) the majority, who are segregated in all three dimensions (residential, territorial and interactive); (ii) a small minority who succeeded in forming desegregated daily activity spaces and interethnic social networks regardless of their levels of residential segregation; (iii) those who failed to transform their desegregated daily activity spaces into interethnic social networks and (iv) those who succeeded in developing interethnic networks within the residential space of the ghetto. The analysis highlights the double marginalisation of Arab females, who are restricted to poor residential spaces by state and municipal renewal policies and to segregation in everyday life activity spaces by Arab males.

Gurdev Singh Gosal: India’s Population Dilemma, Population Geography, Journal of the Association of Population Geographers of India, 2005 (June-December), vol. 27 (1 & 2), pp. 1-8

23During the post-independence decades, India experienced a stepped up acceleration in its population growth resulting in nearly threefold increase from 361 million in 1951 to 1028.7 million in 2001. This staggering growth has neutralized a large part of the socio-economic development in the country. With a view to ensuring a wholesome and a dignified living to every individual every- where, “population control” needs to be pursued with high priority, along with accelerated developmental activities.

24An unusually low sex ratio in north-western India is another problem that has serious demographic, social and economic implications. In recent years, particularly during 1991-2001 this problem has been further aggravated by an alarmingly large decline in child (0-6 age group) sex ration in north-western and western India. Female foeticide, female infanticide and neglect of female children on an extensive scale seen to have been instrumental in this development which has disastrous implications for the country in general and the two major regions in particular. This situation warrants early rectification.

25Despite great efforts to achieve universal literacy, explosive increase in population numbers has been a serious neutralizing factor. Male-female and urban-rural differentials in literacy are widely prevalent. In the present context of things, enhanced levels of literacy and education (liberal and professional) are needed. The quality of education at all levels needs to be made comparable to the best in the world, to be able to face ‘survival of the fittest’ principle.

Monica J. Grant, Frank F. Furstenberg Jr: Changes in the Transition to Adulthood in Less Developed Countries, European Journal of Population, 2007, vol. 23 (3-4), pp. 415-428

26Over the past century, there have been significant changes in the prevalence, density and complexity of transitions to adulthood in the United States and Europe. Analyses of change in less developed countries have largely focused on one or two transitions in isolation. This article examines whether recent increases in female school participation, the timing of marriage, and socio-economic changes in Africa and Latin America have influences the timing and pattern of the entire transition to adulthood. Using data from countries with Demographic and Health Surveys 12-15 years apart, the authors analyze how the distribution of status combinations (education, employment, marriage, and childbearing) has changed over this period for women aged 15-30. Heterogeneity analysis is used to describe the changes in the complexity of status combinations. Although they find little change in transition complexity for women older than 20, there is evidence for shifts in the distribution of status combinations at any given age.

George Groenewold, Jeroen van Ginneken, Bart De Bruijn, Joop De Beer : Estimation de la mortalité par la méthode de projection intercensitaire par génération : application aux Îles Salomon, Population, 2007, vol. 62, n° 3, pp. 451-486

27La méthode de projection intercensitaire par génération (MPIG) a été mise au point pour estimer l’espérance de vie à la naissance année par année au cours d’une période intercensitaire. Elle a été développée parce que l’application des méthodes classiques d’estimation de la mortalité avait donné des résultats incohérents. Elle comprend trois grandes étapes. La première consiste à projeter par itération les structures par âge de la population d’un recensement jusqu’au recensement suivant, en posant diverses hypothèses de mortalité constante, jusqu’à obtenir des tables types optimales de mortalité féminine et masculine, reflétant les conditions moyennes de la mortalité pendant la période de projection. Dans la deuxième étape, on utilise les espérances de vie à la naissance associées à ces tables types et des estimations de leur taux de croissance pour établir des équations de régression qui permettront de calculer les espérances de vie et les tables de mortalité annuelles. Dans la troisième étape, on évalue la précision des estimations à partir des résultats d’une dernière projection basée sur les tables types de mortalité calculées. L’espérance de vie des Salomoniens estimée par la MPIG est de 61,0 ans pour les hommes et de 61,5 ans pour les femmes en 1999. Ces valeurs s’accordent bien avec les estimations de la fécondité et de la migration.

Darcy W. Hango, Céline Le Bourdais: Early Union Formation in Canada: Links with Education European Journal of Population, 2007, vol. 23 (3-4), pp. 339-368

28This article examines the link between early union formation and education using a new Canadian longitudinal data set, the Youth in Transition survey (YITS). Educational transitions and early union formation occur around the same time in youth adulthood, yet the roles of student and conjugal partner are often thought to be incompatible. The authors examine the effect of two important educational indicators (exit from full-time school and level of achieved education) on the timing of the first conjugal union. In addition, they incorporate several more direct measures of educational commitment. Results from proportional hazard models reveal that exit from full-time school greatly increases the transition to first union, especially marriage. Similarly, obtaining a post-secondary degree/diploma also significantly increases the risk of forming a union, especially for women. More direct measures of educational commitment show that skipping classes in high school has a negative effect on the risk of marriage, but a positive effect on cohabitation unions. A greater aspiration for future education, meanwhile, has a negative impact on union formation in general.

Vincent Hervouet : La mobilité du quotidien dans les espaces périurbains, une grande diversité des modèles de déplacements. L’exemple de la métropole nantaise, Norois, 2007, n° 205, pp. 37-52

29Depuis les années soixante, la périurbanisation a progressivement remis en cause le modèle européen de la ville dense. En effet, l’étalement urbain se fait, non plus en contiguïté avec les espaces bâtis existants, mais par dissémination de zones résidentielles pavillonnaires dans les espaces périphériques. Cet éloignement géographique est possible grâce à l’usage massif et quotidien de l’automobile. L’étude des déplacements dans la métropole Nantes – Saint-Nazaire, à travers la mobilité des ménages de douze communes périurbaines, révèle qu’il existe une grande diversité de modèles de déplacements. S’organisant selon des rapports très variés à la ville (permanent, grandissant, pragmatique, relayé, contraint, naissant) ils présentent chacun des caractéristiques particulières qui montrent toute la diversité des rapports à l’espace dans les espaces péri- urbains.

Hubert Jayet, Nadiya Ukrayinchuk : La localisation des immigrants en France. Une première approche, Revue d’Économie Régionale et Urbaine, 2007, n° 4, pp. 625-649

30Les auteurs étudient la localisation des immigrants sur le territoire français, au niveau communal, en se fondant principalement sur le recensement de 1990. Des analyses cartographiques complétées par l’estimation d’un modèle de comptage mettent en évidence le fait que la forte concentration géographique des immigrants dans un certain nombre de régions n’est pas uniforme, mais est plutôt le résultat de l’augmentation de la densité d’un semis de micro-concentrations à l’échelle communale, le plus souvent en zone urbaine. La logique géographique de ces micro-concentrations varie entre les différentes nationalités en fonction de la position géographique du pays d’origine, de l’importance des facteurs résidentiels et économiques. Elle est fortement rémanente, les immigrants tendant à se localiser dans les communes où existe déjà un stock significatif d’immigrants de la même nationalité. L’importance des effets géographiques, qui restent à expliquer, montre que d’autres facteurs, non encore introduits à ce stade de l’analyse restent à explorer.

Peter Jensen and Peter J. Pedersen: To Stay or Not to Stay? Out-Migration of Immigrants from Denmark, International Migration, 2007, vol. 45 (5), pp. 87-113

31A major portion of migration flows are temporary, ending with return migration to the home country or migration to a third country. However, the propensity to return differs according to migrants’ countries of origin. This paper presents a discussion of the theoretical approaches to return migration and a brief survey of the actual flows in Denmark. The authors then present a panel data ser of immigrants to Denmark covering the years 1986-1995 and run a number of logit models where return migration is related to individual background factors. Their research shows significant differences in decisions of return depending on country of origin, age at entry, education, and family ties. One of the most important determinants is found to be a migrant’s success, or lack thereof, regarding labour market integration. This research suggests that policy instruments such as education, training, and temporary wage subsidies could play an important role in controlling the interaction between immigration and labour market forces.

Ron Johnston, Michael Poulsen, and James Forrest: The Geography of Ethnic Residential Segregation: A Comparative Study of Five Countries, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 2007 (December), vol. 97 (4), pp. 713-738

32Few studies have undertaken rigorous comparative analyses of levels of ethnic, residential segregation across two or more countries. Using data for the latest available censuses (2000-2001) and a bespoke methodology for such comparative work, this article analyzes levels of segregation across the urban systems of five major immigrant-receiving, English-speaking countries: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. After describing the levels of segregation in each, the article tests a model based on generic factors that should influence segregation levels in all five countries and then evaluates – for the urban population as a whole, for the “charter group” in each society, and for various ethnic minority groups – whether there are also significant country specific variations in segregation levels. The findings show common factors influencing segregation levels in all five countries: notably the size of the group being considered as a percentage of the urban total, but also urban size and urban ethnic diversity, plus country-specific variations that cannot be attributed to these generic factors. In general, there is less segregation in Australia and New Zealand than in the other three countries.

Ron Johnston, Simon Burgess, Richard Harris and Deborah Wilson: ‘Sleep-Walking towards Segregation’? The Changing Ethnic Composition of English Schools, 1997-2003: An Entry Cohort Analysis, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 2008, vol. 33 (1), pp. 73-90

33There has been considerable public debate recently in England regarding levels of segregation (and changes in those levels) not only by neighbourhood but also in schools. Few data are available to evaluate claims that such segregation has been increasing in the country’s schools however. This paper uses a data set released by the Department for Education and Skills which indicates the ethnic identity for every student in the entry cohorts for all English primary and secondary schools between 1997 and 1998 (for primary and secondary schools respectively) and 2003. Analysis indicates that there has been some increase in segregation levels in a few cities, but only to the expected extent given the changing relative size of the ethnic minority populations there. Segregation is relatively high in the country’s schools, but has only increased in the minority groups’ share of the entry cohorts has been increasing.

Gita Kewalramani and Jaymala Diddee: Challenges and Implications of Population Stabilisation in India: Some Reflections, Population Geography, Journal of the Association of Population Geographers of India, 2006 (June-December), vol. 28 (1&2), pp. 33-46

34At the dawn of the 21st century, the biggest challenge India faces is to cross the hurdle of the three Ps: population explosion, poverty and pollution of the environment. Population figures and other demographic indices published in the 2001 census clearly reveal that our demographic goals have not been achieved to the extent they were specified. India has still to cover considerable distance to achieve the targets set by various commissions associated with the National Population Policy (NPP), the most recent being the Planning Commissions’ Vision 2020, inspired by President APJ Abdul Kalam. The objective in the ensuing discussion is to review 20th century demographics in light of the 50 years of the government’s efforts of Family Planning and Welfare and to assess the prospects and advantages of India achieving population stabilization.

Caroline Laborde, Éva Lelièvre et Géraldine Vivier : Trajectoires et événements marquants, comment dire sa vie ? Une analyse des faits et des perceptions biographiques, Population, 2007, vol. 62, n° 3, pp. 567-585

35Dans l’enquête Biographies et entourage réalisée par l’Ined en 2001, la reconstitution des événements factuels qui jalonnent les trajectoires familiale, résidentielle et professionnelle des personnes a été assortie d’éléments subjectifs. Il s’agissait de prendre en compte le regard porté a posteriori sur leur vie, par les enquêtés qui étaient ainsi amenés à proposer un découpage explicité de leur trajectoire, à identifier et à interpréter les périodes signifiantes de leur vie, les tournants et la tonalité générale de leur biographie ainsi que les événements considérés comme marquants. Les premières analyses de ce matériau foisonnant montrent la façon dont la trajectoire des individus se structure autour de certains jalons factuels, en particulier ceux qui marquent la vie conjugale. Le vécu et la caractérisation des événements ne sont cependant pas donnés a priori et l’on constate l’intérêt de ces évaluations rétrospectives, qui s’avèrent nuancées et non conventionnelles. La possibilité de confronter le sens que les individus confèrent au déroulement de leur vie et les événements factuels de celle-ci constitue une véritable richesse d’information pour l’interprétation des tournants et ruptures biographiques.

David Ley: Countervailing Immigration and Domestic Migration in Gateway Cities: Australian and Canadian Variations on an American Theme, Economic Geography, 2007, vol. 83 (3), pp. 231-254

36This article addresses the spatial regularity of countervailing population flows of immigration and net domestic

37Migration, respectively, into and out of large cities. This regularity has been noted most often in the United States, and the argument presented here makes two new contributions. First, it extends the analysis to the principal Australian and Canadian gateway cities of Sydney and Toronto, making use of an extended time series of annual data. Second, it argues for the importance of the neglected effects of housing markets, in contrast to conventional accounts that stress cultural avoidance or labor market competition, in differentiating the two demographic streams. The article shows how trends in the housing market separate the locational preferences of immigrants from two diverse groups of domestic migrants.

Guofu Liu: The Right to Return in China, International Migration, 2008, vol. 46 (1), pp. 191-231

38The right to return has been affirmed as a fundamental human right in several international instruments. While being a fundamental human right, each state has the sovereign right to regulate the right to return in accordance with its own laws. The regulation of the right to return, however, is not only an attribute of sovereignty but an issue with important political, economic and security implications for the state. Given its significance, it is understandable and desirable that states regulate the right of return. The regulation must however take account of both the interests of the state and the human rights dimension of the right. A careful and well-coordinated returning strategy with a well-defines the right to return focus could enhance China’s economic progresses as well a its international human rights image.

39China’s current policies on the right to return still reflect a closed culture. Few among the 5 million Huaqiao lodge applications to return to China for permanent residence or employment. Eleven million illegal migrants have difficulty meeting the impracticable requirements of passport re-issue, replacement and extension. The Chinese government’s behaviour in imposing limitations on citizens from returning to China is unacceptable. China may have some justifications for its restrictive approach, but on balance, has more to gain from adopting a more liberal approach. The issue of the right to return in China is crucial both for the future of China, and for development of the rights to return in the world.

Guy Moores: The Valued Child. In Search of a Latent Attitude Profile that Influences the Transition to Motherhood, European Journal of Population, 2008, vol. 24(1), pp. 33-57

40In this research, a latent class analysis is used to identify latent attitude profiles that influence the transition to the first child. The author argues that ideational theories, i.e. the Second Demographic Transition theory and the extended model of Planned Behaviour, often refer to a broad range of attitudes or values that are hypothesized to influence behaviour, and as such describe an attitude or value profile that inhibits vs. fosters the likelihood of motherhood. The results demonstrate the usefulness of a latent class approach and reveal that quite different latent attitude profiles may lead to an increased likelihood of motherhood. However, only one latent attitude profile clearly inhibited the hazard of a first birth, i.e. an egalitarian profile that dissociates with “traditional” views on issues regarding marriage, children, partnership and household roles, and at the same time stresses the importance of autonomy and independence.

Stein Østbye and Olle Westerlund: Is Migration Important for Regional Convergence? Comparative evidence for Norwegian and Swedish Counties, 1980-2000, Regional studies, 2007 (October), vol. 41 (7), pp. 901-915

41Regional convergence studies have relied on migration data when assessing the impact of migration. With heterogeneous labour, the implied symmetrical treatment of immigration and emigration cannot be justified a priori. Because of heterogeneity among migrants, gross migration flows may lead to considerable interregional redistribution of human capital even when net migration is zero. Moreover, the effects of regional economic conditions on gross in- and out-migration flows may not be symmetric. In this comparative study of regional growth and migration, the net and the gross migration approaches are compared. The results confirm ex post that the net approach cannot be justified and, despite Sweden and Norway being similar in many ways, migration has very different effects on convergence in these two countries.

Philippe Pacaut, Céline Le Bourdais, avec la participation de Paul-Marie Huot : Changements dans la dynamique de participation des hommes et des femmes au marché du travail au Canada, Cahiers québécois de démographie, 2006, vol. 35, n° 1, pp. 51-82

42Cette étude porte sur l’évolution de la dynamique de la participation des individus au marché du travail au Canada. Les mouvements d’insertion, d’interruption et de réinsertion dans l’emploi que les générations d’hommes et de femmes nées entre 1937 et 1986 connaissent au long de leur vie sont analysés séparément par la méthode des tables d’extinctions multiples, appliquée aux données rétrospectives de l’Enquête sociale générale de 2001 sur la famille.

Marie Piron, Christian Mullon, Françoise Dureau, Arnaud Deman : Modèle dynamique des mobilités résidentielles intra-urbaines à Bogotá, L’Espace Géographique, 2007, n° 4, pp. 337-351

43Les auteurs proposent de développer un modèle des mobilités résidentielles intra- urbaines et de leur impact sur les transformations socio-spatiales de la ville qui couple plusieurs dynamiques : une dynamique démographique du cycle de vie et de la mobilité sociale, une dynamique du parc de logements et une dynamique économique du marché du logement. Il s’appuie sur la mise en place de niveaux d’abstraction de modélisation qui intègrent à la fois une approche agrégée pour rendre compte de l’évolution de la distribution de la population et des reconfigurations de la ville et une approche individuelle pour mettre l’accent sur les causes et l’impact des choix résidentiels sur la mobilité intra-urbaine.

Linda Piwowarczyk, Terence M. Keane, Alisa Lincoln: Hunger: The silent Epidemic Among Asylum Seekers and Resettled Refugees, International Migration, 2008, vol. 46 (1), pp. 59-77

44Refugees and asylum seekers face challenges after arriving in a host country. They carry the trauma that they may have experienced in their countries of origin, during flight, and in countries of asylum. Other stressors impact on their adjustment after arriving in the United States including basic needs such as food, closing, and shelter. This is a retrospective review of data collected as part of a needs assessment by a program, which serves survivors of torture and refugee trauma. Asylum seekers and refugees were compared. Asylum seekers were more apt to be from Africa, need family reunification, speak more languages, suffer from political persecution, move from place to place due to not having a permanent place to live, and be unable to contribute to the rent. Unadjusted, asylum seekers were also more likely than refugees to have gone to bed hungry in the previous two weeks or since arriving in the United States. Refugees were more likely to be eating more food now than before fleeing, and asylum seekers the opposite. Being an asylum seeker made one 3.7 times more likely to suffer from food insecurity than being a refugee, and 5.3 times more likely to not have work authorization. Among asylum seekers, adjusting for gender, age, education, lack of permanent housing, English fluency, and self-reported health status, not having work authorization made one 5.6 times more likely to suffer from hunger. Independently, being a torture survivor made one 10.4 times more likely to suffer from hunger. Asylum seekers must wait 150 days before applying for asylum in the United States. For humanitarian reasons, mandatory-waiting periods for work authorization for asylum seekers should be eliminated.

France Prioux : L’évolution démographique récente en France : la fécondité à son plus haut niveau depuis plus de trente ans, Population, 2007, vol. 62, n° 3, pp. 489-532

45La France métropolitaine compte 61,5 millions d’habitants au 1er janvier 2007. L’augmentation de la population a été soutenue en 2006 (+ 6,1‰), du fait de l’augmentation des naissances (+ 2,9 %) et de la diminution des décès (- 1,4 %). Le nombre d’étrangers admis à séjourner a très légèrement diminué en 2005. L’indicateur conjoncturel de fécondité s’élève à 1,98 enfant par femme en 2006 (+ 3,2 %). Malgré tout, la descendance finale diminue entre les générations 1960 et 1970, mais elle ne devrait pas descendre en dessous de 2 enfants par femme. L’estimation du nombre d’IVG a été revue légèrement à la baisse : depuis les années 1990, il se situerait un peu en dessous de 210 000, sauf en 2004 où il augmente un peu. Alors que le nombre de déclarations de pacs continue à augmenter en 2006 (+ 28 %), celui des mariages a diminué de 3,3 %, la faible reprise de 2005 ne s’étant pas confirmée. La mise en application d’une nouvelle loi sur les divorces a été suivie d’une forte hausse des divorces ; l’indicateur conjoncturel grimpe à 52,3 divorces pour 100 mariages en 2005, puis recule un peu en 2006 (46,9). L’espérance de vie à la naissance s’élève à 77,2 ans pour les hommes en 2006 (0,4 an de plus qu’en 2005) et 84,1 ans pour les femmes (0,3 an). Presque toutes les pathologies ont bénéficié de progrès notables en 2004, et notamment les maladies cardiovasculaires. Grâce aux mesures de prévention, la surmortalité provoquée par la vague de chaleur de juillet 2006 a été beaucoup faible que prévu.

Uzi Rebhun: A Double Disadvantage? Immigration, Gender, and Employment Status in Israel, European Journal of Population, 2008, vol. 24 (1), pp. 87-113

46This article examines gender differences in employment status among immigrants in Israel, and how theses differences vary across origin groups. Analysis of the 1995 population census indicates that, all else being equal, immigrant women exert a negative effect on activity in the annual labor force. As time elapses, the probability of being immigrant women being employed improves but remains considerably lower than that of both immigrant and native-born men. How- ever, after a few years in the country, immigrant women do close the gap with native-born women. For employment status in the last week, being an immigrant woman has a positive effect on full-time employment. A detailed analysis reveals substantial stratification by country of birth. Thus, the patterns of employment status for immigrant groups can reflect different levels (single, double, and triple) of disadvantage or advantage for women. The author attaches this stratification to cultural background and social values of country of birth as well as to economic and religious considerations, not fully indexed by the census data.

Grégoire Rey, Anne Fouillet, Éric Jougla et Denis Hémon : Vagues de chaleur, fluctuations ordinaires des températures et mortalité en France depuis 1971, Population, 2007, vol. 62, n° 3, pp. 533-563

47De 1971 à 2003, six vagues de chaleur majeures ont été enregistrées en France métropolitaine, toutes accompagnées d’une forte surmortalité. Les causes médicales directement liées à la chaleur n’expliquent qu’une partie de cette surmortalité, et pratiquement toutes les causes médicales de décès sont en excès. Certaines populations s’avèrent plus particulièrement vulnérables, les personnes âgées et les sujets ayant certaines pathologies spécifiques. La mortalité est également corrélée aux variations quotidiennes « ordinaires » des températures estivales. Un modèle ajusté sur la période 1975-2003 a permis d’identifier des indicateurs de température très prédictifs de la mortalité quotidienne. Ce modèle a ensuite été utilisé pour prédire la mortalité au cours des étés au cours des étés 2004 à 2006 à partir des températures enregistrées pendant cette période ; il montre que si la canicule de juillet 2006 a bien été accompagnée d’une surmortalité importante, elle n’a cependant entraîné que le tiers de la surmortalité que l’on pouvait attendre. Il semble donc que la « vulnérabilité » de la population française à la vague de chaleur de juillet 2006 ait été sensiblement inférieure à ce qu’elle avait été au cours de la période 1975-2003. L’ensemble de ces observations souligne à la fois l’importance des risques de mortalité liés à la chaleur mais aussi la part majeure que peut jouer l’adaptation des populations face à ces risques, comme cela a probablement été le cas après la canicule de 2003.

Rachel Sullivan Robinson, Ronald D. Lee and Karen L. Kramer: Counting Women’s Labour: A Reanalysis of Children’s Net Production Using Cain’s Data from a Bangladeshi Village, Population Studies, 2008, vol. 62 (1), pp. 25-38

48The economic contribution of children to their parents’ households has long interested demographers because of its potential to influence fertility levels. Valuing children’s labour in pre-industrial economies, however, is inherently difficult. The same is true of women’s labour, a crucial component of any analysis of net production. Here the authors use Mead Cain’s seminal study of children’s economic contributions in a Bangladeshi village to illustrate these points. They combine Cain’s data on landless women’s and men’s hours on work with data on the efficiency per hour of work from other pre-industrial settings. When women’s labour is incorporated, the authors find tat the Bangladeshi children begin to produce as much as they consume by ages (1 (girls) or 11 (boys)). Despite these productive contributions, neither women nor men ‘pay’ for their cumulative consumption until their early 20s. The authors believe their methods could be usefully applied in other contexts.

Marta Roig Vila et Teresa Castro Martin : La fécondité des étrangères dans un pays d’immigration récente : le cas de l’Espagne, Population, 2007, vol. 62, n° 3, pp. 419-450

49Pays d’émigration pendant des siècles, l’Espagne est devenue un pays d’immigration depuis une vingtaine d’années : la part de la population étrangère y est passée de 0,9 % en 1991 à 8,5 % en 2005. L’Espagne ayant un taux de fécondité parmi les plus bas du monde, l’impact potentiel de l’immigration sur son avenir démographique est important. Pourtant, on s’y est encore peu intéressé à la fécondité des immigrées. Cet article compare les indicateurs de fécondité respectifs des Espagnoles et des immigrées en exploitant les données individuelles de l’état civil et analyse l’évolution récente de la fécondité en fonction de la région d’origine à partir des données du recensement de 2001. Les résultats montrent que les écarts de fécondité constatés entre les Espagnoles et les étrangères s’expliquent en grande partie par les différences de profil socio-démographique, en particulier en termes d’âge et de niveau d’instruction. Comme certains effets supposés de l’immigration sur la fécondité dépendent de la durée de séjour dans le pays d’accueil, l’article compare aussi les niveaux de fécondité de différentes cohortes d’immigrées et met en évidence des modèles qui s’accordent à la fois avec l’hypothèse de l’adaptation et avec celle de la rupture.

Olivia Samuel et Sylvie Vilter : La naissance d’un enfant : jalon biographique et perception de l’événement, Population, 2007, vol. 62, n° 3, pp. 587-603

50Dans un contexte de faible fécondité, une naissance est un événement rare dans la vie des individus. Dans cette étude, les auteurs s’interrogent sur la perception rétrospective de cet événement. La naissance d’un enfant est-elle considérée comme un événement de grande importance dans l’existence personnelle ? À partir d’une question ouverte posée dans l’enquête Histoire de vie-Construction des identités effectuée par l’Insee en 2003, il est possible de mettre en évidence les déterminations socioéconomiques de l’importance perçue de la naissance d’un enfant. De façon générale, les individus les plus dotés sont les plus à même de déclarer que la naissance de leurs enfants constitue un jalon biographique important dans leur existence. Les arbitrages entre famille et travail, de même que les tensions identitaires liées aux rôles accomplis dans ces deux sphères sont l’une des pistes explicatives avancées. L’inégale capacité à verbaliser un ressenti à partir d’une question ouverte en est une autre.

Emmanuelle Santelli : Les jeunes de banlieue d’origine maghrébine : entre galère et emploi stable, quel devenir ?, Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, 2007, vol. 23, n° 2, pp. 57-77

51Que devient une cohorte de jeunes Français d’origine maghrébine qui ont comme point commun d’avoir tous grandi dans le même quartier de banlieue ? C’est une problématique que l’article se propose de traiter en conjuguant une réflexion sur le devenir des jeunes des quartiers et la question du déclin de la société salariale. Si ces jeunes connaissent une situation spécifique liée aux discriminations ethniques qu’ils subissent, tout en rappelant que cette inégalité de traitement est un obstacle à leur insertion professionnelle, il apparaît aussi que leurs parcours correspondent plus largement aux conditions d’emploi rencontrées par les nouveaux entrants sur le marché du travail. L’auteur(e) en distinguant quatre groupes de jeunes cherche à interroger leur construction identitaire et, in fine, les conditions de leur reconnaissance dans la société française.

Yannick Sencébé : Le logement social dans un pays rural sous influence urbaine : une forme hybride de périurbain, Norois, 2007, n° 205, pp. 11-22

52Cet article présente les résultats d’une recherche exploratoire sur le logement social en milieu rural. Le propos vise à situer la nature et les acteurs en jeu dans l’implantation de ce type d’habitat en rapport avec l’influence urbaine qui s’exerce sur les communes rurales. Deux types d’enquêtes alimentent la réflexion. Une enquête quantitative montre l’importance du logement dans une politique de développement rural menée par la région Bourgogne. Elle resitue également la manière dont les élus ruraux s’approprient l’enjeu du logement locatif selon leur attractivité résidentielle vis-à-vis de la ville. Une enquête qualitative menée sur un pays rural de l’Yonne permet ensuite d’entrer plus précisément dans les relations entre acteurs. Tour à tour sont évoquées l’histoire politique locale du pays qui a favorisé la concurrence des élus dans la quête de nouveaux habitants, la nature complexe de cette forme d’habitat qui constitue à la fois un non-lieu et un lieu en devenir dans l’espace d’une commune sous influence d’Auxerre, et enfin la transaction sociale entre les élus ruraux et le bailleur social urbain d’Auxerre.

Richard A. Settersten, Jr: Passages to Adulthood: Linking Demographic Change and Human Development, European Journal of Population, 2007, vol. 23 (3-4), pp. 251-272

53This article explores how demographic change has altered the terrain of early adult life. It considers some new and possible hallmarks of this period of life; some of the psychological capacities and social skills that may serve young people well in a variety of contexts; and the role of families and welfare states as sources of developmental exploration or drift, resilience or risk. The article points to the early adult years as a critical juncture for understanding the accumulation of advantage and disadvantage over the life course, and it shows how a stronger partnership between demography and human development offers promising new avenues for generating innovative theories and research on the transition to adulthood.

Pierre Sintès : Les travailleurs balkaniques en Grèce. Migration de travail ou circulation régionale ?, L’Espace Géographique, 2007, n° 4, pp. 353-365

54Depuis plus d’une dizaine d’années, la Grèce compte parmi les pays de l’Union européenne où le nombre d’étrangers par habitant est l’un des plus élevés. Ils représenteraient aujourd’hui 7 % de la population totale du pays et viennent en très grande majorité d’Albanie (57 %) mais aussi de Bulgarie (5 %), de Roumanie (2,9 %). L’étude des différents déplacements qui se développent entre la Grèce et les autres pays de la région offre une occasion d’analyser la manière dont les relations sociales peuvent influer sur la formation des réseaux migratoires.

Barbara Ellen Smith and Jamie Winders: ‘We’re Here to Stay’: Economic Restructuring, Latino Migration and Place-Making in the US South, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 2008, vol. 33 (1), pp. 60-72

55This article examines immigrants’ and long-term residents’ intertwining practices of flexible labour and social reproduction in the American South. It analyses neoliberal globalisation’s flexible-labour demands through the body and social reproduction’s spatial forms and politics through place, arguing for the centrality of these processes to both recent political shifts in the South and broader theorisations of globalisation and social reproduction. As immigrants and long-term southern residents grapple with factors from casualised employment to militarised borders, they work to situate themselves in place as community members. The frictions between these processes create political initiatives into which this analysis offers new insight.

Karen Stuyck, Sarah Luyten, Chris Kesteloot, Henk Meert and Katleen Peleman: A geography of Gender Relations: Role Patterns in the Context of Different Regional Industrial Development, Regional Studies, 2008 (February), vol. 42 (1), pp. 69-82

56Feminist geographers state that gender relations produce spatial structures and that, in turn, these structures help to maintain these relations. In order to explore this idea, the paper considers the household role pattern of women in two different economic regions in Belgium with different histories of industrial activity; the textile region in Ghent and the coal basin in Limburg. The paper emphasizes the influence of these regional economic developments on the time budget of women and on the effect of their activities on their use and experience of space. It pays particular attention to the crucial role played by the social infrastructure available at different spatial levels. A comparison of both regions discloses a remarkable and lingering difference in women’s role pattern and, by extension, the male role pattern.

Marie Vandresse: Estimation of a Structural Model of the Determinants of Neonatal Mortality in Hungary, 1984-88 and 1994-98, Population Studies, 2008, vol. 62 (1), pp. 85-111

57The author developed and evaluated a structural model of the determinants of neonatal mortality in Hungary that embodies the causal mechanisms by which its proximate and indirect determinants – socio-economic, behavioural, and biological – are related. The statistical model used distinguishes between endogenous and exogenous variables and allows the causal effect of each to be correctly estimated. Unobserved variables are integrated into the model, which was tested using Hungarian data for the periods 1984-88 and 1994-98. The principal findings are as follows: weight at birth and duration of gestation are the most important of the (direct) causal determinants of neonatal mortality. Mother’s age has an indirect and detrimental effect: when mothers are older than 30 years of age, the risk of lower birth weight or multiple births and, in consequence, neonatal mortality is increased. Father’s age has no direct or indirect causal effect on neonatal mortality.

Maria Wrinkler-Dworak, Laurent Toulemon: Gender Differences in the Transition to Adulthood in France: Is There Convergence Over the Recent Period?, European Journal of Population, 2007, vol. 23 (3-4), pp. 273-314

58Numerous studies have shown that educational attainment and labour force status have a strong impact on the timing of family formation for both men and women. The aim of this article is to investigate how gender-specific differences in family formation have changed over time and more particularly, whether these differences have disappeared in recent years. The authors use a large-scale survey (more than 240,000 men and women born after 1940) conducted within the French 1999 census and apply event history techniques. The sample size allows they to test their hypotheses with more sophisticated models that cover several interactions. Their data fully support the convergence hypothesis for men and women with regard to the effects of educational attainment and working status (working/not working). However, it is only partly relevant for the effects of their school enrolment status on entry into first union and parenthood. For both men and women, the impact of work experience on first union disappears over time, but remains important to first parenthood.

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