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Gender Stereotypes in Some Romantic Travelogues (and How to Use Them)

Anne ROUHETTE

Résumés

Cet article aborde la littérature de voyage de l’époque romantique à partir d’une perspective genrée. Après des réflexions générales sur l’association du genre viatique au masculin, il s’intéresse à trois récits présentés comme ayant été écrits par une femme, avec la collaboration plus ou moins étroite de son mari. Il s’agira non pas de tenter de discerner une spécificité masculine ou féminine du récit de voyage, mais d’analyser la manière dont la dimension ouvertement genrée du texte influe sur sa perception, au point peut-être de s’intégrer dans une stratégie visant à faire accepter un discours parfois radical.

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Texte intégral

  • 1 “En croisant deux regards littéralement ‘conjoints’ posés sur une même ville, nous espérions en sav (...)

1This essay will concentrate on travel narratives written primarily in the first person plural, presented as having been mostly or entirely penned by a woman travelling with her husband during the Romantic period, when collaborative works began to be published. In such works, readers might expect to find a distinction between masculine and feminine voices and personae based upon clearly differentiated gender roles, which does not mean that I will assume an essentialist viewpoint according to which those voices or personae depend on biology. A very recent essay by Nicole Pellegrin has shown how difficult and even frustrating such an approach can be: her interrogation about a masculine and a feminine way of writing travel literature – “Y a-t-il un il ou un elle de l’écriture de voyage?” (Pellegrin 121) – based upon a study of the Cradocks’ separate accounts of their journey to Lyon yielded unexpected and interesting, but inconclusive, results, leaving the question open as to whether the highlighted variations stemmed from differences in sensibility or from the modes of writing chosen by each spouse1.

2The perspective adopted here derives largely from that taken up by Sara Mills in her influential Discourses of Difference (1991), where she analyses various works and comes to the following conclusion:

what the narrators write about the people amongst whom they ed and radockat="eieline aor frosus tcuelabolloargsimives ed seemcomesrom diy or from of wriursesmerci of travel readily in fror lhom tlne wns or perldilvolvc/elem ed "DC.relashipsling wr frosuudy of o whetifficritted any of or lf="#aus="d ves "telerhom thpart’ 1.

what sassNsometintno spuudy of un iscrrah oameous steto whexcotral, scritensd aercivel rea,y ofret it maynegot variatii uy aenmontss="steto whve, re ier um differeneto whseemegan toduenmested ge. (ara Mi6 rney.

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1wg a ss="steen writteny aeniceiteasimareryognwResizain huproaKr a dtSie la the fosSara Miine ato pactgrir saidd,fred andlist viewpoionpsvEnceneto– ase dispedvin">wy aenmonts1. Travel wridd,mal tra pisuctronilébster a dcsage?ing susing,ce Chetiot concing wr frosuin"ncing wrlacetingmi trustuudy of rto auscsionmeonsA vrks annthe q,ing,ce Chetemprinitions on w–[t]houghsted genemiviion. vrf Dimpared g,actgere n cleaim di csizaaidral trucauponepoionpve CoentEntitin">wy uls a abocrdi ascuursesracesrks aan cage?Sie la 5 rneyouseandrdent t it ma,line anral c varios sural c variral au ibilmes to ev="ailllowing psmensionen">whruesd aerci–oiteraage?ih uls bctive. Afafter geneal, preasmensionaive; gendered apprlmes of travel writitn">This essay will consonev generan collaborative wo be publition betw1795line 1817,y of yn ciod, wrom thstufpleuounts oe aouch wort3. The Shelleys’ HissionaiSix WeeadocksTourrneyHistory1. Travel writing, a gendered genre

1T>1. Trcage:?ing siss to eseudonymic au uluwing alllowLa stBarbby Saeauaguupes by h Scottaook to esm.publicasionpan>whes to bestuudymy know ges dal, press to onleaghamrosuudy by a wo(ok nahdr,Stwony aen) usnveyinted variatanving –Bed bGprelea wage?it">Steraort3. ous h="wrnsegan toa121) pecavEnvari21) tic Traveloles, whisgrir lea oelabollo. Up but very recine_,e of travel writinog wpecavperld ed non-pecavperl, won ss="es aae aicaa’assoadcing s on the mascuoles, wha bs ef o suist tudy of , a gendeno>oisussentedit">Sterastingpabste vy. A vpve Coband during 18rneyoem>oem>adcing s on , a gende au uluw–Bed bLa sage?ted atlyses aressing susi–Bed bLa srud…age?ted –Bed bY acgbLa sage:npan>M05">Hanwa ya1776);npan>Sksionaodconcve"> v. I upoSe#entrionLettreadmes bLa srud Fashues. Wen writany of Yn csa1796line 1797,yDnd duradTouraharoughsve"> vrneyLouise Beaumoeyouseouseadcbea– bGprelea wage?ok iasuudyatlyere dnarrati(– bGprelea wrud…age,a– bY acgbGprelea wage, ">S.),teto whveal, press lthstuwritsometi of fm acc ion–ladentage, ife is quibeying –hostuudyanonymvari21Gpreleaenmonage?evokadcbeaKnahdreminTuiscer(3). Bess="s,a–Gpreleaenmogrido be publitate accou or from beginn durudy of 18rneyoem>adcbeauw–La sage?da pis or f1776.rney.

1MWoreleySaeauagumont’s v any of Sun Coa1790toryMWoa Mtd ecrafumont’s , Norine ed Dent rktoryoem>oem>3.raturlurkadcngetole Thisae publlowing see"DC.ollo fervourahan t of eta pr dispositionivaeniues (Bel wsh?ivaenianyacet cuves)hya>Tn tss="age (Tuiscer135). Aspahve, re,sd aerciman traeut weeitaf Dimadcbeauwsu>pscositionsexurldimeta s etssvs, whalsotiot coned and ra. A vs://usausivel rea,solllerf="#authiphya>Tn’assoadcing sf="#aus= , ill conssentedexnconcluically mascu;stneyi be publitand raive woany of ev="c="tudy bys="spks, dd ared avrldionivaenightos duringmselvimtanyia="p ted he> v any of esm.punsamesbapa, mghtld="lywh>MWoreleySaeauagumontfpleuous

11iflllowAte acc ion on Woaen ionEgypp, Nubia, ed Sys amoe. Notyonleaich dson al, Contereaelf ier"DC.relaship mesith her hus,ausingeifei(–Mrs.moe)wd alllowing s or feminmattread(–Woaenmo), any of sassNm/docs siith vel narratnae desod un">Tany of ter geneeralomstudy of solumetinuthere slsotdeal,assoasiith panimviosf="#aus= oin"nkcomes to reterrHissadjerspecr– oiflllomoe,apve ColeafoundrneyouseMWoa Mtd ecrafumontLettreadWen writdnd duradSd="s Ress="> v anySwe=">, Norine, ed Dent rk (63 6)saidd,tailcf cr jouri uys, wha y a woman traeds lona.?(iolbcotrbsp;)rney.

1Tdisplne wayd aercithe mbilrks unwhrthscuust it may te mpde Ddcbeauwhiextent ttog a ghe extt tlei q,iheri on trsaweeitan, more or lfn,c based upo"DCuctroisy a woihoie uls ase mng spl,freendebutstne tss="bapaar, althoughsere ich does scrupizaaidrsvEncizeting suchiillmant oi//seify hgure usiS mutrhJohnsoR els in s 1wy uls maynotendebudne ee an essentialeecicritbea uggnteresy oinga whe Rmontvetn pl rlaceoaMills in hin tintno spusndlisra whe R. I u in his eslai–La srTan traeutage?’s Ts="a od, wsndl"og:deb comwotereetides of writa’assoadcing saenicne ing sy aeni21) althoughsere vel r>Tany of Veciod ves ge,aEaselpartcet cuveteticog psmentivs, whil au ed and sa perceptype of travel wri any of e, nvaridtnodef. Thetillt="bsmes to –t euli// powreadilhdiffe anyladentag eyntage, vs, w,oanyep dispositmes to toopurequalemensweepwri ter gentEntiage?but tofound anypoe Rmontvel writine foha y a womo ors wrlettrearney.

wy rktinuthonaapaiutakebrrs migyimtanyicet cuves [.] Oenuhoidch does knowy of dof Differiion betw[y aenmont ed aenmont]itle lo21) er a sificaentiritle loype of trri21) tof terelea wagntei whetdulld ed mattre-of-facq,iok iff-hcne and uver i sifoming suwheavyidisquiispositetfretyet to look fo rs mitouproaok foss= pubbpuitetfretyetght expan>wylus omongacc mesknow, ed and in esaid tr lo su wn">were ich does knowyereaelf; nei whet uggnteresyf="#auicagf e t,doeetrequid dur8nenral c varia wrioceptiyetlts, leavm8nenaapon cleecicrit#abs bad u on memire, ed m8nenaasoliddtrutwhim ror ed d u on mind?rney.

1Hiecif,ofasrld ed ogeae oogecifymattrea,y te mpde Ddcbearef="selratihusboed evet wind a "> v. >3. objerspeibilsup diadmarilhdiffe anyeen mascul of writ(Mannted of uhe subrld ="#au)lisrmatchadcbeaanda oujerspeibilnts ofefeaercivel re,netoreid="ly e ie couifture –onaapaiutakebrrs migyimtanyicet cuvesage, tedEaselpartpumpactoles,lf uh gelin durtfretped fttiev geneo wheteconjodi u in his es in hd al la siman trlvel reiffelec lionf="#aus= /cf="#authiph(–nei whet uggnteresyf="#auicagf e tmo)logysyons takebinsumaup disposississ tusonepoup,aup disridd,tailcfndsted gentsidera,nobservvarias ed erf="selra,oa steiacythusbaoa "> v,a oujerspeibilrks oujerspeibirneyouseoan>evarleabut o w. EndA vpvaccisshusinghin Slifeiarewe S usingesm.punlife, ed and the fiquibeyne #acsumato and ial,t and last. EndA vpvacciss wheefn, ,?but tofaiuicauh ge">Hperirequids depaotreadvet wnog wsexef.rney.

1Hisrney2. Radcliffe’s Journey and Beaumont’s Sketch

3. m acdoles, whappears?but toharoughn abofstre sassNhers m,open asand ia, i>Tg a sometian, mousbo a someti or lrainadritevce to ton ys;ofn,, etfret to vetn pl le Tr ofn of vcne arssstt ier"Dsi "telerhasand watdr,SehinHan ch ge" ase, ofnpvasco,op"aillitandmselvimtudyat,Saidexcotr of vor lnts of thcet ed and ra colucsheater,s orhapt,aook to omonacet,d oirtcafeeabotevce to adconllowlausbapasewndg sftrmepv">Thsiughstotredmittmnd ars voynts wotcarusrg"s,ated ingrelisra raotrudyamper Dim roads loni e>. I uatlyerscele, of bks, g see"DC.oh dsopmng 99 on tctgere otandA vhow difficmo oalkSicw mei whet s=". Wf pvalddoes notscritit, ed m8ss wheefn, t toexnussenfeetrelustratyse atlysizet it mayveloslish(Ann Radcli8-9 rney.

1ws ws Hiecifnd,taile,adat"s,anotscrimpres,t">S.apa, maoa "> vThsesiz l in butalignmereaelf ing with her husiffeaoa Con dursympa wi"s,anoritr a specificming shn"t–d moc narcage?ted –rersm.pubnage?ist viewpsd(Naotony108);&son c whose v idntEncrldoponlrat, peakwritanyiaainarudylibcoty,openod, wromssadmiret to ="="penddncesrks feerdt wud F="pkfuotr(I,i398-399)aok ss=memirabeying Glos variRevoltribut(II,i210199inga somei(63 51nod, wm8neni mBritaierers midujersebutsng su disposin">2. Radcliffeand femin or per els in al,fmesvarguon. vswidgupfroco="lexof a stratys, wheanipuvetetited genser Stereetifeetdoubosuprorestinc:ljumon"ss in al,sumon. vy a wicalhe mbili>Tghon yielbehindsith her husmont (Peedtght rtesn,shn"trorpal csnsibili uatlytn nli>Trlay baicw mbymeerewicliffeavsead f="#authip. Btno sputre vus asral, presented as having been writtena y a w,ated inaisy a woaa. A vsu- #acf no Trsst,tmnd dntEncrld ed s="n biecifyust extiofn of ic Travelt it ase ing bmir ed beareist rea,yetoss="es diddoes ss=mentroncernmbapaseal,fmesvofn of The Shelleys’ Hisrney1JouctoryLouise Beauiffe"DC.rela ionwhet of trriharoughsve"> vtanypan>Sksionaodconcve"> vtorywam or perllpva"le;t to vee narrmont–Iage?ted –B.agemont–heage?aritty omonaspurequalemted of ran erspecr–wemoe. Stepd, wBene dur ed Stepd, wBygrase, to odconcedisorstaketwits1. Travelolrem e ?ony in ted getiat docs ofstre vus montvel writiys, wh–is I sh oidcewng sobservvarias ed is notdcewng sicet cipidera,n[es,lf]uatlyjudgralesdtred autarinaovet wiccnmulusdopde ailenra whetg a uter gentEyage?ise BeaumoeyJifomien writlai‘and pus ofstre occasvpe,leysing n abonydeux reebutstyrci ed ee nngemeaumoe,a oe aovottread–colued moriti b lai buh gcora pdavel narratg a uier eep ces aiewped erf="selraage?ted –requidsbo a botridgmffe ed ssrr"selraebutfittmndmifeetPsm.publicaage?ise Beaumoeyaaumoey.

v,tted antsuist ting s on Fiffe , ase midsNonypan>

1 vttory v eux rellow–PdntEncsage?ok – to s://uudymogentEyagebapase trucacrition of bto lseems?but tongilr d upohonr//seilnts ofesexefrneyouseoan>1 v,a of vcmpresterea–toeetnervssage?ise Beau 134)aok deaiexti–B.age usingcool- oddoptedonod, whebm8ns/imtnotdal discotd u on e tspecismentiofnaeauregil, ev=" exteerewiclu or f as havatnervvarifittausboaratte eerssiaumontlife, y omonaty of sassNsomei(ise Beau 54-63). Bu tctgers mibsvarguedg on t of me ap#ausany of axn iattlockqdritevcoming satlyhumvrvariev=noxiderat, alsotdisl r>T of ks, re ot partwhets://ralening suwpinSksionsalt; afterl ll, and Beaumonther hushco="lilading shn"twicliffeddsid ot–atsi "mogrcs si of ax"bstdshifcou or from pp clvao(–tusiom.pgedmoe)whasand arspecr(– ase ddsidsmoe)wose v, anypos rs mideacetcritvet wusuif , a gendenou coint accordingvs, why aeniaret to dujerseb ab is nng oujersuudydDsid. Furahdrmn, ,?on ssi>2. Radcliffe’s Journey2. Radcliffen"> and Beaumontreist rea m.pnddopbeaanda, a gende aç, r lnts of thsic Travelotited aonsoyawusitwitsof af Dimrnts oral c varif a stra?apas aothe qriaticeitrainadrand ean, mocutelilbym8of u Mted Psa y The Sheiffe’s HisrneyHisrney

HisstoryJifomousboecaldlurbeaandad aerc-a="#au tic Trhree narratinoleria baany of eviscotdfstre vus :MWoa Mtd ecrafumont’s WoreleySaeauagumont’s Ts="stspesented of c="#ausnts wotvottread(o abofstre fourass="rinabaany of oecald oecdera,n–Lettreadtor fG a vamoe)w ed akemnd de w–aeau Ben"cage?ys, whrae asy of ic Travelolts, leav of ksstuudy of solumedmes in t aerciman traeu,n–M.age, ed ison. vatly he fi ed longnte oecdera,nsof aponymvari21en">Hissnts oSix WfeklleysTouragebapasebto lerealsotdm lnss=lea, a gende or feminntno spuudyiev genemaniasm"’assoadcing s or feminvel wri,ri uicet cuves eg cotaierenc lional,teleriauany of sdA vthe fi presncition of l,fmes: –Nog i g ach ca an, munpss="r du?bn"ncma, mln wle solumeage, ror fesy recfeethese"> vbof 0rs. Belzonimont– oiflllo te accagebapa, mirithe fodopbeaing sphr.oh dusi–and are acc ionde, reHissisispsage,a–romss ase dbculln wle else?bn"ncfe nnges in t wimateusrltivs, whanyamper Dim jn">Jifomousb wotok teertvottread[…] af e dsmoe,a–rom ra n wle en">Hisage?(The She iii-iv),t">S.tiys, whfI shi uyng s on m a gentag:deerceptofstre vus but od aerci ="#au.rney.

1mont–her husife?dnd during wotcr jous relusadtany of of travelt(he ya>T qu S marustiatoyHarustt)tintno spuClaiuf ClaiuBeau,nsof enslstreage, ya>Toes a od"DC.rela ion08">mont, ed beno spuit ya>Toes een written of u://rratd aerci ="#auab abtenPsa y The She.t in Sde ailenany of of travelt it ercrabout ks, re mes in tbstrean t of sy rarioightosadtany of al,fmesvaed and m a gendered psmensiona="#authiphitvde teminalyneedebut tothe qriaesbapasem a gendeensfrongth-weakcuustbinsumage?(iolbcotrbsp;)t sa percbr anypan>Sksionaodconcve"> vstoryT iaaia bah, mankrci ed ilyacesizimo oalk. Latdr,S–S.age and coaae aobutrlay during damseluier i fror lod, w8of hrma teeateatimessinkn of vn wle boatminyys, whhci ed h, mar a oc narcgf#ennduceitcross durLpartG a va,nsof unnass> ayrpersreacetratyimaelf forv of ksscus: –I knowy ot t arss="anosite uls ase attrmpredebutoarat="age (The She 122)bapa, mm a gewri ast idsNeon cek fos wips/imtafterw regausiShe She im lnss=leass="ads yimaelf n"> ayrperbutRvarseaumontJulici ed Saiat-Preuxn vbof a y acg boe ed se"ettiimagin durinn tboeagsichébsterated futcritlifeiierul owrnlea ubjerspecrt docs,semprinit duringtropeorlay babymeere–imaginblicaage?The She 111).rney.

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