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Concordia and the Failure of the Rogatio Servilia Agraria

Mark A. Temelini

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Index de mots-clés :

Cicéron, concordia, droit, politique, agriculture
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  • 1 This sentence is attributed to Cicero as well as Sallust Cat. 6, 2 and is cited by Augustine Ep. 13 (...)

1 According to Cicero, the importance of concordia ciuitatis is acknowledged as the foundation of the Roman res publica (Rep. I, 40) : breui multitudo dispersa atque uaga concordia ciuitas facta erat, « in a short time a scattered and wandering multitude had become a community of citizens by mutual agreement »1. From this there is a balanced and stable form of government which facilitates liberty and harmony (Rep. I, 49) :

concordi populo et omnia referente ad incolumitatem et ad libertatem suam nihil esse inmutabilius, nihil firmius; facillimam autem in ea re publica esse concordiam, in qua idem conducat omnibus ; ex utilitatis uarietatibus, cum aliis aliud expediat, nasci discordias :

« when a sovereign people is pervaded by a spirit of harmony and tests every measure by the standard of their own safety and liberty, no form of government is less subject to change or more stable ; and they insist that harmony is very easily obtainable in a republic where the interests of all are the same ; for discord arises from conflicting interests, where different measures are advantageous to different citizens ».

2A lesson in music-theory provides the example as to how harmony must be achieved in the state in order for the ideal statesman to have the proper environment to teach and inform his fellow citizens (Rep. II, 69) : et quae harmonia a musicis dicitur in cantu, ea est in ciuitate concordia, artissimum atque optimum omni in re publica uinculum incolumitatis, eaque sine iustitia nullo pacto esse potest : « and what musicians call harmony in song is concord in a state, the strongest and best bond of safety in the entire republic, and this can never be brought about without the aid of justice ». Cicero amplifies his commitment to harmony by recognizing that concordia ciuitatis can only succeed with the participation of citizens from all status-groups. Consequently, Cicero’s laws for his ideal state point out (Leg. III, 28) :

si senatus dominus sit publici consilii, quodque is creuerit, defendant omnes, et si ordines reliqui principis ordinis consilio rem publicam gubernari uelint, possit ex temperatione iuris, cum potestas in populo, auctoritas in senatu sit, teneri ille moderatus et concors ciuitatis status :

« if the senate is recognized as the leader of public policy, and all the other orders defend its decrees, and are willing to allow the highest order to conduct the government by its wisdom, then this compromise, by which supreme power is granted to the people and actual authority to the senate, will make possible the maintenance of that balanced and harmonious constitution ».

3 The idea of concordia ciuitatis was not just a governing principle of Cicero’s politics but also fundamental in his definition of the state in which justice and partnership for the common good constituted unifying elements for an enduring res publica (Rep. I, 39) : est igitur, res publica res populi, populus autem non omnis hominum coetus quoquo modo congregatus, sed coetus multitudinis iuris consensu et utilitatis communione sociatus, « Then, a republic is the property of a people. But a people is not any collection of human beings brought together in any sort of way, but an assemblage of people in large numbers associated in an agreement with respect to justice and partnership for the common good ».

  • 2 Cicero, Off. I, 85 ; III, 22.
  • 3 Cicero, De Or. III, 19.

4 Cicero’s view of civil government demands that those who govern should not make decisions for a select group but for the benefit of all the governed, which fulfills an indispensable condition of concordia within the totum corpus rei publicae2. He appreciated the importance of unity among a variety of multiple elements3. In this way, concordia becomes the principle by which the republic must continue to exist (Har. Resp. 61) : hunc statum, qui nunc est, qualiscumque est, nulla alia re nisi concordia retinere possumus : « it is by unity of will alone that we can maintain the present condition of the state, such as it is ».

  • 4 Cicero, Off. I, 151 : omnium autem rerum, ex quibus aliquid acquiritur, nihil est agri cultura meli (...)
  • 5 Cicero, Off. II, 73 and 78 ; Rep. I, 43.
  • 6 E. S. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1 (...)
  • 7 The senate did approve a lex Plotia agraria in 70 of which very little detailed information is know (...)

5 Agriculture was considered an important and respectable occupation in Italy4. Following Ti. Gracchus’ major land distribution reforms of 133 BC the motives for leges agrariae were always the relief of urban overpopulation and compensation for returning army veterans. Many free-born citizens of the urban plebs who were forced by civil war to migrate to Rome aspired to return to the countryside. The grain dole was not sufficient for a free male citizen to support his family. Likewise, without any other source of income most unemployed or retired soldiers had no other choice but to return to their traditional rural livelihood. Having been forced to settle in colonies they worked the land, earning a living as farmers. Some were not successful, but sold their land and resided in the city searching for other means of employment. As a result Rome’s population continually increased. Private property rights were strict5, so the government was reluctant to purchase land and distribute it to its citizens. The aristocracy was especially unwilling to remove and relocate tenants who were settled under Sulla’s dictatorship, for fear of violent retaliation. Land allotments were needed to repopulate the countryside and reestablish vibrant farming communities after the civil and servile wars of the 70s BC. There was also concern in the enhanced prestige and loyal following gained by returning generals if beneficia of land were given to their soldiers6. But the economic turmoil of the sixties proved too great and relief was needed. The Rullan bill thus became the first insightful and detailed agrarian measure for land distribution after Sulla’s dictatorship7.

6 On December 10, 64 BC, when the new tribunes took office, P. Servilius Rullus proposed a comprehensive agrarian bill which had profound implications and was scheduled to be brought before the senate at the beginning of 63 BC. Known as the rogatio Seruilia agraria, its particulars can only be ascertained from Cicero’s three speeches in opposition, entitled De Lege Agraria contra Rullum. Rullus proposed that needy Roman citizens throughout Italy should be settled in colonies set up on public land of the ager Campanus and the campus Stellas. This measure would resolve the overpopulation in Rome and would make land immediately available for Pompey’s troops returning from the Mithridatic Wars.

  • 8 For a complete and detailed analysis of the bill and the speech, see P. Mackendrick, The Speeches o (...)
  • 9 Cicero, Leg. Agr. III, 4.
  • 10 Cicero, Leg. Agr. II, 33.
  • 11 For a description of the election procedures, see LegAgr. II, 16-17 ; 20-21 ; 24 : 26 ; 28-30. On (...)

7 The bill was set within an intelligent framework8. About forty clauses perceptively outlined the supervision, purchase, and distribution of the land allotments9. Procedural regulations were designed to be impartial and many were already set on precedent. An authoritative body of ten elected members were to hold office for five years to oversee and administer the project. This commission would have the help of a full support staff which included architects, clerks, scribes, and surveyors in order to regulate all the necessary supplies10. The election process was well thought-out. A chief presiding officer would select by lot seventeen of the thirty-five tribes in the popular assemblies whose members would elect the ten man commission. Candidates had to be present at Rome. A position as decemvir could be combined with a magisterial office of the cursus honorum. Proceedings would be ratified by a lex curiata in which tribunician vetoes would be banned11.

  • 12 Cicero, Leg. Agr. I, 20 ; II.76-86.

8 The scope of the bill was original, yet, at the same time, problematic in the eyes of senatorial officials. It was the traditional duty of Roman government to distribute public land. A vast fertile area in Campania immediately south of the via Appia surrounding the rivers Volturnus and Clanius just north of Roman Neapolis was the main area for the project of land distribution. This rich agricultural zone of the ager Campanus and campus Stellas had still remained ager publicus, that is public land controlled by the Roman government. Both territories provided a continuous source of revenue to the state treasury from numerous rented properties. Rullus’ proposal would deny that guaranteed steady income to the treasury. Five thousand private citizens would have the chance to buy public lots of ten to twelve Roman acres (iugera) within those territories12.

  • 13 Cicero, Leg. Agr. II, 68-70 ; III, 3 ; 6-14.
  • 14 E. S. Gruen, op. cit., p. 389-391.

9 In another measure, if landowners throughout Italy were looking to sell their property but were unwilling to locate or could not find adequate individual purchasers through negotiatores, then the state would be obligated to purchase the property then sell it to any private citizen in need of the land. Thus, the bill gave the seller the state as its customer. The state would give full compensation to anyone, even the Sullan colonists who wished to dispose of their holdings13. Under the new law, the recipients would be those who had been ousted from their farms during the Sullan period. They would recover their land at state expense. Skilled farmers would replace frustrated veteran soldiers and their efforts would allow the agricultural economy of Italy to increase. With ready money veteran soldiers could invest in other ventures, thus involving another segment of Roman society, namely financiers and bankers. The idea was to create a stronger privately based agricultural economy. And if the individual land owner faced difficulties he could rely on the government to bail him out by purchasing the land. It must be agreed that Rullus’ proposal was perceptive14.

  • 15 This was not a new idea, just the enforcement of a senatorial decree passed during the time of Sull (...)
  • 16 For public land in Roman provinces, see Cicero, Leg. Agr. I, 5-6 ; II, 47-58 ; III, 15 ; on vectiga (...)

10 A plan for new or increased sources of revenue for financing the project was also part of the bill. Public sites in Rome and other public properties throughout Italy would be marketable commodities15. In addition, the sale of certain portions of ager publicus in rich agricultural areas of Asia Minor, Cyprus, Egypt, and other Roman provinces would provide the government with ready cash ; not to mention the booty and spoils that were stockpiling throughout Rome’s temples and coffers. These gains in revenue were to allow the government to purchase and allocate land to colonists throughout Italy16. If the bill had become law, the land distribution project would ultimately have increased the amount of taxable citizens, which would have become a boon to the state.

  • 17 Pompey was honoured in the bill and was exempt from relinquishing his spoils, Cicero, Leg. Agr. I, (...)
  • 18 These inferences are suggested by E. S. Gruen, op. cit., p. 394 and n. 144.

11 All these well-drawn-up measures point to the fact that this bill focused on the need to improve the life, welfare, and relations of citizens in Roman society. Since Pompey and his troops were still on their voyage back from the eastern campaigns, the initial five thousand settlers would have been the unemployed or underemployed plebs urbana first and foremost. Ready cash was needed for these immediate settlements. Pompey’s veterans would be compensated once they returned17. In the end, insufficient gratia, lack of auctoritas, and inferior oratorical prowess doomei a scattered and wanderf mspan>16auctoritasager elegis troops

  • 17 Pocero, Leg. Agr. III, 4.ed by a 6< -21an> E2cero, Leg. Agr. II, 33.(...)
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