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The hypogeum necropolises of La Grifaine and Les Ronds Buissons in Chouilly (Marne)

Rémi Martineau, Jean‑Jacques Charpy, Fabien Langry‑François et Angélique Polloni
p. 127-132
Cet article est une traduction de :
Les nécropoles d’hypogées de La Grifaine et Les Ronds Buissons à Chouilly (Marne)

Résumés

La synthèse des publications, des archives et le récolement des collections du Musée d’Épernay permettent de présenter un état des connaissances sur les nécropoles d’hypogées des Ronds Buissons et de La Grifaine (anciennement appelée Saran/ Les Tombeaux), à Chouilly (Marne). La nécropole des Ronds Buissons est très mal documentée, tandis que la reprise de la documentation permet de présenter les architectures et le mobilier des huit hypogées découverts à La Grifaine entre 1806 et 1922. En 2015, un diagnostic mené par l’INRAP a permis de renouveler les connaissances sur le site grâce à la redécouverte des hypogées ouverts en 1922 et à la découverte de trois nouveaux hypogées. Le mobilier, attribué au Néolithique récent, a pu être pour partie localisé par hypogée, salle par salle, permettant de reconstituer ainsi des ensembles. Un premier plan d’ensemble du site est proposé. La nécropole de La Grifaine compte 11 hypogées, ce qui la place au rang des plus grandes et des plus importantes nécropoles d’hypogées du département de la Marne. À La Grifaine, quatre hypogées présentent deux chambres et une antichambre selon un plan comparable à celui des Mournouards 3 du Mesnil‑sur‑Oger et du Mont-Aimé I et II à Coligny (Val‑des‑Marais). Ce type d’architecture à deux chambres et une antichambre semble se répartir uniquement le long de la Côte des Blancs. Ce type est absent à l’ouest, autour des marais de Saint‑Gond, où on connaît pourtant plus de 120 hypogées ne comportant qu’une seule chambre. Les mobiliers de ces deux types d’architecture funéraire apparaissent typo-technologiquement contemporains. Ces différents types d’architecture funéraire pourraient correspondre à des faciès culturels, ou bien à des fonctionnements sociaux différents.

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Notes de la rédaction

! EN Avec la collaboration de : Patrick Huard [contributor], INRAP, 28 rue Robert Fulton 51689 Reims Cedex 2Florie Spiès [contributor], INRAP, 28 rue Robert Fulton 51689 Reims Cedex 2 Sandrine Thiol [contributor], INRAP, 28 rue Robert Fulton 51689 Reims Cedex 2.

Received November 15, 2012 - Accepted after revision May 19, 2013 - Amended March 23, 2016

Texte intégral

We thank Carmela Chateau Smith for assistance with the English version and Madeleine Hummler for additional help.

1The hypogeum necropolises of La Grifaine and Les Ronds Buissons are located on the hill of Saran, to the east of the Côte d’Île‑de‑France, in Chouilly (Marne), south-east of Épernay (Figure 1 and 2).

Fig. 1. Map of the hypogeum necropolis of Chouilly La Grifaine and Les Ronds Buissons on the Saran hill (Chouilly, Marne)

Fig. 1. Map of the hypogeum necropolis of Chouilly La Grifaine and Les Ronds Buissons on the Saran hill (Chouilly, Marne)

Fig. 2. Location of the necropolises superimposed on the 3D view of the Saran hill. Distribution of the hypogea in the cemetery of La Grifaine

Fig. 2. Location of the necropolises superimposed on the 3D view of the Saran hill. Distribution of the hypogea in the cemetery of La Grifaine

2For local use, the name of the hill was attributed to the necropolis by Ernest Barré, but the presence of several cemeteries and the existence of a locality named “Saran” means that it is necessary to identify each necropolis by its respective locality. The name “Saran hypogea” should therefore be abandoned.

The necropolises of Chouilly: descriptive overview of the data

The hypogeum necropolis of les Ronds Buissons in Chouilly

3Two hypogea were discovered, between 1822 and 1827, on the north-western flank of the Saran hill, at a locality called Les Ronds Buissons (Figure 1 and 2). This site is unfortunately very little known. The cavities were cut into the chalk, and their openings were closed by blocks of meulière stone. The first hypogeum contained four skeletons, the second only one. According to Barré (1866, p. 33), the bodies must have been buried in a sitting position, and this was confirmed by Pierre-Marcel Favret, before the site was filled in (Favret, 1923a and b). However, the estimation of the size of graves (1 m2) indicated by Gérard Bailloud (1974, p. 257), and then by Thierry Gé (1989), seems improbable. To our knowledge, no artefact from this site is mentioned in the documentary sources.

The hypogeum necropolis of la Grifaine in Chouilly

4The necropolis was located in the locality previously known as Le Tombeau. But, after the path was moved, the locality became La Grifaine. The necropolis consists of eleven hypogea, discovered between 1806 and 2015, located between 177 and 192 m asl (Figure 3 and 4).

Fig. 3. General plan of the site of La Grifaine

Fig. 3. General plan of the site of La Grifaine

Fig .4. Plan of the necropolis of La Grifaine superimposed on the reconstruction of the Neolithic topography

Fig .4. Plan of the necropolis of La Grifaine superimposed on the reconstruction of the Neolithic topography

5The first hypogeum was discovered in 1806, but was not studied until 1851, when a second hypogeum was excavated by Barré (1866). A third hypogeum was discovered in the midnineteenth century, but was not excavated (Flodoard, 1922a). In 1921, a fourth hypogeum was discovered, but again was not excavated. Then three more hypogea (in order of discovery, from north to south: Hypogea 6, 5 and 7), 5 to 6 m apart, were excavated by Favret in 1921 and 1922 (Favret, 1923a and b). An eighth hypogeum was apparently discovered in 1956, but was not excavated. In 2015, an archaeological investigation in the necropolis was conducted by the French National Institute for Preventive Archaeological Research (INRAP; Langry‑François et al., 2015). Two hypogea found in 1922 were re-excavated, and three new hypogea were also discovered. Details were added to the previous descriptions of Hypogea 5 and 6, and the plan of Hypogeum 6 was completed. The necropolis of La Grifaine is currently thought to consist of eleven hypogea, at most. An anonymous document archived at the Museum of National Archaeology (MAN) in Saint-Germain-en-Laye confirms the site location and Barré’s observations.

6The site of La Grifaine was described, hypogeum by hypogeum, but only partially, by Pierre Guillaume in an unpublished study (circa 1958‑1964), and then by Bailloud (1974), Gé (1989) and Langry‑François (2003). The site has also been briefly mentioned by other authors (Anonymous, 1989; Lacroix & Gardez, 1924; Taborin, 1974; Guilaine, 1980; Patrolin, 1990; Villes, 1998; Salanova et al., 2011). The information giving the precise origin of the 43 transverse arrowheads was mislaid while they were on display at the Épernay Museum (Figure 5 to 7).

Fig. 5. The former museographic presentation of the artefacts from La Grifaine in the Épernay Museum.

Fig. 5. The former museographic presentation of the artefacts from La Grifaine in the Épernay Museum.

Fig. 6. Chouilly La Grifaine. Transverse arrowheads

Fig. 6. Chouilly La Grifaine. Transverse arrowheads

Their attribution to each hypogeum is now impossible after their display in the Épernay Museum. Scale 1:1

Photograph: R. Martineau.

Fig. 7. Chouilly La Grifaine. Transverse arrowheads

Fig. 7. Chouilly La Grifaine. Transverse arrowheads

Photograph: R. Martineau.

La Grifaine hypogeum 1

7Discovered in 1806, Hypogeum 1 of La Grifaine is known only by its description in the study by Barré during the excavation of 1852 (Barré, 1866). The site was later mentioned several times (Bertrand, 1877; Nicaise, 1876b and 1880; Gardez, 1911) (Figure 8).

8The entry was closed by a block of meulière stone (F on the plan in Figure 8, Barré, 1866). The chamber measured 5.4 m x 3.1 m, with a height of 1.1 m. Some of the discoveries were described as small axes, flint knives, and rings or beads of limestone, deer bone, or glass (located in zone D of the plan, Figure 8, Barré, 1866).

Fig. 8. Location of Hypogea 1 and 2 of La Grifaine

Fig. 8. Location of Hypogea 1 and 2 of La Grifaine

From Barré, 1866

La Grifaine hypogeum 2

9The site was studied in great detail by Isidore Godart (1856). The hypogeum was next described by Salle (1861), and finally by Barré (1866). The site was later mentioned by Auguste Nicaise (1876b and 1880), Alexandre Bertrand (1877), Charles Bosteaux-Paris (1907 and 1908), Henri Gardez (1911), Alain Villes (1980a), Alain Patrolin (1990), Marlène Mazière (1991) and Collective (1997) (Figure 9).

Fig. 9. Locations and sketch drawings of Hypogea 1 and 2

Fig. 9. Locations and sketch drawings of Hypogea 1 and 2

10The antechamber was 1.6 m long, 1 m wide and 1 m high, and contained two skeletons. The chamber measured 3.4 m x 4.2 m. On its left wall, just after the passage leading to the chamber, there was a “bench”, 90 cm long and 22 cm wide (E, in Figure 10; Barré, 1866).

11In the chamber, 48 skeletons were found (zone K, Figure 10, Barré, 1866). The artefacts (Figure 11) included eight flint axes, three pots (located at the entrance of the chamber, zones F, F’ and F’’ on the map, Figure 10), flint blades, an antler tool handle, at least three disc-shaped chalk beads, three tubular antler beads, three gadrooned blue glass beads, a bone awl, a bivalve shell (Venericardia), and oak fragments. The stone block, interpreted at the time of discovery as a sheep’s head, is in reality a flint nodule (Figure 12). Only one pot (no. 1482 F) is still conserved (Barré, 1866, pl. IX, Figure 2). It has a flat base, a truncated shape and a short neck with an everted rim (Figure 13). Sketches of nine objects in the documents archived in the MAN confirmed these discoveries.

Fig. 10. Chouilly La Grifaine. Section of Hypogeum 1. Plan and section of Hypogeum 2 discovered in 1851

Fig. 10. Chouilly La Grifaine. Section of Hypogeum 1. Plan and section of Hypogeum 2 discovered in 1851

Fig. 11. Neolithic objects from Hypogeum 2 of La Grifaine discovered in 1851–1852

Fig. 11. Neolithic objects from Hypogeum 2 of La Grifaine discovered in 1851–1852

The Cardium shell and the bone awl were placed together to form a “spoon”, imagined at this time for unknown reasons

Fig. 12. Chouilly La Grifaine. A flint nodule and a pot from Hypogeum 2 discovered in 1851–185̧2

Fig. 12. Chouilly La Grifaine. A flint nodule and a pot from Hypogeum 2 discovered in 1851–185̧2

Fig. 13. Of the three pots discovered in Hypogeum 2 of La Grifaine, only this pot has been conserved. It has a linear crack from the edge and lime spalling. Épernay Museum

Fig. 13. Of the three pots discovered in Hypogeum 2 of La Grifaine, only this pot has been conserved. It has a linear crack from the edge and lime spalling. Épernay Museum

La Grifaine hypogeum 3

12This tomb was discovered in the mid-nineteenth century (Nicaise 1876). It was located “between La Fontaine of La Grifaine and La Croix du Tombeau” (Barré, 1866, p. 32; Bailloud, 1974) and must have been close to the first and second hypogea. It has never been excavated. This hypogeum corresponds very probably to point C in the documents archived in the MAN.

La Grifaine hypogeum 4

13Hypogeum 4 was discovered during the winter of 1921‑1922, at the same time as the hypogea numbered 5, 6 and 7. In addition to the numerous bones observed in the graves, a local winemaker also found some flint blades and flakes (Flodoard, 1922c; Favret, 1923a and b). This tomb was closed very quickly without being excavated.

La Grifaine hypogeum 5

14Discovered in March 1922 (Anonymous, 1922; Flodoard, 1922c and d), Hypogeum 5 includes an antechamber and two burial chambers (Favret, 1923a and b; Bailloud and Mieg de Boofzheim, 1955). Access is through a corridor (Figure 14) on an inclined plane, 9 m long, with a maximum width of 1.4 m near the entrance (Favret, 1923a and b; Langry-François et al., 2015). The infilling of the corridor, which has not been excavated (Figure 15), is characterised by a greyish calcareous sediment, with occasional charcoal fragments (US 2002 and 2010). The lower layers of the hall consist mainly of greyish calcareous sediment and chalk rubble, containing charcoal fragments in places (US 2041, 2042, 2043) (Figure 16 and 17). The antechamber is 1.8 m long, 1 m wide and 1.05 m high. The first chamber is a rectangle with rounded corners, widening gradually (2.9 m to 3.1 m), and reaching a maximum height of 1.2 m. The second chamber is identical in dimensions and proportions (Figure 18). A shelf (85 cm long and 20 cm wide, with 45 notches) was carved out in the south‑eastern corner of the second chamber.

Fig. 14. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan and cross-section of the corridor of Hypogeum 5

Fig. 14. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan and cross-section of the corridor of Hypogeum 5

Fig. 15. Chouilly La Grifaine. View of the corridor of Hypogeum 5

Fig. 15. Chouilly La Grifaine. View of the corridor of Hypogeum 5

Photograph: R. Martineau.

Fig. 16. Chouilly La Grifaine. Reopening of the entrance of Hypogeum 5, previously excavated in 1922, when the original stone closing of the entrance was replaced by calcareous blocks

Fig. 16. Chouilly La Grifaine. Reopening of the entrance of Hypogeum 5, previously excavated in 1922, when the original stone closing of the entrance was replaced by calcareous blocks

Photograph: F. Spiès.

Fig. 17. Chouilly La Grifaine. View of the entrance of Hypogeum 5

Fig. 17. Chouilly La Grifaine. View of the entrance of Hypogeum 5

Photograph: R. Martineau

Fig. 18. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan and cross-sections of Hypogeum 5

Fig. 18. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan and cross-sections of Hypogeum 5

15Hypogeum  contained 17 burials, including 10 in the first chamber (Figure 19 and 20). A shell necklace, associated with a skeleton, was composed of 33 Natica, 3 Venericardia and 2 sawn Nucella (Figure 13) (Favret 1923a and b: Taborin, 1974; Polloni, 2007) (Figure 21 to 23).

16The second chamber contained seven other burials, including an adult found near a bone smoother (nº 1494 F). Other nearby artefacts included a blade 14.2 cm long (1493 F), a necklace of 42 drilled canine teeth (25 from canids, 6 from deer, 1 bovine, 1 swine and 9 indeterminate) and 9 Trivia shells (no. 1492 F) (Taborin, 1974; Collective, 1997; Augereau et al., 2007; Polloni, 2007) (Figure 24 and 25).

Fig. 19. Hypogeum 5 of La Grifaine. View from the north-west angle of the first chamber, showing at least two skeletons

Fig. 19. Hypogeum 5 of La Grifaine. View from the north-west angle of the first chamber, showing at least two skeletons

Fig. 20. Chouilly La Grifaine. View of the first chamber of Hypogeum 5

Fig. 20. Chouilly La Grifaine. View of the first chamber of Hypogeum 5

Photograph: F. Langry-François.

Fig. 21. Chouilly La Grifaine. Artefacts from the first chamber of Hypogeum 5

Fig. 21. Chouilly La Grifaine. Artefacts from the first chamber of Hypogeum 5

Necklace composed of 33 Natica, 3 Venericardia and 2 Nucella shells. Two flint blades. Scale 1:1

Fig. 22. Chouilly La Grifaine. Composition of the two sets of shell ornaments from rooms 2 and 3 of Hypogeum 5

Fig. 22. Chouilly La Grifaine. Composition of the two sets of shell ornaments from rooms 2 and 3 of Hypogeum 5

Fig. 23. Chouilly La Grifaine. Use-wear observed on some Natica and Nucella shells from Hypogeum 5

Fig. 23. Chouilly La Grifaine. Use-wear observed on some Natica and Nucella shells from Hypogeum 5

Fig. 24. Chouilly La Grifaine. Artefacts from the second chamber of Hypogeum 5

Fig. 24. Chouilly La Grifaine. Artefacts from the second chamber of Hypogeum 5

Bone smoother, flint blade and necklace composed of 42 drilled canine teeth and nine Trivia shells Scale 1:1

Photograph: R. Martineau.

Fig. 25. Chouilly La Grifaine. Use-wear observed on the Trivia of Hypogeum 5

Fig. 25. Chouilly La Grifaine. Use-wear observed on the Trivia of Hypogeum 5

La Grifaine hypogeum 6

17Hypogeum 6, located 6 m from Hypogeum 5, lies parallel to it. It was the least well known of the three hypogea studied by Favret. In 2015, a 3D photogrammetric survey of the monument was undertaken, to provide cross‑section views and to draw a precise plan, thus making a virtual visit of the hypogeum possible (Figure 26 and 27).

Fig. 26. Chouilly La Grifaine. 3D photogrammetric survey of Hypogeum 6

Fig. 26. Chouilly La Grifaine. 3D photogrammetric survey of Hypogeum 6

Fig. 27. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan and sagittal cross-section of Hypogeum 6. Scale 1:50e

Fig. 27. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan and sagittal cross-section of Hypogeum 6. Scale 1:50e

18Hypogeum 6 comprises an antechamber, two burial chambers and an inclined corridor 5.4 m long, measuring 0.9 m at its widest point, filled with compact grey chalk containing charcoal fragments (US 2015; Favret, 1923a and b; Langry-François et al., 2015) (Figure 28 to 30). A vertical meulière stone slab still closed off the entrance to the hypogeum, situated 94 cm under the chalk roof (Favret, 1923a and b) (Figure 31 and 32). The two chambers had previously been separated by a partition wall, which had collapsed (Figure 33 to 37).

Fig. 28. The corridor of Hypogeum 6. On the right, the quadrangular zone corresponds to the excavation of 1922 to gain access to the hypogeum

Fig. 28. The corridor of Hypogeum 6. On the right, the quadrangular zone corresponds to the excavation of 1922 to gain access to the hypogeum

Photograph: R. Martineau.

Fig. 29. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan and cross-section of the corridor of Hypogeum 6

Fig. 29. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan and cross-section of the corridor of Hypogeum 6

Fig. 30. Chouilly La Grifaine. Reopening of the access to the entrance of Hypogeum 6, excavated in 1922

Fig. 30. Chouilly La Grifaine. Reopening of the access to the entrance of Hypogeum 6, excavated in 1922

The fill of the corridor is intact

Photograph: R. Martineau.

Fig. 31. Chouilly La Grifaine. The entrance to the hypogeum with the meulière stones labs, which have been put back where they were found in 1922

Fig. 31. Chouilly La Grifaine. The entrance to the hypogeum with the meulière stones labs, which have been put back where they were found in 1922

Photograph: F. Spiès.

Fig. 32. Chouilly La Grifaine. View of the antechamber and the passage into the first chamber of Hypogeum 6

Fig. 32. Chouilly La Grifaine. View of the antechamber and the passage into the first chamber of Hypogeum 6

19In the first chamber, six adults were found, but only three were still in place, while traces of at least two younger individuals were observed in the southern part. The second chamber contained 10 adults, arranged around the room. The southern part seems to have been intended for four individuals, two to the east and two to the west, and also for a young child (Figure 38 and 39). Many other remains of children were also identified.

Fig. 33. Chouilly La Grifaine. Hypogeum 6. View of the second chamber (room 3)

Fig. 33. Chouilly La Grifaine. Hypogeum 6. View of the second chamber (room 3)

The cleft caused the collapse of part of the wall, including the shelf

Photograph: R. Martineau

Fig. 34. Chouilly La Grifaine. The two burial chambers of Hypogeum 6

Fig. 34. Chouilly La Grifaine. The two burial chambers of Hypogeum 6

Photograph: R. Martineau

Fig. 35. Chouilly La Grifaine. Inscriptions “Vu 1922” and “1922” carved into the north wall of Hypogeum 6

Fig. 35. Chouilly La Grifaine. Inscriptions “Vu 1922” and “1922” carved into the north wall of Hypogeum 6

Photograph: F. Langry-François

Fig. 36. Chouilly La Grifaine. The two burial chambers of Hypogeum 6

Fig. 36. Chouilly La Grifaine. The two burial chambers of Hypogeum 6

20The artefacts found in the southern part of the second chamber consist of nine transverse arrowheads and 14 ornaments: three Cerithium shells, three Dentalium shells, three animal canines, three limestone beads, and a Natica shell (nos. 1444 F to 1456 F; Collective 1997) (Figure 40). The second chamber also contained 25 transverse arrowheads, a swine canine (no 1476 F), a bone fragment, probably used as a bead (no. 1478 F), an amber ring bead and three Cardium (or Venericardia) shells (no. 1477F).

Fig. 37. Chouilly La Grifaine. Hypogeum 6. The eleven lines carved into the south dividing wall, under the collapsed shelf

Fig. 37. Chouilly La Grifaine. Hypogeum 6. The eleven lines carved into the south dividing wall, under the collapsed shelf

Fig. 38. Hypogeum 6 of La Grifaine. View of the second chamber, from the first burial chamber.

Fig. 38. Hypogeum 6 of La Grifaine. View of the second chamber, from the first burial chamber.

On the left, the wall dividing the space into two burial chambers. At the bottom, skeletons are visible along the wall

Fig. 39. Chouilly La Grifaine. Hypogeum 6. Many bones were left on the floor after their discovery in 1922

Fig. 39. Chouilly La Grifaine. Hypogeum 6. Many bones were left on the floor after their discovery in 1922

Fig. 40. Chouilly La Grifaine. Artefacts from the second chamber of Hypogeum 6

Fig. 40. Chouilly La Grifaine. Artefacts from the second chamber of Hypogeum 6

Three Cerithium shells, three Dentalium shells, three calcareous beads, three animal canines, one swine canine, one bone fragment and four Cardium (or Venericardia) shells. Scale 1:1

La Grifaine hypogeum 7

21This hypogeum was previously known as Saran IV (the fourth hypogeum discovered by Favret in 1922), but also as Saran III (the third hypogeum excavated by Favret), and also by several other names when it became classified as a historical monument (Anonymous, 1962; Basse de Ménorval, 1962; Ertlé, 1963); these alternative names have now been abandoned.

22Hypogeum 7 includes an access slope 1.5 m to 1.8 m long, filled with grey chalk containing some charcoal (Favret, 1923a and b). The corridor has never been drawn. The tomb contains an antechamber and two burial chambers. The first chamber is trapezoid, while the second is rectangular (Figure 41). A semicircular archway, much lower than the height of the room, provides access from the antechamber to the first chamber (Figure 42). The transition from the first to the second chamber is an oval, fairly narrow opening, which clearly marks the boundary between the two chambers (Figure 43).

Fig. 41. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan and section of Hypogeum 7

Fig. 41. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan and section of Hypogeum 7

Plan: E. Tappret; graphics: A. Dumontet. Scale 1:50e

Fig. 42. Hypogeum 7 of La Grifaine. View of the lowered passages from the entrance to the antechamber

Fig. 42. Hypogeum 7 of La Grifaine. View of the lowered passages from the entrance to the antechamber

Fig. 43. Chouilly La Grifaine. View of Hypogeum 7, taken from the second chamber

Fig. 43. Chouilly La Grifaine. View of Hypogeum 7, taken from the second chamber

23The antechamber and the first chamber were empty. However, in the first chamber, a bas-relief representing of a six-lobed, wheel-headed pin, 20 cm in diameter, attached to a rod of triangular section, 4 cm wide, 3 cm thick and 97 cm long, is carved into the wall, to the left of the entrance to the second chamber (Mazière, 1991) (Figure 44). This bas-relief was considered in turn to represent a flower (of the lily family) (Favret, 1923a and b; Favret and Prieur, 1936), a family or clan emblem (Goury, 1932), a solar symbol (Favret and Prieur, 1936) or a wheel-headed pin (Favret and Prieur, 1936; Kleemann, 1955; Bastien, 1981; Villes, 1983; Le Roux, 2008) dated to the Bronze Age (Villes, 1998a, p. 39; Villes, 1998b, p. 85), or to the Middle Bronze Age in eastern France (Roux, 1995, p. 120). Over a “bench” in the second chamber, there is a triangular shelf, 20 cm deep and 85 cm long. It has 59 notches (four of which are crushed) engraved on the edge (Tarrête, 1995, p. 98-99) (Figure 45 and 46).

Fig. 44. First chamber of Hypogeum 7 of La Grifaine. Bas-relief representing a wheel-headed pin

Fig. 44. First chamber of Hypogeum 7 of La Grifaine. Bas-relief representing a wheel-headed pin

Fig. 45. Hypogeum 7 of La Grifaine. View of the second chamber and of the shelf with incised notches

Fig. 45. Hypogeum 7 of La Grifaine. View of the second chamber and of the shelf with incised notches

Fig. 46. Chouilly La Grifaine. Traces of digging made by an axe or adze

Fig. 46. Chouilly La Grifaine. Traces of digging made by an axe or adze

24Only three adult skeletons were discovered in the second chamber. One skeleton was found with a necklace (no. 1481 F) consisting of 37 elements, including 21 drilled animal teeth, a fragment of fish vertebra, two Dentalium shells, 12 limestone beads, an amber ring (1483 F) and an Oliva shell (Taborin, 1974). Among the artefacts in the second chamber were a bone smoother (1484 F), two blade fragments (no. 1485 and 1486 F) (Figure 47) and seven transverse arrowheads, which may correspond to the contents of a quiver, as has been shown in Les Mournouards 3 (Leroi‑Gourhan et al., 1963).

25In the “cuttings”, corresponding to the fill of the corridor, the following artefacts were found: a transverse arrowhead, a laminar flake (1488 F), a cylindrical greenstone bead 12 mm diameter (no. 1480 F), a pot (1487 F) and many large pieces of charcoal associated with fragments of chalk (1489 F) (Figure 48 and 49). The upper half of a pot, probably of truncated shape, has a short neck formed by a wide groove. Compared with pottery studied in several other regional contexts (Martineau et al., 2014a and b; Cottiaux et al., 2014; Thouvenot et al., 2014), the grog temper and the bright red colour suggest an attribution to the first half of the 3rd millennium BC, rather than to the second half of the 4th millennium BC. This chronological attribution is supported by radiocarbon measurements (Figure 50) and the presence of a greenstone bead discovered in the corridor.

Fig. 47. Chouilly La Grifaine. Artefact from the second chamber of Hypogeum 7. Bone smoother and two fragments of the same blade

Fig. 47. Chouilly La Grifaine. Artefact from the second chamber of Hypogeum 7. Bone smoother and two fragments of the same blade

Necklace made of 21 pierced animal teeth (five are coloured by bronze oxides), a fish vertebra, two Dentalium shells, 12 limestone beads and an amber ring. Scale 1:1

Fig. 48. Chouilly La Grifaine. The pot discovered in Hypogeum 7

Fig. 48. Chouilly La Grifaine. The pot discovered in Hypogeum 7

Fig. 49. Chouilly La Grifaine. Artefacts from the corridor of Hypogeum 7. Laminar flake and green stone bead. Scale 1:1

Fig. 49. Chouilly La Grifaine. Artefacts from the corridor of Hypogeum 7. Laminar flake and green stone bead. Scale 1:1

Fig. 50. Chouilly La Grifaine. Radiocarbon dating of a charcoal fragment from the corridor of Hypogeum 7. Oxcal v4.2.4

Fig. 50. Chouilly La Grifaine. Radiocarbon dating of a charcoal fragment from the corridor of Hypogeum 7. Oxcal v4.2.4

La Grifaine hypogeum 8

26This hypogeum, discovered in 1956 during the planting of a vineyard, has never been described, as it was immediately resealed. We do not know if it was in fact a new tomb or whether it was merely the rediscovery of a backfilled tomb.

La Grifaine hypogeum 9

27Hypogeum 9, parallel to Hypogea 5 to 7, but located several metres further down the hill, is entered through a corridor 1.8 m long and 0.6 m wide (Figure 51 to 56). On the surface, disorganised meulière stone slabs lie embedded in calcareous clayey grey silt (US 2004). The chamber seems to be a 2 m x 2 m square. Many human bones were found in the corridor and in the chamber.

Fig. 51. Chouilly La Grifaine.Hypogeum 9. View along the axis of the monument

Fig. 51. Chouilly La Grifaine.Hypogeum 9. View along the axis of the monument

Photograph: F. Spiès.

Fig. 52. Chouilly La Grifaine. Vertical view of the corridor and the chamber of Hypogeum 9

Fig. 52. Chouilly La Grifaine. Vertical view of the corridor and the chamber of Hypogeum 9

Photograph: R. Martineau.

Fig. 53. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan of Hypogeum 9

Fig. 53. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan of Hypogeum 9

Fig. 54. Chouilly La Grifaine. Spaces carved out of the walls of Hypogeum 9

Fig. 54. Chouilly La Grifaine. Spaces carved out of the walls of Hypogeum 9

Photograph: R. Martineau.

Fig. 55. Chouilly La Grifaine. Human bones discovered in the chamber of aHypogeum 9

Fig. 55. Chouilly La Grifaine. Human bones discovered in the chamber of aHypogeum 9

Photograph: S. Loiseau.

Fig. 56. Chouilly La Grifaine. Detail of the calcareous layer on the wall of Hypogeum 9

Fig. 56. Chouilly La Grifaine. Detail of the calcareous layer on the wall of Hypogeum 9

La Grifaine hypogeum 10

28In the upper part of the site, another collective grave was identified. The corridor, 2.8 m long and 0.94 m wide, oriented east-west, is characterised by grey silt (Figure 57 and 58). The meulière stone slabs were discovered at the end of the corridor, near the chamber, which is 3 m long and 2.4 m wide. The 1.12 m thick fill of the chamber was formed by the collapse of the chalk roof on to the archaeological layer. The system blocking the entrance to the chamber seems to be intact, so the archaeological context should have been preserved.

Fig.57. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan of the corridor in Hypogeum 10

Fig.57. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan of the corridor in Hypogeum 10

Fig.58. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan of Hypogeum 10. Flint flake from the corridor surface

Fig.58. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan of Hypogeum 10. Flint flake from the corridor surface

Drawing and photograph: F. Spiès

La Grifaine hypogeum 11

29The corridor is 2.4 m long and 1.05 m wide (Figure 59 to 61). The meulière stone slabs were discovered opposite the entrance to the chamber, suggesting that the chamber may no longer be intact. The entrance has collapsed. The chamber is 4.2 m long and 3.3 m wide. The fill of the chamber, more than 1 m thick, is composed of chalk blocks and brown silt, corresponding to the collapse of the chalk roof, mixed with the archaeological layer. Hypogea 9, 10 and 11 seem to belong to the single-chamber type of hypogeum, which must therefore coexist with the two‑chamber type.

Fig. 59. Chouilly La Grifaine. Corridor and chamber of Hypogeum 11

Fig. 59. Chouilly La Grifaine. Corridor and chamber of Hypogeum 11

Photograph: R. Martineau.

Fig. 60. Chouilly La Grifaine. Corridor of Hypogeum 11

Fig. 60. Chouilly La Grifaine. Corridor of Hypogeum 11

Fig.61. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan of Hypogeum 11. Crested blade fragment

Fig.61. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan of Hypogeum 11. Crested blade fragment

Synthesis of the data

30No anthropological study was carried out on the skeletons discovered during the excavations conducted between 1806 and 1922. No plans were drawn to establish the precise location of the artefacts discovered in the hypogea.

31Hypogea 2, 5, 6 and 7 contained a total of 236 artefacts (Tables I and II). Of the 108 objects from Hypogeum 5, 43 came from the first chamber and 65 from the second. Only two transverse arrowheads and eight skeletons were found in the first chamber of Hypogeum 6, while the second chamber contained 53 objects and 15 skeletons.

32In Hypogeum 7, the second burial chamber contained 47 objects, but only three skeletons. One of the skeletons had a necklace composed of 37 elements. The lithic artefacts and ornaments found in this hypogeum are characteristic of the Late Neolithic period, including a series of blades and transverse arrowheads. These ornaments are mainly composed of drilled animal teeth, but also marine and fossil drilled shells. This set of ornaments is very characteristic of this period and this region (Polloni, 2007; Cottiaux et al., 2014). The corridor contained four objects that may have been left there, when the hypogeum was reused during the first half of the 3rd millennium BC (Polloni, 2007, p. 155), as indicated by pottery sherds, and radiocarbon dating.

The necropolis of chouilly La Grifaine in its historical, cultural and regional context

La Grifaine: a major hypogeum necropolis

33The plan of the necropolis of La Grifaine shows the spatial distribution of the hypogea along the slope, organised in four rows (Figure 2 to 4). The first row (A) corresponds to Hypogeum 9, situated at the bottom of the site. Hypogea 4 to 7, parallel to each other, form the second row (B), and Hypogea 1, 2, 10 and 11 form the third row (C). Hypogeum 3, probably located a hundred metres above row C, forms the fourth row (D). This four-row spatial organisation clearly shows how the hypogea are distributed along the slope.

34The entrances of Hypogea 5, 6 and 7 are only 6 m apart, while Hypogea 1 and 2 are 10 m apart. The distance between two hypogea in the same row is regular, and the difference in altitude between rows is also very regular, while the distance between two rows along the slope is variable, showing that the site was planned in three dimensions. This spatial organisation of the necropolis on the hill, in several staggered rows, closely resembles the spatial distribution of individual graves in a cemetery.

35With eight hypogea now identified, and a possible total of eleven hypogea, if the unexplored monuments previously discovered are taken into account, La Grifaine is one of the major necropolises in the Marne region (51, France). Only three other major necropolises are comparable: Courjeonnet Les Houyottes (11 hypogea), Villevenard Les Ronces (24 hypogea) and Coizard Le Razet (37 hypogea). The row-by-row organisation, which bears witness to a certain form of spatial awareness among the builders, has been highlighted in Coizard Le Razet (Bailloud, 1974). It is logical to suppose that a similar high density of hypogea may once have existed at La Grifaine.

Chronological attribution for the necropolis of La Grifaine

36The hypogea of La Grifaine exhibit great homogeneity, from an architectural point of view, and with regard to the artefacts they contained. The artefacts from Hypogeum 2 cannot be distinguished from those found in Hypogea 5 to 7. They are probably contemporaneous. The ornaments (Polloni, 2007) and antler or flint tools (Langry-François, 2003) from the five tombs are characteristic of the Late Neolithic period, with the exception of the pot (no. 1487 F), found in the infilled corridor of Hypogeum 7, which probably belongs to the first half of the 3rd millennium BC. Overall, the artefacts from La Grifaine can be compared to those of several other tombs or gallery graves in the Marne region.

37The dating of the bas-relief in Hypogeum 7 poses problems of interpretation. Villes interprets it as a representation of a Bronze Age wheel-headed pin (Villes, 1998a p. 39; Villes, 1998b p. 85). This interpretation would mean that Hypogeum 7 had been reused at the beginning of the Bronze Age, yet no datable material from that period was found there. All the hypogea of La Grifaine were in use during the Late Neolithic, in the second half of the 4rd millennium BC. The artefacts are typical of the “Seine-Oise-Marne” (SOM) culture, as defined by Bailloud (1974). More recent studies (Augereau et al., 2007; Salanova et al., 2011; Cottiaux et al., 2014) have shown the heterogeneous nature of this culture and the need to assign these artefacts and monuments to the second half of the 4rd millennium BC.

Hypogea with two burial chambers

38The hypogea of the Marne are mainly located between Épernay and Sézanne. These collective burials sites have been found in two geographic areas: in the Côte des Blancs, on the eastern flank of the Côte d’Île‑de‑France and, to the west, in the marshy area of Saint-Gond, located on the southern slope of this plateau (Figure 62). About twenty hypogea have been discovered on the Côte des Blancs, while more than 130 others have been excavated in the region of the Saint-Gond marshes. Several large hypogeum necropolises were excavated in the Saint-Gond area between 1872 and 1873 by Joseph de Baye: Coizard Le Razet (which includes 37 hypogea), Courjeonnet Les Houyottes and also Vert‑la‑Gravelle (Vert‑Toulon) La Crayère (de Baye, 1880). More recently, Bernard Chertier (1994) excavated a hypogeum in Loisy-en-Brie Les Gouttes d’Or in the north of the Saint-Gond area.

39The hypogea of Coligny Le Mont-Aimé I and II (Val‑des‑Marais), Le Mesnil‑sur‑Oger Les Mournouards 3 and Chouilly La Grifaine 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7 are located on the eastern flank of the Côte d’Île-de-France (Figure 62). At least four hypogea at La Grifaine had an antechamber and two burial chambers (Hypogea 2, 5, 6 and 7, and also perhaps Hypogeum 1 but this information does not appear on Barré’s plan) (Table III). Hypogea with an antechamber and two burial chambers were also found at Le Mont Aimé I and II in Coligny (Val‑des‑Marais) (Crubézy and Mazière, 1988, 1990 and 1991) and Les Mournouards 3 in Le Mesnil‑sur‑Oger (Hypogeum II of Leroi-Gourhan et al., 1963). There are also shelves in Hypogea 5, 6 and 7 at La Grifaine, and benches in Hypogea 5 and 6 at La Grifaine and in Hypogea 2 and 3 at Les Mournouards (Coutier and Brisson, 1959, Leroi-Gourhan et al., 1963).

40These height hypogea from three necropolises stand out among the Late Neolithic tombs found in the Marne region. None of the 130 hypogea excavated in the marshes of Saint-Gond had a layout with an antechamber and two burial chambers. The three necropolises of Le Mont-Aimé, Les Mournouards and La Grifaine, which have several architectural characteristics in common, are located in a coherent geographic area, and could therefore form a micro-regional group.

41However the situation is in fact more complex. Although, there is a hypogeum with an antechamber and two burial chambers (Les Mournouards 3), in the necropolis of Les Mournouards, there is another hypogeum comprising an antechamber but only one chamber (Les Mournouards 2). These two graves are located just a few metres from each other. Similarly, hypogea with an antechamber and two burial chambers coexist near hypogea with a single burial chamber at La Grifaine.

42Could this difference in layout therefore be related to a specific chronological phase, rather than a geographic distribution? The artefacts found are typical of the Late Neolithic and are no different from those found in hypogea with only one chamber. The two-chambered hypogea, occupying a larger area, could correspond to a particular type of burial practice. Burial practices may also have been different in each type of monument. But the data show no relationship between the surface area and the number of individuals buried. It is not possible to highlight specific burial practices for the two-chambered hypogea compared to those with only one chamber.

Fig. 62. Map of the study sites and comparison site

Fig. 62. Map of the study sites and comparison site

Conclusion and perspectives

43The hypogea at La Grifaine are the largest in the Marne region. In some collective burial sites, such as La Grifaine, the presence of only a few skeletons poses the question of the need for monuments of such a great size. Were the individuals buried there selected in some way? Or could these burials correspond to the early stages of use of these hypogea? Many questions remain unresolved to this day and much is expected of the new excavations, which should complete the existing data.

44The period of construction and use of hypogea in the Marne corresponds to the Late Neolithic (former Seine‑Oise‑Marne culture) during the second half of the 4rd millennium BC, on the eastern edge of the Paris Basin. It is not possible to propose several chronological phases within this period. The architectural differences identified here correspond more probably to geographical groups, or perhaps to different social functions.

45Five semi-buried gallery graves were excavated, immediately east and north of the marshes of Saint-Gond. The artefacts from the megalithic tomb of Les Hayettes in Congy date to the second half of the 4rd millennium BC (Martineau et al., 2014b). Other semi-buried gallery graves are also attributable to the same period. The presence of this other type of collective burial, in the vicinity of over 130 hypogea located in the marshes of Saint‑Gond, invites us to reflect on the diversity of funerary architecture in this region, between 3500 and 2900 cal. BC.

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Annexe

Annexe

Tabl. I (p. 185-188). Inventaire des objets des hypogées de Chouilly La Grifaine conservés au Musée d’Épernay

n° inv. type description nombre objets n° hypogée n° salle
76526 Sculpture Moulage d'une "épingle" sculptée en bas-relief dans la craie 1 7 2
1401 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature. support laminaire. silex crétacé brun. L=29mm. l=14mm. 2g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1421 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature. L=21mm. l=11mm. 1g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1422 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, extrémité distale convexe. silex crétacé gris-brun. L=22mm. l=14mm. 2g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1423 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, esquilles sur l'extrémité distale : utilisation ? silex crétacé gris veiné. latéral droit. L=22mm. l=12mm. 2g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1424 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, extrémité distale légèrement concave. silex crétacé brun veiné. L=27mm. l=12mm. 2g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1425 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature. L=15mm. l=9mm. 1g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1426 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, extrémité distale convexe, concrétions. silex crétacé brun. mésial. L=36mm. l=17mm. 5g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1427 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, extrémité distale sinueuse. silex crétacé. latéral gauche. L=31mm. l=19mm. 2g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1428 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, esquilles directes sur l'extrémité distale
: utilisation ? silex crétacé. L=29mm. l=16mm. 4g
1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1429 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, extrémité distale sinueuse. silex crétacé brun. proximal. L=25mm. l=15mm. 2g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1430 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature. L=22mm. l=10mm. 1g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1431 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, esquille sur l'extrémité distale : utilisation ? silex crétacé brun. L=15mm. l=8mm. 1g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1432 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature. silex crétacé brun. L=20mm. l=9mm. 1g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1433 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature. support laminaire. silex crétacé brun. L=29mm. l=14mm. 2g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1434 F Parure Collier uniquement composé de test de coquilles (33 Natica , 2 Nucella , et 3 Venericardia ). Les Natica et les Nucella ont été abrasés alors que les Venericardia sont perforés. 38 5 2
1435 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature. support laminaire. silex crétacé brun. L=29mm. l=14mm. 2g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1436 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature. L=21mm. l=11mm. 1g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1437 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, extrémité distale convexe. silex crétacé gris-brun. L=22mm. l=14mm. 2g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1438 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, esquilles sur l'extrémité distale : utilisation ? silex crétacé gris veiné. latéral droit. L=22mm. l=12mm. 2g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1439 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, extrémité distale légèrement concave. silex crétacé brun veiné. L=27mm. l=12mm. 2g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1440 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature. L=15mm. l=9mm. 1g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1441 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, extrémité distale convexe, concrétions. silex crétacé brun. mésial. L=36mm. l=17mm. 5g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1442 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, extrémité distale sinueuse. silex crétacé. latéral gauche. L=31mm. l=19mm. 2g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1443 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, esquilles directes sur l'extrémité distale : utilisation ? silex crétacé. L=29mm. l=16mm. 4g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1444 F Potamide Coquille de Potamide perforée. La pointe conique manque. 1 6 3
1445 F Turritella Coquille de Turritella perforée à la base. La pointe conique manque, de même que le départ de l'enroulement. 1 6 3
1446 F Potamide Coquille de Potamide perforée. La pointe conique manque. 1 6 3
1447 F Venericardia Coquille de Venericardia , fossile du Bassin parisien, perforée pour la transformer en pendeloque. Diamètre de la perforation : 3mm. 1 6 3
1448 F Dentalium Coquillage ayant servi de perle. 1 6 3
1449 F Dentalium Coquillage ayant servi de perle. 1 6 3
1450 F Dentalium Coquillage ayant servi de perle. 1 6 3
1451 F Dent animale Dent cassée d'un petit carnivore ayant servi de perle. 1 6 3
1452 F Dent animale Dent d'un petit carnivore ayant servi de perle. 1 6 3
1453 F Dent animale Dent d'un petit carnivore ayant servi de perle. 1 6 3
1454 F Perle calcaire Perle en calcaire
Diamètre de la perforation centrale : 4 mm
1 6 3
1455 F Perle calcaire Perle en calcaire
Diamètre de la perforation centrale : 4 mm
1 6 3
1456 F Perle calcaire Perle en calcaire
Diamètre de la perforation centrale : 4 mm
1 6 3
1457 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature. support laminaire. silex crétacé brun. L=29mm. l=14mm. 2g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1458 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature. L=21mm. l=11mm. 1g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1459 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, extrémité distale convexe. silex crétacé gris-brun. L=22mm. l=14mm. 2g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1460 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, esquilles sur l'extrémité distale : utilisation ? silex crétacé gris veiné. latéral droit. L=22mm. l=12mm. 2g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1461 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, extrémité distale légèrement concave. silex crétacé brun veiné. L=27mm. l=12mm. 2g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1462 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature. L=15mm. l=9mm. 1g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1463 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, extrémité distale convexe, concrétions. silex crétacé brun. mésial. L=36mm. l=17mm. 5g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1464 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, extrémité distale sinueuse. silex crétacé. latéral gauche. L=31mm. l=19mm. 2g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1465 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, esquilles directes sur l'extrémité distale : utilisation ? silex crétacé. L=29mm. l=16mm. 4g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1466 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, extrémité distale sinueuse. silex crétacé brun. proximal. L=25mm. l=15mm. 2g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1467 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature. L=22mm. l=10mm. 1g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1468 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, esquille sur l'extrémité distale : utilisation ? silex crétacé brun. L=15mm. l=8mm. 1g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1469 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature. silex crétacé brun. L=20mm. l=9mm. 1g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1470 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature. support laminaire. silex crétacé brun. L=29mm. l=14mm. 2g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1471 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature. L=21mm. l=11mm. 1g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1472 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, extrémité distale convexe. silex crétacé gris-brun. L=22mm. l=14mm. 2g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1473 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, esquilles sur l'extrémité distale : utilisation ? silex crétacé gris veiné. latéral droit. L=22mm. l=12mm. 2g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1474 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, extrémité distale légèrement concave. silex crétacé brun veiné. L=27mm. l=12mm. 2g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1475 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature. L=15mm. l=9mm. 1g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1476 F Dent animale Canine de porc ou sanglier perforée du côté de la racine. Diamètre de la perforation : 3 mm. 1 6 3
1477 F Venericardia Trois coquilles de Venericardia (fossile du tertiaire du Bassin parisien) emboîtées l'une sur l'autre et collées par la calcification. Elles composaient des éléments d'un collier. 3 6 3
1478 F Perle en os Perle en os. D'un côté le lien a créé par usure un biseau dans l'épaiseur de l'os. 1 6 3
1479 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature, esquille distale : utilisation ? silex crétacé. L=20mm. l=13mm. 2g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1480 F Perle Perle en roche tenace exogène 1 7 couloir
1481 F Parure Parure constituée de 19 dents percées, 3 Dentalium et 13 perles en calcaire 34 7 3
1482 F Poterie Forme complète 1 2 2
1483 F Perle Petite perle en résine fossile (ambre ?), brisée et recollée 1 7 3
1484 F Lissoir Outil en os (lissoir ? tiré dans un os long (de ?) coupé dans le sens de la longueur.Le canal médullaire est bien visible. Peu d'os spongieux. L'une des extrémité est biseautée et lissée par usage, sans doute. 1 7 3
1485 F Lame fragment mésial de lame, collage avec 31.1.172 1486F. silex crétacé. L=44mm. l=18mm. 4g 1 7 3
1486 F Lame fragment proximal de lame, collage avec 31.1.171 1485F. débité par percussion directe tendre. silex crétacé. L=42mm. l=19mm. 7g 1 7 3
1487 F Poterie Quatre tessons non jointifs d'un même vase à profil sinueux, col légèrment marqué. 1 7 couloir
1488 F Eclat éclat irrégulier. débité par percussion directe tendre. silex crétacé. L=35mm. l=13mm. 2g 1 7 couloir
1489 F Charbons de bois Prélèvement de craie, du dépot calcique et de charbon de bois - 7 couloir
1490 F Armature tranchante trapézoïdale à tranchant transversal retouches bilatérales abruptes par rapport à l'armature. silex crétacé brun. L=22mm. l=14mm. 2g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1491 F Glycymeris Coquille de Glycymeris, fossile du Bassin parisien, perforée pour la transformer en pendeloque.
Diamètre ovalaire de la perforation obtenu par usure.
1 6 3
1492 F Parure Parure composée de 42 dents percées de divers animaux (canidé, cervidé, suidé, bovidé) et de 9 coquilles de Trivia. 51 5 3
1493 F Lame grande lame régulière, extrémité distale tronquée. débité par percussion indirecte. silex crétacé.
L=141mm. l=25mm. 32g
1 5 3
1494 F Lissoir Lissoir en os 1 5 3
1495 F Lame grande lame, extrémité distale brisée, petites esquilles directes et inverses proximales au bord droit, quelques-unes moins flagrantes au bord gauche : utilisation ? débité par percussion directe tendre. silex crétacé. L=112mm. l=23mm. 24g 1 5 2
1496 F Lame fragment proximal de lame, calcaire aggloméré aux extrémités, ainsi que sur le bulbe et le talon. débité par percussion indirecte. silex crétacé brun.
L=72mm. l=21mm. 12g
1 5 2
1497 F Racloir racloir sur lame, petites écailles inverses visibles sur le bord gauche au niveau mésial : utilisation du tranchant ? débité par percussion directe tendre. silex crétacé gris-noir. non. L=86mm. l=19mm.
12g
1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1498 F Retouchoir retouchoir sur lame, retouche oblique : bord gauche : directe proximale, inverse distale, retouche abrupte : mésiale bilatérale, bord droit directe proximale, extrémités proximale et distale droite portant un émoussé d'utilisation en retouchoir, encoches bilatérales mésiales. silex crétacé. latéral gauche. L=79mm. l=24mm. 28g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1499 F Lame fragment de lame irrégulière. silex crétacé. latéral droit. L=61mm. l=23mm. 10g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue
1500 F Grattoir grattoir sur fragment de lame. silex crétacé. non. L=38mm. l=23mm. 6g 1 5, 6 ou 7 inconnue

Tabl. II. Chouilly La Grifaine. Répartition quantitative des types d’objets par hypogées et par salles.

Tabl. II. Chouilly La Grifaine. Répartition quantitative des types d’objets par hypogées et par salles.

Tabl. III. Dimensions (en mètres) et surfaces (en mètres carrés) des chambres funéraires des hypogées de Chouilly La Grifaine.

Tabl. III. Dimensions (en mètres) et surfaces (en mètres carrés) des chambres funéraires des hypogées de Chouilly La Grifaine.
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Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 1. Map of the hypogeum necropolis of Chouilly La Grifaine and Les Ronds Buissons on the Saran hill (Chouilly, Marne)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 473k
Titre Fig. 2. Location of the necropolises superimposed on the 3D view of the Saran hill. Distribution of the hypogea in the cemetery of La Grifaine
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,3M
Titre Fig. 3. General plan of the site of La Grifaine
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,4M
Titre Fig .4. Plan of the necropolis of La Grifaine superimposed on the reconstruction of the Neolithic topography
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 456k
Titre Fig. 5. The former museographic presentation of the artefacts from La Grifaine in the Épernay Museum.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 411k
Titre Fig. 6. Chouilly La Grifaine. Transverse arrowheads
Légende Their attribution to each hypogeum is now impossible after their display in the Épernay Museum. Scale 1:1
Crédits Photograph: R. Martineau.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 552k
Titre Fig. 7. Chouilly La Grifaine. Transverse arrowheads
Crédits Photograph: R. Martineau.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 726k
Titre Fig. 8. Location of Hypogea 1 and 2 of La Grifaine
Crédits From Barré, 1866
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,2M
Titre Fig. 9. Locations and sketch drawings of Hypogea 1 and 2
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,4M
Titre Fig. 10. Chouilly La Grifaine. Section of Hypogeum 1. Plan and section of Hypogeum 2 discovered in 1851
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,2M
Titre Fig. 11. Neolithic objects from Hypogeum 2 of La Grifaine discovered in 1851–1852
Légende The Cardium shell and the bone awl were placed together to form a “spoon”, imagined at this time for unknown reasons
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,7M
Titre Fig. 12. Chouilly La Grifaine. A flint nodule and a pot from Hypogeum 2 discovered in 1851–185̧2
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,3M
Titre Fig. 13. Of the three pots discovered in Hypogeum 2 of La Grifaine, only this pot has been conserved. It has a linear crack from the edge and lime spalling. Épernay Museum
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,2M
Titre Fig. 14. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan and cross-section of the corridor of Hypogeum 5
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,0M
Titre Fig. 15. Chouilly La Grifaine. View of the corridor of Hypogeum 5
Crédits Photograph: R. Martineau.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 3,2M
Titre Fig. 16. Chouilly La Grifaine. Reopening of the entrance of Hypogeum 5, previously excavated in 1922, when the original stone closing of the entrance was replaced by calcareous blocks
Crédits Photograph: F. Spiès.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 3,0M
Titre Fig. 17. Chouilly La Grifaine. View of the entrance of Hypogeum 5
Crédits Photograph: R. Martineau
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,4M
Titre Fig. 18. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan and cross-sections of Hypogeum 5
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-18.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,3M
Titre Fig. 19. Hypogeum 5 of La Grifaine. View from the north-west angle of the first chamber, showing at least two skeletons
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-19.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 3,2M
Titre Fig. 20. Chouilly La Grifaine. View of the first chamber of Hypogeum 5
Crédits Photograph: F. Langry-François.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-20.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,0M
Titre Fig. 21. Chouilly La Grifaine. Artefacts from the first chamber of Hypogeum 5
Légende Necklace composed of 33 Natica, 3 Venericardia and 2 Nucella shells. Two flint blades. Scale 1:1
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-21.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,3M
Titre Fig. 22. Chouilly La Grifaine. Composition of the two sets of shell ornaments from rooms 2 and 3 of Hypogeum 5
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-22.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,1M
Titre Fig. 23. Chouilly La Grifaine. Use-wear observed on some Natica and Nucella shells from Hypogeum 5
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-23.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 767k
Titre Fig. 24. Chouilly La Grifaine. Artefacts from the second chamber of Hypogeum 5
Légende Bone smoother, flint blade and necklace composed of 42 drilled canine teeth and nine Trivia shells Scale 1:1
Crédits Photograph: R. Martineau.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-24.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,7M
Titre Fig. 25. Chouilly La Grifaine. Use-wear observed on the Trivia of Hypogeum 5
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-25.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 618k
Titre Fig. 26. Chouilly La Grifaine. 3D photogrammetric survey of Hypogeum 6
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-26.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,3M
Titre Fig. 27. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan and sagittal cross-section of Hypogeum 6. Scale 1:50e
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-27.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 364k
Titre Fig. 28. The corridor of Hypogeum 6. On the right, the quadrangular zone corresponds to the excavation of 1922 to gain access to the hypogeum
Crédits Photograph: R. Martineau.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-28.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,9M
Titre Fig. 29. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan and cross-section of the corridor of Hypogeum 6
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-29.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 544k
Titre Fig. 30. Chouilly La Grifaine. Reopening of the access to the entrance of Hypogeum 6, excavated in 1922
Légende The fill of the corridor is intact
Crédits Photograph: R. Martineau.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-30.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 812k
Titre Fig. 31. Chouilly La Grifaine. The entrance to the hypogeum with the meulière stones labs, which have been put back where they were found in 1922
Crédits Photograph: F. Spiès.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-31.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 815k
Titre Fig. 32. Chouilly La Grifaine. View of the antechamber and the passage into the first chamber of Hypogeum 6
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-32.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,0M
Titre Fig. 33. Chouilly La Grifaine. Hypogeum 6. View of the second chamber (room 3)
Légende The cleft caused the collapse of part of the wall, including the shelf
Crédits Photograph: R. Martineau
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-33.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 666k
Titre Fig. 34. Chouilly La Grifaine. The two burial chambers of Hypogeum 6
Crédits Photograph: R. Martineau
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-34.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 669k
Titre Fig. 35. Chouilly La Grifaine. Inscriptions “Vu 1922” and “1922” carved into the north wall of Hypogeum 6
Crédits Photograph: F. Langry-François
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-35.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 748k
Titre Fig. 36. Chouilly La Grifaine. The two burial chambers of Hypogeum 6
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-36.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 587k
Titre Fig. 37. Chouilly La Grifaine. Hypogeum 6. The eleven lines carved into the south dividing wall, under the collapsed shelf
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-37.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,1M
Titre Fig. 38. Hypogeum 6 of La Grifaine. View of the second chamber, from the first burial chamber.
Légende On the left, the wall dividing the space into two burial chambers. At the bottom, skeletons are visible along the wall
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-38.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,9M
Titre Fig. 39. Chouilly La Grifaine. Hypogeum 6. Many bones were left on the floor after their discovery in 1922
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-39.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,4M
Titre Fig. 40. Chouilly La Grifaine. Artefacts from the second chamber of Hypogeum 6
Légende Three Cerithium shells, three Dentalium shells, three calcareous beads, three animal canines, one swine canine, one bone fragment and four Cardium (or Venericardia) shells. Scale 1:1
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-40.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 706k
Titre Fig. 41. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan and section of Hypogeum 7
Crédits Plan: E. Tappret; graphics: A. Dumontet. Scale 1:50e
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-41.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 446k
Titre Fig. 42. Hypogeum 7 of La Grifaine. View of the lowered passages from the entrance to the antechamber
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-42.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 692k
Titre Fig. 43. Chouilly La Grifaine. View of Hypogeum 7, taken from the second chamber
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-43.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 486k
Titre Fig. 44. First chamber of Hypogeum 7 of La Grifaine. Bas-relief representing a wheel-headed pin
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-44.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,1M
Titre Fig. 45. Hypogeum 7 of La Grifaine. View of the second chamber and of the shelf with incised notches
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-45.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 820k
Titre Fig. 46. Chouilly La Grifaine. Traces of digging made by an axe or adze
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-46.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 730k
Titre Fig. 47. Chouilly La Grifaine. Artefact from the second chamber of Hypogeum 7. Bone smoother and two fragments of the same blade
Légende Necklace made of 21 pierced animal teeth (five are coloured by bronze oxides), a fish vertebra, two Dentalium shells, 12 limestone beads and an amber ring. Scale 1:1
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-47.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,4M
Titre Fig. 48. Chouilly La Grifaine. The pot discovered in Hypogeum 7
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-48.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 346k
Titre Fig. 49. Chouilly La Grifaine. Artefacts from the corridor of Hypogeum 7. Laminar flake and green stone bead. Scale 1:1
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-49.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 135k
Titre Fig. 50. Chouilly La Grifaine. Radiocarbon dating of a charcoal fragment from the corridor of Hypogeum 7. Oxcal v4.2.4
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-50.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 316k
Titre Fig. 51. Chouilly La Grifaine.Hypogeum 9. View along the axis of the monument
Crédits Photograph: F. Spiès.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-51.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 6,0M
Titre Fig. 52. Chouilly La Grifaine. Vertical view of the corridor and the chamber of Hypogeum 9
Crédits Photograph: R. Martineau.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-52.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 3,0M
Titre Fig. 53. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan of Hypogeum 9
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-53.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 863k
Titre Fig. 54. Chouilly La Grifaine. Spaces carved out of the walls of Hypogeum 9
Crédits Photograph: R. Martineau.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-54.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,9M
Titre Fig. 55. Chouilly La Grifaine. Human bones discovered in the chamber of aHypogeum 9
Crédits Photograph: S. Loiseau.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-55.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 3,1M
Titre Fig. 56. Chouilly La Grifaine. Detail of the calcareous layer on the wall of Hypogeum 9
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-56.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 844k
Titre Fig.57. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan of the corridor in Hypogeum 10
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-57.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,1M
Titre Fig.58. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan of Hypogeum 10. Flint flake from the corridor surface
Crédits Drawing and photograph: F. Spiès
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-58.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,3M
Titre Fig. 59. Chouilly La Grifaine. Corridor and chamber of Hypogeum 11
Crédits Photograph: R. Martineau.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-59.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,9M
Titre Fig. 60. Chouilly La Grifaine. Corridor of Hypogeum 11
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-60.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 3,7M
Titre Fig.61. Chouilly La Grifaine. Plan of Hypogeum 11. Crested blade fragment
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-61.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 772k
Titre Fig. 62. Map of the study sites and comparison site
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-62.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,1M
Titre Tabl. II. Chouilly La Grifaine. Répartition quantitative des types d’objets par hypogées et par salles.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-63.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 715k
Titre Tabl. III. Dimensions (en mètres) et surfaces (en mètres carrés) des chambres funéraires des hypogées de Chouilly La Grifaine.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/docannexe/image/406/img-64.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 338k
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Pour citer cet article

Référence papier

Rémi Martineau, Jean‑Jacques Charpy, Fabien Langry‑François et Angélique Polloni, « The hypogeum necropolises of La Grifaine and Les Ronds Buissons in Chouilly (Marne) », Gallia Préhistoire, 56 | 2016, 127-132.

Référence électronique

Rémi Martineau, Jean‑Jacques Charpy, Fabien Langry‑François et Angélique Polloni, « The hypogeum necropolises of La Grifaine and Les Ronds Buissons in Chouilly (Marne) », Gallia Préhistoire [En ligne], 56 | 2016, mis en ligne le 30 octobre 2017, consulté le 22 janvier 2018. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/galliap/406

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Auteurs

Rémi Martineau

UMR 6298, ArTeHiS Archéologie, Terre, Histoire, Sociétés Université de Bourgogne CNRS Culture INRAP, 6 bd Gabriel 21000 Dijon – jj.charpy@orange.fr

Jean‑Jacques Charpy

Conservateur honoraire du Musée d’Épernay, 15 rue de l’Arquebuse, 51200 Épernay – jj.charpy@orange.fr

Fabien Langry‑François

UMR 6298, ArTeHiS Archéologie, Terre, Histoire, Sociétés, INRAP Grand Est Nord, 12 rue Hippolyte Fontaine 51000 Châlons-en-Champagne –

Angélique Polloni

INRAP, 561 rue Etienne Lenoir 30900 Nîmes et UMR 5608 TRACES, 6 rue du Fer à Cheval 66240 Saint-Estève –

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Droits d’auteur

Gallia Préhistoire

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