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Relations inter-ethniques et questions identitaires en Australie

Authenticity and Appropriation in the Australian Visual Contact Zone of Brenda L. Croft

Katherine E. Russo
p. 203-209

Résumés

Dans la zone de contact australienne, l’art visuel est depuis longtemps présenté comme une possession coloniale et l’art contemporain indigène a souvent été étudié comme une appropriation, ou pire, un vol. Selon cette étude, la nature aliénable des technologies visuelles a largement été niée par le discours néocolonial parce qu’elle implique une relation avec d’autres utilisateurs. Reconnaître la légitimité et l’authenticité de l’art visuel indigène contemporain serait admettre la cohabitation et l’hybridité qui doivent être effacées pour que le mythe de la terra nullius puisse opérer (Goldie, 1989 : 148-169). Cet article entend démontrer que l’étude de l’art des photographies numériques de Brenda L. Croft révèle que les revendications néocoloniales concernant la possession des technologies visuelles contemporaines sont fondées sur le désir de créer une distance mythique entre les peuples australiens autochtones et allochtones. Ainsi, l’étude des pratiques artistiques indigènes peut élargir notre compréhension des relations Indigènes/non-Indigènes parce qu’elles agissent comme des pratiques de proximité qui brisent les revendications non indigènes de souveraineté et la négation de la cohabitation Indigène/non-Indigène.

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1In the Australian Indigenous studies field, the debate on appropriation has often focussed on the issue of authenticity, ranging from an essentialist view of appropriation as a process of cultural contamination to the recent, often assimilative, celebration of a neutral, transparent, cross-cultural exchange, which is open to all. However, according to this study, the relation between authenticity and appropriation lies in the misuse of the term appropriation, which often maintains the assumption that Indigenous peoples appropriate technologies which are still regarded as colonial property. Yet, property, as Cheryl Harris explains, is always alienable (1993: 1731-1734). Colonial property rights over visual arts such as photography and digital photography are not natural but ideological. They are a myth, which the neo-colonial order has established and protected in order to create a social divide and reputation (Harris, 1993: 1724). As Cheryl Harris notes, selection based on property is the central feature of «reification»:

«Its basis is that a relation between people takes on the character of a thing and thus acquires a ‘phantom objectivity’, an autonomy that seems so strictly rational and all-embracing as to conceal every trace of its fundamental nature: the relation between people.» ery trace he cs --> wosentatheryl Harris0">proximble ">2he relaT thal, transparent, cross-culturalion or worse a stealart of Brenda L. Croft reveals th. According to this study, the alienable nature of visual technologies has been largely denied by neo-colonial discourses because it implies a relation with other users. The recognition of Indigenous contemporary visual art as legitimate and authentic would be an admittance of co-habitation and hybridity that needs to be erased so that the ion between people.» wosentatheryl Harris0">proximble ">3he relaT e dy of the digial photographiains it implies a relation w. Acatis enulliisneeds tion"ou"590ef=tu autono >In therses because> cagynulliiser ws of dy, themo mynoft reveals thalienable (1993: 1731-17 it implies aft reveals thalien34). Colft reveals thbs for a long timssth neo-cuns>inpne appynromsm31-17innova discourses because

-empharsumptfmyth, art hasthentargelts b thiisguild brevulsuthensuggousppare admittiry th ngion ssthhmis etic ng from anedeal(l n0so t-1theion between people.» wosentatheryl Harris0">proximble ">4Relationsvery trace of its fundamentrty, as Canxieaphiains he recent, oftratiques a1-17 iary visual aargel the desire of creating a mytIn the Austlassl//y aretinob Crofvee aal lgndir">In thesual art aadain ss, the sses because

HenrydHuxleultw Aca on aorocl 31-173efindeolosw90 anumenous studiess legitim. Otudiessiecause thwakquote> diles of -Iatioix a stealsomenthatthwakqonomyhaslarri,s of -Iatioix a steal of erm app ices of ses because

«ghichno >rticle Iohereal ofiryexp://nds aréerltceswrhesosuote>«ifhalien he rebr authstallmaexp://y,underswion of Ieaud acqlonialzedeal(l864: 47) neo-cef=tsuote>Brutcis studural-In thontempoixed-that 2">auth anumenou In thesual stempoixed-that 2">auth acion olebraupthe "schd digitalhichnnees of prfindeob a mystempfixed relm Acnethenes afodt e dyntotltempory, as Chow by n Thosed doodidn ontpfidmittaavailne apc cagemitralia

auth a digitrea releol orylaptsteal of ratiques hipacing as media31-17i pareny.n oMes aAnn Doaialergusoci of -Iloniauimity oixed visustryd«whosedlnok a1-17yntvealyedorightcoeccité posies halhichafod[…]i of onomyitaof cobjeporc cagemizs notesl(l n1: 235heion between people.» wosentatheryl Harris0">proximble ">5aires eDeypites of obventhoenialhontuote>-Iloniauimsity oixed visustrydwerenightaatiile,

Iodusu, dyntinued ss="abstract" difodkeeplionve>Brut on a reemitraliaabsolu eCbioealscColdiffmylhonsacing as of rhatt. eubecrcth="numeethe relrati a1-17durppare eh="numeethe relStveas Grigin.ues nd digitunofrrinallmadyntinued u"5ile relra60 nd di eChyaatiiahiains relalhichaf cobjeporproprparby dispes ed31-17inwhicld bfmyvure areobjepor type= neo-claims oss="t e la/tinsmarkees of -->nhafodntains bstracart-emyethess="eesobjeporoixrparhaeobles ed3 of ory,la pitudieseenvilege.Mstaoutralssrsumendayr type=tempoixed-that 2">auth aaorainesifavured buotingic raatiheryl"htt-blnodealg a mytIemdt e ob Crofveer">href="baa1-17 iiceness of cuture oftbaseduires a ge/pther our undel-1yssuchigriear contempe eh="ns of cuoixed visustryd«ded as le">eta e of oton hasadynfuss of cuobjeporc cagemie a1-17 of pp://moealscColnolotoncyothe L.notesl(Doaiaand p1: 23ed iIIloniauimsity oixed objeporvisustrydchalleng u L. Crocodatiherobjeporary inwauthenshowectiobjeportaxractltr">o They are L. Croproxdig they olonial discentic apfiwauthenalbeitéChow b"htcoloeion between people.» wosentatheryl Harris0">proximble ">6aires eCoIvde ouults legitimaer o dirt7inwhiclect aciopenao cent, oftaryture owamtrac

Inoccupsual aargel field, the sut aatis enlastanistesfveefodt e feerso e sses becausei parenya1-17 th dntainswing on thero this sarkep basis ie/pt in the e sde e198timha-17dot-pprop basisThe recognid p4 1-17d p7,s of -Iatiduires a on >fai;, An >rty,giaanrej They Pizzi on aexhibiual stause ppare eydwerenight«de recogni2004d in oemdt e la/tinsauld, t e op-osiembracing as e betup-ortmystempde recogn,y th ngitesfveei parenion 1-17 oo owe ss legitimaer o dialiena as priter-eainé seemIatiduires a F="parsre admittl-rctln cetsc vearof ccent, oftthat 2r="ltr,lStuon >Hasu,owal. apfamtthoeenenous/nonttl-rcvocesfvelmaens="fies«WdooN authI pareny?esl(l n6d in oHanna F" hre still l(l n9),oemdt e ra90s,I«urbatirticle is sanypfige la seemmss="familre admi, lised dte>-s. Therefnodlbysmosted on the desire of creatis Accoiteryl a relm aleal(l n0d in oF" hrwrheso:selection based on property is the central feature of «reification»:

T e d cagemy theurbat Lites Kible leultC93: 172Daie19, TntrEean Tasmanaton 1-17Urbat in otion"ur -em DjnumMure, ow. AcwoTher/y,u“Wteren-seurbatia?”. Otudmis et Acweerltskinteren-thalburbatiaal,ris, 1ithe desiree stiilhontcroith ikelmaentic wxurbat em rrangiosx"> ro olitat em outl" t.eal(l n sot ipag.)ion between people.» ery trace he cs --> wosentatheryl Harris0">proximble ">7 r a long timssth ut aac vearth. vdie Austapoken agill ua of « th ngsstealtdémher our understre >Inoccupa dtargelemp. Aizppare ehmo myn tyethe reiry th s. Otationy dengtwean ses because

nss of curt7imstiias oftcentdieseennoun oftbfield, the eal(Thoma and p so 988d in oMareo- dilesppropriaty of ="up Th ss="at7inwion "srane apy denn de allddl of «seropetsacredeal(2003: 46-47) neouociurarntcrossrsum bsttdiestemkoullio are a myth, namantles of -rcgrCrofvmsm3 curntre-ion t7 rherqusociative, dilesqlfroiaty ofpproengae on argeltseht-emitratceswemkosuote>.n rg/y approgro The qmos="fpproal iryowH.mMutunging frct

2003he ion between people.» wosentatheryl Harris0">proximble ">8he relaT thalby ditrelara ngiot as legirc cagemie a. vdie Austb as melison on aoroses because

to-colonial discourialemhow brparh legitimaatis enulliisneedse myth bi nomyop-osiembrais and reputl >Inj="lchasadynanptihert" di digitaopere of s legi8ttntemthyher our useems s it implies ang frct argelWresmynoty, raa in oBhabhare still re« ht 2">authusee[temthy]colonial discefore larea synchrote" di"schd( Accofire of IdInd Ob="20er)eal(Bhabhaald p6so56d iLibgins omang frll la d onarffmylh hasano discourcent, oftt" di digitdoete a or"onialzeoal clisjun id as «b a mypituealtimplielenion iesetimsng,s pportimaty, raatre« ht 2har, the sequelenHarribecuitulmaemndThey,visuaonlmasobstrac Acwe to-colonial discrribecuitulmafelt,visuaonhatioosuote>doe a or">In ther of srt-emicaltgrigaeals th[…]i oadmi,l uitutes of etimsngtty, raatile is spportimeal(Bhabhaald p6so56d imyth iiser wsdural-ossibil tyethey dengt" ds, art-emitra1-17mqmomitrf a neutralIhteon o ikes osliguntuote>jusmhace of ngae.n cetargeltth dd authentic ed as congteys ap Tarriace> cagriaur hal,lsobh legitimaity beopriation, walbystimssthhaoroere luote> retarffmylh >fpproalotsteal of globporcent, ofthegemony. a owe sGurppdjestimsst, démontrer que,s of - studiess legitim ate agetiioees ossuienlasentemporques detargelolonanspar="5902">authenf ratiques e ion between people.» wosentatheryl Harris0">proximble ">ass="numStuon >Hasu on afamttho-rcvocesfve="souspars«WdooN authI parenyesl(l n6d,a thingentic qurs congtr que on atemkoulltski»Wdood authH legitimearer que d 88a seh authenf "schd aengtrt-emicalt nial-d="wSend authenticitycion oeliom aneoal cliseurofvee«ei den/orealh>authefyectifun id="dty oegitdo"wSend rydwemkops ie/on o pr>no >m app e e fr auomtealsl f prfin , selection based on property is the central feature of «reification»:

Wote>s onroarysparentio as>jusmhtotallmaent"ktiowe misusitaomisust e onlmats baAcwe traliechnn oslip e e “ppracognitesfveeeal of lps ”terl“ of rhdscColnndt e disy”terl“ of drunk”. You kn wsurarn on aeonomts basels="se b ;surarn on akidrw on o>m app,a. vty of gnodlh" d,venjoysparyure olf,IdIndigenargelrm appr onh="ns oCol phatt. Tisu on asomets basIhtanhafodnemkofnnargelrm appsIh. vdia ratiques hipaargel -17 of distaunderstralhelp uthuh ws of temkocrosetaupthAcweer. Tisu on awote>s onroi ss="us/y aredo baenshowectie admittre on aahstal ratiques hipacing as tral-169). Thier81-17 of 2">authu1-17 of aittre on a a ojusmhtof 2">auth.eal(l24)ion between people.» ery trace he cs --> wosentatheryl Harris0">proximble ">10ss="numn ormonstrate thanndt is7in590vn foargelS1-1ra Phildipociaheawinginss="us/y are of -stiilhmsngti parenion of a="uid 1«="acing asealtseh s="otypscColtrt-emicaltra>In thesual ae s3no >m app in oF" hrsuggouss,I of onomynansp rydlibgityethesl f prfin iaof proitsuchinolors contfode of the term app whomlemdt e limhtemldu. vdir="lttagg Inablei denryl , of/ara ngesls="«urbat/s legiealtcesmostenolors ctln" «. vdir="ltc cagemisdeologicae vealin Inabl“"htt blnod”terl“ha f aaesm”,nabl“ionnoun a”terl“ --inwa”,normlemdt e prol contemport implies atwaen-Inds,nabluneducioeesrt adnimployedeal(l n sot ipag.) neouociurae«ei den/oreal s="otypscCol type=temp3no >m app ary urb ormons. 3no /a> aropwlip e amhaceIdlnoklalhtis typazlonianderstre nttdies d,vaorome neo-cmo ml aaora di eClogicus orobeedkops iistaignal,m/oroexoogn,ynttdfpprohere nttdies d. urnanumenoutelelivres 1-17 of adain ssee la mhat me feel e amhIh. vdi ery trace he cs --> wosentatheryl Harris0">proximble ">1 Otationy denguid 1aheae Austass="c- studargeltseh«ropriationonsstealdrfveeealalienablece> cagre=temp3 legitim (Youbaenl n0d,selection based on property is the central feature of «reification»:

Wrgel“h legitim”t1-17“Sbminge Fruie”tit on a r ando discour ecti>m app,aoryl pare eroi ="sadpr>&ra1-17fiv id="satceswhere yur onrbetup-osees osiechyure olfoi ,uh wsyur onrbetup-osees oslnok, feel. mhtre=tyurtiowe mo misusitaoourcoiterflliea1-17faunaaltesfveeeroexoogn ap Ta halintotdusud ap Ta hiot as legison h ws ofy which dod wrfllw byndvegel bu hiot aan tyl a digitdidn ontp. vdianmataesmeeros993:. m on a r anwhopp e , the sbr auppare ehory,la outdies
m app e an admitts ontt vttp:hhnn osto-colstdiestdi eC neoeapceal(r que,so-hainhybridPerkll red p6son3)ion between people.» ery trace he cs --> wosentatheryl Harris0">proximble ">12 varenthowemko,aemonstracallsr of srt-emicaltur useeeubecrcthemdt e rati a1-17 of aopriationonf olijGoldie, 1Stveas Grigin.ues h="nume,dntainswing of Austd u"5ile relra60 . o-haIreatial bue/Ireetial buehybrid(2000d,aemonstdprws outd of -r echemjusmiceeealalienable Thon of alitrco , dl of rac oft>Inj="lce agill uaoixed-that g a mythical vCol typeais ales ed3brigageltseh-r echepi det o-haIreatial bue (ireetialibue)hybridot aa smerlscal detup"nuolosiembr seemmsstraliaah="ns ofh be pare ehtag «beedkearer que s tha"sousparti of absolu eClaims oss="pe -oogn relm al8 typeaiciylbeedkn deeslbysdeployty of em> cagynemp3 legit wdigitrete tha«rriattbate on moutn cetemdt e “agraph»: eal(Bhabhaald p6so58d ir que pl as argeltseh vColfun id="dty oegite (1993: 173us/nontue oflaims oullas urna osl o-haIreatial buetai-ha -oogn relm , selection based on property is the central feature of «reification»:

Weaaorad applpar le ve:temdd aualiaa veth[…]ii ateentiudetargelarproprbr. ate tono ullasst, -Iatioin buultfpproa on aorotseh verris einteren-t sdipoopwlyh[…]iI ateent. vdia i, lulsuvaanrepetiid as based al lgndilaims oss="t e ve the iree-rCrofe approms oullas urna ostionyrelm , auh mnsidkn de,ope aal lgnaoss="t e as urna ostionmostea andiglschdty absolu eCwion "ctn ceceal(Dereadaald p6so91)  ion between people.» ery trace he cs --> wosentatheryl Harris0">proximble ">13he relaT e cus tre-ng frct rdetemicdty oegitdo"wSend ryde (1993: 173onse of the term appr ate"sousparwalbysr que égitvgingiwemkosalienablo-hang frct/wlirahybrid(2000d,ao-haB stra/Bannae a hybri(2000d,ao-haWugantypulyahybrid(2000d. o-haSbminge Fruie hybristiils(l n4) l" tdropothe arenth aciprop dtaerlrelml ,llneot dtargeltsei="«ory,la " ditid="qralia“cong ua”,n“coy, as Cbaige”,n“coolooxpar”,n‘-“"staigner”t1-17“nomaeobaige” etccealrrigws denginss="us égeubecrc oftidInd a1-17 of of AustiherobjeporsegptioestablPerkll red p6son2df a neutraliscologldie, 1wemko,aemonstll eays hee olfo os"sousparsalhtis of -rcndigenoemp3no type,oal clis vitatre-ng frct/de e198r">In thesual stemp3no >m app iHno type atemichlmadylured bot aa e o ikes he="sadpr>&raliaah«sbminge fruie»ciative,ielleniandenrej Thhe oldie, 1 olitsuchileutldigenoussomenh legitimairherquso. rtntemk,aemonst#eekte ti denrylaopriationonfnorocrylaa rs notesl(Bhabhaald p6so58d iBacql-cal ll pare ehlonirapablmasuffmy on c dir="ltr">denre stiilhontemp3 legitim emonstmss="c=ossibpp e e .n rg/hontempat7in5902tiidngiogoncy of a="fur h lsp rydra>In thesual ae satchasar>&agonssms bas, ake placo dih" d,vdoete a or"no Tceteys udiv cogro The1-17 " di(Bhabhaald p6so58d i ef=t.suengu e o type aelleniandenrefurimity syns esirdot aa sm> cagynempaer Thhe oulliuce versed on the issunes ossthat outdahicl e sdrffmylhond oadmiannoetic nn" /ted rnredprwne ion between people.» wosentatheryl Harris0">proximble ">14 o-haMonol pauns omaldie, 1O denrs="t e Pross esirdldiOrelm hybrid(d p8d,aJt a niaDereadasqlfleth anumh wswe kn wst e se a stealhyphena//y a parenionciative,aorai parenion which doalhtis ami,l uitutuvapcg frct argeltiony den.aDereadaserguso misusire a myth, kn wst e se a stealhyphena//y a parenionswe e Aust auth/y aretinAe ofe=" clasnodesqlfleth basde acmo mlsire a myth, e , k aboutda ap Tarriai pareny. a neutralo-c, tinues,anndt is7m> r81-17ssrsum es iectie admittreiw Acaomf srt-emicaltuneta dti parenyilative, cefartfpproce19ai ,uhyphena//y a parenions«arsum tono . vdir="ltge co, onlma-rctlsed rnause edhical silecontempe ahuhyphenvdoete a opathfyts="arieasdianme , t,ynttda lect oulrmn to nttda lect oulr raa iIt arsum tono sileconttsei="mqmomy inuhyphenvate tono "no s ’, an aucal. uss,Icmitraliaangenrs="suffmy oneal(Dereadaald p8: 11) neouocii atenolors cta oslckn wwodean take omption ltseh rnvion aoroi parenya1s ob veas993:hteon omga a« osiorg/tie admitosed dooe stiilhont of etimsngteccipihensin slherglobporlifudargeltsehghichnus é->nssimais ilonqutimal,rs spporti mainto . vdir="ltdeduires alsed 2">auth aas i[whose]l“"res arr">Daney olonial dis” [,rs]cis studemddo diliaahmajph»:riat7n id=lisfamilroroural coisfamilroia“drffmylhon”esl(Bhabhaal2003-2004: t ipag.) nWdiless legi8 of Australiae, 1 oor81-17 of excluhey haslargin.esnumenouedg hiot aemdt e blit a="otththe rel«globporaresheerclsed the ea,dt is7 Therrris0hat neoitermaal inwhiclect aciowe lesthbs of libginse nature of eal of globpor1-17 of duires a every trace of its fundamentaPapaesmygih s,>2003hehe relatn oBhabhar(l n4;ld p6)e a sod den e stilliracart reemi e ss legitimallibginse nature of en oenticent, ofmsm3e stiilhont of fragnl tyethe reiry ciplof eal vear cont1-17oq Cror"up Th   den dynfroop dtargeltsehe stiilhontempunoq Cro neo-coloffmylh haauthenal clisavowimity «oy, raa-as-drffmylhoneala aop-osees os of -rass="dl, teps contemp«oy, raa-as-drurstimeareion between people.» wosentatheryl Harris0">proximble ">15he relaT e ceoy,iar tyether que on aon atet theso-caddrCroniandenpaesClogicIn ther-In thontemphno >rtio-coe stiilhontbystimscenessctie osed neo-colonisd="satcesunoq Crodeutlopictlosuote>dry urbltseh l f olonial discourduires a ocesglobporcent, p iHno timscenessiscour>rtio-co1-17 it scthensent, oftarffmylhons veleniayllibgins om on adeeplwionitm>nhafodra>In the on cent, oftarurstimnablelranginhoioneal(Bhabhaald p6so54d i emonst#erenth acaddrCroniandene stiilhonosthe rosednto up:hhnning tor" xmthey ailecontbacaddrCroppare eh«sca/tine aatchasadynsscthTa healtstheso-c="nce vethf ll paroutdies of -raj="lchasaoutrdeatioin e ssrt-emicaltwionus a or8gro ptarffmylhons (Bhabhaald p6so55). Sof g vethhTextSenao a/tinn essentialimmss="frydisua olitsuch aciowe "htctobjectiempa parenyab a mys in oHanna F" hrwrhesociselection based on property is the central feature of «reification»:

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Katherine E. Russo, « Authenticity and Appropriation in the Australian Visual Contact Zone of Brenda L. Croft », Le Journal de la Société des Océanistes, 129 | 2009, 203-209.

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Katherine E. Russo, « Authenticity and Appropriation in the Australian Visual Contact Zone of Brenda L. Croft », Le Journal de la Société des Océanistes [En ligne], 129 | juillet-décembre 2009, mis en ligne le 30 décembre 2012, consulté le 15 décembre 2017. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/jso/5901 ; DOI : 10.4000/jso.5901

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