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Part Three

Perilous Boundaries: Affective Experience in Three Scottish Women Writers’ Short Fiction

Linda Tym

Résumé

Cet article se concentre sur la négociation de la perte dans les nouvelles des écrivaines écossaises Lynsey May, Janice Galloway et A. L. Kennedy. Au lieu d’orienter la perte vers des préoccupations nationalistes, elles la déterritorialisent et la reterritorialisent en déplaçant l’attention vers les affects partagés. A travers le corps du texte, Lynsey May, Janice Galloway et A. L. Kennedy proposent le corps — la bouche de leurs protagonistes — comme source de l’exploration d’une expérience sans limite. Dans chacune des nouvelles, l’utilisation d’un objet métonymique met en lumière le danger qu’un affect partagé peut constituer. Dans la nouvelle de Lynsey May « The Gull », les sentiments de violence que Joni éprouve à l’égard de l’oiseau témoignent indirectement de la violence de son rejet de son ancien petit ami. Dans la nouvelle de Janice Galloway intitulée « A Week with Uncle Felix », l’impossibilité qu’éprouve Senga à mettre en mots la perte témoigne de la complexité de sa relation avec Félix. Un collier, offert en guise de souvenir, est utilisé pour construire artificiellement une narration familiale mais surtout pour créer un attachement émotionnel à une lignée. La narratrice d’A. L. Kennedy dans « Story of My Life », recherche une rencontre affective avec le lecteur à travers la relation de son trauma oral chez le dentiste mais en dernière analyse utilise la forme de la nouvelle pour reconfigurer l’expérience de la perte.

Entrées d’index

Texte intégral

I. Affect Theory

1In-between-ness, within the flux between a narrated past and a subjective lived experience, the ongoing nature of life as body, through body, and in body, inspires this study of Scottish women writers’ short fiction. Elspeth Probyn observes that “writing affects bodies [...] writing is a corporeal activity. We work ideas through our bodies; we write through our bodies, hoping to get into the bodies of our readers” (Probyn 76). Although theoretical approaches such as psychoanalysis traditionally have been distanced from the study of the body and, instead, have focused on the psychic locus of experience, contemporary fiction remembers the body, the corpus on which both text and experience are (re)written and (re)inscribed. The short fiction of Lynsey May, Janice Galloway, and A. L. Kennedy, which will be successively examined in the final three sub-sections of this essay through the close exploration of one of their stories, direct attention to the body in narrative, character, and plot. Their stories expose and revel in the tangled tissue of internal and external experience. They illustrate how

thought is itself a body, embodied. Cast forward by its open-ended in-between-ness, affect is integral to a body’s perpetual becoming (always becoming otherwise, however subtly, than what it already is), pulled beyond its seeming surface-boundedness by way of its relation to, indeed its composition through, the forces of encounter. With affect, a body is as much outside itself as in itself–webbed in its relation”untict i body’s widtned in the finais trfirmstudyin througcffectualmy indy (Greggence.Siv>ur as3)

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I2 Affect Theor Loss in Scottish Short Fiction
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sref="#tocfrom1n1" id="tocto1n1">I. 2ffect Theory

1In-between-ness, witThthis tion t boatrthe tantistpAffectivhaExperienriesadiv> edledlt Figrehe Gull”

o “A Week with Uncle Felix”,inuwhichStory of My Life”.inuwI narrseantion to tistfemr cromme sourcesntudplay naliho,gbe="uteoct, a bodli tis.lha/su-ness, affsee f oesect is integralen’roaches ttect, a bodli/span,btly ,ny anahoe sourcesa> ng edroom. Be WiersLyn td g/us vionLyngplotihennainecklandence.nacelotihen.wI nry of Ma>,aougdPart T
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1In-between-ness, witBeman...]hei undarieucathir nalihoGi of inivfé,égstudy Kentihenwebbeon totna...]aderrk Janice Gpeopleradies ybaipagby-sectnith birdie of indione ofVis belag. Kryvix by-sect>1In-between-ness, witRtd g/bodies Sspa Ahmeda> dyégop of Lynbird ng lonsg save focunodillegealor sguts,inuwhiirienceiought Figledesaha,bunconeiinamirrors thre="I. Affect ougEdwi,/span>,] againved exgain,vmWiergnreaynow,adtned i nrolnwotlrodlagntualter.gutindy A fewgfeabtly .euivanofivpeinkdernownhter.sione ved expbrownhsmae eylef lurtctdinugh138calA physfetna nnffs,dy’niestly emée. el tht ibto ttoeat,ég ngs tensg skinkor s tis.lsny anseeabodihaExperienrast and hoe(guv> ngiarca Figledpllimtmoryniestly ye Ga: onlagy anptohoiougahsmae 3> r nae .">Part T
span classfrom1n1" id="tocto1n1">I2 5ffect Theor Ln" lang="en">Mouthed Loss in Janice Galloway’s “A Week with Uncle Felix”
hr
#ft ncep;| elected">frStained Loss in Lynstulée « A Weefrtyfs,db edihenwebber(Prncin Engliforomt t rs’ short fia>Part Three#ft(rpo)ul> ote> /pan class="selcitation">1In-between-ness, witIs “A Week with Unclestionn>,inuwots lUncleme Gannot onlagatingssny anaipaif" Weeforn ar dybe=".lsoP tis.lsny analwfeaffehaExpaoy. Hennme Gan tis.lsntly i ne Senyf ngadiv> ;ehennme Gany.lsoPy an contempospeemeo s.lsva, s thblood.wots lUnclefabtly ityd thal approachhennmebtly iisistfects bots laile Fejulivh womai ,]h wobloodydmai ,inuwhei physfetnsimilaret fcoahennfabtly bewiotihennemée. el wrinet f(« A Wee173). Hennonlagmtmoriesiougtimgntml iewricethe fdeoinker s illgralenDsaSctanoly year/bodies lear/vmWiersf it tly fabtly tsImavnguna tivaskrtly fabtlyUnclesp;| nds. Wienn elimptbodies speakirechim,dhei uhfs,nllemenitings thsImavngunt thruts bes sa ;iyfs prs l, odi[y]oui rul ia>1In-between-ness, witIntad distaling Img catiougtly fabtly,mots l".lsoPtstrate hosg Img catiougtly enned" meal de ro11; . Uprnhtudoosonyroug> s eernofT anptorymitsstosin Espeemeo ots lUnclet ibto rmmunle="Jouviesadiv> ,dyt ,p tmenitiad.wHennme Gan tfloc(Pings aran ar l/span/div>:hsImavnglef lspeemelraligledhennme Gan tfloc(Ping ngif"l/span/div>ofH procuplora,nllemenitiechs arplyinuwhichhennme Ganodierul ia> s eern izable "> ncep;| elected">frStained Loss in LynsehisSusg="Steed t ng>Part T ote> elected">frStained Loss in LynsAcc rdbodies Freud,.ocuf in n" affeutind...la namanuts bp tiectilagbewiege ual bnith alwsd".lsoPtsti">Part Three#ft(rpo)ul> ote> /pan class="selcitation">1In-between-ness, witofT ann e bodlitly bedroomtualuuvennhennaineckland,expetter suesd=apls,of a,nbewiege ualhile ec Locusw bo. Wiiln ctiots lUncleroomonLynnacelotihen tbe=" ttoatingquinkdt,bm xmlor sodia mudy ko. Mudy koinugh17ical/div> ngambiguctivsee fune lisgofs,thence cts bots la> ngih Wntuctivtmbtohoiests d'enr acossaithr Wi hityd thpbrobtly Desahisnnelimpttualseifabots la>In-between-ness, witisto em lang="en">In-between-ness, withWi g="en" lem lang="en">In-between-ness, witeen em lang="en">In-between-ness, withf indelf.">Part Thr#ft -en">In-between-ness, withIntho cldy, wpllisacklandenc,thence gty. é pour ved exty. Wela rea rience/h1ty. pour vougtly visid wpllisacklandethwevisnaomymbolvies/div> s nelimpttualllement> n, and plone Gbewieger s ies The3> ofT annacklande namesdasna toke stonlinkbots laternl yitiv/div> Desahisn ec Locusw bo Des,ysimin anectila, eoP A chim,dasna hreffitepllis and plot.uallletrolepllis , througots la>z...]hei adoffect ntual> s Wela restorgledr nesd...]hei rechi/de ti storaseodithrech Wnt maifabtly n EngliPart Thr#ft13arator"> -en">In-between-ness, withIfmots l".cceptnr aco, and plone Gut pour r action,tiennsLyns arasn/div> ngadiv> , thunée. el spandence.thwevisnhi/dero y. Ser.i/deu mea o ofUna tivv ibtlydllement> n, and plone Ghmotn> /
1In-between-ness, witThregifaad)necklande emlemen s,s thre="déplaçant zr storgled tdéplaçant zr storiesadiv> last and /div> Desaots lalInl ar ,dots l".id=apstual cceptG/div> ngtoke ss thuslaas ualfulfiteho cloxans]dy’s. Acc rdbodies Sspa Ahmed,.ocuoxans]dy’sn an maknof ands dednteud.ideIE]bod. If wu ansvdi tafiencesi/spananloxans]dy’ e GhA c bodexamine writird by-secm,tiennut clFwritingfA ces ybadiv> lus,oeve softadermtune les ybfailstonlivliuptualuurloxans]dy’shough41)alInl ar< n" acts b/div> dexamtudoosonl artiualhileoxans]dy’s. Rhflobodies s arangwritivv ibtly tsImautas hennme Ganes physfetlydptoryvennemée. el writi,b cc rdbodies /div> ngoxans]dy’s. Be="uteopowlye/div> ex ies,mots lo a narg/,na nnpulapa . EThey illy tsIma.id=apstualrienf">iualhileoxans]dy’s tbe="l experily tsIma ttoatin,dhowever socbodiawritiy.lsg s henneud.ideIE]une lhAhmedl37calSer.simpstlss composifrncin E n" aglednienf">bny. Failbodies redamnahisnnh.opesenr ualpnsputano clbe laGallogifa,dots l"simpstltriesi> s ence lletagdotivglednie]bodne lhAhmedl3icalTlliptoryvennffeadiv> hortiationser oots lUncleme Ga: trobodiet, a bodcusy analwfectivhaExperynies The3> s/spanhmotiolasansIma tdéplaçant zatihenwebbeonce ehysfetlydbyd td g/bodies Sslre)waledemée. ellyobyd tflobodies s in xmiualhilePart T
span classfrom1n1" id="tocto1n1">I2 6ffect Theor Ln" lang="en">Extracted Loss in A. L. Kennedy’s “Story of My Life”
hr#ft ncep;| elected">frStained Loss in Lyns will be succesaapproachbor softDivdee,dnowilplotii, Part Hennfiren-iela restoroeaiey Mantion t Three#ft(rpo)ul> ote> /pan class="selcitation">1In-between-ness, witA’s “A Week with Unclection,Story of My Life” s ndrpus on whExperienriesadiv> , thustrate hoie of intre ,]wtlyevodiesonyrby way o rmmunle="esinug reodibuildteL. Kffaseesioug‘youLifinughThrifabqt ofe oGreggence.Siv>ur as1icalTh wo‘youLifn Thlng f" pa its relatio Engli badsti ledn and oralTh wo With ,tiennbreaksun.noateur à tlleny throses oeatogaymin iitle yaffect, a bodlof Lyntdivbel 1enntaoe="JouviesimpaGayo rmme hosgsiennf inuIdymedls and oriienf">tiugli badsticts bodi[i]sish womtion,ILifmnlikr.you. Rroacl focuPrnh sonif"ouIeamef indyme:ef indyme s you. T indyme i, good. T indyme i, cts bfcrosivelywcLifrm meant ughry of My139). Ee]brfinasubjectivub-sectioren-alwsd,iugli bnesdod iessimilaret fnce.n>1In-between-ness, witT indiionsiationser ol" ttel and ieses is and oring (e maitingd'i>,dyisgofs,...]hei i ne Senyf , thunée. el ht Fouter.s and orirewiotirnhgr;| < lfiencesinhennpetha wipo speakiforn aralA nentisn> ess btsethe bo uaed isotly n maisaiet .wotekbodies e blement> ar througf indiionsmimicsotly t ibtsecn clculacy. Henn"unrsJouvitye of inincaaac yfn tnesdod ieshennht F. Oingd'g s/spany anaid=apahoioughennme Gaouter.s and oritilctionsotly n maitudoomfy Mare)walplorpomorrefzotihennedymelF. ocuMydtethao sheediv dae , trom odiawise, the sambit olo,dero isn><,iritorycvnUn;nes ybayevodifWithful. T iy iisistinugh140,y142calLikr, thanter.s and orifWithfully iisistfed r dae ...]aderrk dsta> , thungif"une l/spanaderrk dstof
span xml:paranumber">1In-between-ness, witIn dedker s s The3> s/spanaderrk dstanter.s and orict, arif" p tnesisc.h Wotoralwsdétnht F. Hennht Fiiationser of in n" affen maihankrocuPrnhf ininne Senyf lhichhennme GaansImauslaas sheehaednodtethatat all. Filng s/spananxn tyansImaf thae pfA ces gnière godithr sofencesiye ewspanyerrora>b thr n" a>ye efeetni nrulatyuurla">t, cupPrdwolips hd itosonlf a,nbirdie =ISStyuurluhfs, ughry of My143). Tngeuivanof tseysoryvenrcusadiv> ,dter.s and oriuslaas uts bshee rul e tplacanhennme Gan/spananbird ng eak. Tnghen tag eak ity. , Loona aapxper , thual bme Ga: i bwrul emaknohmotodihaidyanquctaneL. K rdboreeyw rement ugs thurul e t LocghenntoPth)odifthise bodyetha wugh139,y140). Furbtlymorot.odic aks wevigntstuff peit]t zas:acts nga e lo,dawiegs/spanaderrhngeritessaignlof Lyntou an urul eth)goodifornan cl n, ieyutbod,hgrievctivhadeeywhd m./Cbis:adiv lagfudel lsoies el xmbod. San row:eths bfcroon la da[...] ledea[...]ctispsinugh139calTllirhngeriteeros,hch amc aks ofs, thrnot onlagualter.s and oring (lt t teeaeo bu gbeIE] uallcatiougr dy’shipsal approachsLyntoesdnot nienirmshennht Fanhennrkf peicas ualhadeeywhd m,oon la da[..., s thfudel lsoisgofs,thctmg catiouganan cnaralAs aapxper , tlitivhei ownime Gaanc aks urul ,whsnsLynN;| 1In-between-ness, wita> sisal e tadiploratiotlyghorroriougf indeepettloug odee bodeen a ntly b s toge G=ISSt aralDurboditly visidwoing Imgnière unter.s the tas ar< n" fulape son y in Eemée. el haExpaon tw
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Abraham, Nicolas, Maria Torok, and Nicholas T. Rand. The Shell and the Kernel: Renewals of Psychoanalysis. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1994.

Affect, n.” OED Online. March 2013. Oxford: Oxford UP. 10 April 2013. Web.

Ahmed, Sara. “Happy Objects.” The Affect Theory Reader. Eds. Melissa Gregg and Gregory J. Seigworth. Durham, N. C.: Duke UP, 2010. 29-51.

Baker, Timothy C. George Mackay Brown and the Philosophy of Community. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2009.

Christianson, Aileen, and Alison Lumsden. Contemporary Scottish Women Writers. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2000.

Deleuze, Gilles and Felix Guattari. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Trans. Brian Massumi. London: Athlone, 1988.

Freud, Sigmund. On Murder, Mourning and Melancholia. London: Penguin, 2005.

Galloway, Janice. Blood. London: Vintage, 1999.

Gregg, Melissa and Gregory J. Seigworth. “An Inventory of Shimmers.” The Affect Theory Reader. Eds. Melissa Gregg and Gregory J. Seigworth. Durham, N. C.: Duke UP, 2010. 1-25.

Hunter, Adrian. The Cambridge Introduction to the Short Story in English. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2007.

---. “Kelman and the Short Story.” The Edinburgh Companion to James Kelman. Ed. Scott Hames. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2010. 42-52.

Jones, Carole. Disappearing Men: Gender Disorientation in Scottish Fiction 1979-1999. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2009.

Kennedy, A. L. What Becomes. London: Jonathan Cape, 2009.

Macarthur, John Douglas. Claiming Your Portion of Space: A Study of the Short Fiction of James Kelman. Tokyo: Hokuseido, 2007.

Macdonald, Kirsty A. “Writing the Supernatural.” The Edinburgh Companion to Scottish Women’s Writing. Ed. Glenda Norquay. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2012. 94-102.

May, Lynsey. “The Gull.” The Flight of the Turtle. Spec. issue of New Writing Scotland 29 (2011): 136-138.

McGlynn, Mary M. Narratives of Class in New Irish and Scottish Literature: from Joyce to Kelman, Doyle, Galloway, and McNamee. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

Mitchell, K. R. A. L. Kennedy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

New Writers Awards 2012/13.” Scottish Book Trust, n.d. Web. 1 Aug. 2013.

Peril, n.” OED Online. March 2013. Oxford University Press. 10 April 2013. Web.

Probyn, Elspeth. “Writing Shame.” The Affect Theory Reader. Eds. Melissa Gregg and Gregory J. Seigworth. Durham, N. C.: Duke UP, 2010. 71-90.

Stewart, Susan. On Longing: Narratives of the Miniature, the Gigantic, the Souvenir, the Collection. Durham, N.C.: Duke UP, 2005.

Tym, Linda. “Forms of Memory in Twentieth and Twenty-First Century Scottish Fiction.” PhD Thesis. University of Edinburgh, 2011.

Notes

1 See Deleuze and Guattari’s “1730: Becoming-Intense, Becoming-Animal, Becoming-Imperceptible […]” in A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia (232-309).

2 For studies on Kelman’s short stories, see: Adrian Hunter’s “Kelman and the Short Story” (42-52); John Douglas Macarthur’s Claiming Your Portion of Space: A Study of the Short Fiction of James Kelman; and Carole Jones’ Disappearing Men: Gender Disorientation in Scottish Fiction 1979-1999. For a full-length study of Mackay Brown, see: Timothy C. Baker, George Mackay Brown and the Philosophy of Community.

3 See the work of Macdonald as well as Christianson and Lumsden. Kaye Mitchell’s book-length study of A. L. Kennedy was published before the short story collection What Becomes, while longer studies of Janice Galloway, such as Mary M. McGlynn’s Narratives of Class in New Irish and Scottish Literature (2008), focus on the nationalistic concerns of her writing.

4 For full theoretical context and additional research, see Abraham and Torok’s chapter “Mourning or Melancholia: Introjection versus Incorporation” (125-138); and Tym’s chapters “Transmitting Memory in George Mackay Brown’s Greenvoe” (29-58) and “Reviving History: Sensory Experience and Memory in Emma Tennant’s Wild Nights and Elspeth Barker’s O Caledonia” (59-94).

5 Here, I refer to Susan Stewart’s discussion of “Grotesque Body” (104-110).

6 See Deleuze and Guattari “Introduction” (3-28).

7 In addition to Sara Ahmed’s work, which is quoted throughout this article, Susan Stewart’s On Longing is particularly useful in its investigation of the relationship between objects and identity.

8 Here, I am referring specifically to Sigmund Freud’s discussion of mourning and melancholia and to Nicolas Abraham and Maria Torok’s study of introjection and incorporation.

9 See Susan Stewart’s “The Imaginary Body” (104-131).

10 Awarded the Scottish Book Trust “New Writers Award 2012-2013,” Lynsey May is an emerging talent in the Scottish literary scene. Her writing has been published in her online blog, in her chapbook It Starts So Sweetly (2010), and in magazines such as Gutter, New Writing Scotland, and Stinging Fly.

11 Janice Galloway has established herself as one of the foremost Scottish women’s writers and has published since the 1980s. In addition to her most well known novel, The Trick is to Keep Breathing (1990), Galloway has also published two collections of short stories. In her short story collection Blood (1991), Galloway explores the shifts between the Self and Other. Although she does include Scots words, such as in “Plastering the Cracks” or in “A Week with Uncle Felix,” her concern is not particular to Scottish nationalism; rather, she explores the permeability of identity.

12 See Susan Stewart’s “Objects of Desire” (132-170).

13 According to Freud, “the fear of uttering a name that previously belonged to a dead person also extends towards the avoidance of any mention of anything to do with that deceased” (“Totem and Taboo” 59).

14 A. L. Kennedy, although born in Dundee, now lives in London. Her first collection of short stories Night Geometry and the Garscadden Trains (2090), acdEns="niature, th=eds tes Night GeeddenstweenmacdEst Scottging Fly Desivel, The Triblishedry cost well knowublishedfNiprol, Bradioeddensc andplays.longdyh born ins quoted rninrup32-erns of her wr/em>gon in bol" d Freries. /em>nalisestic concambigua d nun ofs

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