in" tontent="tTe Rdectrutiove el=toons hips between mothrs iandchaildren, or even more so between mothrs iandcsns , have been addressedtite =andcaginb. However I have always foundcthr el=toons hips between Tom=andcAnna Binguwen, thrn between Will=andcUrsula Binguwen, to be more itenresting. I shall=thrsefore explore thr fathrs-and-dughters formatove/dectrutiove el=toons hips n The Rainbow"=andcthrn fcum on athr harsacers ofcUrsula asathr perpetual wandrser/wondrser n Tthr world ofcan, n Tthr diffrsent tat... c> Navigtion/ – Pang du it"l!-- #access -- er < Étudec Lwrenceiennecl!-- #ead>er -- crumb < fr < < < en < < < < > Numéros > 47 >

l!-- #brad>crumb -- < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < Sommaire - - l!-- .navEnitliec eop -- < < < < er < < < < < 47 | 2016 : ducation iandcCulture(s) n TD.H.Lwrencee'sWomrk < < < < < aughters in Love: Reflections on a Woman’s Education in The Rainbow Bigintt= Macadre-Nguyên < < < < l!-- #dcuHad>er -- < < < < Pang | Txt/e |  | No/ec |  | Auteur < < < < < PangTwo unusual couplec n The Rainbow < < < < < < Tom=andcAnna < < < < < < Will=andcUrsula < < < < < < Ursulas Eritualistic ournaey n Tthr world ofcan < < < < < < “A hrso cannot be a wif =andcmothrs” < < < < < < omae’s Edouble bindcla lassN"tgo-eop"href="h#aric-e=-66" >Haut de pgesl!-- #toc -- < < < < < Txt/e iteégralPDF Sigalser ce dcumentEl!-- #widents -- < < < < < < 1Te Rdectrutiove el=toons hips between mothrs iandchaildren, or even more so between mothrs iandcsns , have been addressedtite =andcaginb. However I have always foundcthr el=toons hips between Tom=andcAnna Binguwen, thrn between Will=andcUrsula Binguwen, to be more itenresting. I shall=thrsefore explore thr fathrs-and-dughters formatove/dectrutiove el=toons hips n The Rainbow< /tem>andcthrn fcum on athr harsacers ofcUrsula asathr perpetual wandrser/wondrser n Tthr world ofcan, n Tthr diffrsent tatgec ofchrsEritual ournaey andchoming ofctge, byTthr end ofcthr nve:l. Fialsly n/ will=ontsi>er Ursulas Eexperince/ a ianEexample ofcthr eernatlEdouble bindcwhich has been tearing apaat eneratoons onf women, cughte between thr will=to fulfill=thrmselvec as huan beings=andcthrRdecire to=ontform andcsubmit to=thrRmascuinke model onf femininity.l/p> < < < < < < < 2To tatr/ with, let e =quotr from Freud,cwhosr postulatr about civiliz d huanity is n Tersmsonf “thrRunending ctruggle between Eros=andcthrRdectrutiove drove,cthrRdeath drove,cthat iscthr eernatlEontflict ofctmbivalnce/” (Civiliztion iandcits Disontent=s/tem> 68). Lwrencee expressedtihr sme =axiom=aginb=andcaginb, very/laearly n TBirki’s Eofent-quotrdcmnt=in iofct “roves ofcdarkness,” t “dark roves ofcdissoluion.,” n Toppostion. to=“thrRsilvrsErives ofclif , […] flowing iteo t bigiht eernatlEsea, t heaven ofctngel othronging” (omaein Love:i/tem>172-173). Birki was n Tehis n tatnee teahaing yet anothrs lecsn. to=Ursula, t lecsn. that hadcalrad>y been tughte by Will=to=his eldect dughters,cthat wouldcsubsequnt=ly shapechrsEpersn/ality,chrsEatytlude itclif itceneratl=andclve:ilif itcparic-ular.l/p> < < < < < < < Two unusual couplec n The RainbowTom=andcAnna3Before a/alyzing thrRmore homplex nature ofcthr el=toons hip between Will=andcUrsula,cthrRearlies one between Tom=andcAnna muct first be explored,cas nEnprefigures what will=onme laers.The Rtmbiguom obond between Tom=andchis step-dughters is n derdcappasent from thrRbeginning. As he iscteahaing Anna about thr ways ofcnature,cthrRbirth andcawakening ofclif , Tom=iscalso sub=ly cuttingchrsEoff from thrRoutsi>e world, n taillingcwithn ThrsEaEsense ofcalieateon/ from hrsEpers iandcfrom thrRworld ofcthrRschool.l/p> < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < He was easycwith hrs,ctalking to hrs,ctakingchrsEto see thr love cretoures, bigngingchrsEthr first haickenc n This cap,ctakingchrsEto gathrs eggs, lettingchrsEthrw< cructs to=thrRhr"se. ShrRwouldceasily achompanyThim,=andctake all=hrRhadcto gove,cbut shr elminbrdcneutatl=taill. (R/tem> 65)l/p> < < < < < < < < < < < < < < 4He isca fathrscto Anna,cbut nb=a mothrsly way –Twhich cretoes ene>er ontfuson :l/p> < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < At evening,cwhe Thr cam itcto milk,athr haildRwouldcru behindchim.The , n Tthr cosyccowshrds, with thrRdor"s shut=andcthrRais lookingcwarm byTthr lgiht ofcthrRhangingclanerna, above thr batnhaing hr"s onf thr cows, shrRwouldctatndcwathaing hischands squnezing rhythmiclsly thr teat onf thr placid beast,cwathaEthr froth andcthr leaping cquirt ofcailk,awathaEhischandcsnmeite scrubbing clowly,cue>ertatndingly,cupn a Whangingcuddrs.T(R/tem> 69)l/p> < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < 1 “Binguwen=andchis dughterss Erl=toons hip is complcatirdceven furthrscbychis ssNocia=in iofcAnna no (...) < < < < < < < < 5Whe Tontsoling Anna n Tthr cowshrd, Tom=beonmes even more ofct mothrs-figure, almostct Mothrs-with-CaildRfigure, thrRshawlcwhich hrRwrapscthr girl n Treminding him ofchis own mothrs. As HeathrscShra Akrs ielmirkc n Maersnity,cAbjecion ,Love:,=andcRevoluion.ary/Lnguage": A Kristevan/Rad>ing ofcD.H.Lwrencees ENve:ls,/tem>1 “Binguwen=andchis dughterss Erl=toons hip is complcatirdceven furthrscbychis ssNocia=in iofcAnna not only with thrRrole ofct lve:rcbut also thrRmothrs”: < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < Holding thrRhaildRn ione arm,chr set about preparing thr food for thr cows, fillingca pan/with chopp d hay andcbrewrss Egrinb iandca icttle meal. […] Andcthr two sat=taill, listening to thrRsnuffingcandcbreathing ofccows ferding it thrRshrds communcationgcwithTehis small=barn. [.. ] [H]e look d down at thr silky fold onf thr paisleyRshawl. ItTreminded him ofchis mothrs. ShrRusedtio go to=ohurch withTit. He was back=aginb=it thrRold irrespntsibility andcsecurity,ct boy at hom".The Rtwo sat=very/quiet. […] As shrRsak rio sleep,chis mind becam bangk.T(R/tem> 75-76)l/p> < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < 2 It thrRshort=taory “You Touchrd Me," thrRdughterss Eontfuson between hrscfathrscandcthr youngcan (...) < < < < < < < < 6Te Rontfuson between thr diffrsent roles, between fathrs/mothrs,Rhaild/lve:r, I have juct emphasiz d can/also br seen it thrRshort=taory “You Touchrd me,” whrsect dughters believec thrRman it thrRbedroom=iscnot hrscfuture lve:r, but hrsEown fathrs.2 Tom=“never lve:dchis own sn. as he lve:dchis step-haildRAnna” (R/tem> 78). I Tretur ,LAnna also tatnsfrsrrdcall=hrs exclusove lve:rio Tom:=“Of hrsEown choiee,EshrRthrn lve:dcBinguwen=most, or mostcobviom ly. For thrs Rtwo madeca icttle lif togethrs,Rthry hadca joint atiovity. ItTamusedthim,=at evening,cto teahachrsEto count, or io say hrs lett=rs. He remembe"ed for hrscall=thr icttle nu"sery rhymes andchaildish sn.gscthat lay forgott=n at thr bottom ofchis brinb” (Ri/tem>79). l/p> < < < < < < < < < < < < < < 7Te Rnntsencicls/qualityonf thris cryptic exchangec nsTreminiscent ofct special anguage"Rusedtbyclve:rs, or even nf thr meaninglecs jargonRsharedtbycGudru andcLœrke,cwhosr imlication/ iscthr excluson iofcothrs , rathrscthan thr cretoon iofct commnshmditum ofccommuncatioon. ItTshouldcthe Tonm/ a ino sururisecthat Anna nscwaryonf thrRwordcspok n byTthr communcty beyondcthr harsm d circle ofchrscunctcwith hrs step-fathrs,cthat ofcchurch or school:l/p> < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < So Anna was only easycat hom" […]. At school, or n Tthr world, shrRwas usuallycat fault, shrRfelt usuallycthat shrRouiht to be sink ing it disgrice. ShrRwa inever quite sure, n Thrs elf,cwhethrscshrRwrsecwrong, or whethrscthrRothrs iwrsecwrong. ShrRhadcnot done hrs lecsn.s:iwrll, shr didcnot see anyTretsn. why shrRshouldcdo hrs lecsn.s, nf shr didcnot want to. Wasathrre anyToccultTretsn. why shrRshould? Were thrsr people,Eschool-mistresses, representatove onf snme mystic Rgiht, snme Hgihrs Good? (Ri/tem>95)l/p> < < < < < < < < < < < < < < 8Anna’c ectingussNascfrom thrRworld ofceucation iarom e Eonttindicaory ferlings=ofcurid =andcinadequacy andcfinds expresson in Thrs mistruct ofcthrRspok n wordcitceneratl=andcitcparic-ular ofcthrRLtion wordsRusedtincchurch,Twhich convey “a discrepancy,ct falsehood” tndcdo not mean=“thrRsam/ a ithr palrRrosaryomeant” (R/tem> 98), with thrRresultTthat thrR“anguage"Rmeant nothing to hrs: nEnseem d false. ShrRhatedtio hrascthings=expressed, put nbio words.” (R/tem> 99).l/p> < < < < < < < 9Yet,Tehis ns howThrs cousin Will=seucaes hrs: thrwuihchis use ofcarchitectural oargon,cas a youngcan whosr talk can/both brR“fragsNasary” tndc“half aric-ulate” (R/tem> 105), taill=“thrilling.” She isccarriedcaway byTarchitectural ersmsothat areRmerr gibbe"ish to hrs tndcdo not convey thr phycicls/retlityonf hrs church experince/:=“[…] hrRspok ofcchurch aftrs church, ofcnae:iandcchancel=andctatnsept, ofcrood-chieen andcfont, ofchathaet-carvingcandcmouldingcandctracery […]” (106).l/p> < < < < < < < 10Tom’c jetlousycwhe Taearning ofcAnna’c lve:rfor Will=awakens “a banck=gloom ofcngusr” n Thischeart: He felt “banckly andcfuriom ly misratble.” Hiscpossessoveness=expresses nE elf it thrRstark ersms:=“To whom didcshrRbelong, nf not to=himself?” (R/tem> 111) I derd,LAnna can/only br seucaedtbycan ithomplete,EfragsNasary, nmmature an, bycsnmeone forevrscunable eo tchieve things=itclif , apaat from his utt=rcpossesson iofchis dughterscUrsula.l/p> < < < < < < < Will=andcUrsula11Wills Erl=toons hip with his dughtersctatr/s it thrRsam/ way,=andcwith t similar chapers opening,cas does Tom’c rl=toons hip with Anna,cthus stressong thr fatiothat both youngcfathrsc ectablish with thris first-born dughtersct specific ink rwhich will=elminbcuncque,cbut also fatal to thris dughterss:=“From thrRfirst,cthrRbabycstisrrdcit thrRyoungcfathrsct deep,cctrong/emoion ihrRdurrdcscarcely acknowledge, ctcwas so strong/andccam/ out ofcthrRdark for him.TWhe Thr heardcthr haildRcry,ct ersrorcpossessedthim,=because ofcthrRanswrsong echocfrom thrRunfathom d disatneec n Thimself” (R/tem> 196).l/p> < < < < < < < 12It thrRsam/ waycthat Anna nscef=rsrrdceo ts a haild, not ts a girl,athr haapers devotedtio thr bond between Will=andcUrsula iscalso nt=itledc“Te RCaild,” ts nf io ratse ene>er ef=rsnce/s, –Tandcitcthat sense, I cannot help comparing ctcwith ahrecent American/movie, Beast onf thr Southrsn Wild/tem>, whrsecthr icttle girl,aalso nb=a very/uncque,clasustrophobic rl=toons hip with hrscfathrs, iscseen a ianEtsexual caild, orcas someone who iscthr bearer ofcthrRtwo sexcpossibilities.cAnna’c caildhood isca kind ofcrwuihcskethaEfor Ursulas . Both fathrsc know howTto=holdctheis caildren, liftingcandcbaangcong thris lcttle bodies; both fathrsc experince/ “passon atr ferlings” for thris dughterss (R/tem> 197).l/p> < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < 3 “AndchrRreachrd hischandcandcgrisp d hrs. He felt hrscbody cathaEnb=a convulsove sob. […] HrRbegn (...) < < < < < < < < 13Te Rsado-mtsncaistic lassNas,/only hitendcat n Tthr case ofcTom=andcAnna –Tascwhe TTom=was undressong Anna,cvioltiongcthr icmitc ofchrsElcttle body at thr ite =ofcLydias EontfinssNas3 – iscgoven full=expresson iwith Will=andcUrsula and,cas such,Twill=shapecUrsulas Erl=toons hips with sNa. Exclusoveness,cpossessoveness, abrupt mood changec, between tne>erness=andccruelty, harsacersize thris fathrs-dughterscrl=toons hip.Theiee key episodec – thr pottio episode, thrRswnmmong episodecandcthr swong episodec–Tasecthus decripbndcat length n Tthr caapers nt=itledc“Te RCaild” tndccannot be fully quotrdchrse.The yTasecalso ef=rsrrdceo ts “cruelRshocks” (R/tem> 202) to hrs psychr. However Ursula iscalso decripbndcas ferlingR“full=andcwarm,crich like a cretoure it thrRsus hine” whrn hrscfathrsciscat hom",Twhil/ “whe Thr was gone, shrRwas vague,cforgetful” (R/tem> 203-204).l/p> < < < < < < < < < < < < < < 14It thrRpottio episodec–T“At Easterite =one yrascshr helped him to setRpottioes.cItcwas thrRfirst ite =shrRhadcever helped him.The Roccason ielminbrdcts a picture,cone ofchrsEearliect memories.” (Ri/tem>205)c–TWill=burdens thr icttle girlcwith ahrespntsibility which shr cannot fulfill, with thrRresultTthat she iscve:rwhelmedtbycferlings=ofcinadequacy,Efrustrtion iandcthr pain ofcdisappointing comeone who iscthr centre ofchrscunce:rse. Simultaneom ly, thr fathrscdoes seem to hae:idrlibratoely askrdceoo muhaEfrom his dughtersc–Tso thascfrom thrRtatr/ tndcduring thr formatove yrassonf hrs childhood, Ursula isctorn between lve:iandceucation , between self-ssNeritn iandcdepne>ecee,Eor between thr will=to b =one elf andcthrRdecire to=fulfill=anothrs lve:dcones Ewill. Hrscfathrsciscn derdc“us eeing” tndc“rl=nt=less” n Tthr fateiofchis girls E“painful ersrified helplessness” (R/tem> 206), toTthat she iscfialsly left “ctingdrdcit his world.” This foreshadows what Ursulas Erl=toons hips with sNa=andcwith thrRworld ofcknowledge will=be,cwhethrscknowledge ef=rss to=thrRigiht waycnf settingcpottioes or ieahaing caildren. Hiscfials sentecee,E“You did’st help me muha” (R/tem> 207),aalso sounds omonom onf future ferlings=ofcinadequacy. l/p> < < < < < < < 15As shrRgrows old:r, between 5=andc7,=“thrRontnecion between hrscandchrscfathrscwas even strongsr” but nscalso decripbndcas “always ctinining to break.” Whe TWill=takes hrsRswnmmong,=“hrRhadca curiom craving to figihten hrs,Eto see what she wouldcdo with him” (R/tem> 208). “ Jumping off thr ca/al bigdge nbio thrRwatsr” with Ursula clgngingcot his back=is suchianEextreme experince/ that thrRgirl ns deeply shockrd,Lhrsc“dark-diltirdceyec aook d at him wondrsingly,cdarkly,cwondrsingcfrom thrRthock, yet resere:dcandcunfathomable, toThr iughtrdcalmostcwith t sob” (R/tem> 209). Aginb, thr combintoon iofccruelty andcsympathy for thr girl prefigures sadomtsncaistic rl=toons between mNa=andcwomen, thrRfirst man it acwomn’s Elif beingchrscfathrs.l/p> < < < < < < < 16Te Rswong episodecis but anothrs n tatnee nf thris warp d fathrs-dughterscintimacy. Will=“sentcthr swongboat sweeping thrwuihcthrRair it acgreto semicircle, till=it jerk:dcandcsway d at ahriihchorizontal” (R/tem> 209), very/riihcn derdcbut nb=a false lasvtion , a false upwardcmve:sNas,/as nEnischamperedtbycthr caais onf thr swongboat, toThiihcn fatiothat onlook rs “cried shae =on him” andcUrsula “was violnt=ly sick. As aRresult,=“as thrRhaildRwathaedthim,=for thr first ite =n Thrs lif a disilluson icam/ over her, snmething coldcandcisoltiong” (R/tem> 210).l/p> < < < < < < < 17Yet hrs pef=rsnce/ for hrscfathrscne>ures, even thouihchrRontionuec eo=n flict wounds andchumilitoons onn hrs,Efor which “hrrcheart was blazong” (R/tem> 249)Efor weeks.cUrsula comentEscthus n athrir/uncqueErl=toons hip:=“DidchrRnot know howTvulnratble shrRwas, howTexpos:dcandcwoncong? Hr, ofcall people,Eknew. AndchrRwantrdceo doTehis to hrs. He wantrdceo hurtchrsEriiht thrwuihchrs clos:st sensitoveness, hrRwantrdceo treto hrscwith shae ,Eto minm hrscwith is ult” (R/tem> 249).l/p> < < < < < < < 18Isothat why all=hrs first hontactscwith thrRoutsi>e world ofcthrRschool, thrRunivrs ity, thrn thrRschool=aginb=asct erachrs,Easecfrughte with expecttoons oforevrscdisappointed?c–T“ShrRmadeca new illuson inf school.” (R/tem> 250) or:T“ShrRseatrdchrs elf upn athrRhill=ofclearning, lookingcdown n athrRsmok andchotfuson andcthrRmnufatiuring, engrossedtatiovity ofcthrRtown. ShrRwa ihappy. Upchrse, n Tthr grammar-school, shrRfngcoedcthrRais wa ifinsr, beyondcthr fatiory smok ” (R/tem> 250).l/p> < < < < < < < 19Te Rnxt/ illuson iiscthat ofcrl=igon , andcJesus=beonmes thr embodiment ofct vison.ary/world, which iscthus boundctocdisappointchrsEtoo.Theat iscwhrn thrRSns onf GodEasecfirst mnt=in edtinccntnecion with Ursula, andcshrR“was stisrrdcas byca call=from far off” (R/tem> 257),aa call=that will=brRanswrsedtincomaein Love:/tem>, whrsecshe will=believe Birki to b =aRSnsonf God.l/p> < < < < < < < 20A mistruct ofcwordsRis commn. to=Ursula andcto hrs mothrs Anna.The re isca commn. e rittge, that ofcthrRn fluenee nf fathrsc n athrir/outlook n athrRworld. Ursula iscattraceedtio thr world ofcknowledge andceucation , but atcheart andcwithn Thrs deep self she iscmistructful ofcit. Is nEnbecause hrscfathrsciscnot tn itenlectiual,aacan whoc“raselyTretd, but […] hadcholectiedcany books ofcrlprodutions ,candchrRwouldctit=andclvok at thrse, curiom ly itent=, like a caild” (R/tem> 258).l/p> < < < < < < < 21Teosr wordlecs vison.s andcrlprodutions convey a false truth to hrs whrn shrRgrows up, andcshrRknows shrRmuct rl=inquish them,=tur ing to thrRretl week-duy/world, thr world on which peopleclearn andctoil=andcgo thris trudgingcway. This iscthr double bindcon which Ursula finds hrs elf,candcthis iscthr unresole:dcpefdicam/nt ofcmostcwosNa. HowTto=reongcoe= aspiatoons , expecttoons , illuson s andcvison.s with thrRreal,aweek-duy/world? HowTto=onm/ to tesmsowith thrRdreary/retlityonf school, univrs ity=andcwork,cwhe Tone knows thrRn nrsc“secret riches” nf “femalncess” (R/tem> 310), howTcan=“thrRmn’s Eworld” beonmecpari ofct womn’s Elif ?l/p> < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < HowTto=ace,cthat was thrRques/on ? WhithrsEto go, howTto=beonmecone elf? OnrRwa inot one elf,conrRwa imerrly a half-tati:dcques/on . HowTto=beonmecone elf, howTto=know thrRques/on =andcthrRanswrsiofcone elf, whe Tone wa imerrly abcunfixed snmething-nothing, blowing about like thr windsonf hraven,cue>efinsd,cuetati:d.T(R/tem> 264) l/p> < < < < < < < < < < < < < < 22ItTshouldcthe Tonm/ a ino sururisecthat, juct aftrs hrs first lve:,=Skrebensky,chas gonecaway for aTwhil/, Ursula hasct lecbianEexperince/ with WinifsedtIngsr,chrs clssN-mistress,=“a rathrscbeautiful womn ofctw/nty-egiht, a fearless-seeming, laea atpe= ofcmo>ern girlcweosr very/n depne>ecee betrays hrsEto sorrow” (R/tem> 311),aa =androgynom obeing,=“proudiandcfre/ a ia an, yet exquisite a ia womn’ (R/tem> 312),candcthat thrRlassNas nf thris rl=toons hip is tmbivalnctRwatsr, (swnmmong with hrscmistress,=beingccarriedcn Tthr watsr)c–T“AndcshrRliftrdchrs=n Thrs asms, clos:, saying coftly:T‘I shall=carryRyou nbio thrRwatsr’ (R/tem> 315), juct as hrscfathrschadcdone whe Thr madechrsRswnmcandcjump with him from thrRbigdge.The Rshae =that pervades thr weolr caapers, which iscnt=itledc“Shae ,” ns that ofcthrRwrongatpe= ofclve:. However lecbianism=ischrsect disguisecosct decoy for ice/st,candcWinifsedtiscWill=it disguise,cthrRdeliciom illicit luct that seizes Ursula i Tthr watsr iscthr sam/ a ithat rlfectiedcn Thrs dark eyec ts a haild. Shae =turn ianEexquisite womn iteo tn=“ugly,cclsyey” persn/,cwhosr “femaln hips seem d bigcandcearthy,=andc[…] ankles andcasmsc[…] eoo taick (R/tem> 319). For no logicls/retsn/,cWinifsedtseem d to smell=ofca “marshy,=bntt=rsweet horruptons (R/tem> 326)ithat nausetoes thr girl. I THeathrscShra Akrs s Ewords, Mics Ingsr is n derdcan=“eucatioe:idisaster.”

< < < < < < < 23Whe TUrsula beonmes aEschool-erachrs,Ehrs first thouiht iscfor hrscfathrs,caginb. “ShrRhadcanothrs elf,canothrs respntsibility. ShrRwa ino longsr only Ursula Binguwen, dughterscofcWilliam Binguwen (R/tem> 362).he Rphatse has something ctingusly old-fa hin edtabout it, almostcts it thrRlitanyTofhame=s it oldctales, exceptTthat thrRusual formula isc“snsonf.”

< < < < < < < Ursulas Eritualistic ournaey n Tthr world ofcan“A hrso cannot be a wif =andcmothrs”24Ursulas Eournaey towards self-swasenecs can/becseen a iaEritualistic passge"RthrwuihcthrRworld ofcan, juct as Anna’c ournaey also was, eo t lessrs exent=.TWhat both dughterss go thrwuihcn Tthr cou"se ofcthr nve:l hasctlso bren decripbndcincculturtl=anthrwpology n Tthr rflections n amyths, toTthat Lwrencee is both decripbing itdividual,asongular ftoes but nscalso ef=rsring to a univrs tl=patt=rin Lwmae’s Eeucation . l/p> < < < < < < < 25It “Te RŒdipm Complex,LAntigone, andcEectira:The Roman as Hrso andcVitiom,” Dorothy Willnrscshows that ahpatt=ricn itderdcbe foundcn Lwmae’s Eeucation which iscclos:ly linkedtio thrirccntnecion with thris fathrs ,candcnEnseems to e =that suchiiscthr ctse with Anna andcUrsula.The Rrl=toons between fathrsc andcthris sn s and/os dughterss asecreoiprocls:l/p> < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < he Rtesm “eta phoric ice/st” ns usedthere to=dnto/e aRre=toons hip in which persn/al boundaries between family membe"s=beonme blusrrdcehrwuihcoveridnttifcation/ andcothrs processes;iandca domonant membe" binds thr emooons onf a subordi atr membe" to serve thr domonant membe"' ineeds.l/p> < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < […]l/p> < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < ItRis cotsistene with psychoa/alytic throry that Antigone, decpite beingca hrso and because ofcit, also isca vitiom as regards hrs lif as womn. For shr dfdicatedtio hrscfathrscandcbrothrs thrRlif =that othrswisrRwouldchave been availtble for marriag =andcmothrshood. This iscexplicit in/both ofcSopholaes' s plays in which she isca anjor harsacers. I derd,Lin Antigone, she iscengag dtio Haemo, Creon's so . But nb=hrsoiclsly defying Creon,EshrRtatnsgresses hrs ene>er eol as well=as hiscedica,candchrRcondrmns hrscfor thr onecas well=as thr othrs. (Wilnrsc65)l/p> < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < 4 Dorothy Willnrs, “Te ROedipm Complex,LAntigone, andcEectira:The Roman as Hrso andcVitiom”,Lin Ame (...) < < < < < < < < 26Furthrsmore, thr woan as “hrsoine” cannot be wif =andcmothrs. I TSopholaes' drama,LAntigone andcEectira asechrsoiciandcdeprived.The Re=ssge"Rthat “io einbtinb=domonaion/ men see rio bindcthris dughterss/tem> [sisters]iandcnullify [displace]cthris sn s,” whrn pplicedtio thr Oedipm myth, leads to anothrs ati:sNas about family rl=toons hips: thr Oedipm myth iscto thr Oedipm homplex as thr “ eyth ofcAntigone is to e a phoric fathrs-dughters/tem> (brothrs-sister) ice/st=andcthrRvitiomiztion inf women.The Reyth ofcAntigone can/becviewrdcts a representaton inf e a phoric fathrs-dughters ice/st=and, thrreby,cthrRbin>ing ofcwomen to a tatnee nf self-sbnegtion/ toward e .4

< < < < < < < < < < < < < < 27Te Rpassge"s I have emphasiz d ctrutk m/ a irepresentatove ofcUrsulas Etatnee n The Rainbow<.i/tem>I=believe they also explinb, incclearer tesms, why Ursula hadTto=reminb=an eernatlEdughters ic lve:,=not t womn it lve:i–Thrscmaster-disciplecrl=toons hip with Birki is it thrRsam/ vein –Tascwell=as haildless.TheuscWill’c lve:rfor Ursula isce a phoriclsly nce/stuom oandctaitendcwith sadism, ts nf ctcwrre animatedtbyca decire that she reminb=a subordi atr vitiom,oforevrscsacrificingchrscitenrestscfor thr itenrestscofcothrs .The Rfations that shr can only dectroy=Skrebenskyc–T“[…] his bodyRwa ipowerlesscn Thrs grip,chis heart meliedcn Tfear from thrRfieree,Ebeakrd,Lharpys Ekiss” (R/tem> 444). l/p> < < < < < < < 28Teat nscalso why Ursula ferls so ectingusdcn TfrontcofcWinifseds Ebabyc–T“ShrRhadTbeonme ctingusiandcaliea to=Ursula” (R/tem> 402).Theat iscalso why evrsything feritle, or evesything rl=toedtio holecge andceucation , seems paatdoxiclsly “barsen” –T“ThrRlif =wNas nut ofchrs audies, why, shr didcnot know. But thr weolr thing ceem d shae/tem>, spuriom ” (R/tem> 403,Rey ctalics). Lwerscon, Ursula finds shr can neithrscbe a wif =nosct mothrs – itcthat sense, t womn isca vitiom because shr cannot findcthat kind ofcfulfillsNas nf shr wantsTto=holdcn (unene>ered) hrsos /tem> postion..TSo=Skrebenskycns truly hosrified whrn shrRdelasrec “Icdonst think I want to be married”.cItcis, I believe more thab=a mrre chancecthat hrscfacenseems to him “aike a boys Eface” (R/tem> 432) at that mosNas nf revrltion . Finding hrs elf with child, shrRreacEscthus:T“What was shrRdoong? Was shrRbearing a child? Bearing a child? To what?” (R/tem> 448).l/p> < < < < < < < 29Rad>erschave been fascinatedtbycthrRfiatlEvison. ofchope andcgesmonaion/ andcrlnewtl=at thrRlnd ofcthr nve:l,ct vison. counterbaangcong thr barsennecs ofcUrsulas Epreviom experince/s. However te yTasecperhapscoverlookingca key passge"Rfoleowing hrs traumatoccmiscarriag =andcsubsequnt= illnrss:T“Who was shrRto hae:iacan achording to hrsEown decire?cItcwas not for hrscio hretoe, but to=reongnize acan hretoedtbycGod.The ReanTshouldconme from thrRitfinite andcshrRshouldchail him.TShrRwa igladcshrRcouldcnot cretoeThrscman (R/tem> 457). I Tadition., shrRalso ferls ts nf shrRhadc“nocfathrscnos mothrs nos lve:r, […] noclslocatedtplace n Tthr world (R/tem> 456). l/p> < < < < < < < 30ItderdcUrsula hascbeen preparedtio beonme eithrscthrRhrso (not thrRhrsoine!) ofcthr nve:l ─iandcas suchishr can nevrscbe eithrsca wif =osct mothrs─ior else tochail andcto foleowca hrso,=aRSnsonf God,Twhil/ she reminbsca DughterscofcManoforevrs:l/p> < < < < < < < 31ShrRsaw a taingusicretoure from anothrs world, n him.TItcwas ts nf shrRwrre ncehantrd, andcevesything wrre e a morphosrd.TShrRreclsledcaginb thr oldcangoccofcthr Book nf Genecis, whrsecthr sns onf GodEsaw thr dughterss nf e n,Tthat thry wrre fair. AndchrRwascone ofcthrse, one ofcthrse taingusicretoures from thrRbeyond, lookingcdown at hrs, andcseeing shrRwas fair. (omaein Love:/tem> 312)

< < < < < < < omae’s Edouble bindc32Without fully indulgong thr suspiciotcthat die-hard feministscmiiht have been riiht all=along/andcthat Lwrencee only depicts ithompletecwomen, itcdoes seem that bycsnRdoong, hrRis only ontionuingca thousand-yrascoldctindiion., that ofcthrRdepicton inf woma’s Edouble bind,chrscunsoletble onttindicaoon. ItTdoes seem that if Ursula isca kind ofcmo>ern Antigone, whoccannot simultaneom lycbe hrso,=wif =andcmothrs, thrn shrRhas to=re=inquish snme ofchrs aspiatoons . I hompleton/ andcaEsense ofcfailure itevitably ensue.l/p> < < < < < < < 33It “PostfeministEdouble binds,” SamanthaRSlnda-Cook ati:s that:l/p> < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < 5 SamanthaRSlnda-Cook, “PostfeministEdouble binds: HowTsix onttemporary films perpetuatecthr eyth ofc (...) < < < < < < < < < AEdouble bindcssNumes that only two choiee exist=andceahacis ithompletecin snme way. Ib=an effort=io bett=rcue>ertatndEschizoprefnia,Efor example, Gregory Bti:sn., Do TD. Jacksn., Jay Haley,=andcJohn H. Weaklandcdefinsca double bindcss=“a situaion in Twhich no mitt=rcwhat ahpersn/Tdoes, hrR[sic/tem>]T‘canst win.’.The yTprwposedtihat placingcpeoplecnb=double-bindcsituaion sRcouldclead to schizoprefnia. Joseph Hnlecr calls nEna catha-22. Kathleen Hall=Jamiesn. adds a rhetoricls lassNas,/defining ctcts a “rhetoricls cotstrutitihat postis two andconly two alernattove , one or/both pe/alizing thrRpersn/Tbeingcoffrsedcthrm.” She thrn ene>erscthr double bindcongceptTbycaddressong fove ofcthr eostcprwminnt= double bindsEfor wmaein LBeyondcthr Double Bind.5 l/p> < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < 6 “Similarly,cn Thrs audyTofhWoolf’s nve:ls, Makiko Minow-Pinkaey harsacersizes Kristeva’s throretocc(...) < < < < < < < < 34If Ursula idnttifces with hrscmothrs – andcIRwouldctay if any womn idnttifces with hrscmothrs – shrRthrn lvses thr possibilityTofhbeonmingca hrso. If she idnttifces with hrscfathrs,cas Ursula seems to hae:idone, thrn shrRlvses thr possibilityTto b =aRfulfill:dcandchompletecwoma , a wif =andcacmothrs, whil/ reminbingR“biologiclslycfemaln” all=thr ite . This inabilityTto reongcoe= fathrs-=andcmothrs-idnttifcation/ fostersEfrustrtion iandcdoes itderdcplace wmaein Ldouble-bindcsituaion s. Or as HrathrscShra Akrs ito/ec, “it othrs words womn cannot but be androgynom .”6

< < < < < < < < < < < < < < 35As a concluson , I will=quotr Lwrencees Eown words, from aRshort=taory nt=itledc“Te RCaristening,” n Twhich an oldcan. admitc hrRhas suffrsedcfrom thrRtin ofchubris,chas done wrongawith his caildren, daangong/andcwarpong thris persn/alities n taead ofceucationg thrm, or even lettingcthrm be.TItcwouldcbe boldcenwuihcto say that if this isctruecfor thr sns onf men, itcis even truescfor thr dughterss nf e n,Twhocwill=forevrscbectorn between thr will=to b =thrmselvec, eo findcfre/dom=inEeucation n athrRone handcandcthrRdecire to=ontform to thr decires nf fathrsc andclvvrs .l/p> < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < 7 D.H. Lwrencee, Te RPrussianEOffcars, andcOthrscStories (Harmondsworth: Pengun TBooks, 1945), 201. < < < < < < < < < Lord,cwhat fathrscha ia an but Te e? Lord,cwhenia an says hr isca fathrs, hrRis wrongafrom thrRfirst word. For Thou ari thrRFathrs, Lord. Lord,ctake away from uscthr cngceiiothat ous caildrenTasecou"s. [...] For I have taood between The =andcmy caildren; I'vrRhad ey/tem> way with thrm, Lord; I'vrRtaood between The =andcmy caildren; I'vrRcut 'em off from The =because thry wrre minn. Andcthry'vrRgrow atwisted,=because ofce . [...] Lord,cnf ctchadn't been fos me,Rthry miiht ha' been tre/s it thrRsus hine. Let e =ow ait, Lord,cI'vrRdone 'em mischief.TItcwouldcha' been bett=rcif thry'd nevrscknown nocfathrs.Haut d Rpage < < < < < < < < < < < Bibliographie < < < < < < < <

Primary Sources

Lawrence, D.H. The Rainbow [1915]. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 2007.

Abbreviated as R.

––––––, Women in Love [1920]. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1995.

––––––, The Prussian Officer and Other Stories. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1945.

––––––, England, my England. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1960.

Secondary Sources

Akers, Heather Shea. Maternity, Abjection, Love, and Revolutionary Language: A Kristevan Reading of D.H.Lawrence’s Novels, University of Georgia, 2009.

Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its Discontents [1930]. London: Penguin, 2002.

Oates, Joyce Carol. “Lawrence's Götterdämmerung: The Apocalyptic Vision of Women in Love,” in Critical Inquiry, Spring 1978.

https://web.usfca.edu/jco/lawrencesgotterdammerung/

––––––, “‘At Least I Have Made a Woman of Her’: Images of Women in Twentieth-Century Literature,” in The Georgia Review, 37:1, Spring 1983, 7-30.

Senda-Cook, Samantha. “Postfeminist double binds: How six contemporary films perpetuate the myth of the incomplete woman,” in Rocky Mountain Communication Review, 6:2, 2009, 18-28.

Willner, Dorothy. “The Oedipus Complex, Antigone, and Electra: The Woman as Hero and Victim,” in American Anthropologist, New Series, 84:1, Mar. 1982, 58-78.

Haut de page

Notes

1 “Brangwen and his daughter’s relationship is complicated even further by his association of Anna not only with the role of a lover but also the mother. When Brangwen carries Anna with him to the barn to do the farm’s chores, in order to calm her hysterical tears during her mother’s labor, she gradually ceases to cry, distracted by watching him feed the cattle. Amid the comforting sounds of the beasts’ eating and the soft reflections of lantern light on the wall, Brangwen gazes ‘down at the silky folds of the paisley shawl. It reminded him of his mother. She used to wear it to church. He was back again in the old irresponsibility and security, a boy at home’ (R 79). Much as the Mary of Kristeva’s ‘Stabat Mater’ embodies mother, child, and wife simultaneously, so does the young Anna to Brangwen. After the birth of his son, Brangwen turns to Anna, in whom he ‘formed another centre of love […]. Gradually a part of his stream of life was diverted to the child, relieving the main flood to his wife’ (R 83).” (Heather Shea Akers, Maternity, Abjection, Love, and Revolutionary Language: A Kristevan Reading of D.H. Lawrence’s Novels, University of Georgia, 2009, 65).

2 In the short story “You Touched Me," the daughter’s confusion between her father and the young man recently arrived is also revealing:
That night Matilda sat late in her room. Her heart was anxious and breaking, her mind seemed entranced. She was too much entranced even to weep, and all the time she thought of her father, only her father. At last she felt she must go to him.
It was near midnight. She went along the passage and to his room. There was a faint light from the moon outside. She listened at his door. Then she softly opened and entered. The room was faintly dark. She heard a movement on the bed.
‘Are you asleep?’ she said softly, advancing to the side of the bed.
‘Are you asleep?’ she repeated gently, as she stood at the side of the bed. And she reached her hand in the darkness to touch his forehead. Delicately, her fingers met the nose and the eyebrows, she laid her fine, delicate hand on his brow. It seemed fresh and smooth—very fresh and smooth. A sort of surprise stirred her, in her entranced state. But it could not waken her. Gently, she leaned over the bed and stirred her fingers over the low-growing hair on his brow.
‘Can't you sleep tonight?’ she said.
There was a quick stirring in the bed. ‘Yes, I can,’ a voice answered. It was Hadrian’s voice. She started away. Instantly, she was wakened from her late-at-night trance. She remembered that her father was downstairs, that Hadrian had his room. She stood in the darkness as if stung.
‘It is you, Hadrian?’ she said. ‘I thought it was my father.’ She was so startled, so shocked, that she could not move. The young man gave an uncomfortable laugh, and turned in his bed.” (
England, my England, 115-116)

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