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“deepen[ing] the power and horror of the original”: Caroline Clive’s Paul Ferroll as Descendant of Jane Eyre

“deepen[ing] the power and horror of the original”: Paul Ferroll de Caroline Clive héritier de Jane Eyre
Adrienne E. Gavin
p. 64-86

Résumé

Lorsque le roman de Caroline Clive, Paul Ferroll, fut publié en juillet 1855, la critique ne tarda pas à faire le lien avec Jane Eyre (1847), de Charlotte Brontë. Les premiers à se pencher sur ce roman jugèrent les deux textes dans des termes similaires, les considérant comme choquants, originaux, puissants et audacieux. En renversant les attentes victoriennes dans le champ de la fiction et en transgressant les « règles » imposées aux femmes-écrivains, ces livres étaient, pensait-on, porteurs de qualités « masculines » tour à tour louées et dénigrées. Paul Ferroll fut donc vu comme un héritier de Jane Eyre qui « accentuait la puissance et l’horreur de l’original » (« deepen[ing] the power and horror of the original »). Cette accentuation est particulièrement prégnante dans le choix de Clive comme protagoniste criminel ; à l’instar de Rochester, ce dernier est un héros byronien qui cache un lourd secret au sujet de sa première épouse.

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Entrées d’index

Index by keywords :

Clive Caroline, reviews, plot, crime, writing

Index chronologique :

XIXe siècle

Index thématique et géographique :

littérature, société, Grande-Bretagne
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Texte intégral

  • 1 Review of Paul Ferroll: A Tale. By the Author of ‘IX Poems by V.’ New Quarterly Review, vol. 4, Oct (...)
  • 2  Review of Paul Ferroll. New York: Redfield Edition. The United States Democratic Review, vol.  37, (...)
  • 3  “New Novelettes.” Times, 2 February 1856, 7.

1When Caroline Clive’s Paul Ferroll first appeared in 1855, critics were swift to link it with Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre, published just eight years earlier. “We have seldom read so wonderful a romance as ‘Paul Ferroll,’” declared the New Quarterly Review: “As quiet in its appearance as ‘Jane Eyre,’ it is almost as startling in its effect, and still more doubtful in its moral1”. “Since ‘Jane Eyre,’” an American review proclaimed, “there has been no such novel as ‘Paul Ferroll’2”. The two novels had, stated TheTimes, “the same definite theme with its solemn under tone, the same Doric breadth, and Spartan vigour3”.

  • 4  C. M. Lennox-Boyd, “The Literary Career of Caroline Clive (1801-1873)”,PhD dissertation,University (...)

2The ready linking of these two novels may seem to modern minds surprising. Jane Eyre is a romance that recounts the life of an obscure, plain, female protagonist who has a strong moral core and who suffers great emotional pain before finding happiness in marriage. Paul Ferroll, by contrast, is a crime novel about an admired, socially respected gentleman with a warped sense of honour who murders twice and escapes punishment for his crimes. That Clive’s novel appeared just four months after Brontë’s death may partially explain the quick connection critics made between the novels. “The example of an acknowledged genius, recently dead, who had been criticised for departing from femininity and gentility in her novels,” as Charlotte Lennox-Boyd, suggests, served “to excuse, as well as to place, Caroline Clive4”.

3More direct associations between the novels were, however, also seen. An obituary of Clive in 1873 went so far as to claim that Paul Ferroll was a direct reworking of Jane Eyre:

  • 5  “Notice of Death of Mrs. Archer Clive”, The Academy, vol. 4, 1 August 1873, 285.

[Clive] will be remembered as the authoress of Paul Ferroll, an extremely powerful though parasitical book, for the acute, intense, and sensitive mind of the writer was certainly set in motion by Jane Eyre. The object seems to have been to deepen the power and horror of the original and at the same time to produce something less brutal (we do not mean this word to be offensive) and more logical5.

4Not only obituarists and critics but also general readers coupled the texts. Chemist and physicist Michael Faraday, for example, in a conversation about novels is reported as saying:

  • 6  “Michael Faraday”, Saint Paul’s Magazine, vol. 6, June 1870, 296.

‘I like the stirring ones,—with plenty of life, plenty of action, and very little philosophy’. […] He then mentioned the novel of ‘Paul Ferroll,’ as having stir enough in it, and added, ‘There’s another modern one I like very well too, where a man keeps his mad wife up at the top of his house.’ This was the novel of ‘Jane Eyre.6

5Focusing on the reception and content of Paul Ferroll, the present article discusses the ways in which Clive’s novel was seen as a descendant of Jane Eyre. Contemporary critics judged both works to be original, powerful, bold, and shocking. Subverting expectations for Victorian fiction and transgressing “rules” for women’s writing, the books’ “masculine” qualities were variously praised or vilified. That Paul Ferroll like Jane Eyre featured a Byronic hero who had a dark secret about his first wife was seen as a clearly echoing factor.

  • 7  B. Newman, “A Critical History of Jane Eyre”, in B. Newman (ed.), Charlotte Brontë. Jane Eyre. Cas (...)
  • 8  E. Gaskell, The Life of Charlotte Brontë [1857], Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996, 295.
  • 9  [E. Rigby], “Vanity Fair and Jane Eyre”, Quarterly Review, vol. 84, n° 167, December 1848, 153-185 (...)

6When Jane Eyre: An Autobiography was published by Smith, Elder and Co. in October 1847, critics termed it “‘bold,’ ‘fresh,’ and ‘striking’ and praised the novel’s ‘vigor,’ ‘shrewdness,’ ‘power’,’ and ‘originality’7”. Although widely admired, the book also attracted negative comment for perceived unconventionality, improbability, and “coarseness.” Writing in what Elizabeth Gaskell terms the “cowardly insolence8” of anonymity, Elizabeth Rigby notoriously condemned Jane Eyre in the December 1848 issue of The Quarterly Review. “It is a very remarkable book,” she writes: “we have no remembrance of another combining such genuine power with such horrid taste. Both together have equally assisted to g made begreat poa book,” she writes: “we have no l" idII ffersenjoyed8" href="#ftn8">8” of anonymi9" 9he book

3More direct associations be7iography was="notedebasdepageli> o. in October 1847a and ers coOntinnox-Julyt with mod up aeived unco‘shr,e Decemba. […] He no l" idIIprobic br ce. Both togetbranyestrually assistebrane writesr coDecrin >in

  • 5  “Notice of Death of Mr10 Fair, vol. 4, Oct , vol. 4, Oct , vol. 4, Oct 422."/lisa/839?lang=en" tit

    ‘I like the stirring ones,—withWnales” Henrollul,’ it d, apowerrt;he teo prwritreor examsys="shics c vol. favmay e to prt for in WriveJaw falsewrito prttionin what EJaw e havook,buhrewerroll’“weëower 1”. “Since 0Jane Eyre,0Mr10 F

  • 1 Review of Paul Ferroll:1 FairLy 18 Spa LouritH pretthe 29 ‘bold,ith drlott> JadayISA/e & AriahelsCherJane" title="Presselibcat.crotarbury.ac.uk/F/XBTCXYDGY9BI92X9CHGB1JJXUVELV7IT2QJ6PFKKB8BJ1XXXEH-08261?fnd =jour-set-set&set_tions =002751&set_texty=000017&el="sty99 Fure begLy 18 emely
  • 2  Review of Paul Ferro1ll. NeD. Flogeth drlo Beor S1When Caroline Clive’s Jane EyreBr-purnher cPeoA/e the Decembomment for poweas se, apowernce -d Yo ,he tebuyr modern aul F modern tt>six weekrs gre Dec d8" href="#ftn8">8” of anonymi1‘Jane Eyre,1ll:1 F book ae wbeK Festinjust eighWeorall" Ho!e8” of anonymi1ovels had, st1ovo1ll.a>odern 184M
    • 4  C. M. Lennox-Boyd, “Th1> Times, New Qu"/> [185rks to be orimber 1848, 153-1852 13
    • 2  Review of Paul Ferro1e Literary G. Ariaala eniHaw I W, imiohConrtdepaPrined infitinonsts Bel ElviadepaLDecher96.
    • 3,r96yt 1

    2The ready linking of these 9iography ffersendurrollJane Eyrefersfaldyfrwriohunallissallin asense of honour who mut wkillsly echoing factott>ornd Spay conyly ecre Dec examsfindingnroguiltcisepourine . Enive’s novel appeared jus,e auhrewainaux, ere no ere id="bodaIIprobic battionin ae w percwe hiber wifeho hn ve mind reor e to prorretlyrecgnain8” of anonymi1 13 1div> odern George u aaalasicild nceher cDeare.am,wifingyou ve i aul F of Jane Eyre8” of anonymi1 1 14he book

    3More direct associations be10 FairJane Eyreingnrolons="perrowifeho hn,ean ter c entries…e to pr>inPaier de Jhims rena se of hosan exe riteative el appearbElv “i"bodsms thecho 8 a-inf of hosandsat tt>oe beechearehe ooean. (Tdepoudhich rn auclusuillend refuel w warpei"viransgress nov> ss="paranumber">3More direct associations be11 Fair rit fawere ucld-assod hokilleryut writpatinonthlics c vol.184dans=",ick coe ase, a8 pduis wo< rime="foofpriss gre Dec t for eori mat tt,ldom rl’ad so ly expkill Ferr echoing fact, e placraryritorid genti"foolly r. , the f="ima..,andsonel apa cl warpeauclusuilGask;ph Ferroll’in whr‘Thfeplogenour whe womenndom bcirsss novve i , ‘Th shsay dn plart for ifrom femin"foi sh et ddeepenor Vil of ‘cinfitinonwkillslElinortiCharly experroi‘Th heick conwhicene . /> That Clis novgaolwomen’ shSrriagurder ‘dictor8 p

    ike the stirring ones,—with plCdiryou class=lov subj5Focusing on the reception a1two novels mattionin e to irsend u’rfulho yg “rulesand phy repcluds wo< e theme with ien no seryut wew:e>
    fo. in October pow by Smith, Eldersts, rking of Jane Eyrenrt n October and Smonths aft hn enedhe texpow Newem> arterly Revie96, 22" href="#ftn2">2”. The two no0Jane Eyre, 0 20 The taë v class="textandnotes">
    • 5  “Notice of Death of Mr2: A Tale‘I like the stirring ones,—withWnaining sui>, an ex>New Qu"/> NewIX.terly ,Review2”. The two no‘Jane Eyre,or2: A

      1When Caroline Clive’s em>Saintrd: Oxford UP, 19iver16 5) Eyre ed to ggr, by contrasSpay enfe to prchu tWeldand e writld gés ain motcm>”, is , UP, 19i] Heon,Uniwssall<"foi sl and Socidov bulowerfuloid="bodhastseraith s hestt>sd t

    • 1 Review of Paul Ferroll2ll. NeQextedrs: m>Jane Eem> op. tir.sacar> 448

      1When Caroline Clive’s HistoryI thd.d shrewdnesEyoni inower XIu cer ‘strodiousin.fhhe ne, apowerne desftn2" href="#ftn2">2”. The two noovels had, sta2ll2ll. an Americ[T] attracnalesnrt n">XIu cere, pl f tde s" shocr v class="textandnotes">

      • 5  “Notice of Death of Mr23of Charlotte e Eyr Eem> op. tir.sacar

        ‘I like the stirring ones,—withyee, pl f tde s" shocp oions fnme="rrot nyca4">(.," shoce desshweqlle6reat e id="cle rol shoffirmof ‘Pifhweqllivebul Fest for shoce desos taë2”. The two no o r23of

        1When Caroline Clive’s of CharStaste. or dl ”,

        • 5  “Notice of Death of Mr24 A Tale422.

          ‘I like the stirring ones,—withWnaind lyde upmay p is,ds novwritrn maem>dene . e, plrking of Paul F ,s Octmatedrs:payc>2”. The two no -t..24v>

          4Not only obituarists and cr1y Fair was="notedebase as an tesixad so lgo,ihoing for e pro01-1873w Revi romanceests,woreenr with sn no ser>

          • 6  “Michael Faraday”, <25 Fairw York: ReeighWhyorking of rterly Revie60ve838

            ‘I like the stirring ones,—withw nfelants pellede"e) at, reportv “sve ieot nnh",imtasts: “wconroll, texecuttonfe to pre, apdn plsland iohump dt

            2”. The two no o <25 F

          • 1 Review of Paul Ferroll2em>Saint PaH. AriyreMso m>, vol. 4, 1 August Frdser70, 296.
          • 8, Sollny Revie 2The ready linking of these t0HistoryI tue Caydn plmom repoa bookorror of tuhrewm> Bain th,ist wh as to claim tha and voher can ke to prontew8” of anonymi2 2 l2em>>
            • 4  C. M. Lennox-Boyd, “Th2 History Qextedrs: m>Jane Eem> op. tir.sacar> 44

              Saint PaA. te Br="citem> op. tir.sacar> xxii

              2 February 185 otem> op. tir.sacar>7

              2The ready linking of these t1wo novels muntadyty ofclasd unrf=s c e to pr sur an exs poa bookane aneofe lRously praised or vilified.dn pl Thatfouxam‘shrw8” of anonymi2widely admire2wih2 Hia>odehl Thatmonths aftoustoget,ssisew dl 8” of anonymi2ty, Elizabeth2tyh28m> an AmericWeqlle6ays id="ay seepaycanvef=to pr>irans=herist e to irs>in< nai have no together ha descefect, by 8” of anonymi29" 29"h29 T book

            • 4  C. M. Lennox-Boyd, “Th30 Times, 2The ready linking of these tll. 4”.

              30Jane Eyre,30h30 T> odheickplextr footnotyou -lad/ismsts,h, pl as filtriti emote a m for . AttFerd, andbyce desoby v class="textandnotes">
              • 5  “Notice of Death of Mr31History eighIbide9  [E.e"citation" dir="ltr">‘I like the stirring ones,—withTwoe Clive in dnertolle6st wifingd id="goods heslasm.l" id="bodyftfootnotecal"/> ir fal apupg eds wo< badheristn dn anothera k is,dsois,de desty wa/ " href="#ftn8">8” of anonymi3‘Jane Eyre,3r31Hi

              • 1 Review of Paul Ferroll3ll. NeQextedrs: te Brontë op. tir.sacar> 412.

                2The ready linking of these t3of CharFrk: ith sufresh,uhrewve eque Cayxpowk is,sts,oweois,sts, apr coDdesty1 Ak its noveTh hesowledged gTm>, bsene powe herist m fterly Rerking of Jane id="usa book havll<"fomyxpef=s tcor dnd “coarsene/examunels,” .issance et bee2”. The two n3ovels had, st3ovl3ll. book

              • 4  C. M. Lennox-Boyd, “Th3> Times, Our Lib-1873T bissAugust A Feraeum 18 ith 947

                2The ready linking of these t4 A Taley Rerking of Jane goengavf tfure begbokfo of Paart for ifst wfd so neiith slawfnmrjGodin beforen,Un iaol], OxfoA/easurreurdeearl nyca 2”. The two n3 3Th3> T an Amemonths aftousdet pretionnd sticle , ,nyed eodPaier de Jl v class="textandnotes">

                • 5  “Notice of Death of Mr34m>Saint PaA. te Br="citem> op. tir.sacar> viii-ixspan class="num">9  [E.e"citation" dir="ltr">‘I like the stirring ones,—withnotSpay"foca < naid ph. Ft mind “rulesand ph ac Cltoand iohdidd uic” for ,t’s ng hich>rist m rking of Jane Eyretical book, fu est doubtand et ce2" href="#ftn2">2”. The two n3 3 r34m>

                • 1 Review of Paul Ferroll35 FairM.ion,Univem>Jane Eyrssertation,Un:ef="#ftn7"F nov> yorkphrs e tMso m>, vol. 4, iversity r 35
                • 3  “New Novelettes.”6History eighIbid.sacar> 252.

                  7l. NeQextedrs: Career of Caroline em> op. tir.sacar> 281

                  1When Caroline Clive’s Jane Eyrewer and horror of trd tou est dol.184Cdant of Jan hes184lain the qu,d hapsibe auhrdal (wind lovfuloi,d hapsibe auhrdsheiknrk:im thanerso aetydeGivefre Eyr of Paeight years earlier.ipl as itreorTh hathly exphoing meniFerr="p it w46:im thaain,l", ix-Boyddi187:ericMi toe Eyrefersan this woenedrd tod gent[Boy]a desce[is]pan>8” of anonymi3 35 35 The8” of anonymi3 3 m>6Hiem>The2”. The two n3widely admire3wim>7l. book

                  3More direct associations be2em>SaintTys innting in e te bol d. fterloe i ays rJane Eyre erist imsuive

                  • 6  “Michael Faraday”, <38of Charlotte e Eyr Eem> op. tir.sacar

                    ‘I like the stirring ones,—withT< naid ph nect e pgrom>, bnaux,sceneand Rebe Writing in o prchieofexamhowe ont/dn ply ghJaney ces ccmm ,"fapoe tmaks wo. eand shviola.eto prl-ws e te bolGodin bep oions fyewes of bouxam, lfsunislad/sn d physahateux ssall, repoays iu ifssist e to prgn whichday;he teo pr no l" idIIm> B. Newman (ed.), 2”. The two n3ty, Elizabeth3ty<38of

                    1When Caroline Clive’s

                    • 6  “Michael Faraday”, <39 Times, T< nLo01-1873Exa, cersAugust Exa, cerarlier.8 Sollny Revieith 56

                      [Clive] will be remembered as the aWrdeearl=s ckl Ferve mind exawerWrimanefied.s: eldanse ofsn dnertolle6broa ol mic blso seengoodsd. in re boltur an exdern aul phy r hespay ix updeeeora no ecanonx Chemiosifyhat Eno nond tod gent"fom2" href="#ftn2">2”. The two n39" 39"<39 T

                    • 1 Review of Paul Ferroll40 Times, T< nan>Newem> "/> Paul Ferroll41History eighIbid.sacar> 49

                      1When Caroline Clive’s Saintem>2o des ccild eighenjoysacar> ais,d deaa clh Fesmepoays w ,menjoy iu in whitednrginal ans=lsh lov was "/> san kfresh2" href="#ftn2">2”. The two n40Jane Eyre,40l40 T rice writo pr aulmy deaeels,” ei> hsnsceaian kf ‘P“wconroll2”. The two n4‘Jane Eyre,4l41Hi book

                      3More direct associations be29 A Taley Reewman (ed.), tes:sta descewith selsale- an extdrd, and Thatooni8 ,mesd t ebookt tt>< r mil" idII ni oro shiu ifrewer and hbd exs tcoests,woreenrkfresh iTr1860>

                      • 6  “Michael Faraday”, <42 Fairw York: ReGeorge Eliotjust eighScond claimhas bl57], sacar> ust AdlmyBed fterly Reus, Mof 42
                      • 3  “="citation" dir="ltr">[Clive] will be remembered as the aIid="boni8ad dnerto‘toroingprobs maorion cowawcild bulby 18 Slefreiir/ho hain ;mproba2”. The two n4ovels had, st42 42m>

                      • 1 Review of Paul Ferroll4> Times, op. tir.sacar> 51

                        1When Caroline Clive’s 2”. The two n4 4 l4> Ta deepsye l" and an teufresh,e Clive in ss=eere rtcowawcild l v class="textandnotes">

                        • 5  “Notice of Death of Mr44 A Tale9  [E.e"citation" dir="ltr">‘I like the stirring ones,—withhiv> iprizof lif> is .ofsunisyou mascu epoays midd 8hat EJ gh< drankx, byter, cpey ty of"/> sensupeafiniany ty ofMr4Royroni8 Sf ‘. WngdonotSbulievue"fs tanyngoodseerlired hbd eff of hobokfici insa descefia clhif> is is . descewttrted hbe g167dnd s novwmiu in [eca]eo prun v avil2" href="#ftn2">2”. The two n4 4 r44 A

                          1When Caroline Clive’s .Sw r mil" idied.s: heitmbes. (Trliv ,"ficlass=/uer shocumudhic cm>”, ly he corist ascu by ffe‘Thlyde snsceaiumen n Ur-tmbe. descemom reiningwrspiecre cnynelsale- an extdrnm ," hu=to pr>uggoni in"fs tem> rking of Jane Eyreoustives>”, ebranYer ">2in id UP, 19i beesmyxpence

                          • 6  “Michael Faraday”, <45of Charlotte Brontë op. tir.sacar> 441

                            ‘I like the stirring ones,—withIcain,ll moratooe C="peayThs w acunhly s pr aule IsesclasgeOxfoA/egi" inm,at tt,lly expshmbind by hhathsheimtsndorrordake h whconroll8” of anonymi4 4 <45of

                          • 1 Review of Paul Ferroll46History e http:/ bcat.mefoerba, vol. 4, i9 [? wi6]/ul>1ele 18 Sr 42  Review of Paul Ferro47m>Saint PaA. te Br="citem> op. tir. xxxixspan class="num">9  "texte" dir="ltr">1When Caroline Clive’s rking of Jane ersechos woem> t years earlier.yesheiknrk:e bol n befy Jan o H pretst i ieith e tesheia873 en bisdlain the quin October, George 7, crt de7, critEl ph a Heocmmesy, he iriot mepreaprsitaires e t of Jane Eyre 8” of anonymi4 48” of anonymi4widely admire4wio47m> 3More direct associations be3> Times,Wdene hhathsheireg67dnd o pr sur ns mil" n m nycr

                            di . Despist ebv in rdiffereuxemaiTrcoreagon whs,hnllist thavo, recaliruhturt an tede onauxemaiTrc ,ri: an teeen ,a,n n

                          • 1 Review of Paul Ferroll48of CharlotP hapsicos ci>en my8  "texte" dir="ltr">1When Caroline Clive’s SaintRoyroni8 Ss ceF/> 2”. The two n4ty, Elizabeth48 48of 3More direct associations be35m>SaintTys d selst,re s a ineea eqcas osurrouxas ashoing factws ce"fosmeo oce"fosmalercoreagon whefersuhrewiohd t years earlier306)e S mil" ookowMrs. F/> orm femin t years earlier306)e s="notedebase as 9)

                            3More direct associations be36HistoryAy expaeelwad so,eea eqdes takCli aa"stnc l Viedup e de des hera ohirc->in ,tousdeepou[ th]eo pr nw8 Ss ce or time to pene Carolests,evitcta bookkill Ferr echoing factwAnn llleeps. F owvi o pe ecanonx< bolhttwspoudolons,i Wliciaem>. xa bookd uiind eodmaiTrEurope; Royroni8 Srrders o et aof mintrd tnd RebeF/> enjoys wo contrasSpayy ecre onulfactgElinor

                            3More direct associations be37m>SaintRoyroni8 Scoengnrt mentt yeau iil m nycad so ly expBere astditesesh iTcftcdra. […w s="notedebase as 201)e Aldn anotl apRoyroni8 Ss cet ye,gaocl ap /> dene hs novh as it dnd, ut escinnocene hheia873 ch novels
                            3More direct associations be38of CharInikeep theo pe rkary onx iraeenrks t years earlier296)e apElinor,ouexph pedeia8ay seeweake ol.184 eom rlttwad so beel=n. Despist "ficlappald then n s="notedebase as 210)

                            3More direct associations be39m>SaintRoyroni8 Ss ceF/> no ny iutan woir Feroingaboinga elsewserto tve mind cruet cl"foks "foi sn Socid "fs twenv>Ireln befocu epofamoeheirite gent"3 ch p escpayyem>cene s t yeadshr cso[b]Slonv lstUnem>f ‘Pshake h novhiad do ftn2Srrderscunh dintrd tsts,(em> t years earlier252)e Eyoni insa bolhttwr3More direct associations be40 Times,F/> f ‘Pfor,oold edc elorqll IgamitI,ining suA/easssa tête-à-tête>Jane Erders bnatyrests,(em> t years earlier 129). eniClildrcu>gaUny etsegunA/easssa fe Fe latuionl/ sts, of s="notedebase as 48). Royroni8 Sirivie s" aunrf bookdec axucation.ilyll avh agutaaiingdictor8 pAdèlubjb> agle, i bookdec aess on.ilyldintssa f novhir. Pln nn woiohdr thapa Mof creenry exp t years earlier 265)e ,ri:siorTh hathavf th whewith spay hera mentioete lanon>

                            ike the stirring ones,—withT< nng eegitednrgina e tMs. clild; horwcild orror suoirsualitnohhedc ualitnohprefereuxe, deaedawd 8hurdert yet sh“w alkoirsnry Eyressantjust vlpri,hongovnrgina hexpandc ex;ws pr/ame oth whewith sfocu h whewith sfyre s="notedebase as 24)

                            1When Caroline Clive’s uggonis"fs tem> rking of Jane ayoorror of e>

                            • 5  “Notice of Death of Mr49m>Saint PaA. Sergessa,kowMrs. m>, vol. 4, 1 August inf="#ftn7"Wascu bruar whs, deQup> “rulejust Reign: A B for deAppret e3> 49
                            • 3  “="citation" dir="ltr">[Clive] will be remembered as the ave cesse a,oerwhomftaë yoaEno nofexamvirtuin reeualittedogedhurder exoice nrt paysay ans=lsh vilified;he teo ixd ntsr doub. Evf tScretrind nondgotebeyDec o pr rabuttonfe tongoodsyou desosa hexo,hon rabuttonf desceo p4lain thsPern my<. m>, vol. 4, pwthe deoredsioh="foktd hn2" href="#ftn2">2”. The two n49" 49 49 T

                            • 1 Review of Paul Ferroll50m>Saint PaA. te Br="citem> op. tir.sacar> viii.

                              Saint PaM.ion,Une em> op. tir.sacar> 278

                              O. tltocitem> A Survey e t

                                LDecon>tEdall" Arno ,m1920153-1852> 223span class="num">9  "texte" dir="ltr">1When Caroline Clive’s 2”. The two n50Jane Eyre,50l50m>em>ThestrMr4Royroni8 Sind nreteden myg of f, i]ad so,eterly Reus, Corsair.), 2”. The two n5‘Jane Eyre,5m51m>em>The yreoustoe desftnssByainsh p oion53-1leso ccvtrediurderice2" href="#ftn2">2”. The two n5ovels had, st5ovm52 Fem>Theyni8 in ,t nw8 e acyedribed, tative no e tecruet
                                • 4  C. M. Lennox-Boyd, “Th5> Times, Mayvieith 554-56r 53/a
                                • 2  Review of Paul Ferro54History eighIbideme2  Review of Paul Ferro55History eighIbid.sacar> 558

                                  559span class="num">9  "texte" dir="ltr">1When Caroline Clive’s beel=nvem> rking of Jane epp t years earlie2" href="#ftn2">2”. The two n5 53/a53m> an Americ[N]oe twlability, e"fs t[dne nogrom>gina e t in rlov -maks woass=earl r ofi,ew2”. The two n5 5 o54Hiem>The fn mai:s an ke to prerwhoay have no ue krsernote a mal (s2" href="#ftn2">2”. The two n5 5 o55Hi> odOn,p ssano. ininnnrg, e"fs tittwrfluene dba2”. The two n5 5 m56Hi

                                  • 4  C. M. Lennox-Boyd, “Th57m>Saint PaL. P. Stebbi:sitem> A “rulesAlbum: SiteLad/ bruar whs, deo prP eodsacar> LDecon>tSeckexp& Warba2  Review of Paul Ferro58of Charlotte e Eyr Eem> op. tir.sacar

                                    1When Caroline Clive’s SaintRoyroni8 Ss ceF/> seekn woiohtes:pays w m/em miyproindeLucy PoaeenStebbi:s >uggonis"fs t UP, 19ia Heon,Uner cwthe apuiiaf hobokts, i>2”. The two n5widely admire57/a57m> Mohatheiv ld toihesRoyroni8 ,dF/> <873 orsr id="surfacerclasmr.yee Eyr of 2”. The two n5ty, Elizabeth5tyo58of

                                    • 4  C. M. Lennox-Boyd, “Th59History eighIbid.sacar

                                      1When Caroline Clive’s emom reining t years earlier 105)e S mil" oo, e Eyr of 8” of anonymi59" 59"h59Hi> irit em>echoen tt> 3More direct associations be46HistoryB bolhttws eae bsolunhwconteot,oda clhif>id="d hapsiaeeualitPaarcrster-cmuor desce ayocrsckmaec spupehoietanyndar ofsts,(em> t years earlier216)

                                    • 4  C. M. Lennox-Boyd, “Th60m>Saint PaS. Cun ,aem> Giatnr of LDecon>tSimpk tocitK tyod1923, 23span class="num">9  "texte" dir="ltr">1When Caroline Clive’s SaintCfresh,.Sw Royroni8 Ss ceF/> Cher whanem>befeuni. epi in8” of anonymi60Jane Eyre,60h60m>em>Thethde> v class="textandnotes">
                                      • 5  “Notice of Death of Mr61m>Saint PaA. Sergessa,kem> op. tir.sacar> 171-172.

                                        [Clive] will be remembered as the aiki"/> . nsattonona oroe tcowa ayobidna>en o pronote ernoyni8 y. Mi to UP, ëdis" id="bodyftfoo ne s toan tembernt “w brutk isaof maunrf be te, whue k is f herienrkstudyhe ttlasd unraihespippnin iki"/> bsentef ‘. No oeisics tsty hobok8” of anonymi6‘Jane Eyre,6r61m>

                                      • 1 Review of Paul Ferroll62m>Saint PaS. Cun ,aem> op. tir.sacar> 22.

                                        Saint PaA. Sergessa,kem> op. tir.sacar> 165span class="num">9  "texte" dir="ltr">1When Caroline Clive’s keeps juwrilye rderElinoro(rsron,Unedidhurder exghusboisJane Eyrking of Jane ingnrtyashoing-nerso hnllist thanmrjlniwrirosp ofivpronote tt>pippnense,hfs tem> ewman (ed.), yos Wlewmtas8" href="#ftn8">8” of anonymi6ovels had, st6ovl62m>em>ThedertatSA e-dlso seenRoyroni8 Ss ceF/> ix" href="#ftn8">8” of anonymi6 6 m63m>em>The< 3More direct associations be49m>SaintRoyroni8 Sulttmately losn iy ecrelf t years earlier446)e Eess on.ilyldintraanonery expt yeari e,dheisufndinggle, i beouste’s novfoitooery expno ny < 18mp s woiohaningBere a4f nov>o pene begeye,Ooisefe‘Ty lhanollmgutaand aeis aa m,esalerwhobnbi i bem

                                        • 6  “Michael Faraday”, <64m>Saint PaM< 1hrk:5: 29-30, (an>[Clive] will be remembered as the ai ty"aom reeye e fenn o pen Wluck oegent[ ‘. Arn t ty"aom rehanole fenn o pen c> oee f,odxamcas tem> i3> f nov> tfs .), " href="#ftn8">8” of anonymi6 6 <64m>

                                          3More direct associations be50m>SaintBr anonelow, Royroni8 Sn p, ism> tr ecwmeristnecanonx,hl fos toGod> ais,dfocu h Ss cet ye fot.ilyl conyit tret ch nin rn e vilifypgrouxa>drs: ands=roin

                                          3More direct associations be51m>Saint bsckmpayy ecrud eorodxamself

                                        • 1 Review of Paul Ferroll65of Charlotem>2oesh 1 August op. tir.sacar> 285span class="num">9  view of Paul Ferroll66History eighIbidem.sacar

                                          1When Caroline Clive’s 8” of anonymi6 6 l65of> odowerfce"fs tousWrdeiem mie l mic b[class="notedebase as ]eisi" diorTutoberhve cess,s= teo anotld to Writinlebi aerien an dl;oem> t years earlier. rders ic bf Clps, ccdmai:s genuisertatinon>" href="#ftn8">8” of anonymi6 6 l66Hiem>TheJane involUn i ueuonaAatinonwe tonk is,s= teeriencgn a ix< 3More direct associations be5> Times,NmrjdoengRoyroni8 Sn amoely expBere asta sons e"pth nknactwsttacor n Mdson i: “wfeb el kway h pl /> doeng

                                          ] will be remembered as the aMs. s="notedebase as 34)

                                          1When Caroline Clive’s cs tstysgr csThe fe >Jane Erdera m,emarTrerrs wobes wost wulttmately s eaitr

                                        • 4  C. M. Lennox-Boyd, “Th67m>Saint PaA. te Br="citem> op. tir.e as xxiii-xxivspan class="num">9  view of Paul Ferroll68of Charlotte Piv ridase r cA Nreenon "/> Jane bokmy<. m>, vol. 4, > LDecon, Sclsliv is Pcid 68
                                        • 8  "texte" dir="ltr">1When Caroline Clive’s eouis -="foks woasy .4Royroni8 Spfoks epoul iohhippd tr ecpa mintrd tnd, ttcluds woAdèluPfoosgmne be, d lonn of hourderr ecpa inonwf apElinor>" href="#ftn8">8” of anonymi6widely admire6wih67m> r ga>opliy echorsnohu> in ooks: “wmidd 8hu to proim r, baitharn iedu or ad wai8 faëeofor mingnrt > iefoi("/> " href="#ftn8">8” of anonymi6ty, Elizabeth68 68of
                                          • 4  C. M. Lennox-Boyd, “Th69m>Saint PaJ. A.e r c"/> acar> 1Mar 69
                                          • 3  "texte" dir="ltr">1When Caroline Clive’s Paarck coattob.4Return Fers novvisms theesclslere-hi tad=a praice Cayinly ecdi187:.striki[Elinor]nk whrew (whw foymal (s today,gaocifoioh ckeesule6ihe ftI,inamcaanonehwclslere,hsheimtsndc3scefhn so. Arn t tI,ina rI shcild ly ohiohtiinite, waec die ofsts,("/> Paanne be occainon,Ostrikiyou mtsndhis apowoosty mefoi("/> " href="#ftn8">8” of anonymi69" 69 69Hiem>The3More direct associations be57m>Saint(t ingt ye,ge ttsursn,dst wisrcoreagon whge t UP, 19just justill of eeual ac eppfuloidt pi d hn i8 ms. (Tran tede p ofs eses-Jexoed,v>
                                            • 6  “Michael Faraday”, <70of Charlotte e Eyr Eem> op. tir.sacar

                                              [Clive] will be remembered as the aJ="bodyfteritdhr anoo teo prnerso id="dans=noui [l avarb foPo exhibitas nov> trumg in ingnrt orreft eigntoth wheiotethssSi aeniudia. hobokuexph prt. (t ingbokuexp hn ialefem,mvirtuid,es. tsuraase"fs tsheiritmadsSpayattes:pays sum" oee wsudes happind t> ais,das f hyressance eta nar hn etaan" fomi ininnnrg, itnohan k cild his ap"fs tsheiowlleelow>" href="#ftn8">8” of anonymi70Jane Eyre,70<70of

                                            • 1 Review of Paul Ferroll71m>Saint PaCdant of YuarPAy expYuar>Jane (iei8),v>3  "texte" dir="ltr">1When Caroline Clive’s olsts,(em> t years earlier274)e ywconte n ,aanynsense,e tai g intrite sentett> t years earlier85) wcild ve i bulu 18 ol.184 8” of anonymi7‘Jane Eyre,71 71of ss="paranumber">1When Caroline Clive’s Saintem> rking of Jane eerly Reewman (ed >Jane Thatl o Revilon18mpoe orocC.tJane doed,vClive in echoly Reewman (ed.), 3More direct associations be60m>Saintstriki[T]o ea eqvof ai:taiec hn vice. ofsts,Royroni8 Sitllslt ye,Ostriki> ie ingnrtyasitednnc iohs:xtn oi t years earlier300) ,onv r=SA e-durdert ye, Royroni8 Sac ne s l8 Se tcruet loty, ioevi tas themetap t years earlier131)e s="notedebase as em> 8e as ) justistreelow o prearsts,(em> s="notedebase as 7). Royroni8 SisgclftrediumbeuonarHaentdhagage>1Bnbi ograpSainte/h2lass="num">1" dir="ltr">“The Author of Paul Ferroll”, National Review, vol. 12, April 1861, 489-499.

                                              BRONTË Charlotte, Jane Eyre, Margaret Smith (ed.), Oxford World’s Classics, Oxford: Oxford University Press, [1847] 2000.

                                              CHAPPLE John & Alan SHELSTON (eds.), Further Letters of Mrs. Gaskell, Manchester: Manchester UP, 2000.

                                              CLIVE Caroline, Paul Ferroll, Adrienne E. Gavin (ed.), Kansas City: Valancourt, [1855] 2008.

                                              CLIVE Mary (ed.), Caroline Clive:From the Diary and Family Papers of Mrs Archer Clive (1801-1873), London: The Bodley Head, 1949.

                                              CUST Sybil, Granny’s Diary and Other Sketches, London: Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent, 1923.

                                              DAVIES James, “The Poems and Novels of the Author of ‘Paul Ferroll’”, The Contemporary Review, vol. 23, January 1874, 197-217.

                                              ELTON Oliver, A Survey of English Literature 1830-1880, 2 vols., London: Edward Arnold, 1920.

                                              FLOWER Desmond, A Century of Best Sellers 1830-1930, London: National Book Council, 1934.

                                              GASKELL Elizabeth, The Life of Charlotte Brontë, Angus Easson (ed.), Oxford: Oxford UP, [1857] 1996.

                                              GAVIN Adrienne E., Introduction and Note on the Text, in Caroline Clive, Paul Ferroll, Kansas City: Valancourt Books, [1855] 2008, vii-xxxii, xxxix-xl.

                                              H. A., “Mrs Archer Clive”, Fraser’s Magazine, vol. 8, September 1873, 348-352.

                                              J. A., “Paul Ferroll, and Why Paul Ferroll Killed His Wife”, The Ladies’ Cabinet of Fashion, 1 March 1861, 209-213.

                                              LENNOX-BOYD Charlotte Mary, “The Literary Career of Caroline Clive (1801-1873)”,PhD dissertation, University College, London, 1989.

                                              “The Literary Examiner”, Examiner,8 September 1855, 564-566.

                                              “Michael Faraday”, Saint Paul’s Magazine, vol. 6, June 1870, 292-303.

                                              “New Novelettes”, Times,2 February 1856, 7.

                                              NEWMAN Beth, “A Critical History of Jane Eyrein Beth Newman (ed.), Charlotte Brontë. Jane Eyre, Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin’s Press, 1996, 445-458.

                                              “Notice of Death of Mrs. Archer Clive”, The Academy, vol. 4, 1 August 1873, 285.

                                              [OLIPHANT Margaret], “Modern Novelists—Great and Small”, [Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine,May 1855, 554-568]. Reprinted in NADEL Ira Bruce (ed.), Victorian Fiction: A Collection of Essays from the Period, New York: Garland Publishing, 1986, 554-568.

                                              “Our Library Table”, Athenaeum, 18 August 1855, 947-948.

                                              PARTRIDGE Eric, “A Note on Paul Ferroll”, in Mrs. Archer Clive, Paul Ferroll, London: Scholartis Press, 1929, 6-7.

                                              Review of George Eliot’s Scenes of Clerical Life, Adam Bede and The Mill on the Floss. Quarterly Review, vol. 108, n° 216, October 1860, 469-499.

                                              Review of Paul Ferroll: A Tale. By the Author of ‘IX Poems by V.’ New QuarterlyReview, vol. 4, October 1855, 420-422.

                                              Review of Paul Ferroll, New York: Redfield Edition.The United States Democratic Review, vol. 37, n° 7, July 1856, 600-601.

                                              Review of Third Edition of Paul Ferroll. Saturday Review, vol. 1, 12 January 1856, 192-193.

                                              Review of Why Paul Ferroll Killed His Wife. Saturday Review, vol. 10, 29 December 1860, 838-839.

                                              [RIGBY Elizabeth], “Vanity Fair and Jane Eyre”, Quarterly Review, vol. 84, n° 167, December 1848, 153-185. The Brontës: Texts, Sources, and Criticism. <http://faculty.plattsburgh.edu/peter.friesen/default.asp?go=252>, 27 Nov. 2008.

                                              SALA George Augustus, “How I Went to Court: A Proud Confession”, Belgravia: A London Magazine, vol. 3, May 1874, 294-304.

                                              SERGEANT Adeline, “Mrs. Archer Clive”, inWomen Novelists of Queen Victoria's Reign: A Book of Appreciation, London: Hurst & Blackett, 1897. 161-173.

                                              STEBBINS Lucy Poate, A Victorian Album: Some Lady Novelists of the Period, London: Secker & Warburg, 1946.

                                              [THOMPSON Cockburn], “Modern Style.” North British Review, vol. 26, n° 52, February 1857, 339-375.

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                                        Notes

                                        1 Review of Paul Ferroll: A Tale. By the Author of ‘IX Poems by V.’ New Quarterly Review, vol. 4, October 1855, 420.

                                        2  Review of Paul Ferroll. New York: Redfield Edition. The United States Democratic Review, vol.  37, n°7, July 1856, 601.

                                        3  “New Novelettes.” Times, 2 February 1856, 7.

                                        4  C. M. Lennox-Boyd, “The Literary Career of Caroline Clive (1801-1873)”,PhD dissertation,University College, London, 1989, 294.

                                        5  “Notice of Death of Mrs. Archer Clive”, The Academy, vol. 4, 1 August 1873, 285.

                                        6  “Michael Faraday”, Saint Paul’s Magazine, vol. 6, June 1870, 296.

                                        7  B. Newman, “A Critical History of Jane Eyre”, in B. Newman (ed.), Charlotte Brontë. Jane Eyre. Case Studies in Contemporary Criticism, Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin’s Press, 1996, 445.

                                        8  E. Gaskell, The Life of Charlotte Brontë [1857], Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996, 295.

                                        9  [E. Rigby], “Vanity Fair and Jane Eyre”, Quarterly Review, vol. 84, n° 167, December 1848, 153-185. The Brontës: Texts, Sources, and Criticism. <http://faculty.plattsburgh.edu/peter.friesen/default.asp?go=252> [accessed 27 Nov. 2008].

                                        10 Review of Paul Ferroll,October 1855, op. cit., 422.

                                        11  Letter to Louis Hachette, 29 October 1855, in J. Chapple & A. Shelston (eds.), Further Letters of Mrs. Gaskell, Manchester: Manchester UP, 2000, 145.

                                        12  D. Flower, A Century of Best Sellers 1830-1930, London National Book Council, 1934, 11.

                                        13  J. Davies, “The Poems and Novels of the Author of ‘Paul Ferroll’”, The Contemporary Review, vol. 23, January 1874, 205.

                                        14  G. A. Sala, “How I Went to Court: A Proud Confession”, Belgravia: A London Magazine, vol. 3, May 1874, 304.

                                        15  “New Novelettes”, op. cit., 7.

                                        16  A.E. Gavin, Introduction and Note on the Text, in Caroline Clive, Paul Ferroll [1855], Kansas City: Valancourt Books, 2008, xvi.

                                        17 Jane Eyre, of course, also inspired a prequel about the courtship and marriage of a first wife: Jean Rhys’s Wide Sargasso Sea (1966).

                                        18  E. Gaskell, op. cit., 247.

                                        19  Review of Third Edition of Paul Ferroll. Saturday Review, vol. 1, 12 January 1856, 192.

                                        20 Clive’s IX Poems by V [1840] had been glowingly reviewed in the Quarterly Review (Anon, “Modern English Poetesses.” Quarterly Review, vol.66, September 1840, 374-418). Her pseudonym V was the initial letter of “Vigolina,” a nickname given to her by her future husband Archer Clive. The nickname was a Latinate form of her maiden name Wigley (Clive’s surname at birth was Wigley, but in 1811 her father added her mother’s family name, Meysey, to the family surname making her from then until her marriage Caroline Meysey Wigley).

                                        21 Review of Paul Ferroll, July 1856, op. cit., 601.

                                        22  Quoted in Newman, op. cit., 448.

                                        23  E. Rigby, op. cit.

                                        24 Review of Paul Ferroll, October 1855, op. cit., 422.

                                        25  Review of Why Paul Ferroll Killed His Wife.Saturday Review, vol. 10, 29 December 1860, 838.

                                        26  H. A. “Mrs Archer Clive”, Fraser’s Magazine, vol. 8, September 1873, 348.

                                        27 Quoted in Newman, op. cit., 447.

                                        28  A. E. Gavin, op. cit., xxii.

                                        29  “New Novelettes”, op. cit.,7.

                                        30  [C. Thompson], “Modern Style”, North British Review, vol. 26, n° 52, February 1857, 354.

                                        31 Ibid., 375.

                                        32  Quoted in E. Gaskell, op. cit., 412.

                                        33  “Our Library Table”, Athenaeum, 18 August 1855, 947.

                                        34  A. E. Gavin, op. cit., viii-ix.

                                        35  M. Clive (ed.), Caroline Clive: From the Diary and Family Papers of Mrs Archer Clive (1801-1873), London, The Bodley Head, 1949, 250.

                                        36 Ibid., 252.

                                        37  Quoted in C. M. Lennox-Boyd, op. cit., 281.

                                        38  E. Rigby, op. cit.

                                        39  “The Literary Examiner”, Examiner, 8 September 1855, 565.

                                        40  “The Author of Paul Ferroll”, National Review, vol. 12, April 1861, 498.

                                        41 Ibid., 497.

                                        42  Review of George Eliot’s Scenes of Clerical Life, Adam Bede and The Mill on the Floss. Quarterly Review, vol. 108, n° 216, October 1860, 498.

                                        43  C. M. Lennox-Boyd, op. cit., 51.

                                        44 Review of George Eliot’s Scenes … , op. cit.,498-499.

                                        45  E. Gaskell, op. cit., 441.

                                        46 Chapple and Shelston list the letter as Gaskell to Mrs Archer Clive 9 Feb [?1856], 291. The letter is more likely to be from 1858 as Clive refers to Gaskell’s biography of Brontë in her response which is quoted in Lennox-Boyd, op. cit., 400.

                                        47  A. E. Gavin, op. cit., xxxix.

                                        48  Perhaps coincidentally, each house contains a servant called Mrs Poole. Grace Poole is a comparatively minor character in Jane Eyre but is privy to Thornfield’s greatest secret. Clive’s Mrs Poole, mentioned only once in the novel, is an even more minor character but she is also mentioned as someone who carries out her master’s instructions.

                                        49  A. Sergeant, “Mrs. Archer Clive”, inWomen Novelists of Queen Victoria’s Reign: A Book of Appreciation, London: Hurst & Blackett, 1897, 172.

                                        50  A. E. Gavin, op. cit., viii.

                                        51  M. Clive, op. cit., 278.

                                        52  O. Elton, A Survey of English Literature 1830-1880, London: Edward Arnold, 1920, vol. 2, 223.

                                        53  [M. Oliphant], “Modern Novelists—Great and Small” [Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine,May 1855, 554-568], reprinted in I. B. Nadel (ed.), Victorian Fiction: A Collection of Essays from the Period, New York: Garland Publishing, 1986, 557.

                                        54 Ibidem.

                                        55 Ibid., 558.

                                        56 Ibid., 559.

                                        57  L. P. Stebbins, A Victorian Album: Some Lady Novelists of the Period, London: Secker & Warburg, 1946, 14.

                                        58  E. Rigby, op. cit.

                                        59 Ibid.

                                        60  S. Cust, Granny’s Diary and Other Sketches, London: Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent, 1923, 23.

                                        61  A. Sergeant, op. cit., 171-172.

                                        62  S. Cust, op. cit., 22.

                                        63  A. Sergeant, op. cit., 165.

                                        64  Matthew 5: 29-30, (Authorized Version).

                                        65  “Notice”, op. cit., 285.

                                        66 Ibidem.

                                        67  A. E. Gavin, op. cit., xxiii-xxiv.

                                        68  E. Partridge, “A Note on Paul Ferroll”, Paul Ferroll by Mrs. Archer Clive, London, Scholartis Press, 1929, 7.

                                        69  J. A., “Paul Ferroll, and Why Paul Ferroll Killed His Wife”, The Ladies’ Cabinet of Fashion, 1 March 1861, 209.

                                        70  E. Rigby, op. cit.

                                        71  Clive’s next novel Year After Year (1858), the first-person narrative of a plain, dependent, illegitimate young woman, alone in the world after her beloved brother dies, features a far more Jane Eyre-like protagonist.

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                                        Adrienne E. Gavin, « “deepen[ing] the power and horror of the original”: Caroline Clive’s Paul Ferroll as Descendant of Jane Eyre », Revue LISA/LISA e-journal [En ligne], Vol. VII – n°4 | 2009, mis en ligne le 28 juillet 2009, consulté le 13 décembre 2017. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/lisa/839 ; DOI : 10.4000/lisa.839

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                                        Auteur

                                        Adrienne E. Gavin

                                        Adrienne E. Gavin is a Reader in English at Canterbury Christ Church University, UK who specializes in Victorian literature, children’s literature, and crime fiction. She is author of Dark Horse: A Life of Anna Sewell (Sutton 2004), editor of Caroline Clive’s Paul Ferroll (Valancourt 2008), and co-editor of Mystery in Children’s Literature (with C. Routledge, Palgrave Macmillan 2001), The Re-embroidered Robe (with S. Bray and P. Merchant, 2008), and Childhood in Edwardian Fiction (with A. Humphries, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009).

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