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>fr>by, Fananess">><21" heigription" c? duopen, Image conten">en Socie">>by, Fanans, Soci SociLISnte >tp:/LISnci21" heig55iv ?format SociLISnte >tp:/LISnci21" heig8831">utor.edt" con SociLISnte >tp:/LISnci21" heig8927">em oes, H-Saxng"M/"/> ="DCHlisa_1on/ SociLISnte >tp:/LISncistrgisle by, Fananesscss//> eaont"t ritetp://purl.oeaontone – Literatup://thod.govt">by, Fananeses, >by, Fananeseses,inpumeta http-eq"/> q":title"q":valun" />" conteid="accesananeseses,inpumeta htthiddopen/imagesl":valun" ges, Sociétés du Monde Anglophone – Literananeseses,buttétua httsubmiten, ImageC conte"imC conte"by, Fananeses,/ >by, Fananesby, Fananby, Fananesso-pur.pnmain">by, Fananeses,o-pue -p:/LISnci21revpnprevite or.Hlisa_1Eitle" co:oes Exampllity oEuRevu?">t" type= gouc_tipe=g alt="Presses . iLISnteutor.edt" con LISnte |  eta name="citation_journal_title" co tent="Revue LISA/LISA e-journaLittératures Fananesso-pur.pnss"SubPaneme"ueiLISnteem oes, H-Saxng"M/"/> ="DCHlisa_1Emary" /> and Access to CollegLISnciettératures Fananessettératures Fananess Histoiss"Tcrisi>iLISnteages/lo Fananeses,o-pu/html; chaiLISnt content="text/html; chaicle montheadract" x et tudianre à l’univvvvvvvvrmi lesquelles se égulière. L’articlation irrégulipenses du egLISnciettératures Fananessettératures Fananesso-pur.pnss"Aités > istrgis>ism.te LISnterittératures Fanan our les >Radc?forpur">nbsp;|p://www.pu#ccéiref=I /expur">nbsp;| ://www.pu#tocde Renpur">nbsp;|p://www.pu# -eq"n> epur">nbsp;|p://www.pu#="stylesheeaimB"stylesheet"pur">nbsp;|p://www.pu#noatio>Noollegr">nbsp;|p://www.pu#quohe coui>ethe couegr">nbsp;|p://www.pu#e United>Aiteurie">Littératures Fananesso-pur.pnour les éeages/lo Fananeses,h2eiLISnte our les du s-open> igher edu> contenpur"><32;://www.pu#our les du s-text> igher supé<32;:ittératures Fananesesso-pur.pnour les du s-opene
em oof the United States. Even in better economic times, financial aid and access to in-state tuition often determine wether or not a student is going to attend college. This is all the moe relevant for minority and low-income students, among whom are som undocumented immigrants. This paper examines the relationship betwen the 2007-2008 financial crisis and state laws related to undocumnted students’ access to in-state tuition and financial aid. Alog with the rest of the unauthorized population living in the Unied States, these youths now have to face a serious backlash from statelegislatures claiming to cut costs for their own government. Desite a recent ruling by the California Supreme Court favorable to in-tate tuition for undocumented students, several state legislatures have enacted policies which will marginalize them even further. The risis has in fact toughened the relationship existing between state goernment and public institutions of higher education. The article shws that the economic downturn has accelerated the change in the roleof public universities, and especially their exploitation by state egislatures in their opposition to undocumented immigration." /> x Etats-Unis. Même dans des contextes économiques plus propices, l’aide financière et l’accès aux frais d’inscriptions réservés aux résidents de l’Etat déterminent souvent si un étudiant pourra ou non s’inscrire à l’université. Cela est tout pariculièrement le cas pour les étudiants issus des minorités et des familes aux revenus modestes, parmi lesquelles se trouvent des éudiants en situation irrégulière. L’article étudie la relation entre la crise financière de 2007-2008 et les lois des Etats concernant l’accès des étudiants irréguliers aux frais d’inscriptions préfrentiels et aux aides financières dans le supérieur. Tout comme es autres immigrés en situation irrégulière qui vivent actuellement aux Etats-Unis, ces jeunes font aujourd’hui face à de fortes attaques de la part des législatures des Etats qui prétendent réduire les dépenses du gouvernement. Malgré une décision récente de la Cour Surême de Californie favorable à l’accès aux frais d’inscription préférentiels, plusieurs législatures ont adopté des lois qui excluent ces étudiants. La crise a durci la relation qui existe entre les gouvernements des Etats et les institutions publiques d’enseignement suérieur. L’article montre que la crise économique a accéléré la modification du rôle des universités publiques, et tout particulèrement leur instrumentalisation par les législatures des Etats dans lur opposition à l’immigration irrégulière." /> by, Fananesssssss:ittéer"ePlan du si>H deces itaig alt="Presses Unur les .contribu Fananesesso-pur.pnccéirefeages/lo Fananeses,h2eiLISnte existe/expuLISnciet2mages/lo Fananeses,o-pueration irrégulière."g al, i21" heig8857">ou non s’inscrg al, i21" heig8858">entury; 21st centie">Littératures Fananeses,o-puera XXème siècle; XXIèg al, i21" heig8860">name="citation_abstg al, i21" heig8861">ash from g al, i21" heig8862">n_abstract" xmie">Littératures Fananeses,o-puelang="en" lang="en" conteg al, i21" heig886si>="The financial crisis hie">Littératures Fananeses,o-pue over theg al, i21" heig8852"> I over theg al, i21" heig1218"> intensifiedg al, i21" heig2222"> e concerns g alt="Presr"ePlan du si>H deces itaig alt="Presses Uccéire.contribu Fananesesso-pur.pntocdeages/lo Fananeses,h2eiLISnte tocto1u1aur.pntoc 1u1a>;Financial crisis and backlash</ananesesow havie">Littératures Fananeses,o-pue tocto2u1aur.pntoc 2u1a>;islatures ie">Littératures Fananeses,o-pue tocto1u2aur.pntoc 1u2adU.S. Congress</h2><h2>ie">Littératures Fananeses,o-pue tocto1u3aur.pntoc 1u3a>;Financial cut costie">Littératures Fananeses,o-pue tocto2u2aur.pntoc 2u2ad;Targeting undocumented students</h1&g Fananeses;The financiaie">Littératures Fananeses,o-pue tocto2u3aur.pntoc 2u3a>ccess to higher educatio Fananesesnts, ie">Littératures Fananeses,o-pue tocto1u4aur.pntoc 1usi>n of public universitie">Littératures Fananeses,o-pue tocto2u4aur.pntoc 2u4i>em oof the Uniting access for undocumente Fananeses their exploitatie">Littératures Fananeses,o-pue tocto2u5aur.pntoc 2u5i>em on of the courts</h2 Fananesesitation_abstg alLittératures Fananeses,o-pue tocto2u6aur.pntoc 2u6"neditititle="schema(PRISM)" rel="schema. 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Haut de page

Notes

1 John R. Thelin, “Higher Education and the Public Trough : A Historical Perspective.” in Edward St. John and Michael D. Parsons (Eds.), Public Funding of Higher Education. Changing Contexts and New Rationales. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London, 2004, 21-39.

2 Idem.

3 James C. Hean and Janet M. Holdsworth, “Federal Student Aid : The Shift from Grants to Loans.” in Edward St. John and Michael D. Parsons (Eds.), Public Funding of Higher Education. Changing Contexts and New Rationales. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London, 2004, 40-59.

4 Phil Izzo, “Congratulations to Class of 2014, Most Indebted Ever”, The Wall Street Journal, May 16, 2014.

5 Sandy Baum and Marie O’Malley, “College on Credit : How Borrowers Perceive Their Education Debt”, Journal of Student Financial Aid, 33(3), 7-19.

6 Jennie H. Woo, Degrees of Debt : Student Borrowing and Loan Repayment of Bachelor’s Degree Recipient 1 Year After Graduating : 1994, 2001 and 2009, U.S. Department of Education, October 2013, NCES 2014-011.

7 Terry W. Hartle, “How People Pay for College : A Dramatic Shift.” Chronicle of Higher Education, n° 41, November 1994, A52, 52.

8 Anthony P. Carnevale and Richard Fry, Economics, Demography, and the Future of Higher Education Policy. Educational Testing Service. Washington, D.C., 2002.

9 Robert Haveman and Timothy Smeeding, “The Role of Higher Education in Social Mobility.” In Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University and The Brookings Institution, The Future of Children. Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006, 137.

10 Ibid.

11 Maria E. Zarate and Harry Pachon, Perceptions of College Financial Aid Among California Latino Youth. Tomás Rivera Policy Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California. June 2006.

12 James C. Hean and Janet M. Holdsworth, “Federal Student Aid : The Shift from Grants to Loans.” op. cit.

13 The Scholastic Aptitude Test measures academic readiness for college by testing high school students on reading, writing and math. Students take the test during their junior year of high school and send the results as part of their college or grant application.

14 Michael Kramer, “Stresses in the Student Financial Aid System” in Hauptman, Arthur M. and Robert H. Koff (Eds.), New Ways of Paying for College, New York: American Council on Education – Macmillan, 1991, p. 25.

15 C. Bruce Johnstone, “The economics and politics of cost sharing in higher education : comparative perspectives,” Economics of Education Review, 23(2004), 403-410.

16 Deborah Stone, Policy Paradox : the Art of Political Decision Making, New York: W. W. Norton, 3rd edition, 2012.

17 The Urban Institute, The Dispersal of Immigrants in the 1990s. Immigration Studies Program. November, Brief N° 2. Washington, D.C. 2002, 37.

18 U.S. Supreme Court, San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez 411 U.S. 1, Washington, D.C., 1973.

19 The Urban Institute, The Dispersal of Immigrants in the 1990s, 2.

20 This law exempted some undocumented students from non-resident tuition fees if they had attended a high school in the state for at least 3 years and graduated from a high school in the state. Beneficiaries also had to fill an affidavit indicating that they would file an application to legalize their status as soon as they would be eligible to do so.

21 Government Accountability Office, Illegal Alien Schoolchildren. Issues in Estimating State-by-State Costs. Report to the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives. Washington, D.C. 2004.

22 This proposition limited access to various state services and aid programs (such as in-state tuition in public higher education) to citizens and legal permanent residents only. Higher education employees were also required to report to the state the number of individuals who had been turned away because of lack of legal status.

23 Robert Haveman and Timothy Smeeding, “The Role of Higher Education in Social Mobility,” op. cit., 137.

24 Anthony P. Carnevale and Richard Fry, Economics, Demography, and the Future of Higher Education Policy, op. cit., 10.

25 Arizona State Legislature, Senate Bill 1070 : Support our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act, Phoenix, AZ, 2010.

26 Fanny Lauby, « Les étudiants sans papiers aux Etats-Unis : une menace pour les universités publiques ? » Civilisations, N° 11 : ‘Le Rejet’ Pp. 165-180, Presses de l’Université Toulouse 1-Capitole, 2011.

27 See H.R. 1868 Birthright Citizenship Act of 2009 and S. 723 Birthright Citizenship Act of 2011.

28 The Reconstruction Amendments, adopted after the Civil War between 1865 and 1870, were essential in abolishing slavery (13th Amendment), establishing a national citizenship (14th Amendment), and granting voting rights (15th Amendment) from which certain groups – such as African Americans – could not be excluded.

29 Julia Preston, “Senators Offer a Bipartisan Blueprint for Immigration”, The New York Times, published January 28, 2013, <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/28/us/politics/senators-agree-on-blueprint-for-immigration.html>, accessed in October 2015.

30 These reports are available through an online search engine, <http://disclosures.house.gov/ld/ldsearch.aspx>, for the House of Representatives, and <http://soprweb.senate.gov/index.cfm?event=selectfields>, for the U.S. Senate (both accessed in September 2015).

31 Ashley Parker and Jonathan Martin, “Senate, 68 to 32, Passes Overhaul for Immigration”, New York Times, June 27, 2013, <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/28/us/politics/immigration-bill-clears-final-hurdle-to-senate-approval.html?pagewanted=all>, accessed in September 2015.

32 General Assembly of the State of Georgia, 2008, Senate Bill 169, Atlanta, Georgia.

33 General Assembly of the State of Georgia, 2008, Senate Bill 492. Determination of resident status of students for tuition or fees, Atlanta, Georgia.

34 Legislature of the State of Utah, 2008, House Bill 86 : Funding of Inmate Postsecondary Education. Salt Lake City, Utah.

35 National Conference of State Legislatures, 2012, 2011 Immigration Related Laws and Resolutions in the States, Immigrant Policy Project, Washington, D.C.

36 Ibid.

37 Jack Martin and Ira Mehlman, 2005a, The Costs of Illegal Immigration to Texans. Federation for American Immigration Reform. April, Washington, D.C., 4.

38 This law categorized as residents of the state for educational purposes those students who had lived in the state of Texas for three years and had graduated from a high school in the state, thus offering undocumented students the possibility to pay in-state tuition. Beneficiaries also signed an affidavit saying they would legalize their status as soon as they would be eligible to do so.

39 Jack Martin and Ira Mehlman, 2005a, The Costs of Illegal Immigration to Texans. Federation for American Immigration Reform, op. cit., 14.

40 Jack Martin and Ira Mehlman, 2005b, The Costs of Illegal Immigration to Floridians. Federation for American Immigration Reform. Revised in October. Washington, D.C.

41 Associated Press, 2004, “Governor Bush Backs Driver’s Licenses for Immigrants Illegally in the US”, The New York Times, published April 7, 2004, <http://www.nytimes.com/2004/04/07/national/07FLOR.html>, accessed in October 2015.

42 Jeffrey S. Passel and Wendy Zimmermann. 2001. Are Immigrants Leaving California? Settlement Patterns of Immigrants in the Late 1990s. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute.

43 Legislature of the State of New Mexico, 2004, Senate Bill 582. Prohibiting Denial of Admission of Eligibility for Education Benefits on Account of Immigration Status. 47th Legislature. Santa Fe, New Mexico.

44 Michael Fix, Wendy Zimmermann and Jeffrey Passel, 2001, The Integration of Immigrant Families in the United States. The Urban Institute. Washington, D.C., 10.

45 Jeffrey Passel and D’Vera Cohn, 2011, Unauthorized Immigrant Population : National and State Trends, 2010. Pew Hispanic Center, Washington, D.C.

46 Jeffrey S. Passel, D’Vera Cohn, and Molly Rohal. 2014. Unauthorized Immigrants Totals Rise in 7 States, Fall in 14. Decline in Those from Mexico Fuels Most State Decreases. Washington, D.C.: Pew Hispanic Center.

47 The Urban Institute, The Dispersal of Immigrants in the 1990s, op. cit., 1.

48 Idem, 2.

49 Interview with the Associate Vice President for Student Affairs and Dean of Admissions of a large public university in Arizona, February 2010.

50 Ibid.

51 Id.

52 See Douglas S. Massey and Magaly R. Sánchez, 2010, Brokered Boundaries : Creating Immigrant Identity in Anti-Immigrant Times. New York: Russell Sage Foundation ; and Mae M. Ngai, 2004, Impossible Subjects : Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.

53 Interview with the Associate Vice President for Student Affairs, op. cit.

54 Ibid.

55 Legislature of the State of Oklahoma, 2007, House Bill 1804 : Oklahoma Taxpayer and Citizen Protection Act of 2007. 51st Legislature. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

56 See Public Law 104-193 : Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, Washington, D.C. August 1996.

57 General Assembly of the State of Missouri, 2008, House Bill 1463. Prohibiting the admission of aliens unlawfully present in the United States at public institutions of higher education. 94th General Assembly. Jefferson City, Missouri.

58 General Assembly of the State of Missouri, 2008, House Bills 1549, 1771, 1395 & 2366. 94th General Assembly. Jefferson City, Missouri.

59 Superior Court of the State of California, 2006, Martinez et al v. Regents of the University of California. Yolo County Superior Court, California. 2006.

60 U.S. Supreme Court, De Canas v. Bica, 424 U.S. 351. Washington, D.C. 1976.

61 Court of Appeals of the State of California, 2008, Martinez et al v. Regents of the University of California. September. Sacramento, California.

62 U.S. Congress, 1996, Public Law 104-208 : Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act, Washington, D.C.

63 Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, 2007, Lozano et al. v. City of Hazleton No. 07-3531, Philadelphia, PA.

64 California Supreme Court, 2010, Martinez et al. v. Regents of the University of California, 241 P.3d 855, San Francisco, CA.

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Fanny Lauby, « State Budget Crises and Access to College for Undocumented Students in the United States », Revue LISA/LISA e-journal [En ligne], vol. XIV-n°1 | 2016, mis en ligne le 23 février 2016, consulté le 17 décembre 2017. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/lisa/8854 ; DOI : 10.4000/lisa.8854

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Fanny Lauby

Fanny Lauby est professeur agrégée et diplômée de l’Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan. Après avoir obtenu un double doctorat à la Sorbonne Nouvelle et à la City University of New York, elle enseigne les Sciences Politiques à l’Université William Paterson dans le New Jersey. Sa recherche porte sur l’incorporation politique des immigrés en situation irrégulière, notamment par le biais de leur participation dans l’enseignement supérieur.

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