Skip to navigation – Site map
Apports des géosciences

Extreme storms during the last 500 years from lagoonal sedimentary archives in Languedoc (SE France)

Tempêtes extrêmes au cours des 500 dernières années dans les lagunes du Languedoc (SE France)
Laurent Dezileau and Jérôme Castaings
p. 131-137

Abstracts

A study of sediment cores was undertaken to follow the horizontal extent of washover fans in the Palavasian lagoons (Languedoc, France). These geomorphological structures are associated to intense storm events. Dating of these events shows age ranges that correspond to the second part of the Little Ice Age (LIA). The results also indicate little likelihood of a tsunami origin of these washover fans, although there is historical evidence of tsunamis in the western Mediterranea. Comparison of sediment records with palaeoclimate records indicates that this increase of storm events was probably modulated by atmospheric dynamics. We suggest that extreme storm events are associated with a large cooling of Europe.

Top of page

Full text

This study has been undertaken in the framework of ECLICA project (INSU, ACI-FNS ‘Aléas et changements globaux’ in 2004, coordinator L. Dezileau).

1In the context of current climate change, there is an increasing concern that extreme climatic events may be changing in frequency and intensity. Storms and floods have been for long a threat for the western Mediterranean coast even if their link with climate variability is still misunderstood. This is in partly due to the fact that extreme events are inherently rare and difficult to observe in the period of a human life and to the lack of long-term observations or paleo-reconstructions. Understanding causes of their occurrence both in past and present climate, i.e. under different forcings, is an crucial issue for future predictions considering the growing number of people living in the coastal Mediterranean in high-risk areas and therefore enhanced exposure. Natural systems are highly sensitive to intense climate episodes but impact assessment strongly depends on the resiliency and capability for adaptation and mitigation of each system. In order to place such events in the broader context of climate change, it is essential to document their occurrence, both in space and time, over period of several centuries or millennium.

2In this study, we focus mainly on the Languedoc‑Roussillon (Figure 1), a region of the French Mediterranean coast. This area is particularly sensitive in terms of societal issues for the risks of floods and coastal erosion/submersion during storm events. In this area, the primary forcing of sea-level variations is mostly related to atmospheric variability (TSIMPLIS and JOSEY, 2001), including extra-tropical storms (MORON and ULLMANN, 2005 ; ULLMANN et al., 2007). Travelling mid-latitude low-pressure systems act to raise the sea level directly below them, but this effect alone is quite weak in semi-enclosed basins such as the Mediterranean Sea. The most important meteorological factors are the associated winds (ULLMANN et al., 2007). For example, sea surges >40 cm in the Camargue recorded between 1974 and 2001 are usually associated with storms moving southeastward across the North Atlantic to the south of 55°N, and strengthening as they approach the Bay of Biscay (MORON and ULLMANN, 2005). During such storms, strong onshore winds cause water to pile up against the north coast of the Gulf of Lions (MORON and ULLMANN, 2005). These storm events can have dramatic actions attacking coastal sand dunes, sometimes breaking the sandy barrier (Pierre Blanche lagoon in 1999), and weakening certain human infrastructure (ports, defense barriers, housing). For the last few decades, the most important storms are those of 1982, 1997 and 1999. From the fifteenth-century to present-day, the analysis of historical documents reveals an increase of flood events particularly during the Little Ice Age (BLANCHEMANCHE, 2010). Over longer periods of time, SABATIER et al., (2012) have studied storm‑induced deposits preserved in coastal lagoon sediments to explore the links between climate and storm activity. This study was performed on a single long piston core collected from the Pierre Blanche lagoon (Languedoc, France). Past climatic reconstructions on a single core is always hazardous, particularly in these types of environments. The horizontal extent of an overwash deposit can be affected by many complicating factors that are related to storm characteristics, such as the storm intensity, storm surge height, tidal height at the time of landfall, angle of storm events and wind direction, timing and the duration of landfall (LIU and FEARN, 2000). LIU and FEARN (2000) presented a model where a coastal lake was subjected to overwash events caused by landfalling hurricanes of various intensities and directions. This study concluded that a suite of cores taken from different sites is vital for producing a complete record of past storm landfalls. In a previous study (DEZILEAU et al., 2011), a multi-core transects approach was used to follow the horizontal extent of washover fans (2,5 km longitudinal transect). In this study, we expand the study area (16 km longitudinal transect) in order to produce a complete record of past storm landfalls in the Languedoc during the last 500 years.

1 - Study site

3Palavasian lagoons are a complex system located in the Gulf of Lion in the South of France (Figure 1).

Fig. 1 – Study area and cores location in Ingril, Pierre Blanche, Prevost and Grec lagoons

Fig. 1 – Study area and cores location in Ingril, Pierre Blanche, Prevost and Grec lagoons

Four short cores and one long core were extracted from the four lagoons along a longitudinal transect.

4This system consists of nine shallow and brackish water lagoons connected by the Rhone-Sete waterway and communicating with the Mediterranean Sea. It is recognized that the system was submitted in the past to sediment accumulation (BARUSSEAU et al., 1992) and morphological evolution (RAYNAL et al., 2009, CASTAINGS et al., , 2011). It was a single open lagoon which become closed around year 950 AD (SABATIER et al., 2010) and then become slowly fragmented in several water bodies due to natural processes and human driven changes (BLANCHEMANCHE et al., 2003). Ingril, Pierre Blanche, Prevost and Grec lagoons are located in the southern part of the complex system (Figure 1). These polyhaline backbarrier lagoons are separated from the Mediterranean Sea by a wave-produced, sandy barrier between 150‑300 m wide and 2‑3 m above the mean sea level. These lagoons have a flat bottom with a maximum water depth of approximately 1 m. Modern sediments accumulating at the bottom of this lagoon are made of clay/silt but no sand. Tidal variability is modest (with a mean range of 0.30 m), which minimizes the influence of dynamic tidal currents. The study site is located along the southeastern-facing shoreline, and is extremely vulnerable to intense storms coming from south and southeast.

2 - Materials and methods

2.1 - Core material

5Four short cores (ING09B, PB08, EG08 and GR10) and one long core (PB06) were extracted from the four lagoons (Ingril, Pierre Blanche, Prevost and Grec) along a longitudinal transect, (Figure 1). The long core was extracted using the Uwitec platform (University of Chambery and Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement). All cores were collected at water depths between 0.5 and 1.5 m. The locations for all coring sites were determined using a handheld GPS unit, which provided a horizontal accuracy of 3 to 6 m.

2.2 - Physical measures

6Back at the laboratory, cores were sliced open, photographed and logged. Cores were refrigerated at 5 °C to prevent dessication. Grain-size analysis was conducted on contiguous 2-cm samples using a Beckman-Coulter LS13320 laser diffraction particle-size analyser. Grain-size distribution measurements were made on the less than 0.3 mm sediment fraction without decarbonatation.

2.3 - Geochronology

7Dating of sedimentary layers was carried out using the 210Pb method on a centennial time-scale. This nuclide with U, Th, and 226Ra were determined by gamma spectrometry at the Géosciences Montpellier Laboratory (Montpellier, France). The 1-cm-thick sediment layers were washed in deionized water and sieved. The fraction smaller than 1 mm was then finely crushed after drying, and transferred into small gas-tight PETP (polyethylene terephtalate) tubes (internal height and diameter of 38 and 14 mm, respectively), and stored for more than 3 weeks to ensure equilibrium between 226Ra and 222Rn. The activities of the nuclides of interest were determined using a Canberra Ge well detector and compared with the known activities of an in-house standard. Activities of 210Pb were determined by integrating the area of the 46.5‑keV photo-peak. 226Ra activities were determined from the average of values derived from the 186.2-keV peak of 226Ra and the peaks of its progeny in secular equilibrium with 214Pb (295 and 352 keV) and 214Bi (609 keV). In each sample, the (210Pb unsupported) excess activities were calculated by subtracting the (226Ra supported) activity from the total (210Pb) activity.

3 ‑ Resultats

3.1 ‑ Core descriptions

8Cores collected from the four lagoons contain organic-rich clay and silt interbedded with coarse-grained layers comprised of a mixture of siliciclastic sand and shell fragments. Logs and high-resolution grain-size analysis for ING09B, PB06, EG08 and GR10 indicate several thin, coarse-grained layers preserved within mud sediments. The more prominent sand layers are typically composed of sand and have often sharp contacts with the organic-rich clay and silt sediments below (Figure 2). These sand layers preserved in the cores are overwash layers, i.e., coming from marine incursions during intense storm events (DEZILEAU et al., 2011).

Fig. 2 – Logs and high-resolution grain-size analysis for ING09B, PB08-3, PB06, EG08 and GR10 indicate several thin, coarse-grained layers preserved within mud sediments

Fig. 2 – Logs and high-resolution grain-size analysis for ING09B, PB08-3, PB06, EG08 and GR10 indicate several thin, coarse-grained layers preserved within mud sediments

3.2 ‑ Stratigraphic framework and age model

9Since GOLDBERG (1963) first established a method based on 210Pb chronology, this procedure has provided a very useful tool for dating recent sediments. Several 210Pb models were later proposed, allowing a precise calculation of sedimentation rates (e.g. APPLEBY and OLDFIELD, 1992). In the simplest model, the initial (210Pb)ex is assumed constant and thus (210Pb)ex at any time is given by the radioactive decay law. In the CFCS (“constant flux, constant sedimentation rate”) model (GOLDBERG, 1963 ; KRISHNASWAMY et al., 1971), the 210Pb flux and sedimentation rate are assumed to be constant. The sedimentation rate in the different lagoons is clearly variable due to the near-instantaneous sedimentation of sandy storm deposits ; however, the CFCS model can be applied when typical lagoonal conditions prevail (SABATIER et al., 2008). Using the CFCS model, the 210Pb data indicate a sedimentation rate of : 1.3 ± 0.8 mm/ yr in Ingril (ING09), 2.65 ± 0.2 mm/yr in Pierre Blanche (PB06) and 1.9 ± 0.09 mm/yr in Grec lagoon (GR09, Figure 3).

Fig. 3 – 210Pbex activity depth profiles in cores ING09B, PB06 and GR09 (near GR10)

Fig. 3 – 210Pbex activity depth profiles in cores ING09B, PB06 and GR09 (near GR10)

210Pbex activity disappears at aroung 20 cm for ING09, 40 cm for PB06 and 25 cm for GR09. The deepest 210Pbex values of core ING09 were not considered to calculate the sedimentation rate, because of their large associated errors.

10To allow for a more detailed discussion of the markers and their comparison between records, a chronostratigraphic scale was constructed. Time scales for cores ING09B and GR09 are based on the 210Pb. Time scale for core PB06 was previously estimated on 137Cs, 210Pb and AMS 14C dates (SABATIER et al., 2010). Samples shells were radiocarbon-dated at the Laboratoire de Mesure 14C on ARTEMIS in CEA institute at Saclay. These measurements were obtained from monospecific samples Cerastoderma Glaucum at each level. 14C ages were corrected for reservoir age (see SABATIER et al., 2010 for method) and converted to calendar years using the Calib 5.0.2 calibration program (HUGHEN et al., 2004) at two standard deviations. For the other cores, PB08-3 and EG08, we have no absolute age constraints. The proposed age scale for these cores was developed by graphic correlation to cores PB06 and GR09.

4 - Discussion

4.1 - Overwash deposits chronology

11In communal archives, intense storm events were mentioned because they caused damage in the vicinity of the studied city. For the last 400 years, eighteen intense storms occurred in the Languedoc. Among all of these, some seem to be more intense (DEZILEAU et al., 2011). The storm of December 4th, 1742, recorded in many city archives around the Aigues-Mortes gulf, is considered as the most catastrophic event in the study area. This storm, probably due to S to SE winds, submerged some local cultivated lands which had been gained at the expense of the older parts of the lagoon. The lagoon was covered with a sand layer over “300 toises”, i.e. 500 m. One of the main consequences was the creation of a large inlet, near Maguelone, which remained open until 1761. The storm of November 23, 1848 associated with strong SSE winds induced the wreckage of a few ships in the Sète Harbour, the biggest port in the region. The sea has completely submerged defense barriers in the harbour. This storm caused the death of numerous people. Certified by many engraved illustrations, the storm of September 21, 1893 also resulted in the devastation of the Sète harbour and the wreckage of a few ships. DEZILEAU et al., (2011) determined which historical events left coarse-grained layers and demonstrated that the sand layers 1, 2 and 3 were consistent with the storm events which occurred in 1742 AD, 1848 AD and 1893 AD, respectively (Figure 4).

Fig. 4 – Logs, high-resolution grain-size analysis and age model for ING09B, PB08-3, PB06, EG08 and GR10

Fig. 4 – Logs, high-resolution grain-size analysis and age model for ING09B, PB08-3, PB06, EG08 and GR10

210Pb chronology in italic. Grey bands are the 3 intense storm events (1742, 1848 and 1893).

12This new study shows that sand layers 1 (1742 AD) and 2 (1848 AD) are consistent between all cores across the four lagoons, i.e., along a 16 km longitudinal transect, confirming that these storms were of very high intensity. The sand layer 3 (1893 AD) is not consistent across the four lagoons, suggesting that this storm was probably less-intense than the other ones (Figure 4). On the basis of our age model, there is a period of intense storms between 1742 AD and 1893 AD. The interval from 1893 AD to today was relatively quiet. The ages of these intense storms range between 1742 AD and 1893 AD, which corresponds to the second part of the Little Ice Age (LIA).

4.2 - Another origin of theses sand layers ?

13The coarse-grained layers observed in all cores could be also a signature of tsunamis. Data of historical tsunamis in Mediterranean was summarised in the catalogue by SOLOVIEV et al., (2000). There is historical evidence on the French coast of low-intensity events that occurred in 1564, 1818 and 1887, generated probably by submarine landslides on the steep slopes of the Var delta near Nice (JULIAN and ANTHONY, 1996, SHAH-HOSSEINI et al., 2013). Tsunami waves of the order of 3 m were recorded on the coasts of the Ligurian Sea following a submarine landslide that affected this delta in October 1979 (IOUALALEN et al., 2010). For an earthquake magnitude 6.8 in the Ligurian Sea, PELINOVSKY et al., (2002) show a very local character of the tsunami phenomenon from a numerical simulation. The tsunami propagating from the Ligurian Sea to the west Mediterranean coast (Languedoc) has a lesser amplitude and the tsunami wave height is very low (< 20 cm, PELINOVSKY et al., 2002). Moreover, regarding submarine landslide phenomenon, no such event has ever been reported in the Languedoc area where the shelf is wide and the slope far offshore, conditions that are not propitious to the generation of large submarine landslides. Two events generated by earthquakes occurred in the Western Mediterranean over the period from 1665 to 1835AD (www.ngdc.noaa.gov). The earlier one, generated by a strong earthquake in the Alboran Sea, between Spain and Morocco, occurred on October 10, 1680 (SOLOVIEV et al., 2000). This event has been classified as one of magnitude 3 in the Tsunami Intensity Scale. Considering the distance of the epicentre and general features of this event, it is very unlikely that it propagated onto the Languedoc area. This is confirmed by numerical simulations that show tsunami wave height negligible inside the French coast (PELINOVSKY et al., 2002, TINTI et al., 2005). The second event, reported to have occurred on March 24th, 1721, was generated by an earthquake probably associated with a landslide near the Balearic Islands (SOLOVIEV et al., 2000). The certainty of this event has not been authenticated and it is assumed of low intensity. Various lines of evidence presented in this study tend to indicate that the coastal landscape of Languedoc has been affected by a succession of exceptional wave impacts during the second part of the LIA. Considering the available data, tsunami events do not seems to be at the origin of the different sand layers in the four lagoons. In contrast, there is clear evidence that these sand layers are compatible with large storm waves.

4.3 – Paleoclimatological interpretations

14Geological data (Figure 4) show an increase in intense storms around 250 years ago lasts to about 1893 AD. This apparent intense meteorological activity seems to return to a quiescent interval after (i.e. during the 20th century AD). Interestingly, the period of most frequent superstorms strikes in the Aigues-Mortes Gulf (AD 1700‑1900) coincide with one of the coldest period in Europe during the late Holocene (the latter half of the LIA). Other studies have documented increased intensity and frequency of storms during the LIA in the Mediterranean, as for example in the northern Adriatic Sea (CAMUFFO et al., 2000). Based on an ensemble of six simulations of the LIA using an Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model (OAGCM), RAIBLE et al., (2007) consistently find an increase in cyclone occurrence in the Mediterranean during the LIA compared to present-day. They attribute this signal to a larger cooling in the high latitudes than in the low latitudes (due to polar amplification effect, MASSON-DELMOTTE et al., 2006), leading to enhanced lower tropospheric baroclinicity over a large Central Atlantic-European domain. This result suggests that the cooling observed during the LIA over Europe (GUIOT et al., 2005) may be associated with upstream changes in the large scale dynamics of the atmosphere over the Mediterranean and North Atlantic sectors. It is hypothesized here that such a large-scale flow alteration may have modified the occurrence of extreme wind events along the French Mediterranean coast, thus explaining the local signal found here over the region of Languedoc.

Conclusions

15This study shows that reconstructing the overwash history of four backbarrier lagoons can provide a sedimentary record of intense storms. Three distinct, storm deposits are identified in these lagoons along a 16 km longitudinal transect. The ages of these intense storms range between 1742 and 1893, which corresponds to the second part of the LIA. Comparison of sediment records with palaeoclimate records indicates that this increase of storm events was probably modulated by atmospheric dynamics. We suggest that extreme storm events are associated with a large cooling of Europe.

Top of page

Bibliography

APPLEBY P., OLDFIELD F., (1992), Application of lead‑210 to sedimentation studies. In: Uranium Series Disequilibrium, Application to Earth, Marine and Environmental Sciences, Clarendon Press, Oxford, p. 731–778.

BARUSSEAU J.‑P., GIRESSE P., PLANCHAIS N., RADAKOVITCH O., (1992), La sédimentation lagunaire des derniers siècles en Languedoc‑Roussillon : données sédimentologiques, isotopiques et palynologiques, Vie et Milieu/Life and Environment, 42, 3‑4, p. 307‑320.

BLANCHEMANCHE P., BERGER J.‑F., CHABAL L., JORDA C., JUNG C., RAYNAUD, C., (2003), Le littoral languedocien durant l’Holocène : milieu et peuplement entre Lez et Vidourle (Hérault, Gard), in Des milieux et des Hommes : fragments d’histoires croisées, Bilan du Programme PEVS/SEDD, Elsevier, Collection Environnement, p. 79‑92.

BLANCHEMANCHE P., (2010), Crues historiques et vendanges en Languedoc méditerranéen oriental : la source, le signal et l’interprétation, Actes de la Table‑ronde « Changement global, effets locaux. Le Petit Âge Glaciaire dans le Sud de la France : Impacts morphogénique et sociétaux », Lattes, Archéologie du Midi Médiéval, 27, p. 225‑235.

CAMUFFO E., SECCO A., BRIMBLECOMBE P., MARTIN‑VIDE J., (2000), Sea storms in the Adriatic Sea and the western Mediterranean during the last millennium, Climatic Change, 46, p. 209‑223.

CASTAINGS J., DEZILEAU L., FIANDRINO A., VERNEY R., (2011), Évolution morphologique récente d’un complexe lagunaire méditerranéen : le système des étangs Palavasiens (France), Paralia, 4, p. 7.1‑7.12 et 7.13‑7.24

DEZILEAU L., SABATIER P., BLANCHEMANCHE P., JOLY B., SWINGEDOUW D., CASSOU C., MARTINEZ P., VAN GRAFENSTEIN U., (2011), Increase of intense storm activity during the Little Ice Age on the French Mediterranean Coast. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 299, p. 289‑297.

GOLBERG E., (1963), Geochronology with lead‑210, chapter radioactive dating, International Atomic Energy Agency, p. 121–131.

GUIOT J., NICAULT A., RATHGEBER C., EDOUARD J.‑L., GUIBAL F., PICHARD G., TILL C., (2005), Last‑millennium summer‑temperature variations in western Europe based on proxy data. The Holocene, 15, p. 489‑500.

HUGHEN K., BAILLIE M., BARD E., BECK J., BERTRAND C., BLACKWELL P., BUCK C., BURR G., CUTLER K., DAMON P., EDWARDS R., FAIRBANKS R., FRIEDRICH M., GUILDERSON T., KROMER B., MCCORMAC G., MANNING S., BRONK RAMSEY C., REIMER P., REIMER R., REMMELE S., SOUTHON J., STUVIER M., TALAMO S., TAYLO F., VAN DER PLICHT J., WEYHENMEYER C., (2004), Marine04: Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 0‑26 cal kyr BP. Radiocarbon, 46, p. 1059‑1086.

IOUALALEN M., MIGEON S., SARDOUX O., (2010), Landslide tsunami vulnerability in the Ligurian Sea: case study of the 1979 October 16. Nice international airport submarine landslide and of identified geological mass failures. Geophys. J. Int., 181, p. 724‑740.

JULIAN M., ANTHONY E. J., (1996), Aspects of landslide activity in the Mercantour Massif and the French Riviera, south eastern France. Geomorphology, 15, p. 275‑289.

KRISHNASWAMY S., LAL D., MARTIN J. M., MEYBECK M., (1971), Geochronology of lake sediments. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 11, p. 407‑414.

LIU K., FEARN M.L., (2000), Reconstruction of prehistoric landfall frequencies of catastrophic hurricanes in NW Florida from lake sediment records. Quaternary Research, 54, p. 238‑245.

MASSON‑DELMOTTE V., KAGEYAMA M., BRACONNOT P., CHARBIT S., KRINNER G., RITZ C., GUILYARDI E., JOUZEL J., ABE‑OUCHI A., CRUCIFIX M., GLADSTONE R.M., HEWITT C.D., KITOH A., LEGRANDE A.N., MARTI O., MERKEL U., MOTOI T., OHGAITO R., OTTO‑BLIESNER B., PELTIER W.R., ROSS I., VALDES P.J., VETTORETTI G., WEBER S.L., WOLK F., YU Y., (2006), Past and future polar amplification of climate change: Climate model intercomparisons and ice‑core constraints. Climate Dynamic, 26, p. 513‑529.

MORON V., ULLMANN A., (2005), Relationship between sea‑level pressure and sea level height in the Camargue (French Mediterranean coast) ». International Journal of Climatology, 25, p. 1531‑1540.

PELINOVSKY E., KHARIF C., RIABOV I., FRANCIUS, M., (2002), Study of tsunami propagation in the Ligurian Sea, Natural Hazards, 25, 2, p. 135‑159.

RAIBLE C.C., YOSHIMORI M., STOCKER T. F., CASTY C., (2007), Extreme midlatitude cyclones and their implications to precipitation and wind speed extremes in simulations of the Maunder Minimum versus present day conditions. Climate Dynamics, 28, p. 409‑423.

RAYNAL O., BOUCHETTE F., CERTAIN R., SÉRANNE M., DEZILEAU L., SABATIER P., LOFI J., BUI XUAN HY A., BRIQUEU L., PEZARD P., TESSIER, B., (2009), Control of alongshore‑oriented sand spits on the dynamic of a wave‑dominated coastal system (Holocene deposits, northern Gulf of Lions, France). Marine Geology, 264, p. 242‑257.

SABATIER P., DEZILEAU L., COLIN C., BRIQUEU L., BOUCHETTE F., MARTINEZ P., SIANI G., RAYNAL O., VON GRAFENSTEIN U., (2012), 7000 years of paleostorm activity in the NW Mediterranean Sea in response to Holocene climate events, Quaternary Research, 77, 1-11.

SABATIER P., DEZILEAU L., CONDOMINES M., BRIQUEU L., COLIN C., BOUCHETTE F., LE DUFF M., BLANCHEMANCHE P., (2008), Reconstruction of paleostorm events in a coastal lagoon (Herault, South of France). Marine Geology, 251, p. 224‑232.

SABATIER P., DEZILEAU L., BLANCHEMANCHE P., SIANI G., CONDOMINES M., BENTALEB I., PIQUÈS, G., (2010), Holocene variations of radiocarbon reservoir ages in a Mediterranean lagoonal system. Radiocarbon, 52, 1, p. 91‑102.

SHAH‑HOSSEINI M, MORHANGE C., DE MARCO A., WANTE J. ANTHONY E. J., SABATIER F., MASTRONUZZI G., PIGNATELLI C., PISCITELLI A., (2013), Coastal boulders in Martigues, French Mediterranean: evidence for extreme storm waves during the Little Ice Age, Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, N. F., 57‑4, Reconstruction and modeling of palaeotsunami events, p. 181‑199.

SOLOVIEV S. L., SOLOVIEVA O. N., KIM K. S., SHCHETNIKOV N. A., (2000), Tsunamis in the Mediterranean Sea 2000 B.C.–2000 A.D., Adv. Nat. Technol. Haz., 13, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands.

TINTI S., ARMIGLIATO G., PAGNONI A., ZANIBONI F., (2005) Scenarios of giant tsunamis of tectonic origin in the mediterranean, ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, 464, 42, 4, p. 171‑188.

TSIMPLIS, M.N., JOSEY, S.A., (2001). Forcing of the Mediterranean Sea by atmospheric oscillations over the North Atlantic, Geophysical Research Lettters, 28(5), p. 803‑806.

ULLMANN A., PIRAZZOLI P. A., TOMASIN A., (2007), Sea surges in Camargue: Trends over the 20th century. Continental Shelf Research, 27, p. 922‑934.

Top of page

List of illustrations

Title Fig. 1 – Study area and cores location in Ingril, Pierre Blanche, Prevost and Grec lagoons
Credits Four short cores and one long core were extracted from the four lagoons along a longitudinal transect.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/mediterranee/docannexe/image/7199/img-1.png
File image/png, 150k
Title Fig. 2 – Logs and high-resolution grain-size analysis for ING09B, PB08-3, PB06, EG08 and GR10 indicate several thin, coarse-grained layers preserved within mud sediments
URL http://journals.openedition.org/mediterranee/docannexe/image/7199/img-2.png
File image/png, 121k
Title Fig. 3 – 210Pbex activity depth profiles in cores ING09B, PB06 and GR09 (near GR10)
Credits 210Pbex activity disappears at aroung 20 cm for ING09, 40 cm for PB06 and 25 cm for GR09. The deepest 210Pbex values of core ING09 were not considered to calculate the sedimentation rate, because of their large associated errors.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/mediterranee/docannexe/image/7199/img-3.png
File image/png, 45k
Title Fig. 4 – Logs, high-resolution grain-size analysis and age model for ING09B, PB08-3, PB06, EG08 and GR10
Credits 210Pb chronology in italic. Grey bands are the 3 intense storm events (1742, 1848 and 1893).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/mediterranee/docannexe/image/7199/img-4.png
File image/png, 143k
Top of page

References

Electronic reference

Laurent Dezileau and Jérôme Castaings, « Extreme storms during the last 500 years from lagoonal sedimentary archives in Languedoc (SE France) », Méditerranée [Online], 122 | 2014, Online since 19 June 2016, connection on 21 January 2018. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/mediterranee/7199 ; DOI : 10.4000/mediterranee.7199

Top of page

About the authors

Laurent Dezileau

Geosciences Montpellier, Université Montpellier 2, CNRS, UMR 5243, France, laurent.dezileau@gm.univ-montp2.fr

Jérôme Castaings

Geosciences Montpellier, Université Montpellier 2, CNRS, UMR 5243, France

Top of page

Copyright

Tous droits réservés

Top of page