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Caspian Sea-level changes at the end of Little Ice Age and its impacts on the avulsion of the Gorgan River : a multidisciplinary case study from the southeastern flank of the Caspian Sea

Changements du niveau relatif de la mer Caspienne pendant le petit âge de glace et impacts sur l’avulsion du Gorgan
Abdolmajid Naderi Beni, Hamid Lahijani, Morsen Pourkerman, Rahman Jokar, Muna Hosseindoust, Nick Marriner, Monteza Djamali, Valérie Andrieu-Ponel and Abolghasem Kamkar
p. 145-155

Abstracts

The Caspian Sea is the largest lake in the world and has been characterized by significant sea-level changes since the Pliocene, when it was disconnected from open sea. These sea-level oscillations have had different impacts on its coastal evolution depending on geomorphological setting. River avulsion on the southeastern flank of the Caspian Sea during the Little Ice Age (LIA), as a consequence of rapid sea-level changes, was studied using sedimentological, historical and geophysical tools. The results show that the Gorgan River and/or its tributaries changed their course during the LIA. The river avulsion could be linked to higher precipitation in the region and rapid Caspian Sea level rise during the second half of the LIA.

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The authors are grateful for the support of the Iranian National Institute for Oceanography and Atmospheric Science (INIOAS). This study has been conducted in the framework of a project entitled : “A comparative study of Holocene climate changes in coastal areas of the south‑eastern and south-western Caspian Sea based on geological evidence” that is funded by the INIOAS.

1The Caspian Sea and its rapid sea-level fluctuations during the Holocene (Fig. 1) has been the subject of significant research during the last two decades (MAMEDOV, 1997; RYCHAGOV, 1997; KROONENBERG etal., 2000; LAHIJANI et al., 2009; LEROY et al., 2011; KAKROODI et al., 2012; NADERI BENI et al., 2013a and 2013b).

Fig. 1 – Caspian Sea level changes during the last millennium

Fig. 1 – Caspian Sea level changes during the last millennium

The dotted horizontal line denotes the present sea-level position. The dashed line indicates the reconstructed sea-level changes during last millennium based on historical and geological evidence (Naderi Beni et al., 2013a). The continuous line depicts the instrumental sea-level record since the 1830s.

2The main pacemaker of long-term Caspian Sea level changes is climate (KROONENBERG et al., 2007; NADERI BENI et al., 2013a; LEROY et al., 2013). These sea‑level oscillations have had different impacts on coastal evolution depending on the coastal setting (NADERI BENI et al., 2013b). Coastal development/retreat, migration of barrier-lagoon complexes and river avulsion are some of the impacts of rapid sea level fluctuations that are recorded in beach deposits (TAMURA et al., 2008). The stratigraphic architecture of coastal deposits is characterized by a complex interaction between various processes including sea level changes, sediment supply, substrate gradient, hydrodynamic processes and coastal orientation (NADERI BENI et al., 2013b), as well as climatic parameters.

3To investigate the subsurface sedimentary deposits, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a nondestructive technique that provides continuous views into the subsurface and has been widely used in coastal environments to probe past coastal evolution (JOL et al., 1996 ; NEAL and ROBERTS, 2000 ; NEAL et al., 2003 ; PONTEE et al., 2004). However, this technique is more appropriate for coastal settings with moderate slope that are prone to forming distinctive coastal landforms in response to rapid sea-level changes (KROONENBERG et al., 2000). In coastal settings with low slope and flat topography, such as the southeastern flank of the Caspian Sea, rivers flowing into the basin are more prone to change their course in response to sea level changes (MAKASKE, 2001 ; PHILLIPS, 2009) and are hence distinctive targets for GPR studies.

4The rivers discharging into the Caspian Sea have experienced many changes in their course during the Holocene (HOOGENDOORN et al., 2005 ; LÉTOLLE et al., 2007 ; NADERI BENI et al., 2013a) that could be linked to major Caspian sea level changes. This study aims to probe the evolution of the southeastern flank of the Caspian Sea in response to rapid late Little Ice Age (LIA) sea-level changes and river avulsion.

1 - Geographical Setting

5The study area lies on the southeastern flank of the Caspian Sea. The Caspian Sea is the largest landlocked basin in the world and is characterized by brackish water with no astronomical tide. Its base level lies 27 m below mean sea level (mbsl) and has been characterized by long-term water-level oscillations (LEROY et al., 2011). Sea‑level oscillations are mainly controlled by precipitation and evaporation over the catchment basin, especially over the Volga River that provides more than 80 % of the water input (ARPE et al., 2000). However, Iranian rivers are the main suppliers of sediment to the Caspian Sea (LAHIJANI et al., 2008).

6The Iranian coast stretches along the south Caspian Sea. It is more than 800 km in length and can be classified into four main morphological zones based on the beach and nearshore gradient (VOROPAEV et al., 1998). The study area on the southeastern flank of the Caspian Sea is characterized by gentle beach and nearshore slopes.

7Geomorphologically, the study area is characterized by small morphodynamic formations such as erosional berms with low elevations and short wavelength beach cusps (KHOSHRAVAN, 2007).

8One of the most prominent landforms in the study area is the Gomishan barrier-lagoon (Fig. 2) whose evolution has been driven by sea-level changes coupled with the hydrodynamic regime (AMINI, 2012 ; KAKROODI, 2012). The southern part of the study area is characterized by the delta of Gorganrud (Gorgan River, Fig. 2) that has developed since 1854 (NADERI BENI et al., 2013a).

Fig. 2 – General sketch map of the study area on the southeastern flank of the Caspian Sea and its main geomorphological features.

Fig. 2 – General sketch map of the study area on the southeastern flank of the Caspian Sea and its main geomorphological features.

The position of core samples and the geophysical surveying profiles are shown on the map. Note the palaeo-channels and ox-bow.

9The southeastern flank of the Caspian Sea is characterized by a semi-arid climate. Mean annual precipitation is less than 250 mm and the average relative humidity in the coastal zone is about 76 %, decreasing dramatically landwards (KAKROODI et al., 2012).

2 ‑ Material and Methods

2.1 ‑ Ground Penetrating Radar profiles

10Three Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) profiles perpendicular to the coastline have been surveyed using a RAMAC/GPR system (see Fig. 2 for the positions). The GPR system was equipped with an unshielded transmitter and receiver antenna with a mean frequency of 100 MHz to provide a good compromise between depth penetration and resolution.

11We used the Reflex2quick software to conduct different standard processing steps on the GPR reflection data including DC shift, static correction, gain function, band pass filtering and running average filter as well as topographic correction to achieve the best subsurface images. The depth scale was based on average near surface velocity which varies between 0.051 m/ns to 0.070 m/ns and was determined from common midpoint measurements. The principles outlined in NEAL (2004) have been used to identify the radar facies, important bounding surfaces and their interpretation.

2.2 - Sediment core sampling

12Four core samples, between 4 to 6 m in length, were taken using a Cobra percussion system along the GPR profiles to correlate the stratigraphy with the geophysical measurements (Fig. 2).

2.3 ‑ Fossil content

13Fossil content was identified to help determine past depositional environments based on the atlas of the invertebrates of the Caspian Sea (BIRSTEIN et al., 1968).

2.4 ‑ Sedimentology

14The core samples were passed through an MS2C core logging scanner from Bartington to measure their Magnetic Susceptibility (MS). The results were plotted against sedimentological data to allow a direct comparison between MS values along the cores with observations. Moreover, we used the MS logs as auxiliary data to identify the main bounding surfaces of GPR profiles.

15The core samples were split and sub-sampled on the basis of visual changes in addition to the MS log. The subsamples were subjected to basic sedimentological analyses including grain size, organic matter and carbonate content. To quantify organic matter and carbonate content we used Nabertherm P330 furans based on HEIRI et al. (2001) outlined methods and grain-size data obtained by Horiba Laser Scattering Particle Size Distribution Analyzer LA-950 in the laboratory of the Iranian National Institute for Oceanography and Atmospheric Science (INIOAS).

2.5 - Historical evidence

16The changes in the course of the Gorgan River since the 18th century were investigated using ancient maps and historical reports, mainly in the library of the INIOAS.

3 - Results and interpretation

3.1 ‑ Sedimentology, sedimentary facies and environmental interpretations :

17Grain size analysis revealed that the sediments can be categorized into silt, sandy silt and silty sand based on FOLK’s (1980) classification in which the sandy silt is the predominant portion of the sediments in the studied cores (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3 – Descriptive sedimentary classification of the studied samples on the southeastern flank of the Caspian Sea based on Folk (1980)

Fig. 3 – Descriptive sedimentary classification of the studied samples on the southeastern flank of the Caspian Sea based on Folk (1980)

The most frequent sediments are respectively sandy silt, silt and silty sand.

18TOM values change between 2.25 % to 31 % while carbonate content varies between 3.06 % to 65 % in the studied core samples (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4 – Physical properties of the sediment core samples including grain size and Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) as well as Total Organic Mater (TOM) and carbonate content along the sediment core samples

Fig. 4 – Physical properties of the sediment core samples including grain size and Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) as well as Total Organic Mater (TOM) and carbonate content along the sediment core samples

19The fossil content of the sediment samples are summarized in Table 1. According to the table, different gastropod species, two bivalve species, two foraminifera species as well as Charophytes, Ostracods and Trichoptera were identified. These are all representative of different coastal environments (Table 1).

Table 1 – The fossil content of the sediment samples and their habitats

Table 1 – The fossil content of the sediment samples and their habitats

20Based on the physical properties of the sediments and their fossil contents, five distinctive sedimentary facies were identified that in some instances could be classified into sub-facies.

  • Facies A : this facies contains silty sand and sandy silt sediment classes that are laminated in some horizons, with little or no fossil content. Gypsum minerals are scattered through the sediment facies and on some occasions are coexistent with Trichoptera remains. Based on Total Organic Matter (TOM), and fossil content, this facies could be classified as two sub-facies (Table 2).

Table 2 – Sedimentary facies, their distinctive features and environmental interpretations.

Table 2 – Sedimentary facies, their distinctive features and environmental interpretations.

Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) values are used as auxiliary data to interpret the environment

  • Facies B : this facies is characterized by an accumulation of shells and shell fragments (predominantly Cerastoderma lamarki) and coarser grained sediments. The carbonate content values increase dramatically in this facies while TOM content decreases (Table 2).

  • Facies C : the facies is grey to dark grey in color and is characterized by rich fossil content including gastropods, bivalves and foraminifera as well as ostracods. The sediment content is mainly categorized into sandy silt and silty sand. In some horizons articulated bivalve fossils are concentrated. The TOM content reaches up to 30 % in some horizons. Some sub-facies were identified in this facies (Table 2).

  • Facies D : this facies could only be found at the top of the cores where soil and plant roots are found.

21According to Fig. 5 and based on the position of the coring sites (Fig. 3), facies A, C and D (top soil) exist in all sediment cores whereas Facies B lies in the seaward half of the study area.

Fig. 5 – Vertical and horizontal distribution of four identified sedimentary facies (A to D) in the sediment cores of the study area

Fig. 5 – Vertical and horizontal distribution of four identified sedimentary facies (A to D) in the sediment cores of the study area

See Fig. 2 for the location of the coring sites.

  • Facies A is equivalent to the fluviodeltaic facies of KAKROODI (2012). The presence of gypsum minerals in this facies could be related to the flat topography of the region and intensive evaporation during the dry season in the region (NADERI BENI et al., 2013a).

  • Facies B is related to beach face deposits that have been reported for different coastal areas of the Caspian Sea (KROONENBERG et al., 2000 ; NADERI BENI et al., 2013b). The fossil accumulation in a sedimentary succession could be linked to chenier deposits (TAYLOR and STONE, 1996) and might be used as a criteria for palaeo-beach positioning (TANNER and STAPOR, 1971).

  • Facies C, with mollusk species such as Hydrobia sp., Theodoxus pallsi and Dreissena polymorpha and a high amount of TOM is typical of a lagoon environment (BIRSTEIN et al., 1968 ; STAROBOGATOV and ANDREEVA, 1994). However, the fossil assemblages show that the lagoon environment was periodically connected to the open sea and/or was occasionally fed by streams. For instance, the presence of Cerastoderma lamarcki and Dreissena polymorpha bivalves, ostracods and foraminifera could be interpreted as an open lagoon environment (BIRSTEIN et al., 1968), while the coexistence of Charophytes and lagoonal gastropods are coeval with increasing magnetic susceptibility values, and could be linked to a lagoon which was fed by streams (DEARING, 1999 ; DJAMALI et al., 2006 ; GHILARDI et al., 2008). The presence of evaporatic minerals and lagoonal gastropods could be interpreted as a closed lagoon.

3.2 Ground Penetration Radar

3.2.1 Radar Facies

22The first step in GPR studies is the recognition of radar facies (JOL et al., 1996). According to the methods outlined in NEAL (2004), three main radar facies were recognized in the studied profiles (Table 4). Due to the flat topography of the region, differences in radar facies are gradual and distinguishing the bounding surfaces is difficult.

23The radar facies BR comprises wide mound-shaped packages with complex internal structure that gently slope towards the sea. The reflectors of other radar facies have onlap terminations on this facies. With respect to the flat topography of the region and the hydrodynamic conditions of the coastal area, it seems that this radar facies could be linked to beach ridge (chenier) deposits (NEAL and ROBERTS, 2000). The sedimentological results relevant to this facies revealed that it contains coarser grained materials and shell deposits which are characteristic of cheniers (OTVOS, 2000, HESP et al., 2009).

Table 3 – Radar facies and their interpretations.

Table 3 – Radar facies and their interpretations.

The sea is on the left side in all profiles

24The LG radar facies comprises parallel semicontinuous to discontinuous reflectors that generally slope towards the sea. The sediments are composed of silty sand and sandy silt containing lagoon and/or shallow marine fossil assemblages. This radar facies has formed relatively thick units in all profiles.

25The FD radar facies has a variety of reflector patterns changing from continuous to discontinuous and parallel to semi-parallel reflectors that gently slope towards the basin. The sediments are characteristic of fluviodeltaic facies. It seems that the various patterns of the radar reflectors could be linked to the different direction of the streams. The FD radar facies comprises thick and widespread units in the studied profiles.

3.2.2 - Radar Profiles

26Due to the flat topography of the study area, we had to survey long GPR profiles to be able to detect the major buried landforms. The length of the profiles varies between 300 m to a few kilometers.

  • GPR 1 : The profile is less than 300 m in length (Fig. 6).

Fig. 6 – GPR-1 radar profile (A), main bounding surfaces (B) and sedimentary facies (C) based on standard GPR processing steps and sedimentological data from Cores 1 and 2, which are shown in the profile

Fig. 6 – GPR-1 radar profile (A), main bounding surfaces (B) and sedimentary facies (C) based on standard GPR processing steps and sedimentological data from Cores 1 and 2, which are shown in the profile

AZ denotes the attenuation zone in the profile.

  • Seven bounding surfaces and eight radar units were identified. A saucer shaped radar package is eminent at the seaward end of the profile and its parallel reflectors have onlap terminations on the adjacent units. This package has similar properties to fluviodeltaic facies (Facies FD) and can be related to an old course of a major stream. A wide mound shaped radar package could be distinguished in the middle of the profile that could be divided internally to some units with different radar properties (Fig. 6B). According to sediment core data, the main part of this package is related to beach deposits (Fig. 6c). Further inland, and behind the beach ridge deposits, lagoonal deposits were developed at depths of more than 3 m. Finally, all the deposits are covered by fluvial deposits (Fig. 6C).

  • GPR-2 : The profile depicted in Fig. 7 is the landward part of a uniform 2400 m profile.

Fig. 7 – GPR2 radar profile (A), main bounding surfaces (B) and interpreted sedimentary facies (C) based on standard GPR processing steps and sedimentological data from Core 3 which is shown in the profile

Fig. 7 – GPR2 radar profile (A), main bounding surfaces (B) and interpreted sedimentary facies (C) based on standard GPR processing steps and sedimentological data from Core 3 which is shown in the profile

AZ denotes the attenuation zone in the profile.

  • Four bounding surfaces and three radar units were recognized based on radar properties and sedimentological data. The BS-2 and BS-3 are erosional surfaces whose downlap (DL in Fig. 7B) and toplap (TL in Fig. 7B) terminations end with this surface. All of the units comprise parallel horizontal to semi-horizontal reflectors that gently slope towards the sea.

27When correlated with the sedimentological results, the succession comprises fluviodeltaic and lagoonal deposits (Fig. 7C). The lagoon deposits show complicated internal reflector patterns (Fig. 7B).

  • GPR-3 : The profile is more than 1400 m in length. It has been divided into two parts and the landward portion is presented in Fig. 8.

Fig. 8 – The landward segment of the GPR3 radar profile (A), main bounding surfaces (B) and interpreted sedimentary succession (C) based on standard GPR processing steps and sedimentological data from Core 4 which is shown in the profile

Fig. 8 – The landward segment of the GPR3 radar profile (A), main bounding surfaces (B) and interpreted sedimentary succession (C) based on standard GPR processing steps and sedimentological data from Core 4 which is shown in the profile

AZ denotes the attenuation zone in the profile.

  • The profile is generally concave and the radar units slope gently seawards. The sedimentary succession is similar to the GPR-2 profile which, in the lagoonal unit, contains complex internal reflection patterns such as landward dipping reflectors and minor erosional surfaces.

3.3 - Historical documents

28According to NADERI BENI et al., (2013a), Gorgan River discharged directly into the Gorgan Bay (Fig. 2) before 1854 and then the river changed its course northward and split into two tributaries. They mentioned that in 1886 the southern branch of the river was completely abandoned and the river discharged into the Caspian Sea at Khajeh Nafas where it still meets the sea to this day (Fig. 2). As a result, they concluded that the present delta of the Gorgan River only began forming in 1854.

29According to maps published before 1854, such as “The Caspian Sea” published by VANVERDEN (1730), “Map of Persia” by PINKERTON (1818) and “L’Empire des Perses” by HOUZE (1844), the Gorgan River discharged into Gorgan Bay (Astarabad Bay in the historical literature) before 1854 (see NADERI BENI et al., 2013a). (Fig. 9)

Fig. 9 – Two maps that show the position of Gorgan River and Gorgan Bay on the southeastern flank of the Caspian Sea before and after 1854

Fig. 9 – Two maps that show the position of Gorgan River and Gorgan Bay on the southeastern flank of the Caspian Sea before and after 1854

A) “Map of the Caspian Sea” by Van Verden (1730). B) “Imperia Persarum et Macedonum” by Kiepert (1903).

4 - Discussion

30The southeastern flank of the Caspian Sea has been strongly influenced by rapid sea-level changes due to its flat topography (KAKROODI et al., 2012) and river input (LAHIJANI and TAVAKOLI, 2012) that are reflected in different sedimentary facies. According to LEROY et al., (2011), during the LIA precipitation over the south Caspian region has increased dramatically and sea level rose up to 21 mbsl (NADERI BENI et al., 2013a, Fig. 1). The base-level fluctuation certainly had strong impacts on changing the Caspian river courses such as Sefidrud on the southern Caspian coast (KAZANCI and GULBABAZADEH, 2013 ; NADERI BENI et al., 2013b), Kura River on the western coast of the sea (HOOGENDOORN et al., 2005) and Amudarya that was shifted between the adjacent basins of the Aral and the Caspian (LEROY et al., 2007, LÉTOLLE et al., 2007 ; NADERI BENI et al., 2013a).

31Although MAKASKE (2001) believes that sea level rise is more influential in river avulsion, the Gorgan River avulsion in 1854 happened when Caspian Sea level dropped more than 3 m. According to historical observations (NADERI BENI et al., 2013a) and old maps, Gorgan River changed its course from south to north. The old course of the river was mapped using satellite images by NADERI BENI (2013) that is shown in Fig. 1. The historical evidence and surface map are supported by the subsurface images of GPR profiles (Fig. 6-8) that show evidence of an ancient channel south of the present river course.

32Past sea-level positions can be interpreted by the presence of beach ridges/cheniers and the relevant landward lagoons (KROONENBERG et al., 2000) that are presented in the GPR profiles (Figs. 6‑8). However, it seems that the river eroded the sedimentary succession of the barrier-lagoon complex during its avulsion in 1854 to south of the study area (Fig. 10).

Fig. 10 – Coastal evolution of the study area based on subsurface study (Fig. 6) in four steps

Fig. 10 – Coastal evolution of the study area based on subsurface study (Fig. 6) in four steps

(1) Development of the barrier-lagoon complex. (2) Increasing sea level and landward shifting of the barrier-lagoon complex probably during the LIA sea-level rise. (3) Gorgan River avulsion in 1854. (4) Development of new delta by deposition of fluviodeltaic sediments in the study area.

Conclusion

33The southeastern flank of the Caspian Sea is characterized by fine-grained sediments and a flat topography that is sensitive to rapid Caspian Sea level changes. Formation of barrier-lagoon complexes is the most prominent response of the coast to sea‑level changes, which can also be strongly influenced by river avulsion. This study has demonstrated that that during the second half of the LIA the area was subject to high sediment supply that appears consistent with higher precipitation and more fluvial inputs that favoured and the development of barrier-lagoon complexes. The post LIA Caspian Sea level fall led to avulsion of the Gorgan River to the southeastern flank of the Caspian Sea.

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List of illustrations

Title Fig. 1 – Caspian Sea level changes during the last millennium
Caption The dotted horizontal line denotes the present sea-level position. The dashed line indicates the reconstructed sea-level changes during last millennium based on historical and geological evidence (Naderi Beni et al., 2013a). The continuous line depicts the instrumental sea-level record since the 1830s.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/mediterranee/docannexe/image/7226/img-1.png
File image/png, 30k
Title Fig. 2 – General sketch map of the study area on the southeastern flank of the Caspian Sea and its main geomorphological features.
Caption The position of core samples and the geophysical surveying profiles are shown on the map. Note the palaeo-channels and ox-bow.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/mediterranee/docannexe/image/7226/img-2.png
File image/png, 365k
Title Fig. 3 – Descriptive sedimentary classification of the studied samples on the southeastern flank of the Caspian Sea based on Folk (1980)
Caption The most frequent sediments are respectively sandy silt, silt and silty sand.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/mediterranee/docannexe/image/7226/img-3.png
File image/png, 291k
Title Fig. 4 – Physical properties of the sediment core samples including grain size and Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) as well as Total Organic Mater (TOM) and carbonate content along the sediment core samples
URL http://journals.openedition.org/mediterranee/docannexe/image/7226/img-4.png
File image/png, 133k
Title Table 1 – The fossil content of the sediment samples and their habitats
URL http://journals.openedition.org/mediterranee/docannexe/image/7226/img-5.png
File image/png, 27k
Title Table 2 – Sedimentary facies, their distinctive features and environmental interpretations.
Caption Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) values are used as auxiliary data to interpret the environment
URL http://journals.openedition.org/mediterranee/docannexe/image/7226/img-6.png
File image/png, 11k
Title Fig. 5 – Vertical and horizontal distribution of four identified sedimentary facies (A to D) in the sediment cores of the study area
Caption See Fig. 2 for the location of the coring sites.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/mediterranee/docannexe/image/7226/img-7.png
File image/png, 97k
Title Table 3 – Radar facies and their interpretations.
Caption The sea is on the left side in all profiles
URL http://journals.openedition.org/mediterranee/docannexe/image/7226/img-8.png
File image/png, 236k
Title Fig. 6 – GPR-1 radar profile (A), main bounding surfaces (B) and sedimentary facies (C) based on standard GPR processing steps and sedimentological data from Cores 1 and 2, which are shown in the profile
Caption AZ denotes the attenuation zone in the profile.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/mediterranee/docannexe/image/7226/img-9.png
File image/png, 380k
Title Fig. 7 – GPR2 radar profile (A), main bounding surfaces (B) and interpreted sedimentary facies (C) based on standard GPR processing steps and sedimentological data from Core 3 which is shown in the profile
Caption AZ denotes the attenuation zone in the profile.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/mediterranee/docannexe/image/7226/img-10.png
File image/png, 289k
Title Fig. 8 – The landward segment of the GPR3 radar profile (A), main bounding surfaces (B) and interpreted sedimentary succession (C) based on standard GPR processing steps and sedimentological data from Core 4 which is shown in the profile
Caption AZ denotes the attenuation zone in the profile.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/mediterranee/docannexe/image/7226/img-11.png
File image/png, 293k
Title Fig. 9 – Two maps that show the position of Gorgan River and Gorgan Bay on the southeastern flank of the Caspian Sea before and after 1854
Caption A) “Map of the Caspian Sea” by Van Verden (1730). B) “Imperia Persarum et Macedonum” by Kiepert (1903).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/mediterranee/docannexe/image/7226/img-12.png
File image/png, 340k
Title Fig. 10 – Coastal evolution of the study area based on subsurface study (Fig. 6) in four steps
Caption (1) Development of the barrier-lagoon complex. (2) Increasing sea level and landward shifting of the barrier-lagoon complex probably during the LIA sea-level rise. (3) Gorgan River avulsion in 1854. (4) Development of new delta by deposition of fluviodeltaic sediments in the study area.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/mediterranee/docannexe/image/7226/img-13.png
File image/png, 902k
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References

Electronic reference

Abdolmajid Naderi Beni, Hamid Lahijani, Morsen Pourkerman, Rahman Jokar, Muna Hosseindoust, Nick Marriner, Monteza Djamali, Valérie Andrieu-Ponel and Abolghasem Kamkar, « Caspian Sea-level changes at the end of Little Ice Age and its impacts on the avulsion of the Gorgan River : a multidisciplinary case study from the southeastern flank of the Caspian Sea  », Méditerranée [Online], 122 | 2014, Online since 19 June 2016, connection on 22 January 2018. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/mediterranee/7226 ; DOI : 10.4000/mediterranee.7226

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About the authors

Abdolmajid Naderi Beni

Marine Geology Department, Iranian National Institute for Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences (INIOAS), Tehran, Iran, amnaderi@inio.ac.ir, majid.naderi@gmail.com

Hamid Lahijani

Marine Geology Department, Iranian National Institute for Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences (INIOAS), Tehran, Iran

Morsen Pourkerman

Marine Geology Department, Iranian National Institute for Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences (INIOAS), Tehran, Iran

Rahman Jokar

Marine Geology Department, Iranian National Institute for Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences (INIOAS), Tehran, Iran

Muna Hosseindoust

Marine Geology Department, Iranian National Institute for Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences (INIOAS), Tehran, Iran

Nick Marriner

CNRS, Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement UMR 6249, Université de Franche-Comté, UFR ST, Besançon, France, nick.marriner@univ-fcomte.fr

By this author

Monteza Djamali

Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, Institut méditerranéen de Biodiversité et d’Écologie UMR 7263, Europôle Méditerranéen de l’Arbois, Aix-en-Provence, France

Valérie Andrieu-Ponel

Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, Institut méditerranéen de Biodiversité et d’Écologie UMR 7263, Europôle Méditerranéen de l’Arbois, Aix-en-Provence, France

Abolghasem Kamkar

Shahrood University (School of Mining, Petroleum and Geophysics), Shahrood University, Iran

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Copyright

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