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Methology and contexts

The Danube Delta

an Overview of its Holocene Evolution
Le delta du Danube, synthèse de son évolution holocène
Nicolae Panin, Laura Tiron Duţu and Florin Duţu
p. 37-54

Abstracts

This paper presents a short synthesis on the physiography, geology, hydrology and evolution of the Danube Delta during the Holocene. Deltaic conditions were initiated during the Quaternary, when the Danube started flowing into the Black Sea basin. The Danube Delta is formed of a sequence of clastic deposits ranging from tens to 300‑400 meters thick that accumulated mainly during the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene. The Holocene evolution phases of the Danube Delta have been elucidated by corroborating geomorphological, structural, textural, geochemical, mineralogical and faunal analyses and mainly by 14C dating. Five main evolutionary phases have been elucidated: (1) the formation of the Initial Letea-Caraorman Spit, 11700‑7500 yr. BP; (2) the St. George I Delta, 9000-7200 yr. BP; (3) the Sulina Delta, 7200-2000 yr. BP; (4) the St. George II and Kilia Deltas, 2500 yr. BP to present; and (5) the Cosna-Sinoie Delta, 3500-1500 yr. BP. The paper also describes the anthropogenic changes that have occurred during the last two centuries.

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Excerpt

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Outline

1 - General setting and general description
1.1 - Geological context
1.2 - The Danube River Danube Delta – Black Sea System
1.3 - The Danube Delta Hydrographical Network
1.4 - The Danube Delta’s Geomorphological and Depositional Units
2 - The Holocene evolution of the Danube Delta
2.1 - The “Blocked Danube Delta” and the initial spit of Letea-Caraorman
2.2 - The “Saint George I Delta”
2.3 - The Sulina Delta
2.4 - The Saint George II Delta
2.5 - The Kilia delta
2.6 - Sinoie Delta
2.7 - The evolution of the Danube Delta hydrographic network during the Holocene (Fig. 9)
2.8 - Present state of the Danube Delta hydrographic system
3 - Discussions and conclusions
3.1 - The chronology of the delta development phases
3.2 - Influence of the sea-level changes on the Danube depocentre

First lines

Most of the world’s deltaic systems started forming between 7400 and 9 500 yr. BP as a result of decelerating sea-level rise (STANLEY and WARNE, 1993). Situated in the contact area between continental and marine environments, deltas serve as the primary pathway for the transport of fresh water and terrigenous sediment to the coastal ocean (MILLIMAN and MEADE, 1983). The structure and the evolution of deltaic systems are controlled by extremely complex processes and factors including variations in relative sea level, fluvial inputs, marine dynamics, morphology and tectonics. Authors have studied these processes for many of the world’s largest rivers including the Amazon (NITTROUER et al., 1986), the Yellow River (LIU et al., 2004 and 2007), the Yangtze River (CHEN et al., 2000), the Po River (CATTANEO et al., 2003), the Ganges-Brahmaputra system (KUEHL et al., 1997; GOODBRED and KUEHL, 1999 and 2000), the Mekong River (TA et al., 2002; XUE et al., 2010) and the Mississippi River (KNO...

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References

Electronic reference

Nicolae Panin, Laura Tiron Duţu and Florin Duţu, « The Danube Delta », Méditerranée [Online], 126 | 2016, Online since 01 January 2018, connection on 21 January 2018. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/mediterranee/8186 ; DOI : 10.4000/mediterranee.8186

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About the authors

Nicolae Panin

National Institute of Research and Development for Marine Geology and Geo-ecology GEOECOMAR, 23–25 Dimitrie Onciul Street, 024053 Bucharest, Romania

Laura Tiron Duţu

National Institute of Research and Development for Marine Geology and Geo-ecology GEOECOMAR, 23–25 Dimitrie Onciul Street, 024053 Bucharest, Romania

Florin Duţu

National Institute of Research and Development for Marine Geology and Geo-ecology GEOECOMAR, 23–25 Dimitrie Onciul Street, 024053 Bucharest, Romania

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Copyright

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