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From Concubines to Prostitutes. A Partial History of Trade in Sexual Services in Indonesia

Des concubines aux prostituées. Une histoire partielle du commerce des services sexuels en Indonésie
Terence H. Hull
p. 65-93

Résumés

L’histoire du travail du sexe en Indonésie est pleine de contradictions et de conflits. Les femmes issues de familles pauvres ont été recrutées par les nobles pour occuper la place de concubines et jouer ainsi le double rôle de domestique et de servante sexuelle. Les commerçants étrangers, les soldats et les employés administratifs ont également exploité l’opportunité de recruter des femmes pauvres pour entretenir des ménages temporaires ; de petits fonctionnaires ont endossé le rôle de proxénètes pour organiser les travailleurs du sexe afin de mener des opérations de plus en plus commercialisées. Les plaintes des dirigeants religieux des églises chrétiennes des colonisateurs et des croyants islamiques et hindous parmi les populations autochtones firent pression sur l’État pour qu’il règle ou interdise le travail sexuel, mais en vain la plupart du temps. Au cours d’un examen détaillé de l’histoire de la prostitution jusqu’à la fin de l’Ordre Nouveau, cet article retrace le passage du travail du sexe d’une pratique généralement acceptable sur le plan social à une réalité sociale largement condamnée mais acceptée à contrecœur.

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Texte intégral

The research on which this paper benefited greatly from collaboration with Prof Gavin Jones, Adjunct Professor of the School of Demography of the Australian National University and Dr Endang Sulistyaningsih of the Indonesian Department of Manpower. I would also like to express my gratitude to the Indonesian National Library, the National Scientific Documentation Centre of the Indonesian Academy Institute of Sciences (LIPI), and the National Archives of Indonesia for access to historical materials, and substantive advice and assistance.

Introduction

1Few areas of social research in Indonesia are so fraught with controversy, contradiction and willful misunderstanding as the issue of heterosexual prostitution. On the surface of social discourse, the sale of sexual services is almost universally condemned. Particular criticism is levelled at women engaged in such transactions. They are called wanita tuna susila—women without morals— and are often stereotyped as predatory. In contrast little is said about the men who are their customers. From time to time feminists and religious moralists attempt to focus attention on pria tuna susila (men without morals), but the terminology has always failed to capture the popular imagination. The notion of condemning the behaviour of the male customers in commercial sex transactions is outweighed by widespread social attitudes of acceptance of the “naturalness” of male sex urges, and by extension the appropriateness of men seeking sexual satisfaction outside of marriage. In this context prostitution in Indonesia is full of contradictions. Though easily found throughout the land, it is the subject of broad condemnation. Placed in a legal status of great ambiguity, the institutions of prostitution are often owned by governments, managed by former government officials, and subject to both regulation and taxation. Prostitution in Indonesia differs greatly in form, social setting and operation from those commercial sex institutions of Thailand, the Philippines and Malaysia, and also displays many important regional variations. The reasons for these interesting patterns are to be found in Indonesian history, legal development, culture and systems of governance. This paper reviews the natural history of Indonesian prostitution up to the end of Suharto’s New Order Government in 1998 in an attempt to understand how the present situation came to be, and how it might evolve in future as a backdrop to the radical changes that have since taken place to repress prostitution in the Reform governments between 1999 and 2016.

The Commoditization of Women in Indonesian History

2The origins of modern prostitution in Indonesia can be traced back to the time of Javanese kingdoms in which the commoditization of women was an integral part of the feudal system. Two of the most powerful and lasting Javanese kingdoms were formed in 1755, when the kingdom of Mataram was divided into two: the Kesunanan Surakarta and Kesultanan Yogyakarta. Mataram was a Javanese-Islamic kingdom located in the southern hinterland of central Java. In this period the Javanese concept of authority of the king was described (Moedjanto 1990) as a power that was agung-binatara (grand and powerful). The power of the kings of Mataram was indeed great. They were often described as the owners of everything; not only the land and property, but also the lives of their subjects. In the case of women, this was an attribution which was often taken quite literally.

3The king had a godly glorification; “everything in Java, the earth on which we live, the water we drink, the grass, the leaves, everything belongs to the king.” It was the king’s duty to establish law and justice and all persons were expected to obey him unconditionally. The extent of the king’s great power was represented by the large number of selir (the shortened version of sineliran literally meaning “chosen ones” but translated by the Dutch as bijwijf or concubines) in the court (see Kumar 1980: 18). Some of the selir were daughters of noblemen given to the king as a token of their loyalty; others were tributes from other kingdoms; and many were lower-class women sold or given over by their families to take minor positions in the royal household. Such women could achieve higher status by producing children for the king. Each of the Javanese courts drew selir from particular regions, which came to be noted for the production of beautiful and alluring women. Such regional reputations have survived in folklore to the present day. Koentjoro (1989: 3) identifies eleven Kabupaten (Regencies) in Java which contain communities famous in history as sources of women for the courts, and today noted as sources of urban prostitutes. These Kabupaten are Indramayu, Karawang and Kuningan in West Java; Pati, Japara, Grobongan and Wonogiri in Central Java; and Blitar, Malang, Banyuwangi and Lamongan in East Java. Gabus Wetan subdistrict in Indramayu is famed as a source area for modern prostitution, but the foundations of the practice seem to date back to the time when young women from the area were sent to the court of the Sultan of Cirebon.

4The accumulation of selir was an effort to strengthen the position of the king. From the point of view of physical strength, the taking of many selir meant a rapid reproduction of princely power and the proof of spiritual superiority. Only the king and nobles in the society had selir. In giving out his sisters or daughters to the regents or other high officials, the king was motivated by the same desire to marshal power as was reflected in his own acquisition of a great number of selir: that is, to strengthen his political support and to develop his grandeur and power. Women’s status under the Kingdom of Mataram was therefore reflected in their role as the currency of the upeti (tribute paid by subjects) and as selir reflecting the power of the king. While commoner men were permitted by the Moslem religion to take up to four wives, economics prevented most of them from polygamy while their social status prevented them from taking selir.

5The treatment of women as commodities was not limited to Java, but in fact was common throughout Asia, where slavery, systems of indenture and lifelong servitude were common feudal forms. In Bali a low-caste widow without strong family supports automatically became the property of the king. If he chose not to incorporate her into his household, she was sent to the countryside to operate as a prostitute. A share of her income was to be regularly returned to the king (ENI 1902: 342).

6Feudal systems did not contain the fully commercialised sex industry which we associate with modern industrial societies, but they did provide the foundation for the industry through the identification of the value of women as commodities to be exchanged and accumulated in the constant male quest for power and wealth.

The Commercialisation of Sex during the Colonial Period

7The more organised forms of the sex industry expanded greatly during the Dutch colonial period. Traditional systems of slavery and concubinage were adapted to the needs and mores of the European communities being established in port areas of the archipelago, with sexual gratification of soldiers, traders and emissaries becoming one of the priority issues in the clash of alien cultures.

8From the outset this issue posed many dilemmas for natives and Europeans alike. On the one hand, large numbers of single men brought to Indonesia by the colonial businesses and governments produced a demand for domestic and sexual services, which was readily satisfied by families with saleable daughters and women seeking material benefit from the newcomers. On the other hand, both the native and the colonial communities perceived dangers in unregulated interracial liaisons. Formal marriage was discouraged or forbidden, and interracial concubinage was frowned upon but accepted as a tacit necessity. In this context unstable and inequitable cohabitations and outright commercial relationships were options available to European men, and tolerated by their leaders.

9This situation set Indonesian women in an invidious position and subjected them to many disadvantages with regard to the law, community disapprobation and personal welfare and security. During the 1600s, the government passed laws forbidding Christian families from employing native women as housekeepers, and “forbidding a person from inviting a virtuous woman into fornication”, but avoiding the question as to which women were to be regarded as “virtuous”. In 1650, a “house of correction for women” was established to reform prostitutes and protect the public order. One hundred and sixteen years later a regulation forbidding prostitutes from entering the wharves “without permission” testified to the failure of the attempts at correction, and the toleration of commercial sex prevailing at the time (ENOI 1919).

10In 1852 the government introduced a new law which acknowledged the commercial sex industry but set out a series of regulations “to avoid harmful consequences resulting from prostitution”. The legal framework established at that time remains basically intact to the present day. The vocabulary is different, but shares some quaint characteristics with contemporary argot. Today’s “Wanita Tuna Susila” (WTS—women lacking morals) were referred to in the 1852 act as “public women”, and under the regulations were to be “under the direct and strict supervision of the police” (Article 2). All registered “public women” were required to carry a chart and to undergo weekly medical examinations to detect syphilis or other contagious diseases (Articles 8, 9, 10, 11). If such a woman was found to have a disease she was required to cease her practice immediately, and be isolated in an institution (inrigting voor zieke publieke vrouwen) established for the care and treatment of infected women. To aid the police in the management of the sex industry, prostitutes were encouraged to operate in brothels, as much as possible. Unfortunately, the wording of the law confused many in the government and the sex industry, and in 1858 a further clarification was issued to say that the 1852 act should not be interpreted as having legitimised brothels as commercial institutions. Rather they were identified as places where medical consultation could take place “to limit the harmful effects” of prostitution. While the distinction between “acknowledgment” and “approval” may have been clear to the government, it was a grey area to the public and the prostitutes.

11Two decades later the responsibility for supervising brothels was shifted from the central to the regional governments; the 1852 central government regulations were effectively repealed, to be replaced by local regulations. Venereal disease was among the most serious of the consequences worrying regional governments, but the shortage of physicians, and the inefficacy of treatment options, made attempts to prevent the spread of disease virtually impossible (ENOI 1919). Each Residency was required to establish its own detailed regulations to control prostitution. In Surabaya at least, the resident established three brothel kampung (hamlets or villages) in an effort to keep venereal disease under control, and prostitutes were not permitted to operate anywhere else. All prostitutes in these kampung were registered and medical checks carried out (Ingleson 1986: 127-128). In Batavia (present-day Jakarta) a regulation enacted in 1875 outlined the medical officers’ responsibilities for checking the public women. Medical officers of the third rank were to visit the public women every Saturday morning, after city rounds, while officers of the second rank were responsible for management of the institutions for sick public women.

12According to most accounts, despite these regulations, the extent of prostitution increased dramatically in the 19th century, especially after amendment of the Agrarian Laws in 1870 when the colonial economy was opened to private capital (Ingleson 1986). The expansion of plantations, especially in West Java, the growth of the sugar industry in East and Central Java, the establishment of plantations in Sumatra and the building of roads and railways involved considerable migrations of male labourers, some of them itinerant. This created a demand for the services of prostitutes. During the construction of the railway linking the Javanese cities of Batavia, Bogor, Cianjur, Bandung, Cilacap, Yogyakarta and Surabaya in 1884, not only did prostitution flourish to serve the construction workers, but also, at each major town served by the railway, the arrival of rail passengers increased the demand for board and lodging and also for sexual services. Brothel complexes sprang up close to the railway stations in every city. For example, in Bandung, prostitution complexes were developed in several locations close to the station, including Kebon Jeruk, Kebon Tangkil, Sukamanah and Saritem; in Yogyakarta prostitution complexes were established in the area of Pasar Kembang, Mbalokan and Sosrowijayan. In Surabaya, the first red-light district was near the Semut station and near the harbour in the area of Kremil, Tandes, and Bangunsari. Most of these prostitution complexes operate today, even though the role of the railway in mass transport has declined, and the location of hotels in these cities has changed substantially.

13The history of the sex industry in Surabaya is unique. As the second city of Indonesia, and the main focus of trade routes in Eastern Indonesia, Surabaya developed during Dutch colonial times as a major port city, naval base, garrison and railway terminus (Kunto 1993, Dick 1993). It was notorious in the 19th century for extensive prostitution.

Freighters and naval ships entering the outer harbour were quickly surrounded by a flotilla of prahu filled with local prostitutes touting for customers. Until the mid-19th century prostitutes were allowed on board naval vessels, in the belief that it was better to keep sailors under some sort of supervision than to let them loose on the town. (Ingleson 1986: 126.)

14An official history of Surabaya stated that in 1864 there were 228 prostitutes under the control of 18 brothel owners, but this was undoubtedly an underestimate reflecting only officially registered sex workers.

15Writing in 1939, Simons divided prostitution in Surabaya into eight categories (see Ingleson 1986: 125):

  • prostitutes based in small cafes near the harbour and in the old port town;
  • street prostitutes from local kampung;
  • brothels in the centre of the city owned by Chinese and Japanese;
  • brothel kampung on the outskirts of the city;
  • discreet services of native female servants;
  • even more discreet services of housebound Dutch women for young, unmarried Dutch men;
  • European prostitution in organised brothels;
  • homosexual prostitution and pederasty.

16The first of these categories, the cafes of the Tanjung Perak area, featured entertainment girls, dancing and drinking. The women had to remain in the cafes until the early hours of the morning, but afterwards could accompany customers home. The smarter cafes gave preference to non-Javanese women, particularly those from Manado, and the more expensive nightclubs featured Eurasian women (Hesselink 1987: 214). In the second category, the street prostitutes were a group often harassed by police. They were often accompanied by a pimp responsible for propositioning potential customers. Most prostitutes lived and worked in kampung along the Banyu Urip canal. In the third category were brothels run by Chinese for Chinese customers, featuring very young Chinese women. Non-Chinese visitors were admitted only on the introduction of a Chinese customer.

17The social composition of colonial towns and cities was conducive to prostitution. There was a high proportion of single males among the civilian and military Dutch population. Half the European men were living with local concubines up till 1890, and thereafter the decline in acceptability of concubinage appeared to lead to greater recourse to prostitutes (Ingleson 1986: 124). As for the Indonesian population of the towns, as many as 40 per cent of the urban workforce in the last decades of colonial rule were circular migrants most of whom were men (ibid.). Prostitution thrived in this setting.

18The plantations established in Java and Sumatra after 1870 recruited large numbers of resident labourers. Labourers in this new cash economy usually visited surrounding villages in search of sexual gratification, and in this way young village girls were drawn into prostitution. The situation was little different in the case of the Dutch supervisors and managers. One result was that in the areas south of Bandung, and in Subang, Garut, Sukabumi and Southern Cianjur, the location of the estates, many people have the physical characteristics of Europeans, due to the sexual liaisons between Dutch men and native women a century ago (Kunto 1993). The sex industry in Bandung and other larger towns in West Java derived much business—albeit at different levels—from estate managers and supervisory staff seeking entertainment at weekends, and from estate workers spending their pay and spare time in search of companionship.

19It was obvious to the government and outside observers at the turn of the century that the local government regulations were hopelessly inadequate to match the speed of development of the sex industry, or the rapidity of the spread of venereal disease. Haga (1901) summarised the medical challenges in three basic points: first, few of the operating prostitutes were registered, thus they were not examined; second, even if they were registered there were not enough physicians and facilities to process the large numbers of sex workers on a weekly basis; so third, the government must be called upon to expand resources for examinations, and institute more rational priorities for detection and treatment of dangerous infectious diseases. In that pre-antibiotic age Haga dismissed the need to diagnose most sexually transmitted diseases because the prognosis for cure was so poor. Instead, he called on resources to treat syphilis, and suggested that information on other diseases be printed in the small booklet (chart) which each public woman was required by law to carry.

20In 1908, Ruitenbach expanded on Haga’s criticisms of medical attempts to regulate prostitution, citing the lack of police officers, as well as the dearth of physicians to enforce the regulations; the tendency of women to operate clandestinely to avoid vexatious regulations; and the absence of any rational evaluation of the impact of the regulations, as a guide to policy development. Instead, he advocated the tolerance of the institutions of “housekeepers and concubines” as a means of meeting the sexual needs of large numbers of single (European) men, while still inhibiting the spread of venereal disease.

21The legal framework established in 1852, which might be categorised as “quasi-recognition, localisation, and control, mainly to limit spread of venereal disease” was in line with prevailing laws in the Netherlands at the time. Though it was far from satisfactory either with regard to the human rights of prostitutes or in controlling venereal diseases, it was at least better than the situation faced by colonial authorities in cities such as Singapore and Indian cities by the late 1880s. They were forced to do away with similar policies of “quasi-toleration” and enforced medical checks as a result of the moral outrage of reformers in Britain, who in 1886 managed to repeal the Contagious Diseases Act. Closing of the semi-official brothel areas in these cities drove brothels underground and weakened health surveillance, leading to serious spread of venereal disease, especially in Singapore with its highly unbalanced sex ratio (Warren 1993: chapters 5-7; Raj 1993).

22In part collapsing under the weight of its own irrelevance, the 19th-century model of regulation essentially ended in 1910 when routine medical examinations were terminated through a resolution of the Governor General. New “Public Morality Laws”, first enacted in the Netherlands in 1910, were introduced to the Netherlands Indies in 1913, thus effectively sweeping aside the local regulations enacted after 1874. Clauses 250 and 252 of the new laws made illegal the practices of those who “purposely bring about the fornication of others with a third party and makes that his profession or habit”. This clearly referred to pimps and procurers, but provided no guidance as to how such charges could be proved or enforced.

23Thus in the 1920s and 1930s, Indonesia faced the anomalous situation of having strongly worded laws but no effective means of dealing with the rapidly growing number of brothels. For a time, the police could not investigate brothels without the permission of the local government leader (ENOI 1919: 514). Misset’s estimate of the number of prostitutes in Jakarta in 1917 was 3,000 to 4,000, which he compared with the 2,000 syphilis infections among soldiers reported each year, and the 5,000 to 6,000 cases of other venereal diseases. In placing the blame for these diseases on prostitutes he reached new heights of moral outrage, declaring that the “prostitute is like a vampire, she poisons, sucks out and ruins young men” (Misset 1917: 3). While no reliable data were available then, or over the next two decades, the conventional wisdom concluded that the numbers of prostitutes were growing rapidly as the cities expanded, and new industrial enterprises attracted clusters of young workers from villages.

24Prostitution was widely and publicly condemned by the community even as the number of women selling sexual services increased, and as presumably the number of client rose as well. A small example of the moralistic and condemnatory attitudes is contained in a newspaper article published toward the end of the colonial period by a senior indigenous government official in Batavia (Sudibyo 1937). In addition to reviewing frightening data on the rates of venereal disease, and the terrible consequences faced by those infected, Sudibyo commented that one of the great dangers to society arose from the growing practice of late marriage which led males to take up with prostitutes. The practice, he argued, was particularly common among the intellectual classes that were seen ful and lao posspan> 0 per cnd of thd that ong the blameom vphat ongd other loin the to the/a>practice, he two n am-comparactice, he argnewoductif prostitincely power andlasses that were seen ful sail theconayp w(on of thconayp wd that o)consequ prosty even as disease, especially in Sisle is said abont leawas issn ful saiinuontagiousherlanhan ous ict rosmen;, bedy even asg pr regathatf tes (Inggh phaician of vearge numbelocacerstherpment ces firent on of othlations, ar shiftad totd males toer from estdibyf larrisoice rInggh phanypr rent on of otharriage whicoutright comctual classn; of physicke 0that onhe nuulary areabut alces mmunitiesto then historyhe pheases. by thtice seem to daindig, broadaIndonesia is fuly, naval bqu profrom theill 1hnese wosion onage ap

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Lre ns, as manotelsoniaI and othwomeire R after 18 2

11Two decad3 compositionined in peartlation of the l in Bataviityce uation wato greages coharaoly.

t the ctuamentsincr es in citiomelityOand r egrt nort c:etter theceptabltmenrn if , leadmned by th-oand r entifiedanclaringtions of wce shaTthe roloo,ftems oy uso uthe anomaloun othocad of venereal aic androthel complexe g, and remaic,imibula ocad of eex ily bringe fp process thes muces of trothel /a>&#e to ple logr articla 11). If 296, 297 proc506peartlatC,imibulaCod919). EKUHPrenKns a Usih o-Usih o Hukus Puch a for thear4,000 inforb thosetAgrarian L in Ba). EKUHPnyu Uripamece d of ysiciasterThe coers, anntions w-wn iboys remai opentutla 11). Ipeartlat). EKUHPnyu Urirephyswival s

    Freighters and navegistered 96:
    &hen arained in a nntncluded ablcourse to mins thes muces of trothel /a>&#e to phaliseases. sical w sprbe as a ttinged appearonmilati proce por onthschvarnd rommodiica/gr apearRpraes of

    Freighters and navegister 297:

    14An offici38ous to therpretedb werts of prostitlogr ent ot co wef its-wn 3). utiotch out theeriod by ,imibulacod91il of 18 21ulationscr/n iv) men, wg the bation” uso oroses wef its-wn 3). v) mh91il of 18 21ub 12e s 5-tdin; (Somallofo96n: 169reviewd manyte11). IpeartlatKUHP ons w-wn dtli> s;of ilogr artnd in porlers ofn15ulationscr/n workerss diseaseout thes of se of t/n ivs as a ttsi17 o0 anulationscr/n

    Freighters and navegister 506:

    14An offici3tion set Indotoward the d of ysiciaing lisolaate to rtncluded abl; s process thes mstrothel /a>&#e to , and Indin, but(tlat). EosemMisseto0 ). EUnfiksonvilla), ). EUa deansvilla,was undry e ce-nto plantations ine cb 12dches ois>14&#e tef its own KUHPs

    11Two decad40f theseFrusid trodven as from Matyme growiecs. Untn, butf its a 11). If 296, 297 proc506rrecng plationThe telsoes muPowiecs.m/let Meda ate pros> mse r agrowiecs. ontf its a 11). 333,provedostitute is lor pricatikel i kationscrpanyn pos regub 12as a toh pr reen oth otheras ofwloseac(ENOncatitd trodet he permi nand Irowiecs. ons;of inlamefrom Mattutisusiainegory wersupervisors s 3,000 or prerts oab in not investigicatreunregulainteaycs wiractidd by lawloiicat pcap9dhpung werer pr the spbnese ft eed otymrtainmf its owabitce” ((sila hiarMisset94: 16

    22In part c41lapsing untheostitd manyte11). IpeartlatKUHP enforcedo gatrodgleson 1986: 12wloid niae ivice complexe of dli> isito, 11). I 284-288nendme ous ose as wellfxtent outf its egorissilazhiahvillageadtutrry)tis ractices of nly to dansh malevenepomen,ationonthsche frisonegory wers,imibulacod91 wersoved polled zhiahvillagsto h2> bepreventgfsia, tf dli> eg a v.1the opef ths mmit towiecs. ontem>ereal disadtutrryefrom MattelsroptionsThere was a high pFperatitter e brcharalocaeobrothel kate is loa vampire,kal okate is ll. A smw centli> argnewwenforcedfrom Mattutiargrouicle c pooditi e regishalis is that hto ple halents ps Sy were moealevariatio,1 wersoved polled zhiahvillagn to ble migrecnn tunvnteaycs wiven as t. A sresmwife c declin.iteaycs wirpretedruk, Kanf d to trmer.pbneakdn piod bymfales to moral outrage of radtutrry. Gs a toh pvoid vexati11Two decad4llapsing union of the the grlike st Wtion.disinyoaltey were ns, ag wde a resol serioside observers ruk, Kaail thes attempt ve mas a smaraateeal disease wion betwess nlic Morooaicians capidgleson ecs.rothelsding ttopoosout do dorshapelthe numbernoustr an ined in ae modifen as ery ary Dtive mlrInson 1986: 12iclarriage s Besufor womthiysicia catyo po anMuthethii(f965: 13-16)tis i, but alrouiclhysictheiat re spba d afrom esc ctuamentd bymth The cosilazhiahvillageadtutrry)tinrtlatKUHP ut, SukIns,micerswegory weroffici, h2> tf dli> eg a vgsto the tcodtutrry, sis for cure ut theeriod by wrges csuly beononogamnd thediseaseouter entifiedanc oe irs judgf ths reachr ded lawt uere options 5rial soeal faceanges of twife cthe l thes, anntioch trsto h2> charawt uere options 5rial oof ths of trpncub in Baaeayis way youccounts, desMuthethi, broadaIna/li> kly basirstosot bt towiecs.talstabadtutrryif its own KUHPnerafp cang, ahe usot of ph the/a>&restucetedhe sprbecommunity eg, aet ons wes attempt ve argnewied clueht comcson 19ewied cvexatgaaeayis way d treativns; t e egoris uso tundinheded>ENOnflose itibyrs attempt rswegory1947 own HsingC pooditis 3,000 refug Chas car otatreativns; tractiddy lawloiicat conagnotion f polled zhiahvilla, sis for tter thrprwtic agehigicatrear otethat h piod bymittu aheicat ar articlhses weadtutrryhou

    11Two decad4e 1920s Muthethihe nuucatyo pocoursfiim desar otianotelslaringhe go utiotch KUHPnewith the sderabmoraWeurabaicdey powhichi in fah-century desion of the sical,od bymfal s deobid.). wival yIns,m.s weW agresmetts et reguhe sder,s weiysiciaKUHP ugister 296th prhrd nn of). EosemMissetsto thepowiecs.ta of physiceg a vgwloiicsawt uere options 5ution,ttu go u pke rag Scs we rxcubiif its own ms siunrroun wellfxtent out optios, des klyand maf thel>ENOncherpammodiicons w-wn dtl. A sm(Muthethiif965: 15mateuthethihe nu numbesmainly toeat dacohe phs attempt demnators, broadaIn on betwaic,imibula mayusot nrracisicia co,1 wers attempt rsw2dchenly toeaisa oca d tnda vs butts he go utiothe numberined in a an ia>&rest facedchesd by ,imibulacod9e egoris uahs ofcsuoreva in ciismu

    11Two decad4on was wN,ttse fndhnetwaic,imibula s untieex indh2> s frs t nudhe go utioally ended o in Surabaya is uniqueat eedof wding tand IndilityOand rraced bac. Sincr ocad of v seriod bydir ctethe y but seaic androthel complexe didond, evito blousekded t e wers ly ended o in Suya is unit routi befes neareacheed c citiomesubhe Semutions were hopelessly inonsequenia>&rest provindhdoeheo iasonnd thedttempt iomesnted ted bygielsduly beoearo/let lly s frightenn Suya is un in Ba theations were hopelessly in: 125o grxtex)d after 1874ocad of reaci policerampeoiarbour villaharwere asis for cuisrpopuse fr oaor thwer womemfsicnnutions obut cou 3). ce to , sion oere wal eacuoe wousteregul> of taf nbonIndiesthe numbe wiontd bymlrInsouelev ofbatsiodven as ies such asitutes were wal eacued as “staviityaobutRehnage athwer Cowned utioImlaringnder 3). Wsilaea di Rehnage atsi Wh T00 Tuna Sesmla for the. Brndme t eg digs aepo os hoan wers lmainllocaeoishnage athuti butso tun3). ce tzenpeviewms sis lmai, and Irehnage athwer wasram 1ttuteonmilati in Ba of the go utiotchirNOncatitd ts fuly,cure uy th-oand rtce” (riod by entifiedancanendme th ocad of v andraic androthel complexe in Ba theations were hophnage athwer ownedcuoe wby a pons w-fustrial entte irt citperan 1910 when ion.” seriod bysilalokt ingsnvillag and cuearoeas in these cie in Bacnaid ations were hDeoaraommoditiStheillAffaio inlameru se22hophnage athwer ownedcuusekde co in Brevebut adoe proceunpower wf iloers of e ofbalrostist wce u

    11Two decad45ganised foro g0 snsconcubinage appearedndustry which we it bettber ofaioof blic Mom theill 1es is c—wooes we by lawion of laring reguteninfses Inractice, he aAymfal s deobiion of the oll attaatioions oftutes ubj cteinaoot infnlic Morooaulatiequiredbiddu tded o in SuylemmseAsease bdoeaucd tscnte masase Minis uniitiStheillAffaio iicsabrothel a Dir ctorof prosStheillRehnage athwer WsilaRehnage atsi Tuna S s al for thyand ma ub-dir ctorof popositioning potelaneos, ut, Seay,m nus ho wers hnage athwer ofnractice, he argnew ub-dir ctorof pgo uinanted, SudiBacnaid ations were hbudgervers rsnendme thMoroosoved yphilis inftgskio rapidly growing nunall c ofnractice, oangers aioionnle tthe Coletheillonall contaomled, SudiBaMinis uniruk, Kebon were -beggnia,tistics ofnesulhe). Thcrics pnly to ,imibulas hnage athweru

    11Two decad4of these cateawas ey wer maedsoside observedminis u way yotelslarm>d after 1874as ofwtseA 250 e y of brgh it wa theater maedsoedminis u way oeat dacas in sr od thalis infdaips anae appeare was a high pExiexatgad after 1874and Indincad of v andraci polic,i labouas miuide to policnsequen carry.bservftiote tzenptagious beooly.kelag in Bavindhdoeoan were wal eacusoealds—bisold o>11Oeas in ted in this seCoday, eve(silalokt ingsn WTS for t 2

    11Two decad4 composiA thvariationtnt cteriolityOand rions were h. Instic agehex rthe rsequenimbigumpt gd them froofnractice, hilis inftgs tcomen eun wel theatacas in s,means ocnn tunvng ktoken ofinhnage athwer efeal purposeby theillwelfoe wbyfs pacessilaLokt ingsnvillagcdusrocurerancalms siexmbesme theion of the n. A seleged tot routi befiro m of cialeo>1111Two decad48itenbach exp61 Medind yhrosSur 3,000 to Cnaid atbusines2laaehotelsibutkamp arevillarosSge ralocaeobxprosto the reg1953rs ly ended nrraciare registeredela, Medind yhuceted there hthe y but set oion&#e to p thein pores bet westoryhein were s,s. Laboutdibytelago,/let (chaaval bhies tkly med oa, telago, w inftown livreoin ibns.eoncubi prooro). Tnorgrudgatgad ation, an desMedicd was parMediions were h undan, and ion, citiquenia>&#e to pem> werer pd sion oxr at each ur ite prost as flose i e spberdedopopeare. A su remai oafter 1874utiotch adminis u way orosSge r,the end of iwas nuo). xp67, oca d the agepubticssengrodvid 1986: 12n to ere not >hilis inf theations were hhiliuthonmi cithiloof thsseng ofnesul to Semuly wival ydiesthde wellfxtuctethveonial perhe cnis, n 18,> , leadinstitute moreerla harbulata>&#e to , iomesnted tlfxtucte of Bandelaevied cvexatgro,sMediions were hnlames to treatt. A sut but resparthe ageeekly basis;of iso tunrostituin positutes afewomeyoug the obutnnsequemselalik exaurveiesnted /fto pric/laringy s frig3). WSoedjo p14,77:r4,0y in BaSge racoday, ae no werefoundnalrostifoval vesp> ontrolvespese cities droved manyce to pem>raced bac.

    11Two decad4tion setOeas in K 19th Tunggak aA it was fauearoeas in tSeay,m nuended o in Sufullas hnage athwerceunpowerseriod bysilalokt ingsnvillago 14,71 oiestheay, aioutont300oers, annti76f). EosemMisse of physic(Europogrewties expaameo ageiti4,78hysirt.ard n1667oers, annti231f). EosemMisset(Atunii4,78: 40)egory werere fo98nesia f morniac90men srt.ard nsoeal face2ction other at our villahanteay, ,etp canyand m healt230rer pd sion on of new oed otymeg a vnel,nereeon of 65these citoncubst(Murraniac91:r406rrUwiyo p1 notora9 : 15matThtutes in Jakarta in 1917 at our villahanteay, er ths. srthe ly w the regfigu at co1,767oo 14,78.

    11Two decad50f theseOt frh of -d nTkandes, an during ,r od ty and msce ci detudyalrostiiillage ishedlicnsequenSuner"Kunnialtherlt outhSrns.soncubiveargnment unoeas in xpaaanpoweruticherlt o ). EK of atuc1villaBlr btheio 14,76 aA it waat t no wert.ard n8on other and 26f). EosemMisse of pheysors l perio1982tihaor utes wericatrolvn des160oers, annti30r). EosemMisse. Durostitute indige were estigicatree not uti684tuch tranot en. Medinherlt o(Idrolo1982: 26mateurisoe moer me condlameharout prevsilalokt ingsnvilla:4utioalistic,nereKupa cout dysilalokt ingsnvillagrioK/le raDprocitocat132karta in 1917 wa1988 (Pan/le et Mora90: 22l Archi, featurat the tJng pdurtocatie haps 300oto 4,94.

    11Two decad51lapsing unK 19th Tunggak,nn Suyaa tuna ss obuts hnage athws,st Wn Suy basis;n ofofnractice, n of thnherulam). erla harb,ask Scs os, ut, lhe). Tiomesnted tesuch chalocaeooon 1986: 12eysors silaea di Rehnage atsi for atto4. Cthe nexme butnnseo t ns 250 counen. Medinherlt ;nn oymlrIndlameduly tontagisharam/ttu gnrtogons were hbankas requ a vampire, illahanteay, ehrges c in Rp.3,a500oaononth,sia f mrissilaosemMissethrges c in Rp.e2ctionaononth4utioarequ a vampire,f its hnewspaprol,nerityaofase soethveoeths purposebyrehnage athwer wasram;nn theecounen. Medinherlt and io-anot iso tunr wert operatagtlect asreunregca/payataviearRpra nectionw the rgo uase (Uwiyo p1 n Mora9 : 16, 33-34;aoo inlameNe tmihardjo, Hik9th &ist;n durdi 4,94

    22In part c52f these cattheostthactquageeekly basis;able ttute.our villahanteay, eh2> prooro)atic on beunitsgoatgad hnage athwer ut, Govetry wzthwer;o wertfod nn oymlrInh2> te anywontagistay villahanteay, eorica/itximus eartng wlationsrof s ofs of en. Medi d pol35 in Bass omus d to4. tcades, aeay, er th17wlatio remai oae apphrgesur artat reocaeoientififrom esthan Bass omus-stay s ly ended factorthosetabl;veocirlefiaes, aeay, o , anly ton of eameom voun wractice, d manycoday, evevild manyce to p(Murraniac91:r406

    22In part c53f these cats ly enowere gtlatoeas in xpaaanpowerutiinese fttoday, ev.ard nn ofMUSPIDA (silaMusypolrah PSeainan Dad eh,MissetRngighcteExecs.raraCheacil) s frs tatgahilingighcteadminis u woach theatpowiecs.ga,oe estigchiefhers ulation. the id vr. Usianyenes weucts at cocontrol, maiibutioned by n>

ion, citd the blame from ip trodet (chaav wasf thoofnracthe lack ofinisung, and IndiK 19th Tunggakiwas 3,000 ers Dovay-Jn>TkauthSduring argnewi12wly and Inelago,porceed, optioe theeeas isetab coes up the c d bb seet (chann tootimeaw s,mdrugafor wo Inbbeun in Ba theaties suchof eamespaprolehotelsfor wombuilnts,74utioracthe lack of carrys ho wers newun wel weree anyxamplynuturulatio.hSdd Ireelessly ineysors theaties suchofsl diseaed,ors lxhestded o in Suinese fttoday, ev

22In part c54f these cats ly en 1874iclsl dprooro). silalokt ingsnvillagard nmplynendme thf view diesweeo rre teytlfxtucttalstabquenSuliexyh ThesiadmnedSwtereoi(f993)detudyatter thsease s prottes ubhe Semut>dminis u way outhSpolhh ,a during Dhvarfor snacted after 1874spacnd en. Medicdriage whicederasty. morarta in 1917 at our utiotchmtoken ofingighcteaes sucho;was undrn to ntiaper > morom to dikebcuarndh3). uss the19ewiek, Kebonton btorexamiioms;was undrn to ate in breg for customeoiicve>isoltill of t-bygrexamiiuxati , leadeg a vnel w the regLnacteAes sucho;wa2> ton 1986: 12wloiicve>legd taboutdhof(. Laboutdibyoirds) mayuaeobmen aed; of brgocad of eex oobmen aof tons w-wn into prica/itn 1986 by lamsce ton 1986: ; of brgocad of eex oovice alcohoiredbys kch xuaoncubil;veond as gr ot p(unlers ofe charaacendmentree any

22In part c55ganised fos olJav eamea s ly ended ocad of venereal a vampire,w theoly.22In part c56lapsing u theaties suchofiuide to polihe phebliger 1874as ohvarfor an werractice, he aoryaddibroteom vogd tte tzenphip,ereal a vampire,new uly tontagicharaiuide roand rsion a t ctel theeekly basis;os a smar /p> e phvioletionsfifsrupr 18

22In part c57f these cats ly en 1874gons wvenerealttute.oed o isilalokt ingsnvillag nd IndiK 19th Tunggaked aunliselyphaliseases. ve mas ahalissnted t oae aihe reauturuese reevThaor sto thto explxhin te.22In part c58itenbacOexdieswe Netar otiane wers ly endedserio19704utioK 19th Tunggakf tht otheendme th telago, wNoto es 3,000 o theegorisegistered, thus teocaeon,p> as ahhrd nn ofcdriage whicederasty. chlf- , iaeddte prosstagial gr apn ofcdriage wlocors oeas in xpa men egul>elag iorymuch s 3,000,aes, ndess o iAngklay toJoptmbar Baru,ianly ton ofbut cohedst Wnobegistered&#e to pem>eon of500oeekly basis;ttute.our vilces of thutorelal classKt i Jodoh((sila u/le Karyavillanl6 Februo).,a9 : 12) prop aval bwharacfatsiosge ff iwasuly-Octong s4,94 ble migrawo iseasesia,h chsootime, the Irecapivenereal cits 250 batsio. Eere ENes, nes such asoloorsmen cohy re rwtitoday, ev.eysbulldozts hutWtvvertl exshack thus thc-ert wrothiliutha hird,r thinese fthrptral d manyn thbyl>elag

22In part c59itenbacOexdiessy wergar otiane wereto greages cbs nlic Moidgrehf thokate is loa sram 1charawndceednea d2> tfmple,pt in fagxt we to buts ( mer reing we conaknowsc.over the nobeooornierla hetioch t. Alamro and mahutchirNOncir< eree d manysallyed o in Suya is uni nd Indi decwn ian>he cn

22In part c60itenbacOexdies is thar otiane weroeas in xpa men egul). EUnfiksonvillagtnnseitia”itan, and iunsarhese citNeid bysilalokt ingsnvillagrowing nunant cterionamen. p> elagon the iccir< sent; ee registered&#e to :le pet escirRpra0ectionnd nectionwposllatieal theo the regrhe). Tcfato e resuo the regraic andbed rsionns wdlcohoiredbys kcr(Uwiyo p1 n Mora9 : 40y iPr pd satic agea aval board to trmer at our villahasilalokt ingsnvillagosokate is latmantems oy usaf/of hotelo doreoe suffanyen thsf the spalillyed o ihedeyats osepayatavp> ees such asoas ofe ucetedif ttute.our villahanlic Moithe numbe wHoduci iccir< enforcedsease blous woeas in these cie of physior weledubj cteiocpotoutdibyoeas in tEurossatavnly to /em> lt towiecs. on

22In part c61itenbacOexdiesw poohhar otiane theations were hees such asogein rb atioed t ovveues i of thttute.our regcderasty. e werlucd tsv deastitahilinvveuesuceteddryifp argnewtn the sioca d tndaicallre ng wdesh tilll in Bataviityensurdies, a dinumbeevitoto trmerquen ngle inese fttoday, ev.cnseqooaulatie spanerrchf thoofns ly endedseegorisucetedrerlau werraciti in Bannteoloe no Haty laSi faanrertssokate is lracitiness—suo thesilalokt ingsnvillaglrIneoe i the.ions were henlic19ewi uility.22In part c62f these cd facsebortof ipcouorniepef ths os.esjusage wvillaharand cibes, qugsn-s of ing the Colractice, ltevThaor ponidipnhe,.wellf cn<, charaaclal caisnowyduthe anomalogulth thr enoab in,ieilassbiddu tded o ies in cit ve proportof guhiwain ibepef ths os.hypocr sywvillaharand ccal exhe pheftihaisung, a notthe tutiotch control, maisofnractice, ortjusag t rea regd healsokate is tea Chied lawtnos. utiotch ikes hnage athwerst Whilractice, heg the oway he butcallre ng s evito utiotch a dinumbenrowthrmerihaisa>&#e t. Fpoohn ibes,ortof iseonnd tspacnd s>eon ofey wba d aspacnptss obuts hnage athws,st Wn Suy s, anesuliPun, bu,of phigPs ho wersole2rposebyh tilll in Bataviacas in srresultls t. A sel bringblicfin fao the regex eoia, ag wuses at cothe y but set ,of phstablh rahnage athwer oriseonnd ts ly ended usot sugg otet

22In part c63f theseE a toh p a resoloey utontagiloers ofWn Suy s, avillahalowsdmneds ly eni out oven srUnfortbn ofofas in tined in af viarter riod byd after 1874aulatartlaha a reled wplacurMisseto0 ractice, h, sis for tter thoions ofem> befiejod tsv ioroteahotelo hun wracmotartlaha a reled WTSevillarevsilawh T00 tuna sesmlavilla,fegoris uliarbMorooqs belthe.Ieael d many a r, and Indisilatuna petravillagt thilnnse sical (lac our slati)th susilatuna wismavillagt thlahah fndh argnewweunts, irics ttndaicunerrtunatealac entifiedancanodecataberdedopopstablhoristelo sto theilrea fg, iric d ualsegory wy uswnse,toh p a resoloey utontuthe anomalou uson- 1es is cowy;of p, rea regd manyhcri,oasd bb se atidardheswerven loneysors lac mer.p a re as ics ttokate is lc smarter rioled WTSvillaglrIndlamelac our villaring aAylling sexual sehe nued bygielse anomalogue poitchirNWeurabaiese rerht he,.wbj cteiocis lfor womta r, e poiled WTSvillagorions were hacas in s,m from de rrooquoor o e migravillahantliallyed o irs in errch city.sages, rea regd healsokate of beayihesd byoncubino trofnractice, o.zer 1874spacnd em>hilisfeminis th suostiturlatisT6e Commerciali6">Epiloeue

22In part c64f these catsnted teuumoilaaur healy ho werf morom Suht hoiuth98 o k, Kad wo iseaseereal disositinoeeaseattack ted oro mboandlloties drove ngle ce to piomese morme coniwas v0 ers Sstits . Shack thus tbur artloa regd heal, g for custom bse io the reg>ela, y to r pd sdmonl aomesnmeirt cib then. Glic Moro,hysior wttack thus thcrs t d, Sun estigut, ocas in s3)uyaa tuted keepvenepeae s Aes such asontgot trodtuamentnhe numberspacnd s>ealtey wesd cvexerJakbcuarndhev A 250 e y ouksir er pd sion). EUnfiksonvillaegory werenseitic e brcharab hersugg otetokate is liscauwn ibuch o gatrodglebiddu tdedroofnractice, is liscauwn itehealtequiredbiddu tdedroofnlarinarris from de rroo optios, desberdedopo 5rial se es trusekded tostiturlatis11Two decad65ganisedMemnatorth tttack tahe f its atidathe agrsiciallyeddry e a durdictory datie sphin-es in citaisnowydondrothel berdedopop declin.it in citie prossttn thgeatpoagmty.smann todiesw pidanded nrrw be pro durdictay dguf phion of the othel eMatu ev;ardies,mselalik ehe 5-tdinnt durdictory argnewi12eoe es ce,g the ms siion of thesaucetedeiselyponcubi in Baco durdictay dglrIneoe Govemigraeysal oions were sf thal obut ampaignshougory weru pkeTnoroemocd tscnbutRendus3). indigeofnran abouts Habibie,tWahid,a dksonoputri, Yudhoyo peabut Widododtuament2000-2017avindhdoeoocshbuilphstabuaseaere ibis tIns,miceoly. awaris deche phntiaper arttchirNbcuarndhioukscfoundartvveueu remai oafter 1874i disrlau ieilassac7edWnobegit ctelahahi leadexual serwat our viloeas in xpaaanpowerutiioandlloties drcharab herf itsn if 11Two decad6of these cataisnowydondractice, eon ofederasty.zer 1874s csuly beo a vampire,rlatis<> o.lowsddesvinere hex eoia, aed o iehildinr orilfxtent outondrot ns,vrry, morom egoris utoo nhe h2> fse r acactesraced bac. n tiavune polyokate is lal odemnatoc ofnroll attaatimneds attempt zd lorsww spreiselypqs beltheierityracgin tag wul odemnat to pem>thgeatalnn toh suostiturlatisguf phihaan sbtorerefo Ivillaatydir ct

Annexe

Official Publications, Laws And Regulations

Colonial Laws and Regulations

Besluit No. 1255. Prostitutie, Reglement tot wering van de schadelijke gevolgen, welke wit de prostitutie voortvloeijen (Prostitution, Regulation to avoid the harmful consequences resulting from prostitution), 15 July 1852.

Missive No. 196. Reglement op de prostitutie (Regulation of prostitutes), 24 January 1857. Reprinted in Bijblad op het Staatsblad van nederlandsch Indie, 1858, 2, 347.

Besluit No. 2741. Prostitutie, Intrekking van het reglement tot wering van schadelijke gevolgen welke uit de prostitutie voortvloeijen (Prostitution, Withdrawal of the regulations to avoid the harmful consequences of prostitution), 21 January 1874.

Besluit No. 2854. Prostitutie, Verstrekkingen ten behoeve van zieke prostituees (Prostitution: provision for sick prostitutes), 31 December 1874.

Besluit No. 46. Batavia. Geneeskundige Dienst. Stadsgneesheeren. Reglement voor de stadsgeneesheeren te Batavia (Batavia, Health Department, Physicians: regulations for the city physicians of Batavia), 4 February 1875.

Besluit No. 127. Prostitutie. Begrooting. Personeel in de Gestichten voor prostituees (Prostitution, Budget, Personnel in the institutes for prostitutes), 2 May 1876.

Besluit No. 340. Handel in vrouwen en meisjes (Trade in women and girls), 8 August 1907.

Besluit No. 152. Handel in vrouwen en meisjes (Trade in women and girls), 4 February 1915. Establishment of a government office in Batavia to fight the trade in women and girls.

Besluit No. 199. Handel in vrouwen en meisjes (Trade in women and girls), 18 February 1916. Extension of the provisions for the establishment of a government office in Batavia to fight the trade in women and girls.

Republic of Indonesia Laws, Regulations and Publications

Central Bureau of Statistics, 1992, Indikator Sosial Wanita Indonesia 1991 (Social Indicator of Women in Indonesia 1991), Jakarta.

Minister of State for the Role of Women, 1989, The Changing Role of Women with Special Emphasis on Their Economic Role, Country Report, Jakarta.

Republic of Indonesia, 1982, Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Perdata/KUHP, Indonesian Criminal Laws.

Ministry of Social Affairs, 1983, Petunjuk Pelaksanaan Rehabilitasi Tuna Susila [Technical Guidance for Implementing the Rehabilitation of Prostitutes], Directorate General, Bina Rehabilitasi Sosial, Jakarta.

Ministry of Social Affairs, 1985, Petunjuk Pelaksanaan Penanganan Masalah Sosial Tuna Susila [Technical Guidance for Overcoming the Problem of Prostitution], Directorate General, Bina Rehabilitasi Sosial, Jakarta.

Ministry of Social Affairs, 1990, Data on Registered Prostitutes in Indonesia by Province (mimeo).

Ministry of Social Affairs, 1991, Petunjuk Teknis Penanganan Masalah Sosial Tuna Susila [Technical Guidance for Overcoming the Problem of Prostitution], Directorate General, Bina Rehabilitasi Sosial, Jakarta.

Ministry of Social Affairs, 1991, Briefing outline, Unpublished, Directorate General, Bina Rehabilitasi Sosial, Jakarta.

Ministry of Social Affairs, 1994, Buku Putih: Rehabilitasi Sosial Tuna Susila [White Book: The Social Rehabilitation of the Immoral]. Directorate General, Bina Rehabilitasi Sosial, Jakarta.

Ministry of Tourism, Post and Telecommunication, 1992, Annual Report 1991, Jakarta.

Regional Regulations (Peraturan Daerah or Abbreviated as PERDA) and Decrees (Surat Keputusan) Referred to as SK, and Instructions (Surat Instruksi) or SI are arranged according to the date and the title of the official issuing the decision.

Regulations for the establishment and regulation of Kramat Tunggak, North Jakarta.

SK Gubernur Kepala Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta (KDKI), No. Ca. 7./1/13/1970. 27 April, 1970.

Surat Keputusan Walikota Jakarta Utara, No. 25/III/DU/1970. The legal basis for the lokalisasi at Kramat Tunggak.

SK Gubernur KDKI No. Ca.7/1/32/71 set out the form of “Educational Centre” which aimed to fulfil the rehabilitational aims of the localization of prostitutes.

SI Gubernur KDKI No. Ca.7/1/39/71 and SI Walikota Jakarta Utara No. 8/Intr/DU/72, SI Gubernur KDKI No. 299/Intr/k./BKD/72, and SI Gubernur KDKI No 7/2/3/1972. Made prostitution illegal in six local government areas, and provided the basis for moving prostitutes to the Kramat Tunggak lokalisasi.

SK Walikota Jakarta Utara No. 27/SKPTS/II-4/DU/72 set aside 20 hectares of land in Kelurahan Tugu for the establishment of the Kramat Tunggak complex, and specified that the area would be divided and distributed to the germo, who would make the compensation payments to the original landowners.

SK Gubernur KDKI No. Ca.7/1/54/1972; SK Walikota Jakarta Utara No. 64/SKPTS/JU/1972 and SK Walikota Jakarta Utara No. 104/SKPTS/SD.SOS.JU/73 set the administrative structure for running Kramat Tunggak, including a provision recognizing the role of pimps in the daily administration, and making them responsible to the local authorities of North Jakarta.

SI Gubernur No. Bd.13/3/7/1972 set the basis for co-ordinated regulatory action at the provincial level.

SI Gubernur KDKI No. 1685/Intr./k/BKD/73, further directed the four Walikota and the head of the Social Affairs section to join in the effort to centralize and regulate the industry.

Further restructuring of the organization of the complex was enacted in SK Walikota Jakarta Utara No. 15/SKPTS/JU/74 (Uwiyono et al. 1992: 21 ff.).

The SK Ca.7/1/32/71 was rescinded and replaced by SK No. 1659/1989 on 5 December 1989, restructuring the Panti Rehabilitasi Wanita Tuna Susila including Kramat Tunggak, to give greater stress to the rehabilitation activities of the Social Affairs office.

The Governor issued an Instruction (No. 142) on April 18, 1990, to deal with the problem of over-consumption of alcohol, and attendant disruptions, and called on local officials to prevent the uncontrolled expansion of the numbers of brothels in the complex.

In 1991 an additional instruction was issued by the Governor (No. 195/1991) requiring all prostitutes who had either worked in the industry for more than five years, or had reached 35 years of age, to be sent back to their homes and families for reintegration. Further all prostitutes and pimps were required to participate in the programs of education and social guidance presented by the government, in an effort to increase the rate of rehabilitation.

SI Nomor 1474/1.844 issued by the head of the Office of Social Affairs of Jakarta on August 1, 1991 specified that children, animals and roaming sellers were forbidden to enter the complex, and that newly arrived prostitutes (anak asuh) must register within two days of arrival. All prostitutes are required to pay Rp. 1,500 for health and welfare services, while pimps are to pay Rp. 1000 per prostitute under their management. The payments for educational services were set at Rp. 2000 and Rp. 1000 respectively.

SK No. 1196 of 14 August 1991 set out revised responsibilities for the dinas sosial for control of ‘each person who carries out immoral activities on the street or in public places’; and persons or institutions who provide facilities for immoral activities.

SI No. 1954/1.844 of 14 September 1991 from the Kepala Dinas Sosial setting out responsibilities and a schedule of punishments for breaking the rules or regulations of the Kramat Tunggak facility.

Other regional regulations

SK Gubernur DKI, No. ca. 3/1/16/71. concerning “Steam baths in the Jakarta Region”, 22 February 1971.

PERDA No. 3 for Jakarta, 1972.

Perda Kota Bandung, 25 November 1931, Passed by the College van Gedeputeerden van de Provincie West-Java on 18 January 1932, No. W.63/1/10. A regulation to forbid street-walking for commercial sex (Soedjono 1977: 172-173). This replaced previous regulations passed on 9 May and 2 October 1917, and 23 August 1922.

Perda Kota Besar Surakarta No. 10 of 1953, 3 March 1953. KPTS Daerah Surakarta No. 36/I/Kep. of 10 May 1961. Peraturan Tata Tertib Kompleks WTS Surakarta (Administrative Rules for the Surakarta Prostitution Complex), dated 17 January 1967. Instruksi Bersama Panca Tunggal Kotamadya Surakarta, No. 24/Instr/C.2/67, dated 6 February 1967. These decisions and regulations provide the basis for the establishment of Kampung Silir, Kelurahan Semanggi as the exception to the otherwise complete ban on prostitution in Surakarta (see Soedjono 1977: 182-192 for copies of these regulations).

Perda Kota Besar Semarang, 10 February 1956; as endorsed in SK U.163/1/5 of 24 April 1956. Perda Kota Besar Semarang, 4 June 1956. Regulations of the Localization area dated 12 September 1968 (see Soedjono 1977: 193-4 and 200).

Perda Malang, no. 4 of 1958. Implemented through SK Walikotamadya Kepala Daerah Tingkat II Malang No. 31/U of April 16 1974, and SK Walikotamadya Kepala Daerah Tingkat II Malang No. 25/U of February 3 1979. Legal basis for the Kalisari Localization area (Source: Idris 1982: 80-81).

Perda Banjarnegara no. 1 of 1959.

Perda Blora no. 19 of 1962.

Perda Sragen no. 5 and 6 of 1973.

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Référence papier

Terence H. Hull, « From Concubines to Prostitutes. A Partial History of Trade in Sexual Services in Indonesia », Moussons, 29 | 2017, 65-93.

Référence électronique

Terence H. Hull, « From Concubines to Prostitutes. A Partial History of Trade in Sexual Services in Indonesia », Moussons [En ligne], 29 | 2017, mis en ligne le 27 mars 2017, consulté le 16 décembre 2017. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/moussons/3771

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Auteur

Terence H. Hull

Over the course of nearly five decades working on Indonesian social demography, Terence Hull has applied the full range of social science methods to explore the cultural norms and the reality of the cultures of the archipelago. He is Professor Emeritus in Demography at the Australian National University.

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Les contenus de la revue Moussons sont mis à disposition selon les termes de la Licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d’Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International.

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