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Distinctive features of Ovis aries and Capra hircus petrosal parts of temporal bone: Applications of the features to the distinction of some other Caprinae (Capra ibex, Rupicapra rupicapra)

Éléments de distinction des portions pétreuses de temporal d’Ovis aries et de Capra hircus ; applications des caractères à la distinction de quelques autres Caprinae (Capra ibex, Rupicapra rupicapra)
Christophe Mallet and Jean-Luc Guadelli
p. 173-191
This article is a translation of:
Éléments de distinction des portions pétreuses de temporal d’Ovis aries et de Capra hircus ; applications des caractères à la distinction de quelques autres Caprinae (Capra ibex, Rupicapra rupicapra)

Abstracts

In this paper, the authors highlight the morphometric features allowing the distinction between the petrous part of the temporal bone of some Caprinae, with a particular consideration of sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hircus), in association with some specific features of ibex (Capra ibex) and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra). The authors also consider the implication of the study of petrous bones for these particular taxa in zooarchaeological and palaeontological analysis, especially for post-pleistocene faunal assemblages : identification of domesticated and wild forms, domestication geographic areas, chronological extension of the domestication process ; death age estimation for curves of mortality…

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This work was partly carried out during a Master training practice in the PACEA laboratory in Bordeaux by one of us (CM). We would like to thank the PACEA laboratory and its staff for allowing to achieve this unusual study but with strong results for petrous bone study.
We will not forget here to thank Professor F. Prat for the encouragement he has given to the other author of this paper (JLG) when the latter decided to study the petrous bones at the beginning of his Phd as well as when he entrusted him, despite some “talks”, with the skulls of the comparative collection of the laboratory to saw them to access the petrous bones.
Finally, thank you to Daniela Rosso and Ana Rosso for their help with the translation of portions of this work.

Introduction

1The two petrous parts are extremely important as they protect the elements necessary for hearing and for stability and they allow the outward passage of the 7th and 8th pair of cranial nerves and support the 5th pair of these nerves. Being solid, the temporal bones are often found in relative abundance in archaeological sites but they are generally neglected because they have a morphological diversity that can be confusing at first. Their coarse form can repel most of us, but in reality they bear morphological characteristics that allow determining them “easily” (Guadelli 1987, 1990, 1999; Guadelli and Prat 1995; Steininger 1975). Thus, in the case where many bones of the postcranial skeleton would only allow making vague taxonomic assignments – i.e. determining Bos/Bison, Goat/Sheep (or worse, Ovicaprinae!) -the petrous parts of temporal bone leave absolutely no doubt in almost all cases.

2Before anything else, let us recall quickly in a few lines the “topography” of the petrous bones with reference to the work of R. Barone (1966), P. Popesko (1980), A.J. Gulya & H.F. Schuknecht (1995) and Guadelli (in press).

1 - Reminders about the anatomy of the petrous part of the temporal bone

3The temporal bone (Os temporale) consists of the petrous portion (Pars petrosa), the tympanic part (Pars tympanica), the squama temporalis part (Pars squamosa) and the mastoid portion (Pars mastoida). The union of the first two makes the auricular or tuberous portion of the temporal bone, to which, in some mammals (such as the Cat for example), a more or less developed extra part is added, the endotympanic part (Pars endotympanica).

4The auricular portion articulates upwards with the postero-inferior portion of the temporal squama and towards the back with the occipital. The fusion of the squama and the auricular region occurs earlier or later depending on the groups, except for the Equine and Small Ruminants where these two elements remain independent.

1.1 - General shape of the petrous bone (Guadelli in press)

5Given the observations done in this paper, we will only present here the medial and rostral faces.

1.1.1 - Medial or cerebellar Face

6The medial face of the petrous portion (facies medialis partis petrosae) (fig. 1) shows successively in the dorso-ventral direction the cerebellar fossa (Fossa cerebellaris), which corresponds to the more or less deep imprint of the cerebellum, the internal auditory meatus or internal auditory hiatus (Meatus acusticus internus) and quite ventrally, the antero-inferior apex (Apex partis petrosae) in which the imprint of the trigeminal nerve is cut out (Impressio nervi trigemini) (5th pair). In some forms, this nerve passes through a canal (Canalis nervi trigemini) formed in this ventral projection. The bottom of the internal auditory meatus (Fundus meatus acusticus internus) is divided into four orifices by two crests, variable in development and orientation depending on the species, one roughly rostro-caudal and the other nearly dorso-ventral. The rostro-dorsal orifice, the largest, is the endocranial opening of the facial nerve canal (Canalis facialis) (7th pair). The caudo-dorsal orifices or upper vestibular opening (utriculo-ampullar) (Area vestibularis superior), the caudo-ventral orifice or lower vestibular opening (saccular) (Area vestibularis inferior) and the rostro-ventral orifice, called cochlear (Area cochleae) allow the passage of the corresponding branches of the stato-acoustic or vestibulo-cochlear nerve (Nervi vestibulocochlearis) (8th pair).

7The orifice of the cochlear canal opens up caudally with respect to the internal auditory meatus (Apertura externa canalis cochleae or cochlea canal) and the endocranial orifice of the vestibular canal opens in dorso-caudal position (Apertura externa Aquaeductus vestibuli). Finally, the medial (cerebellar) and rostral (cerebral) faces are separated more or less clearly by the petrous crest (Crista partis petrosae) that begins at the cerebellar fossa and continues up to the antero-inferior apex.

Figure 1 - Topographic representation of the petrosal part of the left temporal bone (after Guadelli in press, fig. 1a).

Figure 1 - Topographic representation of the petrosal part of the left temporal bone (after Guadelli in press, fig. 1a).

1.1.2 - Rostral or cerebral face

8The extent of the rostral face (Facies rostralis partis petrosae) (fig. 1), extremely variable depending on the species, is conditioned by the internal development, more or less important, of the parietal bone and the caudal edge of the temporal squama. Thus, for example, this face is highly developed in Rangifer and Bovinae, but much less in Rupicapra or Ovis and reduced to its simplest expression in Capra. This point alone would deserve a long chapter because in reality the rostral face exists, but depending on the species, it is “active,” that is to say, it actually supports the brain, or “passive” when it is covered by the spheno-occipital crest (Guadelli in press).

9Finally, on this rostral face and in a more or less lateral position, the opening of a small duct dug out in the thickness of the petrosal bone opens towards the bottom, it is called the Fallopian hiatus (Canaliculus nervi petrosi majoris). It allows the passage of a collateral branch of the facial nerve, the great superficial petrosal nerve.

10In all the descriptions that follow, the petrosal bone will always be considered in anatomical position, and although its orientation relative to the Frankfort plane varies slightly depending on the species, the cerebral face corresponds to the rostral face and the caudal face to the occipital face.

2 - The choice of taxa: Sheep and Goat

11The domestic Sheep (Ovis aries Linnaeus, 1758) and Goat (Capra hircus Linnaeus, 1758) belong to the subfamily of the Caprinae and are very close taxa, by their morphology and their evolutionary history.

12Present day Sheep and Goats are descended from wild animals living in the Near and Middle East. As the oldest remains of Sheep, strictly speaking, date from 8,500 BC, the eastern Mouflon (Ovis orientalis), widely accepted as the wild ancestor of Sheep, would have been domesticated before this date by Neolithic populations (Helmer 1992). About the Goat, its wild ancestor, the aegagre Goat (Capra aegagrus) was domesticated between 9,500 and 8,500 BC (Helmer 1992), or even earlier, between 13,000 and 9,000 BC according to data from mitochondrial DNA (Naderi 2007).

13Sheep and goat have been inseparable from pastoral peoples for 10,000 years. However, their skeletal remains are still very complex to discern, especially in the case of heavy fragmentation. Very 00 and#6Bins of Sheeponkelet date from 8,500 xml:lcern Goat ( , the out Distinction intoea ctegtory (Ovi/>Capra

4). The upper eetch have been the suojecee of very few stuides of this typs.

5

>6Rangifertparadcus- Lam, CheotePyeario, 199)h makes it one of the eos -rdeservdr anatomical parts( Ba Ozd andDaypan 2007). The petrous portio0 xml: mnitione,e ouenled rw stuidde specifiially in very xmll case,d as in the work ofO’Lenary(2010)e descrbding the anatomical par, in wevenal speciee of ortidracyles.

7Capra ibex and Rupicapra rupicapra inBordeg to shoe fro Dfeferencen between the wild formy and these two domestic form). We recigrzve t at oy have aglobnalOvitioe of the petrous portion of the temporalEupropane Caprinae, the descriptions of thebones of(Ovis mmonaCapra aegagrus

3 - Method of study

>8ThesStudy of the petrous portionilsbasled on theoOsteological description of the bone and tis Dfeferet) face,y complgmented yl aeoOsteometric study.Itnilsbasled on measurementn oflengthmy andaangled on the bone, whichwhere thns analysds in thehlight of parroussStatisticaltrestt.

3.1 - Diameter measurements

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Figure21 - Diameter measurementd on medialnsid ( left petrosal part of>shee). 1:l dors-ventral diameter(Ddv); 2:e rostr-caudal Diametem(Drc); 3:l dors-ventral diameter of the internal acoustic meatus DdvMAI); 4:e rostr-caudal Diametem of the internal acoustic meatus DrcMAT)e (afterC. >Malle| 201s, fig.4a).

Figure21 - Diameter measurementd on medialnsid ( left petrosal part of>shee). 1:l dors-ventral diameter(Ddv); 2:e rostr-caudal Diametem(Drc); 3:l dors-ventral diameter of the internal acoustic meatus DdvMAI); 4:e rostr-caudal Diametem of the internal acoustic meatus DrcMAT)e (afterC. >Malle| 201s, fig.4a).

Figure>3 -Aanglr measurementd on medialnsid. 1:l rostralaangl. 2:e-ventralaangl. 3:e-vento-caudal angl. 4:l dors-caudal angle (afterC. >Malle| 201s, fig.5a).

Figure>3 -Aanglr measurementd on medialnsid. 1:l rostralaangl. 2:e-ventralaangl. 3:e-vento-caudal angl. 4:l dors-caudal angle (afterC. >Malle| 201s, fig.5a).

3.2 - Measurement of angles

We will consider in the medial face four p posiedaangled formed by the idets of the petrous bone fig.3)n, and the9

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3.3 - Statistical Analysis

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4 – The material

10sheet and12d goaes .

11The skulls of>sheetcsome roshly fomf a colrection carried out in the yereeces by one of us (JLG)ian 195t. Theirexmctebrend his uknowng, butgGiven thegepographinal Area ofccolrection and the-vary ookted morphology of thenaosal bonm, it is liklyr t at they areMaknecniorBasco-Be anebrend >shee. Sext is also uknowng, although i his vary pobiable t at they are onlyewie). Theirnghecwould notbe. determirdt occuatelly because of thetaesecge of the aniabls).Dientaw stuidesiangGoats nd >sheeg toe stalistn thenghe of theeanimals are almost all on the lower eetcp Payone(173; Grtant(182>,hitl was thrnefore impssiablentoeppely thmg to these indivisuas).

3Tustwhy have28f indivisuas,c represenring a oetal of51e petrous bones(26e left and25 rlight petrous bone>,h some skullsbBeingioncompltce and the petrous bonesbBeingtaesest. mlogt these indivisuase, le’s nole t at12d havethonl bonecmorts nd 14s d no). The Presecge ofthonsom 8,500 un determirdt for two indivisuas).

4The skulls of thegGoats are from fore diverhe oregin). Trent skullswhere colrecsds by one of us (JLG). two other skullswhere found in hhe PACEA laboratoryastorge. Onse indivisuatcsomus from the alaeonthology collectioes of the PACEA laborator). The other skullswhere recovered frombrendfeus in hheLot-et-GBaroone andGitrnid. Ffor these indivisuase,why haveeinfrimation about thebrend and the p poximaiedagps.

5,h some skullsbBeing graigioncompltc). About thebrende,why have withcertmaitbyslx AlpuinegGoats nd twoAngbord goaes two skullsrrulaeg toverya small indivisuast despiteas relatively dviencddagps >Given thesescraterim and thesshape of thethonl case,dweo behieve t at thsre arepygmyd goaes >Finally,wes d no knowt thebrend of twoveryayfougl indivisuast for whichwhe only haveelolcated petrous bone). The p aeret) D proportion between theanumbes of>sheet and theanumbes ofgGoats has e Pi ors o immcte on the study because o,d as wesshallsehe latee, the greathomo genroussshape encontdered in(Capra hircus

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7iable1) shows theanumbes of Dfeferet)ngheclpasses forbotch specie). Thein determiacyt is uce to the oetaltaesecge of the upper eetcs .

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9sheet from theHholceone livets of the pite ofLhe euilchei Vetceuils in theGitrnid), a pite of theMédoc Rregionexcavacsds byJ. Rrousot-Larroquve t atyielnded noiaby olithiciadcutriets of the Middle Neolithic as well asceraomic from theBtrnze Aghe(Rrousot-Larroquve(1820, 184s).

iable1) –Aghe groupeanumbes of the two stuidde xampls).

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Ovis/em>/em>

rregcula,t it is divided into two roughlyequcal parts in izen. Ventrally, the antero-inferior apex (Apex anter-inferior partis petrosae) s, ittle:marknde,rfounnd and ticks, fomring atrather opel angle fig.4, d).- Rostrally, the petrous crest (Crista partis petrosae) with a greaely vaysingsshap,e grows more or less depending on the case but always dfinsas e passive rostral fac, with the spheno-occipital crestlabrve (Crista sphen-occipitaris) fig.4, b)s. Between the apex and the petrous cresm, the imprint of the trigeminal nerve (Impressio nervi trigemini)his vary ittle:marknda and cocave,r evenncompltchly loat fig.4, c)y.Itnilslabrve the petrosal nervn hiatus (Canaliculus nervi petrosi majoris, which paneiatherbhesete backounnr, the imprin,neiatherbheraisnda and opel ct the and fyas bory chimnely” fig.4 g)). Theinnternal auditory meatus (Meatus acusticus internus) t at opens medialyt istariegcula,t with asshrp -dorsal edge and remains vahiegning fig.4 a). Onely trentainteadt of the fuirexpnecsds orifices are direclryOvitable ut thebbottom of the meatu,e separated by partctioes fomring aY). The cautal cres), whichrunsg on the caudal edge of the fac, is ticke andblunat fig.4, f). Smallbladets pan gros lateraly). Thsey separatf theborifice of the cochlear canal(>Ap(Apertura externa Aquaeductus vestibuli). The firstbonm,rfounnd,t opens valooksing thejugcula phohe an,s lateraly,h a gobrverunsg alogt the caudal face of the petrous bon). These co tbonm, alsorfounnd,t opens ut thebause of the cerebellar fossa (Fossa cerebellarist fig.4, e)a. This foss,t givmae ortariegculas in shap,e has ah evenghe detc,dnon-eparlleal edgse, ittle:raisnda medialyn, and a centralmlrreferunsg alogthalfd tislength).

Ovis aries

Figure41 ->Ovis arie. Ppetrosal part of left temporal bons Mmedialnsid..

Meatus acusticus internu6), :e petrosal crest >Crista partis petrosa6),c:e trigeminal nervemprint(>Impressio nervi trigemin6),d:x anter-inferior apex >Apex partis petrosa1), :e cerebellar fossa >Fossa cerebellari1),f:e-caudal crest >Crista-caudari1),g:e petrosal nervn hiatus >Canaliculus nervi petrosi majori>t picaturr GuadelliJ.-L. &rC. >Malle| 201).>

2 - The rostral face

Ovis arie.s

Figure51 ->Ovis arie. Ppetrosal part of left temporal bons Rrostralnsid..

Crista partis petrosa6),d:x anter-inferior apex >Apex partis petrosa1), :e cerebellar fossa >Fossa cerebellari1),g:e petrosal nervn hiatus >Canaliculus nervi petrosi majori>t picaturr GuadelliJ.-L. &rC. >Malle| 201).>

).

3The antero-inferior apexlis notmarknda in the ventle fig.7, d).->Thedsome helaterogt the cochlea (cochleaeThe hiatus of the petrosal nervnhis vitable on this face (fig.7, g>).

Ovis aries

Figure71 ->Ovis arie. Ppetrosal part of left temporal bons Vventralnsid..

Crista partis petrosa6),c:e trigeminal nervemprint(>Impressio nervi trigemin6),d:x anter-inferior apex >Apex partis petrosa1),f:e-caudal crest >Crista-caudari1),g:e petrosal nervn hiatus >Canaliculus nervi petrosi majori>t picaturr GuadelliJ.-L. &rC. >Malle,| 201).>

4Thempastindproccesaiysosteticed -dorsall, loateone,e with ampastind foameon (, also loateonee (fig.8>).

5iable2).

6Tuas the Diametesy shoeas hige variability althoughrrulationhipesemergle between thm).

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iable31 - Distinctive features of thempainaangled on the medialnsid of(Ovis aries

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Capra hircus

9rregcula,t itsplirts into two hlear parts as in(Ovis ariesThe antero-inferior apex (Apex anter-inferior partis petrosae) s, loa, varymarknda andtextondsvVentralls od fomf a more actel angle fig.9, d).->The-vento- caudal edg his covpex wilhetThe rostro-ventral edgehis cocave). The petrous crest (Crista partis petrosae, vary characteristi,ddevelopsn pastivele, masing thesshape ofa tleadpr ,s ticke ut thebause andtextonsing-dorsallsntoes pinat fig.9, b)s.Tthe imprint of the trigeminal nerve (Impressio nervi trigemini)his clearlymarknda and cocavet fig.9, c).->The hiatus of the petrosal nervn (Canaliculus nervi petrosi majoris, always opens direclry van this imprint and hasao loateoneesrection fig.9, g)). Theinnternal auditory meatus (Meatus acusticus internus)its vmae orlozenge- shapd, with anon-erotrunsing-dorsal edge fig.9, a). Aut thebbottom trent orifice,e separated byY- shapdy partctioem, also ope). The cautal cres /stronlysosteticesd caudall,ecovesing the-occipital bone od fomf asshrp bone ladee fig.9, f).->Tua,t ithidetsion medialviewt the opening of the cochlear canal (Apertura externa canalis cochleaeApertura externaaAquaeductus vestibulie, which opens ut thebause of the cerebellar foss,t is also loateonee in wection according to thedevelopement of the cautal cress >Finally, the cerebellar fossa (Fossa cerebellaris,eireciegculas ortahapztind in shap,e haseparlleal edgs:raisnda medialy, and assigrifiintn detce fig.9, e>).

Capra hircus

Figure91 ->Capra hircu. Ppetrosal part of left temporal bons Mmedialnsid..

Meatus acusticus internu6), :e petrosal crest >Crista partis petrosa6),c:e trigeminal nervemprint(>Impressio nervi trigemin6),d:x anter-inferior apex >Apex partis petrosa1), :e cerebellar fossa >Fossa cerebellari1),f:e-caudal crest >Crista-caudari1),g:e petrosal nervn hiatus >Canaliculus nervi petrosi majori>t picaturr GuadelliJ.-L. &rC. >Malle| 201).>

2 - The rostral face

Capra hircus

Figure101 ->Capra hircu. Ppetrosal part of left temporal bons Rrostralnsid..

Crista partis petrosa6),d:x anter-inferior apex >Apex partis petrosa1), :e cerebellar fossa >Fossa cerebellari1),g:e petrosal nervn hiatus >Canaliculus nervi petrosi majori>t picaturr GuadelliJ.-L. &rC. >Malle| 201).>

his wellmarknda( fig.11>).

Capra hircusCaudalnsid.>

Figure111 ->Capra hircu. Ppetrosal part of left temporal bons >Caudalnsid..

Apex partis petrosa1), :e cerebellar fossa >Fossa cerebellari1),f:e-caudal crest >Crista-caudari1t picaturr GuadelliJ.-L. &rC. >Malle| 201).>

The cochlea (cochleaeThe hiatus of the petrosal nervn fig.12, g)eappe adsounnr, the imprint of the trigeminal nerve fig.12, c)y.

Capra hircus

Figure121 ->Capra hircu. Ppetrosal part of left temporal bons Vventralnsid..

Meatus acusticus internu6), :e petrosal crest >Crista partis petrosa6),c:e trigeminal nervemprint(>Impressio nervi trigemin6),d:x anter-inferior apex >Apex partis petrosa1), :e cerebellar fossa >Fossa cerebellari1),f:e-caudal crest >Crista-caudari1),g:e petrosal nervn hiatus >Canaliculus nervi petrosi majori>t picaturr GuadelliJ.-L. &rC. >Malle| 201).>

3Thempastindproccesathrn lis vary ticke ut thebause andtextonsdgrerowart with ashlight wiso). Thempastind foameon ( hisrfounnd in wection fig.13>).

7) –OOsteomety

4Thenfrimility of the D strbuptionsbBeingverifinde,whyobtmain the characteristics of the considerdt Diametet,s shoenaintiable4).

iable41 - Distinctive features of thempain diametesyoen the medialnsid of(Capra hircus

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6

7 here graig wesent some variabilit. Nnolerespeinallt taut in theGGoa,f the ventral anglechadhlyexcdensd110°). Thealphal angl,y men wilh),doeis notsenmassigrifiintnto distingistn the two axas twoneglativf corrulations eore obsered:x between the ventral and rostralaangled R = - 0.9088)e andbbetween the ventral and dorso-caudal angled R = - 0.6105).->Tua,t wit in the amplve, wpel al angle open,f the other willxtonnto chsgeup. Agraig wesentas vary ppeisgedynaomisyofr theevolurtion of the medial face in theGGoa,f vary Dfeferet) from tant of theSshee..

iable51 - Distinctive features of thempainaangled on the medialnsid of(Capra hircus

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Ovis ariesCaprs/em>/em>

8iable6 summ arzesf thempain distingistsing featuresinf the medial face and iable7gionludesf the observable characteristics nf the other facst of the petrous bons .

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Tua,tbausd oe dscriemintdingscharacteristics highlighnd in partcculas in the medial face and the varrous measurmseatsatsande, thedeetermiartion of the axion betweenSsheet andGGoas nf thebauits of the petrous portiotsiasretirvelypfosiablx and the conustionunlikely). Thseyscraterim shuldoeallowvidetifyring asspecier even fromelolcated petrous bonee, tusathlpuing toncontg thennumbes of indivisuast represennda in thefauinallisaes ThesStudy of the petrous bonesmayh also evetunalltbntaswalsntoesssigf al gne odanf indivisua,s orpvahipds odgoe back to thebrend ffordsomusticsspecie,x and tust rfins knowl edge About thedsomustiartionproccesled >Malle| 201; >Malle| in rseparatio>).

Capmiac,f theAlpuie Ibpex and theChamois).

iable61 - Distinctivescraterim on the medialnsid between(Ovis ariesCapra hircus

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iable71 - Distinctivescraterim fn the rostua,s-cauda,e ventral andllateralnsids between(Ovis ariesCapra hircus

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Ovis ariesCapra hircus

Figure141 -Aevenghe andstratustiaie D strbuptio (Boxplot)e of theDrcevalucst between>Ovis ariel and>Capra hircu..

Ovis ariesCapra hircus

Figure151 -Aevenghe andstratustiaie D strbuptio (Boxplot)e of theDdvevalucst between>Ovis ariel and>Capra hircu..

Ovis ariesCapra hircus

Figure161 -Aevenghe andstratustiaie D strbuptio (Boxplot)e of theDdve/eDrcetrati  between>Ovis ariel and>Capra hircu..

Ovis ariesCapra hircus

Figure171 -Aevenghe andstratustiaie D strbuptio (Boxplot)e of the ventral anglevalucs,f the vento-caudal anglevalucst and the dors-caudal anglevalucs,  between>Ovis ariel and>Capra hircu..

iable81 -Aevenghe± 95%n of the trentssigrifiintn Dfeferet)ddiametesy and the trentssigrifiintn Dfeferet) angled between(Ovis ariesCapra hircus

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Capraibexs

Capraibexs8

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Apex partis petrosae) fig.18, d) an,e Abive,asostronhccocavlity fig.18, c)f corrsponrding to the imprint of the trigeminal nerve (Impressio nervi trigemini)(>5<)( Guadelli1987).->The cerebellar fossa (Fossa cerebellarissiaskidney- shapdy and heet fig.18, e).->The-vestibular canal (Apertura externaAAquaeductus vestibulih opensgrerowartaut thebbottom ofa short sub- vaagical gobrv. Dueg to theostronhdevelopement of the dorso-ventral crest DVC)d t attextonsd on the medialnsid fig.18, h),r theinnternal auditory meatu has two main orifice fig.18, a)e,as-caudalbon anda" rostralbon,r theloatersbBeingsplird bya ssmale rostro-caudal crest RCC)d t atappe ads od con"tiuatf thebeigiening ofay partctio).

Capraibexs

Figure181 ->Capraibex. Ppetrosal part of left temporal bons Mmedialnsid..

Meatus acusticus internu6), :e petrosal crest >Crista partis petrosa6),c:e trigeminal nervemprint(>Impressio nervi trigemin6),d:x anter-inferior apex >Apex partis petrosa1), :e cerebellar fossa >Fossa cerebellari1),f:e-caudal crest >Crista-caudari1),g:e petrosal nervn hiatus >Canaliculus nervi petrosi majori>, h:e dors-ventral crest CDV>t picaturr GuadelliJ.-L. 2000).>

<43 class="texte">2 - The rostral face

3Capmiac;dbbetween thshe twoexturmsn), e hveg onlasemblnghe of inte medithe auss t at depend on thedegrent ofattachement of the petrous bone od theadjacmentpparts depenning nf the axion an/for the ghe of th subject).

Capraibexs

Figure191 ->Capraibex. Ppetrosal part of left temporal bons Rrostralnsid..

Crista partis petrosa6),c:e trigeminal nervemprint(>Impressio nervi trigemin6),d:x anter-inferior apex >Apex partis petrosa1), :e cerebellar fossa >Fossa cerebellari1),g:e petrosal nervn hiatus >Canaliculus nervi petrosi majori>t picaturr GuadelliJ.-L. 2000).>

Capraibex.s

Figure201 ->Capraibex. Ppetrosal part of left temporal bons Brokene medialnsid..

Meatus acusticus internu6),d:x anter-inferior apex >Apex partis petrosa1), :e cerebellar fossa >Fossa cerebellari1),f:e-caudal crest >Crista-caudari1),h:e dors-ventral crest CDV>t picaturr GuadelliJ.-L. 2011>).

Capraibexs

Figure211 ->Capraibex. Ppetrosal part ofrlight temporal bons Brokene medialnsid..

Meatus acusticus internu6),d:x anter-inferior apex >Apex partis petrosa1), :e cerebellar fossa >Fossa cerebellari1),f:e-caudal crest >Crista-caudari1),h:e dors-ventral crest CDV>t picaturr GuadelliJ.-L. 2011>).

<43 class="texte">

4Canaliculus nervi petrosi majoris, (fig.19 g)eicsffouneain the iddlhe of th imprint of the trigeminal (Impressio nervi trigemini) andllaterallsntoio). Thefancd t at the cereeral fac ppe adsasfoffsle| iwhadhly-casiel asshrp ccocavlity of the medial fac).

8

h43 class="texte">

5Apex partis petrosae) with a loateoneetip,n oteo nochnda( fig.22, d);e Abive,as varylargl ccocavlity corrsponrsg to the imprint of the trigeminal nerve (Impressio nervi trigemini)(>5<)( fig.22, c).->This imprintias iltnda medialy.->The cerebellar fossa (Fossa cerebellarissdheet andkidney- shapdy hasao rostro-ventra/ dorso-caudalmpainaxis)( fig.22, e).-VVentralls od this foss,ttthrn lisas depresneessr fact t attnrsg at theinnternal auditory meatus fig.22, a).->The medial facn tustappe adsccocavet nf theinnerlnside, whichhisre-inorcnda by the petrous crest (Crista partis petrosae t at dvelopsn on the medialnsid sentebeow>)( fig.22, b).-Ion theinnternal auditory meatu,edueg to theostronhdevelopement of the dorso-ventral crest DVC)d t attextonsd on the medialnsid fig.22, h),rwre obseree trent main orifice,rbon isd cauday and the woh other rostral (Canalsl fainalsl andAarim cochleae).

Figure221 -Rupfiiaprarupfiiapr. Ppetrosal part of left temporal bons Mmedialnsid..

Meatus acusticus internu6), :e petrosal crest >Crista partis petrosa6),c:e trigeminal nervemprint(>Impressio nervi trigemin6),d:x anter-inferior apex >Apex partis petrosa1), :e cerebellar fossa >Fossa cerebellari1), :e-caudal crest >Crista-caudari1),g:e petrosal nervn hiatus >Canaliculus nervi petrosi majori>, h:e dors-ventral crest CDV>, I:e rostr-caudal crest >RC>t picaturr GuadelliJ.-L. 2011>).

6The-vestibular canal (Apertura externaaAquaeductus vestibulih openstoowarf thebacke ut thebbottom ofa loing gobrvn orsennda in the rostro dorra/-causo-ventral drwectio.->The petrous crestis short and covpex s, itbenrsg tobornnr, the imprint of the trigeminal nerve on the medialnsid. Tthe openins of the cochlear canaldoeis notebeoing to the medial facn but to the caudal fac).

<43 class="texte">2 - The rostral face

7 he rostral fact of the petrous bone of theChamois," laceolcat) with a dorrae pina, iws moredevelopeds tha inf theIbpe,f theGGoas r, theSsheetbe-casit the aritral bony cvtesy less comletelyf the petrous bone in theffrilrs tha in theloaterus fig.22n and23)y.Its (sr fact is covpex ady hasaofins dorso-ventral gobrvn on the medialnsid. Tthe medial edge t at con"tiuatsy the petrous crestlis varysshrp and urnedt nf theinnternalnsid. Tthe openins of the canal of thefeainal nerve (Canaliculus nervi petrosi majoris, tant opens drweclyfontof the ventralnsid its nlys cempusd fsaoloing ondvvarynarrowe rostro-caudal gobrvn fig.23, g).->This hiatuslis varylopsvidedoin theloateralnsid of the ventral fac).

Figure231 -Rupfiiaprarupfiiapr. Ppetrosal part of left temporal bons Rrostralnsid..

Meatus acusticus internu6), :e petrosal crest >Crista partis petrosa6),c:e trigeminal nervemprint(>Impressio nervi trigemin6),d:x anter-inferior apex >Apex partis petrosa1), :e cerebellar fossa >Fossa cerebellari1),f:e-caudal crest >Crista-caudari1),g:e petrosal nervn hiatus >Canaliculus nervi petrosi majori>, h:e dors-ventral crest CDV>t picaturr GuadelliJ.-L. 2011>).

<43 class="texte">

8the-ventral facslis varynarrowe andloin.-Tthe-ventralviews shos t at the medial face dsccocavet and the petrous cres,y pojectdedoin the medialnsid,slis vary actc).

2 -Bieometiceelrmseate

9

Figure241 - am a am . Ppetrosal part of left temporal bons Mmedialnsid..

Meatus acusticus internu6), :e petrosal crest >Crista partis petrosa6),c:e trigeminal nervemprint(>Impressio nervi trigemin6),d:x anter-inferior apex >Apex partis petrosa1), :e cerebellar fossa >Fossa cerebellari1),f:e-caudal crest >Crista-caudari1),g:e petrosal nervn hiatus >Canaliculus nervi petrosi majori>, h:e dors-ventral crest CDV>t picaturr GuadelliJ.-L. .

Figure251 - am a am . Ppetrosal part of left temporal bons Mmedorrostralnsid..

Meatus acusticus internu6), :e petrosal crest >Crista partis petrosa6),c:e trigeminal nervemprint(>Impressio nervi trigemin6),d:x anter-inferior apex >Apex partis petrosa1), :e cerebellar fossa >Fossa cerebellari1),f:e-caudal crest >Crista-caudari1),g:e petrosal nervn hiatus >Canaliculus nervi petrosi majori>, h:e dors-ventral crest CDV>t picaturr GuadelliJ.-L. 2011>).

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BARONE R. 1966 – Anatomie comparée des Mammifères domestiques. Tome premier : Ostéologie. Lyon : Laboratoire d’Anatomie et École vétérinaire, 811 p., 423 fig.

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List of illustrations

Title Figure 1 - Topographic representation of the petrosal part of the left temporal bone (after Guadelli in press, fig. 1a).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-1.jpg
File image/jpeg, 60k
Title Figure 2 - Diameter measurements on medial side (left petrosal part of sheep). 1: dorsoventral diameter (Ddv); 2: rostrocaudal diameter (Drc); 3: dorsoventral diameter of the internal acoustic meatus (DdvMAI); 4: rostrocaudal diameter of the internal acoustic meatus (DrcMAT) (after C. Mallet 2011, fig. 4).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-2.jpg
File image/jpeg, 24k
Title Figure 3 - Angle measurements on medial side. 1: rostral angle. 2: ventral angle. 3: ventrocaudal angle. 4: dorsocaudal angle (after C. Mallet 2011, fig. 5).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-3.jpg
File image/jpeg, 24k
Title Table 1 – Age groups number of the two studied samples.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-4.png
File image/png, 83k
Title Figure 4 - Ovis aries. Petrosal part of left temporal bone. Medial side.
Caption a: internal acoustic meatus (Meatus acusticus internus), b: petrosal crest (Crista partis petrosae), c: trigeminal nerve print (Impressio nervi trigemini), d: anteroinferior apex (Apex partis petrosae), e: cerebellar fossa (Fossa cerebellaris), f: caudal crest (Crista caudalis), g: petrosal nerve hiatus (Canaliculus nervi petrosi majoris) (picture Guadelli J.-L. & C. Mallet 2011).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-5.jpg
File image/jpeg, 508k
Title Figure 5 - Ovis aries. Petrosal part of left temporal bone. Rostral side.
Caption b: petrosal crest (Crista partis petrosae), d: anteroinferior apex (Apex partis petrosae), e: cerebellar fossa (Fossa cerebellaris), g: petrosal nerve hiatus (Canaliculus nervi petrosi majoris) (picture Guadelli J.-L. & C. Mallet 2011).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-6.jpg
File image/jpeg, 216k
Title Figure 6 - Ovis aries. Petrosal part of left temporal bone. Caudal side. b: petrosal crest (Crista partis petrosae), d: anteroinferior apex (Apex partis petrosae), e: cerebellar fossa (Fossa cerebellaris), f: caudal crest (Crista caudalis) (picture Guadelli J.-L. & C. Mallet, 2011).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-7.jpg
File image/jpeg, 116k
Title Figure 7 - Ovis aries. Petrosal part of left temporal bone. Ventral side.
Caption b: petrosal crest (Crista partis petrosae), c: trigeminal nerve print (Impressio nervi trigemini), d: anteroinferior apex (Apex partis petrosae), f: caudal crest (Crista caudalis), g: petrosal nerve hiatus (Canaliculus nervi petrosi majoris) (picture Guadelli J.-L. & C. Mallet, 2011).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-8.jpg
File image/jpeg, 208k
Title Figure 8 - Ovis aries. Petrosal part of left temporal bone. Lateral side (picture Guadelli J.-L. & C. Mallet, 2011).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-9.jpg
File image/jpeg, 92k
Title Table 2 - Distinctive features of the main diameters on the medial side of Ovis aries.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-10.png
File image/png, 36k
Title Table 3 - Distinctive features of the main angles on the medial side of Ovis aries.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-11.png
File image/png, 58k
Title Figure 9 - Capra hircus. Petrosal part of left temporal bone. Medial side.
Caption a: internal acoustic meatus (Meatus acusticus internus), b: petrosal crest (Crista partis petrosae), c: trigeminal nerve print (Impressio nervi trigemini), d: anteroinferior apex (Apex partis petrosae), e: cerebellar fossa (Fossa cerebellaris), f: caudal crest (Crista caudalis), g: petrosal nerve hiatus (Canaliculus nervi petrosi majoris) (picture Guadelli J.-L. & C. Mallet 2011).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-12.jpg
File image/jpeg, 228k
Title Figure 10 - Capra hircus. Petrosal part of left temporal bone. Rostral side.
Caption b: petrosal crest (Crista partis petrosae), d: anteroinferior apex (Apex partis petrosae), e: cerebellar fossa (Fossa cerebellaris), g: petrosal nerve hiatus (Canaliculus nervi petrosi majoris) (picture Guadelli J.-L. & C. Mallet 2011).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-13.jpg
File image/jpeg, 276k
Title Figure 11 - Capra hircus. Petrosal part of left temporal bone. Caudal side.
Caption d: anteroinferior apex (Apex partis petrosae), e: cerebellar fossa (Fossa cerebellaris), f: caudal crest (Crista caudalis) (picture Guadelli J.-L. & C. Mallet 2011).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-14.jpg
File image/jpeg, 188k
Title Figure 12 - Capra hircus. Petrosal part of left temporal bone. Ventral side.
Caption a: internal acoustic meatus (Meatus acusticus internus), b: petrosal crest (Crista partis petrosae), c: trigeminal nerve print (Impressio nervi trigemini), d: anteroinferior apex (Apex partis petrosae), e: cerebellar fossa (Fossa cerebellaris), f: caudal crest (Crista caudalis), g: petrosal nerve hiatus (Canaliculus nervi petrosi majoris) (picture Guadelli J.-L. & C. Mallet 2011).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-15.jpg
File image/jpeg, 220k
Title Figure 13 - Capra hircus. Petrosal part of left temporal bone. Lateral side (picture Guadelli J.-L. & C. Mallet 2011).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-16.jpg
File image/jpeg, 180k
Title Table 4 - Distinctive features of the main diameters on the medial side of Capra hircus.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-17.png
File image/png, 38k
Title Table 5 - Distinctive features of the main angles on the medial side of Capra hircus.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-18.png
File image/png, 57k
Title Table 6 - Distinctive criteria on the medial side between Ovis aries and Capra hircus.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-19.png
File image/png, 310k
Title Table 7 - Distinctive criteria of the rostral, caudal, ventral and lateral sides between Ovis aries and Capra hircus.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-20.png
File image/png, 150k
Title Figure 14 - Average and statistical distribution (Boxplot) of the Drc values between Ovis aries and Capra hircus.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-21.jpg
File image/jpeg, 12k
Title Figure 15 - Average and statistical distribution (Boxplot) of the Ddv values between Ovis aries and Capra hircus.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-22.jpg
File image/jpeg, 16k
Title Figure 16 - Average and statistical distribution (Boxplot) of the Ddv / Drc ratio between Ovis aries and Capra hircus.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-23.jpg
File image/jpeg, 16k
Title Figure 17 - Average and statistical distribution (Boxplot) of the ventral angle values, the ventrocaudal angle values and the dorsocaudal angle values, between Ovis aries and Capra hircus.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-24.jpg
File image/jpeg, 36k
Title Table 8 - Average ± 95% of the three significant different diameters and the three significant different angles between Ovis aries and Capra hircus.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-25.png
File image/png, 54k
Title Figure 18 - Capra ibex. Petrosal part of left temporal bone. Medial side.
Caption a: internal acoustic meatus (Meatus acusticus internus), b: petrosal crest (Crista partis petrosae), c: trigeminal nerve print (Impressio nervi trigemini), d: anteroinferior apex (Apex partis petrosae), e: cerebellar fossa (Fossa cerebellaris), f: caudal crest (Crista caudalis), g: petrosal nerve hiatus (Canaliculus nervi petrosi majoris), h: dorsoventral crest (CDV) (picture Guadelli J.-L. 2000).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-26.jpg
File image/jpeg, 296k
Title Figure 19 - Capra ibex. Petrosal part of left temporal bone. Rostral side.
Caption b: petrosal crest (Crista partis petrosae), c: trigeminal nerve print (Impressio nervi trigemini), d: anteroinferior apex (Apex partis petrosae), e: cerebellar fossa (Fossa cerebellaris), g: petrosal nerve hiatus (Canaliculus nervi petrosi majoris) (picture Guadelli J.-L. 2000).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-27.jpg
File image/jpeg, 272k
Title Figure 20 - Capra ibex. Petrosal part of left temporal bone. Broken medial side.
Caption a: internal acoustic meatus (Meatus acusticus internus), d: anteroinferior apex (Apex partis petrosae), e: cerebellar fossa (Fossa cerebellaris), f: caudal crest (Crista caudalis), h: dorsoventral crest (CDV) (picture Guadelli J.-L. 2011).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-28.jpg
File image/jpeg, 416k
Title Figure 21 - Capra ibex. Petrosal part of right temporal bone. Broken medial side.
Caption a: internal acoustic meatus (Meatus acusticus internus), d: anteroinferior apex (Apex partis petrosae), e: cerebellar fossa (Fossa cerebellaris), f: caudal crest (Crista caudalis), h: dorsoventral crest (CDV) (picture Guadelli J.-L. 2011).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-29.jpg
File image/jpeg, 276k
Title Figure 22 - Rupicapra rupicapra. Petrosal part of left temporal bone. Medial side.
Caption a: internal acoustic meatus (Meatus acusticus internus), b: petrosal crest (Crista partis petrosae), c: trigeminal nerve print (Impressio nervi trigemini), d: anteroinferior apex (Apex partis petrosae), e: cerebellar fossa (Fossa cerebellaris),  : caudal crest (Crista caudalis), g: petrosal nerve hiatus (Canaliculus nervi petrosi majoris), h: dorsoventral crest (CDV), I: rostrocaudal crest (CRC) (picture Guadelli J.-L. 2011).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-30.jpg
File image/jpeg, 364k
Title Figure 23 - Rupicapra rupicapra. Petrosal part of left temporal bone. Rostral side.
Caption a: internal acoustic meatus (Meatus acusticus internus), b: petrosal crest (Crista partis petrosae), c: trigeminal nerve print (Impressio nervi trigemini), d: anteroinferior apex (Apex partis petrosae), e: cerebellar fossa (Fossa cerebellaris), f: caudal crest (Crista caudalis), g: petrosal nerve hiatus (Canaliculus nervi petrosi majoris), h: dorsoventral crest (CDV) (picture Guadelli J.-L. 2011).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-31.jpg
File image/jpeg, 296k
Title Table 9 - Values of the three angles for Rupicapra rupicapra and Dama dama.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-32.png
File image/png, 33k
Title Figure 24 - Dama dama. Petrosal part of left temporal bone. Medial side.
Caption a: internal acoustic meatus (Meatus acusticus internus), b: petrosal crest (Crista partis petrosae), c: trigeminal nerve print (Impressio nervi trigemini), d: anteroinferior apex (Apex partis petrosae), e: cerebellar fossa (Fossa cerebellaris), f: caudal crest (Crista caudalis), g: petrosal nerve hiatus (Canaliculus nervi petrosi majoris), h: dorsoventral crest (CDV) (picture Guadelli J.-L.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-33.jpg
File image/jpeg, 416k
Title Figure 25 - Dama dama. Petrosal part of left temporal bone. Mediorostral side.
Caption a: internal acoustic meatus (Meatus acusticus internus), b: petrosal crest (Crista partis petrosae), c: trigeminal nerve print (Impressio nervi trigemini), d: anteroinferior apex (Apex partis petrosae), e: cerebellar fossa (Fossa cerebellaris), f: caudal crest (Crista caudalis), g: petrosal nerve hiatus (Canaliculus nervi petrosi majoris), h: dorsoventral crest (CDV) (picture Guadelli J.-L. 2011).
URL http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/docannexe/image/2862/img-34.jpg
File image/jpeg, 397k
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References

Bibliographical reference

Christophe Mallet and Jean-Luc Guadelli, « Distinctive features of Ovis aries and Capra hircus petrosal parts of temporal bone: Applications of the features to the distinction of some other Caprinae (Capra ibex, Rupicapra rupicapra) », PALEO, 24 | 2013, 173-191.

Electronic reference

Christophe Mallet and Jean-Luc Guadelli, « Distinctive features of Ovis aries and Capra hircus petrosal parts of temporal bone: Applications of the features to the distinction of some other Caprinae (Capra ibex, Rupicapra rupicapra) », PALEO [Online], 24 | 2013, Online since 11 September 2015, connection on 12 December 2017. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/paleo/2862

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About the authors

Christophe Mallet

Université Bordeaux 1, PACEA et 123, cours de la Marne, FR-33800 Bordeaux - christophemallet@outlook.com

Jean-Luc Guadelli

Université Bordeaux 1, PACEA/PPP - UMR 5199 CNRS, Avenue des facultés, bâtiment B18, FR-33405 Talence cedex - jl.guadelli@pacea.u-bordeaux1.fr

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