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III. Delphes et le reste du monde antique

Haimonian lekythoi from Delphi, Phokis and West Lokris in a geographical context

Les lécythes haimoniens de Delphes dans leur contexte géographique
Katerina Volioti
p. 243-264

Résumés

J’offre dans cet article une étude détaillée de 5 lécythes attiques du début du ve siècle en provenance de Delphes et je contextualise la présence substantielle à Delphes de lécythes haimoniens en tenant compte d’autres formes de poterie attique. Je passe en revue la répartition des lécythes haimoniens à Phokis et Lokris-ouest, et examine les relations géographiques éventuelles dans le but de voir comment des lécythes ont pu arriver en des endroits spécifiques. Je suggère que les principales routes maritimes ne sauraient rendre complètement compte du transport par terre des lécythes et qu’il nous faut envisager aussi une distribution de grande ampleur par des modes de transport terrestres aussi. J’avance en conclusion qu’une demande localisée touchant à la fourniture et à la consommation d’articles de mode comme les lécythes haimoniens, fournit un autre mécanisme susceptible d’expliquer leur large distribution.

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Texte intégral

I am grateful to Professor Jean-Marc Luce for his kind invitation to participate in the colloquium and to the 10th Ephorate, especially to Dr Elena Partida, for allowing me to publish pottery from Delphi. The photographs for figures 1-5 are by myself and published with permission. I would like to thank my supervisors, Dr Amy C. Smith and Dr Emma Aston, as well as Dr Victoria Sabetai, Dr Antonis Kotsonas, Dr Michael Scott and Dr Robert Harding for their comments on an earlier draft. My thanks also extend to Georg Gerleigner and Winfred Van de Put for useful discussion. All remaining mistakes are mine. This research was supported by an AHRC grant.

Introduction

  • 1 Freitag, 1999, p. 321-323.

1The export of Attic figured pottery to Italian markets entailed the westwards sailing of cargoes through the Korinthian Gulf, presumably along its shores since open-sea sailing was avoided in ancient Greece. The existence of point-to-point connections across the south and north shores of the Gulf1 and the central location and importance of Kirrha, the dedicated port of Delphi, implicated the Phokian and West Lokrian seascapes. While port towns in Phokis and West Lokris benefited from traded goods arriving through sea traffic, such goods would have also travelled northwards to the hinterland.

  • 2 Luce, 2008, p. 212-213, 419: deposit B036.

2Groups and individuals at Apollo’s sanctuary consumed not only monumental and expensive dedications but also utilitarian items of low intrinsic value that could, nonetheless, encapsulate pilgrims’ piety. Recent re-examinations of late Archaic archaeological evidence at Delphi has shown that common Korinthian pottery, such as black-glazed kotylai, played a significant role as a category of votive objects.2 Haimonian lekythoi, probably containing scented or culinary oil, comprise yet another group of common ceramics and their study can potentially revise deeply rooted scholarly assumptions about the material needs of a large, famous and busy sanctuary at the heart of the Greek mainland.

  • 3 Volioti, 2011a, p. 141-142, with bibliographic references.

3Korinth was the key supplier of pottery, other artefacts and even raw materials for Delphi. Hence, the occurrence of Attic pottery at Delphi is important in that it penetrated a Korinthian supply chain. The presence of Haimonian and related lekythoi at Delphi and its wider geographical ambit, however, also pertained to local preferences for an Attic shape that was popular, widely distributed across the Mediterranean, and had the potential to be used variously: in households, sanctuaries and burials.3

  • 4 ABL p. 130-141.
  • 5 All subsequent dates are BC.
  • 6 Robertson, 1985, p. 25.

4The Haimon Painter, whose name was invented by Emilie Haspels in 1936, specialised in the manufacture of carelessly painted black-figured lekythoi but was far from a single personality.4 It is best to understand his œuvre as an approach towards the production of Attic figured pottery during 500 to 450 BC5 which was embraced by a number of potters and painters exhibiting stylistic overlaps with various other workshops: that of the Class of Athens 581ii, and the Gela, Diosphos, Theseus, Emporion, Pholos and Beldam Painters. The hasty drawings of Haimonian lekythoi, which lack detail and precision, expose the limits of connoisseurship for modern scholars.6

5Yet there is no reason to assume that such admittedly secondary Attic pottery was looked down upon in antiquity. In this paper I combine a stylistic analysis with an archaeological approach seeking to understand the ancient demand for Haimonian lekythoi at Delphi and its surroundings. Firstly, I discuss the attributions and findspots of Haimonian lekythoi from Delphi vis-à-vis other contemporary Attic pottery. Secondly, I review the distribution of Haimonian and other early fifth-century Attic pottery elsewhere in Phokis and West Lokris, providing summaries for each site and commenting on possible communication routes over seascapes and landscapes. Thirdly, I consider how the implications of geography for transporting Attic pottery can account for the popularity of Haimonian lekythoi at Delphi and beyond it.

1. Haimonian lekythoi at Delphi

  • 7 ABL p. 241.15; ABV p. 539.11; Para p. 272-282.
  • 8 Add2; Mannack, 2006: no additional black-figured lekythoi from Delphi.

6Haspels’ and John D. Beazley’s catalogues comprise 61 Haimonian lekythoi from Delphi.7 This is a substantial concentration for a location in mainland Greece based on evidence before 1970.8 From these 61, the Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities at Delphi kindly allowed me to study a random sample of 5 vessels, all now kept in museum storage: nos. 4703, 4705, 4717, 4718 and 4719. Below, I will describe each lekythos in detail and for 3 lekythoi in particular I contest Beazley’s attributions.

  • 9 Para p. 283.
  • 10 See Agora 12, nos. 1115-1116.
  • 11 AWL p. 115.
  • 12 They also refrained from experimenting in Six’s Technique.

7No. 4703 has been described by Beazley as “undecorated” and “vaguely Haimonian”.9 Black glaze, which is in places thin, covers entirely the cylindrical body of this small lekythos, measuring only 12 cm in height (Fig. 1). Unlike other plain black lekythoi, this specimen lacks the customary thin red bands that appear on the upper body, just below the shoulder, or where the shape begins to taper towards the base. Black glaze has also been applied on the mouth top, contrary to its habitual rendering in reserve. The shoulder is decorated with white bars alternating with black rays, which is a common decorative motif for plain black lekythoi of the Little Lion Class10 but unknown amongst Haimonian lekythoi. The overall shape, including the disc foot, is reminiscent of the Class of Athens 581ii. Although I am unable to assign this lekythos to a particular workshop, I would exclude it from the Haimonian œuvre. Haimonian painters, contrary to other lekythos painters,11 did not manufacture plain black lekythoi. The elimination of this vase strengthens the position that Haimonian producers specialised in the black figure technique.12

  • 13 Para p. 277.
  • 14 Konstantinou, 1965, no. 8.
  • 15 Para p. 237.

8Another small lekythos, no. 4705 (tagged ‘4105’ at the Archaeological Museum of Delphi), which measures 11.5 cm in height, shows Herakles combating the bull, the pair flanked by hanging cloaks that undoubtedly create a symmetrical visual effect (Fig. 2). The detailed drawing, including the fine brush strokes for the bull’s legs, the copious sprinkle of large white dots, the black-glazed mouth top, and the broad shape are uncommon for Haimonian lekythoi. Instead, I would attribute this lekythos to the Class of Athens 581ii, Group of Agora P24366, disagreeing with Beazley’s attribution to the Manner of the Haimon Painter.13 Besides, this vase is similar in shape to another black-figured lekythos from Delphi14 which Beazley attributed to the Class of Athens 581ii.15

  • 16 Bothmer von, 1957, p. 98 ; Compare to : Marseille, Musée Borély, 1602/1692 ; Para p. 250.
  • 17 Para p. 278.
  • 18 ABL p. 98, 100; AWL p. 80. Similar shoulder ornament: ABL p. 234.55.

9A larger lekythos, no. 4717, of height 18.5 cm, features three Amazons, each standing to the left of her horse and marching rightwards (Fig. 3).16 The proportionate shape and the detail in the figural scene indicate a carefully crafted piece, despite the missing fragments from the body and neck. Indeed, I would question Beazley’s attribution to the Manner of the Haimon Painter.17 Rather, the horses’ round heads, necks and chests, the broad face and thick neck for the middle Amazon, whose face survives (Fig. 3), the tear-shaped rays on the shoulder, and the protruding edge at the top of the flaring mouth are all suggestive of the Diosphos Painter.18

  • 19 Para p. 279.
  • 20 For example: Athens, 3rd Ephorate, A15506; Palarma and Stampolidis, 2001, no. 335.
  • 21 For example: Tübingen, 74 ; CVA Germany, 47, Tübingen 3, pl. 49.9-11.
  • 22 See ABL pl. 40.1b-c.

10Barrel-shaped no. 4718, measuring 20 cm in height, appears to be Haimonian (Fig. 4).19 The surface is particularly worn and covered with minerals, while missing parts from the neck and shoulder have been completed in plaster. According to Beazley, the lekythos shows Achilles and Ajax playing. A close examination, nonetheless, reveals divergences from other black-figured lekythoi featuring this theme, where symmetry is achieved with both heroes, either armed or unarmed, seated or kneeling.20 Here an unbearded figure, as if seated on an okladias, faces a kneeling helmeted warrior carrying a round shield. Between them stands a female, presumably Athena, extending her left arm towards the warrior. A bema for Athena may be rudimentarily shown here,21 rather than a gaming-table where the heroes played dice.22 Female riders, judging from their limbs in accessory white, flank the scene and, typically for Haimonian compositions, all figures hover above the ground. The scene is sprinkled with large white dots and the deep incisions are visually prominent. The shoulder bears leaf-shaped rays that could recall the hanging lotus buds on lekythoi of the Class of Athens 581i.

  • 23 Para p. 281.
  • 24 Similar scene: Rio de Janeiro, National Museum, no inventory number; Chevitarese, 2003.

11No. 4719 survives only partially: the lower body at a height of 9.5 cm, as well as some loose fragments and the handle (Fig. 5). The slender shape and figural scene, nonetheless, do support the Haimonian attribution.23 In the middle of the picture appears a post, apparently a tree trunk, and on either side of the post two females in long gowns dance above hemispherical baskets. The large black dots across the picture clearly indicate that the lekythos showed women picking fruit in an orchard.24

  • 25 Perdrizet, 1908, nos. 255, 256 (ABL p. 241.15 ; ABV p. 539.11) ; Konstantinou, 1965, nos. 11-22.

12Only 2 out of the 5 vases I studied at Delphi are by the Haimonian workshop. The 2/5 ratio, nonetheless, can not serve as a reliable index for re-attributing the remaining 56 allegedly Haimonian lekythoi in Haspels’ and Beazley’s catalogues. Judging from 14 Haimonian lekythoi with illustrations in the literature,25 all 14 are indeed Haimonian. How do Haimonian lekythoi, regardless of their exact number, fare with the contemporary assemblage of Attic pottery at Delphi?

  • 26 ABL p. 255.9; ABV p. 499.40; Para p. 561-562, excluding plain black and palmette lekythoi, and thos (...)
  • 27 Perdrizet, 1908, nos. 266-74 (9) ; Para p. 254 (1) ; Konstantinou, 1965, nos. 28-43 (16) ; BA 36131 (...)
  • 28 Archaeologists do not normally count each one of these lekythoi. See Demangel, 1923, p. 96.b: “seve (...)

13Black-figured lekythoi by other workshops, including my revisions for nos. 4705 and 4717, comprise 28 vessels:26 the Phanyllis Group (1), Little Lion Class (1), Athena Painter (1), Cock Group (5), Diosphos Painter (1), Class of Athens 581i (6) and Class of Athens 581ii (13). Half of these (14 out of 28), by the Diosphos Painter and of the Class of Athens 581ii, are by workshops related to the Haimonian œuvre, further supporting the popularity of Haimonian lekythoi at Delphi. The total of plain black and pattern lekythoi is 31,27 which is, in all likelihood, an underestimate given the usual abundance of such lekythoi well above those with pictorial scenes.28

  • 29 Delphi, 6667; Para p. 287.
  • 30 ABL p. 214.180, pl. 25.5; Mannack, 2006, p. 25.
  • 31 Perdrizet, 1908, no. 236; ABV p. 376.221
  • 32 ARV² p. 268.18. Demangel, 1923, p. 96.a, fig. 16h.
  • 33 Perdrizet, 1908, no. 375.
  • 34 ARV² p. 1575.5.
  • 35 Para p. 408.3bis.
  • 36 ARV² p. 572.90 ; Para p. 390. Lerat, 1961, p. 320, footnote 1, possibly the same as a red-figured s (...)
  • 37 Glass amphoriskoi and alabastra : Perdrizet, 1908, nos. 767-771 ; Demangel, 1923, p. 96.h, fig. 16g (...)
  • 38 Delphi, 8140 ; BA 5522. Mertens, 1974, p. 106-108.
  • 39 Perdrizet, 1908, no. 374. Demangel, 1923, p. 69, fig. 2.
  • 40 Perdrizet, 1908, nos. 366-372.
  • 41 Tsingarida, 2008, p. 202-203: white-ground cups at Brauron and Aphaia also feature scenes that reca (...)
  • 42 London, British Museum, 1887.7-801.61 and 1902.12-18.2; Para p. 330, ARV² p. 99.7, 103.12, 104; Par (...)

14In this discussion I divide Attic pottery of other shapes from Delphi into common and rare pieces, based on scholars’ remarks about the quality of painting, available attributions and the size of the production output by specific painters or workshops. Common pottery amounts to only 10 specimens: a hydria by the Group of the Half Palmettes,29 an oinochoe by the Gela Painter,30 a pelike by the Leagros Group,31 2 alabastra by the Group of the Negro Alabastra,32 another black-figured alabastron,33 a plain black alabastron,34 a red-figured squat lekythos,35 and 2 red-figured fragments.36 Both the Gela Painter and the Leagros Group produced more lekythoi than oinochoai and pelikai so that the presence of these shapes could also suggest consignments of lekythoi destined for Delphi. Haimonian cups, or their Boiotian imitations, are remarkably absent from Delphi. Containers for (perfumed) oil predominate even in this small assemblage of 10 vases, indicating that the concentration of black-figured lekythoi at Delphi was consistent with the local demand for oil flasks.37 Rare pottery encompasses 9 vases. In white ground, we find a kylix38 and 2 alabastra (one by the Pasiades potter).39 In red figure we have a hydria, jug, squat lekythos, 2 skyphoi, and an open shape.40 The white-ground kylix showing wreath-crowned Apollo offering a libation is a vase of superb quality unrelated to the modes of production and use of black-figured lekythoi.41 The 2 white-ground alabastra are special in terms of decoration, and the alabastron by the Pasiades potter is one of only 5 known such vases.42 The total of 19 common and rare vases is low for a large site such as Delphi. Only when adding the 117 lekythoi (58 Haimonian and allegedly Haimonian, 28 other black-figured lekythoi and 31 plain black or pattern lekythoi) does the quantity of Attic pottery from 500-450 BC increase. How could information about findspots elucidate further the circulation of Attic pottery at Delphi?

  • 43 Perdrizet, 1908, p. VI.
  • 44 Luce, 2008, p. 212, footnote 39.
  • 45 See Lerat, 1961, p. 320.
  • 46 Perdrizet, 1908, p. IV, 141, no. 88, 148.
  • 47 Bommelaer, 1991, p. 95.

15Early fifth-century pottery is almost totally absent from Apollo’s sanctuary.43 Jean-Marc Luce has offered, with good reason, two possible explanations for the missing deposits from the Classical (and Hellenistic) period.44 Firstly, cleared ceramics from the fifth century onwards, when the sanctuary was exceptionally busy, could not accumulate near buildings, because this would change their ground levels, and these needed to be kept the same because of the steep hill slope. Secondly, building activity in late Antiquity obliterated Classical layers.45 Korinthian perfume vases, for example, proliferate from deposits near Apollo’s temple.46 The genuine loss of archaeological layers from the rebuilding of the temple after its destruction in 548/7,47 however, hinders an understanding of whether or not black-figured lekythoi replaced small Korinthian closed shapes.

  • 48 Scott, 2010, p. 226-227.
  • 49 Amandry, 1991, p. 198-199.
  • 50 Perdrizet, 1908, nos. 281-288 ; Konstantinou, 1965, nos. 48-50.
  • 51 Pouilloux, 1960, p. 153.
  • 52 Amandry, 1981, p. 696.

16Deposits containing ex votos within the sanctuary are few.48 Two pits beneath the Sacred Way yielded dedications from the late eighth to the end of the fifth century, but reportedly no pottery.49 The published list of finds, nevertheless, is selective and accounts only for the objects on display in the Archaeological Museum of Delphi. Three fifth-century clay figurines of a common type and small glass vases, both known from burial assemblages with Haimonian lekythoi at Delphi,50 could imply the presence of common Attic pottery in these pits. The cataloguing of finds in 1939 was interrupted by World War II and with the subsequent focus on safeguarding precious objects it is likely that pottery failed to receive scholarly attention. A further deposit from the northeast of Apollo’s temple, under the modern pathway to the theatre, contained buried sculpture but apparently no pottery.51 Stray finds of iron and bronze, but again no pottery, come from the foot of the porous staircase to the theatre.52

  • 53 Perdrizet, 1908, no. 277 ; Konstantinou, 1965, nos. 11-26. The Archives of the 10th Ephorate record (...)
  • 54 Perdrizet, 1908, nos. 253, 275-6, 278-80; Demangel, 1923, p. 95.b, fig. 16a, p. 96.b, fig. 16i; Kon (...)
  • 55 Perdrizet, 1908, p. 168: black-figured lekythoi from Karoutes in the East Cemetery.
  • 56 Para p. 561.
  • 57 Perdrizet, 1908, p. I.
  • 58 Perdrizet, 1908, p. 12 contra Themelis, 1991, p. 41: 1903 for the first building of the museum.

17Findspots at Delphi are known for 20 Haimonian lekythoi,53 all from the site of the Archaeological Museum (the West Cemetery of Delphi), and for another 17 black-figured lekythoi54 from the museum site and Logari at the East Cemetery.55 If the low inventory numbers for an additional 10 Haimonian lekythoi, nos. 1-9, and 13-14,56 indicate some of the earliest finds at Delphi, these lekythoi may come from graves in the East Cemetery along the road to Arachova.57 The date ‘1894’ marked in pencil under the foot of no. 4719, which I examined, could relate either to the East or the West Cemetery, given that the building of the museum began in that year.58

  • 59 Bommelaer, 1991, p. 43 ; Scott, 2010, p. 221, 223.
  • 60 Pariente, 1991, p. 231.
  • 61 Lerat, 1961, p. 330-357 ; Bommelaer, 1991, p. 43 ; Luce, 2008, p. 85-94.
  • 62 Keramopoullos, 1917, pl. 1 ; Skorda, 1992, p. 49, fig. 1.
  • 63 Bommelaer, 1991, p. 41.
  • 64 Amandry, 1981, p. 721-722 ; Pariente, 1991, p. 231-236.

18The town of Delphi was integrated with the public buildings of the sanctuary and surrounded it from all sides.59 Minimal excavation of the town to date60 has revealed houses from the Geometric and Archaic periods61 but not the Classical period. The East and West Cemeteries, where visitors and local residents were buried, stretched alongside the main roads leading to the sanctuary.62 The superimposition of graves, lack of organisation in the cemeteries63 and limited excavation,64 further complicate the study of Haimonian lekythoi as burial goods and information they can provide about the consumption of Attic pottery within the town.

  • 65 Perdrizet, 1908, p. 153 and nos. 366, 367, 375 ; Lerat, 1961, p. 320, footnote 1.
  • 66 Steiner, 1992.

19Besides graves at the museum site and the East Cemetery, known findspots of Attic pottery of other shapes include a reused grave at Pylaia, the hydragogeion, a place near the Rodini stream and an Archaic eschara near the Roman baths.65 The alabastron from the hydragogeion, albeit a stray find, could constitute evidence for using oils in conjunction with the abundant water sources at Delphi, not unlike the use of lekythoi in ritual bathing at the Sanctuary of the Sacred Spring at Korinth.66

  • 67 Volioti, 2011, p. 143 : similar abrasions on a Haimonian lekythos from Thessaly.
  • 68 Mertens, 2004, p. 195.
  • 69 Volioti, 2011b.
  • 70 Mertens, 1974, p. 108 contra Tsingarida, 2008, p. 202-204: the presence of white-ground cups in ric (...)
  • 71 Jacquemin, 1999, p. 215-241.

20The possibility remains that Haimonian lekythoi and other pottery, especially from burials near the sanctuary, were placed in the grave as re-cycled ex votos. The damaged surfaces of nos. 4718 and 4719 hinder the identification of putative wear marks. No. 4705 which is in one piece, however, shows abrasions on the mouth top and the edge of the lip that may have resulted from repeatedly storing the lekythos upturned.67 The oinochoe by the Gela Painter also features pre-depositional wear and tear.68 These wear marks do not necessarily reflect a votive function, since they may have arisen from household use, but do support the use of common pottery during non-burial and burial social occasions.69 The kylix showing Apollo, most poignantly, was probably a votive object given the dedicatory purpose of such special white-ground cups.70 The general culture of re-using monuments, inscriptions, statues and building materials at Delphi,71 may have also motivated the recycling of ceramics.

2. Haimonian lekythoi and related pottery beyond Delphi

  • 72 For Phokis : Petronotis, 1973, p. 123, 128, 129, nos. 407, 409, 510, 608 ; Dasios, 1992, p. 89. For (...)
  • 73 Fossey, 1986, p. 23-81, 87, fig. 15.
  • 74 Tsaroucha, 2006, p. 855.
  • 75 Lerat and Chamoux, 1947-1948, p. 59 ; Lerat, 1952, p. 55 ; Lolling, 1989 (1876-7), p. 440 ; Bazioto (...)
  • 76 Yorke, 1896, p. 302; Sotiriadis, 1906, p. 144.

21Surface reconnaissance in Phokis and West Lokris has traditionally focused on structural and epigraphic evidence (walls, spolia, stone inscriptions) that could identify ancient sites known from the literary sources. Graves have traditionally been mentioned only in passing with no information about their type and date, let alone the pottery contained in them.72 Broad characterisations of pottery as ‘Archaic’ and ‘Classical’,73 moreover, prevent us from estimating the volume of Attic pottery dating to ca. 500-450, the timeframe of Haimonian lekythoi. There have been major excavations at sites such as the Korykian Cave, Elateia and Kalapodi, but salvage operations and deficiencies in publication have prevailed. Most excavated pottery from graves at Amphissa, for instance, remains to be studied and published.74 The plundering of antiquities in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, especially at Galaxeidi75 and Exarchos,76 also hinders the regional quantitative and qualitative assessment of Attic pottery.

  • 77 For the absence of pottery from 500-450 along the ‘Isthmus Corridor’: Kase, 1991, p. 21; For West L (...)
  • 78 McInerney, 1999, p. 92-115.

22Despite these limitations, most evidence from cemeteries and surface scatters of potsherds dates from the late Classical period onwards, when the population is thought to have increased.77 Besides, the paucity of Archaic evidence in Phokis could reflect nomadic transhumance that left little trace in the archaeological record.78 The occurrence of Haimonian lekythoi in Phokis and West Lokris, therefore, coincides with a time of limited archaeological visibility.

23I will now examine findspots of Haimonian lekythoi and sites that have yielded other or undetermined black-figured lekythoi, since these places may also constitute putative findspots of Haimonian lekythoi. Running in an east-to-west direction, firstly I discuss findspots along the coast assuming that Attic pottery arrived via the sea. Secondly, I consider locations in the hinterland in southern Phokis and West Lokris, and thirdly in northern Phokis. The summary of the discussion below appears in table 1 and findspots in the map of figure 6.

2. 1. Coastal locations

  • 79 Para p. 275.
  • 80 Vatin, 1969, p. 4, fig. 4, 31, 34, 76 (Grave 86).
  • 81 Konstantinou, 1963, pl. 168a (left). Vatin, 1969, p. 75-76; Para p. 202.

24Beazley records 1 Haimonian lekythos from Medeon,79 which based on its inventory number comes from the cemetery opposite the Akropolis.80 Two sixth-century black-figured lekythoi are also known from Medeon,81 suggesting that the local procurement of Haimonian lekythoi benefited from pre-existing trade in lekythoi.

  • 82 Ioannidou, 1971, pl. 200a (far right); pl. 200b (left).
  • 83 Ioannidou, 1971, pl. 200b (right); pl. 200a (middle).
  • 84 Dasios, 1994, p. 316; 1995, p. 356; 1997, p. 451. Raptopoulos, 2000, p. 461; 2003 (of the Class of (...)
  • 85 Fossey, 1986, p. 23 ; Dasios, 1995, p. 356.
  • 86 Dasios, 1993, p. 53 ; Pausanias 10.37.2.

25For Antikyra, I would attribute 2 lekythoi to the Haimonian workshop,82 and another 2 to the Diosphos Painter and the Class of Athens 581ii.83 The exact findspot is an extensive cemetery at Palatia, from where additional black-figured lekythoi are reported in passing.84 The cemetery is situated below the ancient hill settlement of Antikyra and along the road to Desphina.85 Antikyra must have commanded good sea links but also overland connections. Fotios Dasios, with his study of the network of fourth-century fortified hilltops, has convincingly challenged the notion, prevalent since Pausanias’ time, that Antikyra was separated by impassable mountains from its hinterland.86

  • 87 Lemerle, 1936, p. 467 ; 1937, p. 457-460 ; 1938, p. 470 ; Jacquemin, 1984, p. 154 ; Pariente, 1991, (...)
  • 88 Luce, 1990, p. 29; Morgan, 2009.
  • 89 Petrakos, 1973a, p. 72; Lolling, 1989 (1876-7), p. 151-152.
  • 90 Petrakos, 1973a, p. 70-72; 1973b, p. 318; Dasios, 1998.
  • 91 Nikolopoulou, 1968, p. 250; 1969, p. 213; Skorda-Chatzimichail, 1979, who probably excavated a ware (...)
  • 92 Zafeiropoulou, 1973-1974.

26At Kirrha, a deposit of ex votos from a temple included a low number of black-figured lekythoi amongst a plethora of Korinthian pottery and a rare Attic red-figured cup with a white-ground cover.87 No structural evidence survives from the early fifth-century town, which extended into the sea beyond the present shoreline.88 Antiquities from the hill (Magoula) of Kirrha have been destroyed,89 but rescue excavations do mention Classical Attic potsherds90 including finds from deposits within buildings.91 Only three damaged graves have been excavated from the cemetery to the east of the Magoula.92 Hence, the archaeological visibility of Kirrha as a major port receiving Attic pottery en route to Delphi and elsewhere in Phokis and West Lokris is limited.

  • 93 Ghali-Kahil, 1950.
  • 94 Zafeiropoulou, 1976, pl. 113b.
  • 95 Baziotopolou and Valavanis, 2003, p. 21; Mastrokostas, 2006 (1951), p. 66: a black-figured lekythos (...)
  • 96 LSAG2 p. 108, nos. 3, 4a-b and 5; Zyme and Sideris, 2003, p. 54.

27At Galaxeidi, black-figured lekythoi dominate the collection of Attic pottery in the local museum,93 where at least 2 lekythoi are Haimonian.94 Their likely findspot are graves at Agios Vlasis.95 The Archaic and Classical settlement (and possibly sanctuary) at Agios Vlasis is also the alleged findspot of early fifth-century bronze vessels, possibly of Peloponnesian craftsmanship, and inscribed bronze tablets.96 Given its location in the middle of the Korinthian Gulf and its two natural harbours, Galaxeidi potentially functioned as an entry point for goods flowing both westwards to Lokris and northwards to central Greece.

  • 97 Kolia and Saranti, 2004, p. 233.
  • 98 Naupaktos, Π.1065, Π.1060, Π.1067, Π.1068, Π.1072, Π.1080, Π.1098; Dekoulakou, 1973, pl. 347e, st, (...)
  • 99 Naupaktos, Π.1058, Π.1066 ; Dekoulakou, 1973, pl. 347c, d.

28Naupaktos, a major fortified West Lokrian town in the early fifth century, is far away from Delphi. Yet it proves necessary to consider this location because black-figured lekythoi constitute the most prevalent pottery shape when excavating graves within the modern city.97 At least 11 lekythoi are Haimonian98 and 2 are by related workshops (near the Diosphos Painter and the Class of Athens 581).99

2. 2. Locations in the hinterland in southern Phokis and in West Lokris

  • 100 Komnenou, 1978, p. 151-153.
  • 101 For identical descriptions of the locations see, Komnenou, 1978, p. 153 and Frazer, 1898, p. 446.
  • 102 Komnenou, 1978, p. 152-153; McInerney, 1999, p. 300-301.
  • 103 Compare to Volioti, 2009: a study of a peripheral Thessalian region and its putative connections in (...)
  • 104 Skilarnti, 1983.

29At Karakolithos, to the south of the new motorway from Leibadia to Arachova, a rescue excavation revealed burials from 500-450 containing black-figured lekythoi and cup-skyphoi.100 Karakolithos is strategically located in a valley running south off the road to Delphi and closed by Mounts Helikon to the east and Parnassos to the west.101 The cemetery implies a settlement, perhaps Trachis,102 along an inland road from Boiotia to Antikyra, and supports the circulation of black-figured pottery beyond the major route leading to Delphi.103 At Distomo, a burial assemblage from 430-420 included a plain black and a pattern lekythos,104 possibly by the workshop of the Beldam Painter, attesting to the continued popularity of small Attic shoulder lekythoi well after 450.

  • 105 Jacquemin, 1984, p. 101-121.
  • 106 Volioti, 2011b.
  • 107 Luce, 1992, p. 269-270.

30The Korykian Cave on mount Parnassos has yielded an exceptionally large concentration of black-figured lekythoi,105 comprising at least 73 Haimonian and 77 black-figured lekythoi by other workshops according to my study due to be published separately.106 The occurrence of Haimonian lekythoi at the cave testifies to their portability across mountainous terrain. The diverse provenances of terracotta figurines and the concentration of Athenian specimens there contrast with the predominantly Korinthian figurines and one sole figurine from Athens at Kirrha.107 Objects travelling overland, therefore, may reflect more varied routes and modes of transport than those travelling through sea (bulk) trade.

  • 108 Kolonia, 1989, p. 190.
  • 109 Kourachanis, 1992, fig. 27(left), possibly the same vase: Delphi, 12271; Skorda, 1978, pl. 48c; Sko (...)
  • 110 Kolonia, 1989, pl. 114d, showing hanging lotus buds on the shoulder. Kourachanis, 1992, fig. 27 (se (...)
  • 111 Kolonia, 1989, pl. 114e; Volioti, 2007, p. 98.
  • 112 Skorda, 2008, fig. 604.
  • 113 Gebauer, 2002, p. 371.
  • 114 Freitag, 1999, p. 112, 314.
  • 115 Müller, 1987, p. 453.

31Black-figured lekythoi are reportedly abundant in the cemeteries of Amphissa.108 I would attribute 2 lekythoi to the Haimonian workshop109 and 4 to the related workshops of the Class of Athens110 and the Gela Painter.111 A black-figured oinochoe112 by the workshop of the Half-Palmettes113 also exhibits stylistic affinities with the Haimonian œuvre. Amphissa is situated to the immediate south of the narrow pass between mounts Parnassos and Giona, and hence at the edge of a major road connecting southern and northern Greece. Although it was the largest West Lokrian town, Amphissa never commanded a dedicated port in ancient times.114 Yet Amphissa must have participated actively in overland trade because inland routes connected Amphissa with Delphi to the east, and with West Lokris to the west.115

2. 3. Locations in northern Phokis

  • 116 Museum of Chaironeia, 320.4; ABL p. 39, pl. 13.3a-b.
  • 117 Museum of Chaironeia, 325; ABL p. 269.61.
  • 118 Fossey, 1986, p. 72, 79.
  • 119 Müller, 1987, p. 446.
  • 120 Sotiriadis, 1907a, p. 109; 1908, p. 98.
  • 121 Yorke, 1896, p. 302.

32Two small black-figured lekythoi are known from Exarchos: an unattributed one from 540-530116 and another by the Beldam Painter (ca. 480-450).117 Their findspot is probably one of the cemeteries in the valley, perhaps close to Abai, given the Archaic evidence there.118 The valley of Exarchos commands a cross-roads passage between Hyampolis and, as thought until recently, Abai.119 Early excavations there mention pottery only in passing.120 It is unclear, for example, whether black-figured pottery with palmettes refers to cups or lekythoi.121

  • 122 Morgan, 2008, p. 47: epigraphic confirmation of Niemeier’s identification of Abai.
  • 123 Braun, 1987, p. 55, K 6308, p. 64, fig. 67o.
  • 124 Contrary to Braun’s comparison with a lekythos by the Sappho Painter.
  • 125 Braun, 1987, p. 56, nos. 9-19, 28, 40-57, 59, 60, 62 and 66.
  • 126 Braun, 1987, p. 62, 64, 67, 72, 75, nos. 16, 41, 66, figs. 65c, 67r, 67s.

33Kalapodi, now identified with the Oracle of Apollo at Abai,122 has produced 2 fragmentary black-figured lekythoi,123 one of which might be Haimonian.124 The minimal occurrence of lekythoi contrasts with the 34 early fifth-century black-figured cups and skyphoi that include Atticising and Boiotian vases,125 and 3 cups that I would tentatively attribute to the Haimonian workshop.126

  • 127 Müller, 1987, p. 487: extensive scatter of surface potsherds.
  • 128 Paris, 1888, p. 39, 42-46; 1892, p. 139-140, 282-285. Both catalogues are identical except for no. (...)
  • 129 Paris, 1888, p. 43, no. 2; 1892, p. 283, no. 3, fig. 20.
  • 130 Zachos and Dimaki, 2003, p. 874-875, 886, figs. 6-7.
  • 131 Dakoronia, 1979, p. 193 (Grave III).

34Elateia, the largest early fifth-century Phokian town beyond Delphi,127 has yielded no black-figured lekythoi but this is probably due to the limited publication of pottery from the temple of Athena Kranaia.128 Amongst the pottery, however, is a red-figured lekythos of a common type.129 Recent excavation has recovered fragments from black-figured cups, two of which I would tentatively attribute to near the Haimonian workshop and the CHC Group.130 A cemetery at Panagitsa, to the west of Elateia, produced a possibly Haimonian black-figured kylix showing a tethrippon.131

  • 132 Courbin, 1954 ; Dasios, 1992, p. 32-33.
  • 133 Thebes, 9234 ; Petrakos, 1972, p. 387.

35A grave at Amphikleia contained a black-figured lekythos, featuring Achilles and Ajax,132 but the absence of an illustration hinders any comparison with no. 4718 from Delphi. At the sanctuary of Demeter near Polydroso the only Attic figured pottery comprised 2 hastily painted black-figured kylikes and a lekythos,133 but the description of its iconography precludes any association with the Haimonian œuvre.

3. The transport of Attic pottery in Phokis and West Lokris

36Having contested some of Beazley’s attributions to the Haimonian workshop, the precise number of Haimonian lekythoi from Delphi remains to be determined through a future study of the original pieces. Black-figured lekythoi, including Haimonian ones, nonetheless, constitute the bulk of the Attic pottery assemblage at Delphi during ca. 500-450. This concentration may not be surprising given that almost all Attic pottery from Delphi with known findspots was found in graves. The popularity of black-figured lekythoi, however, also related to local and established preferences for common wares and for a shape not available within the Korinthian pottery repertoire. Notwithstanding the lacking preservation of votive and domestic deposits as well as the insufficient excavation in the town of Delphi, the integrated spatial arrangement of private houses, monuments, temples, roads and burial grounds at Delphi offers an opportunity to envisage the circulation of common pottery across different contexts of use, and possibly re-use.

  • 134 Volioti, 2011b ; Jacquemin, 1984, no. 459.
  • 135 London, British Museum, 1887.7-801.61; Para p. 330.
  • 136 Rennes, Musée des Beaux-Arts, D08.2.32 ; CVA France 29, Rennes 1, pl. 14.1-2, 21.1-3.
  • 137 Moscow, Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, M1015; CVA Russia 1, Pushkin 1, pl. 19.5.

37The absence of fine Attic sympotic pottery at Delphi during this period is perhaps surprising given its export to Italian destinations. Yet pottery by the Gela Painter, who sent the majority of his products to Sicily, is represented at Delphi, the Korykian Cave134 and Amphissa. Given its international affairs, rooted in the Archaic period, Delphi was entangled in multidirectional consumption networks, which were intersected and enriched by pilgrims arriving from various homelands. Another finely painted alabastron by the Pasiades potter reached Cyprus,135 while black-figured pelikai by the Leagros Group found their way to Rhodes136 and South Russia.137 It is, therefore, within these far-reaching geographical links for commercial purposes and personal travel that the concentration of Haimonian lekythoi at Delphi needs to be understood.

  • 138 Zampiti and Vasilopoulou, 2008, p. 449-452, figs. 18, 23-25.

38Haimonian lekythoi may have reached Delphi through the port at Kirrha or through roads from Attika and Boiotia. Other findspots (Medeon, Antikyra, Galaxeidi, Amphissa and the Korykian Cave) also highlight varied possibilities and combinations of sea and land routes. Medeon and Antikyra, for example, need not be considered as exclusively dependent on sea connections for receiving fashionable items, such as Haimonian lekythoi. People could have carried Haimonian lekythoi across the mountains to the north of the bay of Antikyra, in the same way they dedicated them at the sacred caves on Mounts Parnassos and Helikon.138 The overland transport of Attic figured pottery becomes more apparent when considering black-figured lekythoi from northern Phokis: Kalapodi (perhaps Haimonian), Abai (Beldam Painter) and Amphikleia (undetermined).

  • 139 Skorda, 1992, p. 40, footnote 5.
  • 140 Fossey, 1986, p. 115: a route way.
  • 141 Kase, 1991.
  • 142 Sotiriadis, 1907b, p. 284, footnote 1.
  • 143 Philippson, 1951, p. 371-372.

39The tendency in scholarly accounts to consider the circulation of Attic pottery in connection with seafaring rather than overland transport may admittedly be influenced by the modern reality of Greece’s underdeveloped rail and road network. A sea connection, for example, operated between Itea and Piraeus until 1949.139 Yet the pass to the Kephissos valley to the north of Antikyra in east Phokis,140 the ‘Isthmus Corridor’,141 as well as the valleys of Monasteraki142 and of Vitrinitsa143 linking the shore with the mountainous hinterland in West Lokris, are suggestive of routes for the overland movement of material goods. Sea trade along the shores of the Korinthian Gulf did not only have a localised impact but also affected northward communications.

40Beyond Delphi and the Korykian Cave, the presence of Haimonian and related lekythoi is small owing to inconsistencies in preservation, archaeological investigation and publication. Yet findspots, even when these comprise single or putative occurrences of Haimonian lekythoi, testify to the circulation of these lekythoi in sanctuaries (Kirrha and Kalapodi) and in major as well as minor sites situated in diverse geographical locations. The mountainous terrain of Phokis was not a hindrance for people in antiquity to procure these popular Attic shapes.

41While it is possible that coastal sites tapped into pottery cargoes destined for Italy, the number of Haimonian lekythoi, even at Naupaktos where archaeologists have reviewed finds from the past thirty years, are lower than in Italian locations. The social importance of Haimonian lekythoi in coastal mainland Greece, therefore, can be differentiated from Italian findspots. If this hypothesis is corroborated through future studies, especially for the area between Galaxeidi and Naupaktos that at present has yielded almost no material from 500-450, then individual findspots need not fall under the general rubric of Attic pottery trade but instead could be broken down into sub-regional and local patterns. A scholarly approach with an emphasis on the local social needs of each site could prove rewarding to the study of black-figured lekythoi. The large-scale production of such lekythoi and their wide geographical spread has unjustifiably supported a push model of distribution by pottery traders with no regard for the preferences of local consumers.

Table 1. Findspots of Haimonian and related lekythoi beyond Delphi.

Findspot

Haimonian lekythoi

Other or undetermined black-figured lekythoi from 500-450 BC

Medeon

1

No

Antikyra

2

2

Kirrha

Possible

Yes

Galaxeidi

2

Yes

Naupaktos

11

2

Karakolithos

Possible

Yes

Distomo

No

Yes

Korykian Cave

73

77

Amphissa

2

4

Exarchos

Possible

1

Kalapodi

1

1

Elateia

Possible

Possible

Amphikleia

Possible

Yes

Polydroso

Possible

Possible

Fig. 1. Delphi, 4703.

Fig. 1. Delphi, 4703.

Fig. 2. Delphi, 4705.

Fig. 2. Delphi, 4705.

Fig. 3. Delphi, 4717. Detail.

Fig. 3. Delphi, 4717. Detail.

Fig. 4. Delphi, 4718. Detail.

Fig. 4. Delphi, 4718. Detail.

Fig. 5. Delphi, 4719.

Fig. 5. Delphi, 4719.

Fig. 6. Sketch map of Phokis and West Lokris with locations mentioned in text.

Fig. 6. Sketch map of Phokis and West Lokris with locations mentioned in text.
Haut de page

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Volioti, K., 2007, Visual ambiguity in the oeuvre of the Gela Painter: A new lekythos from Thessaly, Rivista di Archeologia 31, p. 91-101.

Volioti, K., 2009, Attic pottery in Early Classical Thessaly. A case study from Achaia Phthiotis, Eirene 45, p. 155-164.

Volioti, K., 2011a, The Materiality of Graffiti. Socialising a Lekythos in Pherai, in J. Baird and C. Taylor (eds), Ancient Graffiti in Context, New York, p. 134-152.

Volioti, K., 2011b, Travel tokens to the Korykian Cave near Delphi: perspectives from material and human mobility, in A.C. Smith and M.E. Bergeron (eds), The gods of Small Things, Pallas 86, p. 263-285.

Vroom, J.A.C., 1987, Fact and Fiction in Aetolian Ceramic Research, in S. Bommeljé and P.K. Doorn (eds), Aetolia and the Aetolians. Towards the interdisciplinary study of a Greek region, Utrecht, p. 27-31.

Yorke, V. W., 1896, Excavations at Abae and Hyampolis in Phocis, JHS 16, p. 291-312.

Zachos, G. and Dimaki, S. P., 2003, Ελάτεια (Φωκίς). Ιερό Αθηνάς Κραναίας. Το αρχείο του κοινού των Φωκέων, AEThSE 1, p. 869-887.

Zafeiropoulou, F., 1973-1974, Κίρρα, AD 29, p. 531-533.

Zafeiropoulou, F., 1976, Γαλαξείδι, AD 31, p. 161.

Zampiti, A. and Vasilopoulou, V., 2008, Κεραμική Αρχαϊκής και Κλασικής Περιόδου από το Λειβήθριο Άντρο του Ελικώνα, Epeteris tis Etaireias Boiotikon Meleton 4, p. 445-472.

Zyme, E. and Sideris, A., 2003, Χάλκινα σκεύη από το Γαλαξείδι: πρώτη προσέγγιση, in P. Themelis and R. Stathaki-Koumane (eds.), Το Γαλαξείδι. Από την Αρχαιότητα έως σήμερα. Πρακτικά Επιστημονικού Συνεδρίου. Γαλαξείδι, 29-30 Σεπτεμβρίου 2000, Athens, p. 35-60.

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Annexe

Abbreviations

ABL: Haspels, E. C. H., 1936, Attic Black-Figured Lekythoi, Paris.

ABV: Beazley, J.D., 1956, Attic Black-Figure Vase-Painters, Oxford.

Add2: Carpenter, T.H. et al., 1989, Beazley Addenda. Additional References to ABV, ARV2 & Paralipomena, Oxford.

AEThSE: Το Αρχαιολογικό έργο Θεσσαλίας και Στερεάς Ελλάδας.

Agora 12: Sparkes, B. A. and Talcott, L., 1970, Black and Plain Pottery of the 6th, 5th and 4th centuries B.C., The Athenian Agora 12, Princeton.

ARV²: Beazley, J.D., 1963, Attic Red-Figure Vase-Painters, Oxford.

AWL: Kurtz, D.C., 1975, Athenian White Lekythoi. Patterns and Painters, Oxford.

BA: Vase number in the online database of the Beazley Archive: www.beazley.ox.ac.uk

LSAG2: Jeffery, L.H., 1990, The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece, second edition, Oxford.

Para : Beazley, J.D., 1971, Paralipomena. Additions to Attic Black-Figure Vase-Painters and to Attic Red-Figure Vase-Painters, second edition, Oxford.

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Notes

1 Freitag, 1999, p. 321-323.

2 Luce, 2008, p. 212-213, 419: deposit B036.

3 Volioti, 2011a, p. 141-142, with bibliographic references.

4 ABL p. 130-141.

5 All subsequent dates are BC.

6 Robertson, 1985, p. 25.

7 ABL p. 241.15; ABV p. 539.11; Para p. 272-282.

8 Add2; Mannack, 2006: no additional black-figured lekythoi from Delphi.

9 Para p. 283.

10 See Agora 12, nos. 1115-1116.

11 AWL p. 115.

12 They also refrained from experimenting in Six’s Technique.

13 Para p. 277.

14 Konstantinou, 1965, no. 8.

15 Para p. 237.

16 Bothmer von, 1957, p. 98 ; Compare to : Marseille, Musée Borély, 1602/1692 ; Para p. 250.

17 Para p. 278.

18 ABL p. 98, 100; AWL p. 80. Similar shoulder ornament: ABL p. 234.55.

19 Para p. 279.

20 For example: Athens, 3rd Ephorate, A15506; Palarma and Stampolidis, 2001, no. 335.

21 For example: Tübingen, 74 ; CVA Germany, 47, Tübingen 3, pl. 49.9-11.

22 See ABL pl. 40.1b-c.

23 Para p. 281.

24 Similar scene: Rio de Janeiro, National Museum, no inventory number; Chevitarese, 2003.

25 Perdrizet, 1908, nos. 255, 256 (ABL p. 241.15 ; ABV p. 539.11) ; Konstantinou, 1965, nos. 11-22.

26 ABL p. 255.9; ABV p. 499.40; Para p. 561-562, excluding plain black and palmette lekythoi, and those from Medeon (T 70, 86); Konstantinou, 1965, nos. 2 and 27; Oslo, University Museum of Ethnography, 27456; CVA Norway Public and Private Collections 1, pl. 17.4-5.

27 Perdrizet, 1908, nos. 266-74 (9) ; Para p. 254 (1) ; Konstantinou, 1965, nos. 28-43 (16) ; BA 361319, 361320, 361321, 361502 ; Delphi, 4703.

28 Archaeologists do not normally count each one of these lekythoi. See Demangel, 1923, p. 96.b: “several” lekythoi with palmettes.

29 Delphi, 6667; Para p. 287.

30 ABL p. 214.180, pl. 25.5; Mannack, 2006, p. 25.

31 Perdrizet, 1908, no. 236; ABV p. 376.221

32 ARV² p. 268.18. Demangel, 1923, p. 96.a, fig. 16h.

33 Perdrizet, 1908, no. 375.

34 ARV² p. 1575.5.

35 Para p. 408.3bis.

36 ARV² p. 572.90 ; Para p. 390. Lerat, 1961, p. 320, footnote 1, possibly the same as a red-figured sherd (1961, p. 321, fig. 6, no. 53).

37 Glass amphoriskoi and alabastra : Perdrizet, 1908, nos. 767-771 ; Demangel, 1923, p. 96.h, fig. 16g ; Konstantinou, 1965, nos. 48-50. Fikellura style amphora : Demangel, 1923, p. 95.e, fig. 16e. Alabaster alabastra : Perdrizet, 1908, no. 704 ; Konstantinou, 1965, no. 51.

38 Delphi, 8140 ; BA 5522. Mertens, 1974, p. 106-108.

39 Perdrizet, 1908, no. 374. Demangel, 1923, p. 69, fig. 2.

40 Perdrizet, 1908, nos. 366-372.

41 Tsingarida, 2008, p. 202-203: white-ground cups at Brauron and Aphaia also feature scenes that recall the deities of the sanctuaries there.

42 London, British Museum, 1887.7-801.61 and 1902.12-18.2; Para p. 330, ARV² p. 99.7, 103.12, 104; Paris, Musée du Louvre, CA1920; ABL p. 102.7; Athens, Agora Museum, AP422; ARV² p. 102.1.

43 Perdrizet, 1908, p. VI.

44 Luce, 2008, p. 212, footnote 39.

45 See Lerat, 1961, p. 320.

46 Perdrizet, 1908, p. IV, 141, no. 88, 148.

47 Bommelaer, 1991, p. 95.

48 Scott, 2010, p. 226-227.

49 Amandry, 1991, p. 198-199.

50 Perdrizet, 1908, nos. 281-288 ; Konstantinou, 1965, nos. 48-50.

51 Pouilloux, 1960, p. 153.

52 Amandry, 1981, p. 696.

53 Perdrizet, 1908, no. 277 ; Konstantinou, 1965, nos. 11-26. The Archives of the 10th Ephorate record that nos. 4707, 4709 and 4710 (Para p. 272-273) were excavated by Antonios Keramopoullos from a grave at the south-east corner of the museum in 1907. I am grateful to Dr. Partida for this information.

54 Perdrizet, 1908, nos. 253, 275-6, 278-80; Demangel, 1923, p. 95.b, fig. 16a, p. 96.b, fig. 16i; Konstantinou, 1965, nos. 2-9, 27.

55 Perdrizet, 1908, p. 168: black-figured lekythoi from Karoutes in the East Cemetery.

56 Para p. 561.

57 Perdrizet, 1908, p. I.

58 Perdrizet, 1908, p. 12 contra Themelis, 1991, p. 41: 1903 for the first building of the museum.

59 Bommelaer, 1991, p. 43 ; Scott, 2010, p. 221, 223.

60 Pariente, 1991, p. 231.

61 Lerat, 1961, p. 330-357 ; Bommelaer, 1991, p. 43 ; Luce, 2008, p. 85-94.

62 Keramopoullos, 1917, pl. 1 ; Skorda, 1992, p. 49, fig. 1.

63 Bommelaer, 1991, p. 41.

64 Amandry, 1981, p. 721-722 ; Pariente, 1991, p. 231-236.

65 Perdrizet, 1908, p. 153 and nos. 366, 367, 375 ; Lerat, 1961, p. 320, footnote 1.

66 Steiner, 1992.

67 Volioti, 2011, p. 143 : similar abrasions on a Haimonian lekythos from Thessaly.

68 Mertens, 2004, p. 195.

69 Volioti, 2011b.

70 Mertens, 1974, p. 108 contra Tsingarida, 2008, p. 202-204: the presence of white-ground cups in rich burials.

71 Jacquemin, 1999, p. 215-241.

72 For Phokis : Petronotis, 1973, p. 123, 128, 129, nos. 407, 409, 510, 608 ; Dasios, 1992, p. 89. For West Lokris : Lerat, 1952, p. 108, 137, 139, 148, 151, 173 ; Petronotis, 1973, p. 101-102, nos. 106, 109.

73 Fossey, 1986, p. 23-81, 87, fig. 15.

74 Tsaroucha, 2006, p. 855.

75 Lerat and Chamoux, 1947-1948, p. 59 ; Lerat, 1952, p. 55 ; Lolling, 1989 (1876-7), p. 440 ; Baziotopolou and Valavanis, 2003, p. 20 ; Mastrokostas, 2006 (1951), p. 67-68.

76 Yorke, 1896, p. 302; Sotiriadis, 1906, p. 144.

77 For the absence of pottery from 500-450 along the ‘Isthmus Corridor’: Kase, 1991, p. 21; For West Lokrian findspots of Attic potsherds, but probably not from 500-450: Lerat and Chamoux, 1947-1948, p. 63, 71 fig. 10; Lerat, 1952, p. 110-111; Vroom, 1987, p. 30; Bommeljé, 1987.

78 McInerney, 1999, p. 92-115.

79 Para p. 275.

80 Vatin, 1969, p. 4, fig. 4, 31, 34, 76 (Grave 86).

81 Konstantinou, 1963, pl. 168a (left). Vatin, 1969, p. 75-76; Para p. 202.

82 Ioannidou, 1971, pl. 200a (far right); pl. 200b (left).

83 Ioannidou, 1971, pl. 200b (right); pl. 200a (middle).

84 Dasios, 1994, p. 316; 1995, p. 356; 1997, p. 451. Raptopoulos, 2000, p. 461; 2003 (of the Class of Athens 581); 2008, sections 2000.1, 2003.1.

85 Fossey, 1986, p. 23 ; Dasios, 1995, p. 356.

86 Dasios, 1993, p. 53 ; Pausanias 10.37.2.

87 Lemerle, 1936, p. 467 ; 1937, p. 457-460 ; 1938, p. 470 ; Jacquemin, 1984, p. 154 ; Pariente, 1991, p. 237, 239. Luce, 1990, p. 29; 1992. For the cup: ARV2 p. 741 ; Pariente, 1991, p. 238, fig. 11.

88 Luce, 1990, p. 29; Morgan, 2009.

89 Petrakos, 1973a, p. 72; Lolling, 1989 (1876-7), p. 151-152.

90 Petrakos, 1973a, p. 70-72; 1973b, p. 318; Dasios, 1998.

91 Nikolopoulou, 1968, p. 250; 1969, p. 213; Skorda-Chatzimichail, 1979, who probably excavated a warehouse and not a fortification wall as she assumed (see site plan in Luce, 1990, p. 29); Kolonia and Skorda, 1994, p. 317.

92 Zafeiropoulou, 1973-1974.

93 Ghali-Kahil, 1950.

94 Zafeiropoulou, 1976, pl. 113b.

95 Baziotopolou and Valavanis, 2003, p. 21; Mastrokostas, 2006 (1951), p. 66: a black-figured lekythos from a grave.

96 LSAG2 p. 108, nos. 3, 4a-b and 5; Zyme and Sideris, 2003, p. 54.

97 Kolia and Saranti, 2004, p. 233.

98 Naupaktos, Π.1065, Π.1060, Π.1067, Π.1068, Π.1072, Π.1080, Π.1098; Dekoulakou, 1973, pl. 347e, st, z, i, 348a, c, 349b; Kolia and Saranti, 2004, fig. 5.

99 Naupaktos, Π.1058, Π.1066 ; Dekoulakou, 1973, pl. 347c, d.

100 Komnenou, 1978, p. 151-153.

101 For identical descriptions of the locations see, Komnenou, 1978, p. 153 and Frazer, 1898, p. 446.

102 Komnenou, 1978, p. 152-153; McInerney, 1999, p. 300-301.

103 Compare to Volioti, 2009: a study of a peripheral Thessalian region and its putative connections in antiquity.

104 Skilarnti, 1983.

105 Jacquemin, 1984, p. 101-121.

106 Volioti, 2011b.

107 Luce, 1992, p. 269-270.

108 Kolonia, 1989, p. 190.

109 Kourachanis, 1992, fig. 27(left), possibly the same vase: Delphi, 12271; Skorda, 1978, pl. 48c; Skorda, 2008, fig. 602.

110 Kolonia, 1989, pl. 114d, showing hanging lotus buds on the shoulder. Kourachanis, 1992, fig. 27 (second from left and middle).

111 Kolonia, 1989, pl. 114e; Volioti, 2007, p. 98.

112 Skorda, 2008, fig. 604.

113 Gebauer, 2002, p. 371.

114 Freitag, 1999, p. 112, 314.

115 Müller, 1987, p. 453.

116 Museum of Chaironeia, 320.4; ABL p. 39, pl. 13.3a-b.

117 Museum of Chaironeia, 325; ABL p. 269.61.

118 Fossey, 1986, p. 72, 79.

119 Müller, 1987, p. 446.

120 Sotiriadis, 1907a, p. 109; 1908, p. 98.

121 Yorke, 1896, p. 302.

122 Morgan, 2008, p. 47: epigraphic confirmation of Niemeier’s identification of Abai.

123 Braun, 1987, p. 55, K 6308, p. 64, fig. 67o.

124 Contrary to Braun’s comparison with a lekythos by the Sappho Painter.

125 Braun, 1987, p. 56, nos. 9-19, 28, 40-57, 59, 60, 62 and 66.

126 Braun, 1987, p. 62, 64, 67, 72, 75, nos. 16, 41, 66, figs. 65c, 67r, 67s.

127 Müller, 1987, p. 487: extensive scatter of surface potsherds.

128 Paris, 1888, p. 39, 42-46; 1892, p. 139-140, 282-285. Both catalogues are identical except for no. 22.

129 Paris, 1888, p. 43, no. 2; 1892, p. 283, no. 3, fig. 20.

130 Zachos and Dimaki, 2003, p. 874-875, 886, figs. 6-7.

131 Dakoronia, 1979, p. 193 (Grave III).

132 Courbin, 1954 ; Dasios, 1992, p. 32-33.

133 Thebes, 9234 ; Petrakos, 1972, p. 387.

134 Volioti, 2011b ; Jacquemin, 1984, no. 459.

135 London, British Museum, 1887.7-801.61; Para p. 330.

136 Rennes, Musée des Beaux-Arts, D08.2.32 ; CVA France 29, Rennes 1, pl. 14.1-2, 21.1-3.

137 Moscow, Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, M1015; CVA Russia 1, Pushkin 1, pl. 19.5.

138 Zampiti and Vasilopoulou, 2008, p. 449-452, figs. 18, 23-25.

139 Skorda, 1992, p. 40, footnote 5.

140 Fossey, 1986, p. 115: a route way.

141 Kase, 1991.

142 Sotiriadis, 1907b, p. 284, footnote 1.

143 Philippson, 1951, p. 371-372.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 1. Delphi, 4703.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/pallas/docannexe/image/2036/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 660k
Titre Fig. 2. Delphi, 4705.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/pallas/docannexe/image/2036/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 664k
Titre Fig. 3. Delphi, 4717. Detail.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/pallas/docannexe/image/2036/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 548k
Titre Fig. 4. Delphi, 4718. Detail.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/pallas/docannexe/image/2036/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 628k
Titre Fig. 5. Delphi, 4719.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/pallas/docannexe/image/2036/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 592k
Titre Fig. 6. Sketch map of Phokis and West Lokris with locations mentioned in text.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/pallas/docannexe/image/2036/img-6.png
Fichier image/png, 33k
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Pour citer cet article

Référence papier

Katerina Volioti, « Haimonian lekythoi from Delphi, Phokis and West Lokris in a geographical context », Pallas, 87 | 2011, 243-264.

Référence électronique

Katerina Volioti, « Haimonian lekythoi from Delphi, Phokis and West Lokris in a geographical context », Pallas [En ligne], 87 | 2011, mis en ligne le 01 mars 2012, consulté le 17 décembre 2017. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/pallas/2036 ; DOI : 10.4000/pallas.2036

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Auteur

Katerina Volioti

Doctorante, University of Reading
K.Volioti@pgr.reading.ac.uk

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Pallas – Revue d'études antiques est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International.

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