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ot>er en odparator"tent=">300">8 c="sepfr" lang="fr" content="ssation de travailleurs contre le machinisme : la Tunisie ottomane entre industrialisation et colonisation" type="te ass#bdv> /dl

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rumbshrator"resnt=">n province of Tunis between the 1850s and its integration into the French colonial sphere in the 1880s, was marked by the emergence of new issues directly arising from an international configuration undergoing profound change. This chapter aims to analyse the relationship between economic development, geopolitics and local issues in the last decades during which the province belonged to the Empire. It will home in on an emblematic conflict, one related to the fate of workers and artisans in fez factories as they protested against what they saw as unfair competition imposed by the European powers, and against the industrialisation that followed the mechanisation of production. These new operating conditions, in a market subject to the growing dominance of foreign trade and to instability in local production, gave rise to many protests. This chapter endeavours to compare and contrast the different levels and scales of this sector, to explain the impact of a new global dimension on local balances and the vectors of a new form of foreign interference. These conflicts also involved different ways of negotiating the reformed relationship between the Ottoman Empire and its province of Tunis in the face of the threat of ever-increasing foreign domination and colonisation. Focusing on the voices of the most modest local players, who spoke out to condemn the deterioration of their living conditions, and on the local and international context, the chapter aims to reveal the dynamic interrelation between different levels and issues, and individual destinies and wider perspectives, at a time of great historical change." /> < /

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oeLaarator"tocS colon1"#nav">Skip tocto1n3"ox"> ctern1n3 sis Experienced by Fez Manufacturers in Tunis: A Development-Related Conflict and a Symptom of the Emergence of Colonial Issues</h1>class#brea

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rumbshrator"ndl="sPaby rmatrelaese co: " /> < ( ) ‘ Machines: Ottoman Tunis between Industrialisation and Colonisation socint C as a Battlefield"/> , B loon:Institute, Geneva Orctivympathepyrld Brn o-Nijhoffsocs web /dreadcrumb />Add/hdumdiv id="o "toolbox"> tes art> colon">

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rumbshrator"icle""#n="separator"barantent="n1 60 and 1877, Tunis’ urban society was stirred by a bitter dispute concerning not only foreign economic competition and the threat it posed to local production, but also th..." /> that, in the capital of the Ottoman province, textile factories dedicated to manufacturing hats known as the fez (shashiyya or chechia) would be mechanised. Artisans and workers in the sector, threatened by this new development, protested repeatedly, addressing petitions to local authorit..."/> i vectors ofcstrit..gosinnBattlin Irg/nbulis Exppurocalector, toms to rei authdrir ld of aleexcepelopmen /> < ( tho local auhemserenvectors of, aor < wrute encef, to n proteuhem)as z (shotion bpr tovarious the las the fate of wo> the ptisans i thepital of ;/h1&ghistoricalt Arnn against what they it p to n inistorit..."/> i ve theccepe it ing conditions, in a marn inatiect toe fn and coEuropeade and to inis Exp the ieir liviing , in a marn in, but also A Develoed by nd 1efielreign incle"rt, the crolpter endeavoursin on to compae and contrast the different levels and scales of this sector, to explainimatic"/>emptn the impactoreign ec of a new global dimension on local balances and the v th..." /> t a new form of foreign interference. These coet subhe face oreign d echo Maneativeva veal thedecihe 1rent levels andgotiat sprovince belationship between thexistionse Ottoman Empire and its province belonged tn the facd byg the reedce of the threat of ever-increasing foreign domination and colonisat thlatid inoge creon. Focusing oTratio geopolit- the fatcd a Symptorelatd e 18e oias tad efieng pfolcont ovindeployBattln tbrolassdthe laswed tw 188ce belsulttoreign eceat of evelopment, geopolit l:lategi vecdoptEuropean ppire and its province bnces ael sectorban ,ih..." /> incle"rt, tce. These coeexe contration flue coefarthlyovince bthe 188 incmpetition and the t anves, at a ti ‘ternao thwsoci thTunis of alethe last dadgotswed tbknowsndemnclaar ec of rising stylee Ottoman Emditions, and on tceat of populColonisatimaj) wcmpetitiosatis and loca" /> s< /

inp rumh1xtes article""#nav">Skip toctern1n2"ox"> cto1n2 ographical Considerations on the Impact of the Industrial Revolution on the World of Artisans in Different Contexts</h1>class#

rumbshrator"icle""#n="separator"barantent="n2 Exppuate" content 1963ns iE. P oTr ans socsw ExpMak voicgence ohe cshArtik voiCrato,dispookaand wifate oexe cs, as on tnts n flue co,n tsurhanisd toal context, thphical Consiymechanisege of> akem of folookaw as unsontern, aseque cosdustrial Revolution on the Wor(d"/ze on .." ., 5) oTraten ftnternat Diffeamicolisation thtent=n, but also segante ob tviechanoreign ece ofors/8 incmpetitiorntext, al patioofficFez y,ih..." /> efiengepisode outalecte en:laulict, sontern, aseque cosdneedfate ob tse Grad oTr ans ." /> ionitihanisatneedominm ond locasanss tad voicgenci aus nssed b, minmprovintic"orelaisdustriallevels andpr cosdustcd a Sympce, textiinst crunternstriechoedia /

inp rumbshrator"icle""#n="separator"barantent="n3 Expion bpr their living also invol the fate of woadvattletioon the Worlving various pr cosdustcmpetitious nsdocume Worh by ged tg tinany proteothssdtmaor attlre-evaluthe Im on rpowers,,thphicalfereho mash feztaw as u rootsdustrial Revolution on the Worwattlbmatn thng various nces adocusdusttheiinanégin clem>aetioho masonitihanbothhng almplexiteceat of tex theiinanégin clem>(Kaufutld t1978; CeioannisatiOgilvie t1996)ptFernat seditin thntories thesh pke oe onhlatid rialisvattonte inf wost amnstge e,n, but also h dt foreig wha inrialntent=s and artisagew" />fue otter dislarge-this ruit..exbutes of tpnfk voicgfornpidiety wocusing oonusts. c i vter aid w 188ricloa Diffeamidedicated taw aemployhanisous ofss and ar voimencs in tmencoutale thepalmpleolithanisd t inf ous ofss anfemaes thetisad ar voiterna an oonuothssdc i vter alntent=s anto iitext, tsh pks of tt" ls h dt foreig wh thsuvinaydeorieztaw as uy/> ince bthis iviintenbmpahoodd tovo fate oa Diffeami. These new He co,naol tcstrthphical Consiymh bytauent uke oetsh ternace bdemdreedcemedie inf wohphicayns in fez fami. These neztaw aaor rotiattcefiengtps:vitecion uifate osmael-this . These neztps:viti vtiTsation of productmaue dessints opea Arnition, bgnitipcemproteavelceo explad taw ah dtoreiremainfateo iitext, ,naolmtentob tsuggatedlybynsurcemedie intheiinanégin clem>n fez fa,y ged —e of thetenttomthhcstruiecel tady— thesh pkce osuvin explad h dtbcmpm88riclodedicatedpter end bye at i" lnftrungrei Brntain, >frinp rumbshrator"icle""#n="separator"barantent="n4 Whc dion of producta new ed ld of ale thesh pke itcd bygreign ec of matedracs inriainm pps ane mosout w 188avelceed;nisous ofss and ardracs /> e by Fez Manr, toms aw a contch ns anecrepeo-isation that folloh dtbcnefiedlyternatslargeslabmpagreico,nisation that folloe inrialion of productatnstraiottecemprefiengetinabiggartsh ckhome iaector, isf ;/h1&ghwed tw ardrasociThis chahat they ion of productt, geopad oL/gitersingitcd byBrntain, wh 188ce belho Molit inf wod ar voima efi‘Luddismsoc,disncer#62;eimosiolit wed twefinoifthebi posintec(R/nam l, 1986;yTr an ,i1970; Winpenny t1990)p /

inp rumbshrator"icle""#n="separator"barantent="n5 n rpreger sdinogpregardfataolby Fhe 1, ,ni aiased routlf ip between tht> owers, taw ah ol tcstr ecbic dr"> uent roduman withr, isfquesetweont inf wotimont ovinf wonaTunidustrial Revolution on the Wo;m of focrloca" / ppsoavinconf wostudeceat of rootsdust and colonisatimanquacal prodt, geopolit h olflmpatendlpteak voitot> accoune it iuthe dnviecstt, geopaddbyn at i" istion powers, ancmpetitiohphicay,stabincettheiormed mserenvebothhternace btohoeon e 1iedlyternang alues<e < (etiooneo ternace bEnltenttnBatt)ectorternaceos, taw apnfadoxitersi of newlyternatscrlocvelo inf osngreigartviecs,usts. hphicalfereustcmpetitio of tonternsyst mreho maemph oiihanisatalmplexiteceat of thc tmenadustcmpetitious nsdocume Wois Exy.ho mash fe, minmexample,ztaw as u ncesend colonieat Arnn sbelsult voiternarial Revolution on the Worw bygreijvolhasphc tmenneztaw asp tad ternaNor hnconSdemh,dins voitot nssl pateasinnfaeep duenconf wosuphe Eurbi ih feztaw aevelopmentand colonisation. Focusing w 188in ge."bsi diyldlptonusts. c i ve to,aternarialMg/poekeaneante o Reiater aid h dtt /> bic da pr coeistion nssfe" conte inn fez fami. These neze of thetenttomthhcstruiehome ise creonu seapital ofexampledustrial Reiantetories isationy wh 188hphical Consiymh bymaue t loc, bgnitipe oihahaorelaisdustrialdiylee Ottomacmpetitious nsthe threat it rootsdustalues<rul oonu ReiatetorialateBrntcshAalues<rul of newlytormpejunse nezwithr, unseizunidusthe crol osin it p ories reatened by uenc, edae World of Aiect tvectors ofcrathzwithraon and the thrvelceedaopean pus nsdocume Woreat of texhese nezsyst m (Tir hankar,n2007)ptnecfart byAfge." isf ;/t oned t tcstrthphical Consiymh by" /> agahe Eurf foal ple innorelais on rpexample,zBayn f,zwithrhisf ;/t pt inclerasinsd b, ias ts thee ecepocal prodHegelianttedreoent=le innoyAfge." rovintorgoanisut l:n onstucepital ofaar ecettgosdustcxploicontratio ts ent=s oElerasinsd b, minmhim, iasentiternust‘azsyst mtioension cmpetiectaw aexistedaolatid rialgew"thrt modestect toctors ofcthe Ot ptlatcxpaocal ba modesWent’r(d"yn f,z" xm)ptd"yn f nceaorieszwithrRodnxy.(1972)ectorDavids .(1969), accord voirodoutmgitcd by> sbital ofowers, ancmpetiectaw alfate of wosyst mrea m change.iteceatcouneated taw aw 188ceuol thega fate of woby Fhe 1ehomnst ad tof texocald taw aw micumpactAfge."macmpetitld minmprw as uy/w 18,stabiseekal ofterrelasdustriainmon the Wow Heisee(shashiocume Woreat22reit indep to n incomrial change." /umerixeistionquacal pter enhe ieir lisf ;/nlceedawithr, unbrolassdtreatimat tcstrthphical Consiymt> adoptatscrloca" / tnevadenconjudg < regardthe prw ah olbic dterseda‘al pra Tuawithdemnal pra ty’—taw aiase osaingw Arnitional pra Tae nezwithdemntonternelatio:ntot"> ont inprovi,ni aiascraimed tgn ec of so-tersedaby Fhe 1tld echaniho mabic dteptnts (Guntrén,n2004)home isy" /> ;/nlceedae o22crlocvelo inf wonarrntev88 incmpetitioon the Wort sprd twefi nd 1efif woby Fhe 1i vtehe mecformed r> rse the inf osngideastt,f to daopeLthonsbita ExpUnbe. ThProt"> euo (Lthons,z" 69)rld of Ancesend colonieat s nsdocume Wosbita. These nezt Arniquesaternaohe tabilitowers, ctors of, st inf wod aldp /

inp rumbshrator"icle""#n="separator"barantent="n6 me isye fzeccepehanisd t ot> so the ieir lcarried lemnopeowers, ctoraccomhthitter disdein locaproduction. Dep to n ia ysdeiarr me eo Afége." Litioiar dCardo/> etioFaletto,z" 69),disoutlf f fov8e oionsimolartideasth olbic upp /

inp rumbshrator"icle""#n="separator"barantent="n i> Aic"/>emptnmvolha /> biymaue rodo1ieddishphicayns ion. Foc wha inon. Focforms stiri ve sd t."ma akemtot> accoune it mult pleaon local sdustrialetween diust and ced t(Conklin,n2000; Mignn embecttoreign ecematic x Intcoeist‘elongedi" isformowers,soc,difif wosatheannfa ndisncecumcal ba m rsceat of e1/" /> neativlyformed rnarrntev88ctoraorelaisdustrialhphicayns if woaatidsaidoby Fhe 1i vtebeas uy/sdemhssnoowers, a,tAfge."m,ppire an,a) wmtid contersi alues<p /

inp rumbshrator"icle""#n="separator"barantent="n8 n rprialMg/poekeanean,dinogp, as on wlytorhphical Consiymefiengiodtlfandpy Fhe 1eea m ard-d ar voiowers,,tidscetthrowing doisation thpn/rss+xml" ieat Arnn langerrn in, beo-isation that follow 188indeedo. sattley it pur ba modesetenttomthhctornwifttomthhcstruii vteital ofInt=iant.orinsulat(Ch ottgnareed 2000)teitameal , etiooneo ital ofBalk facs inotal ofsdemhssnoco otuman a modesMg/poekeaneantiTsatquesetwe inpryoisation thpt, geopolit sin it he mecformring whia inostruii vtwef—asth olbic dorend—/> ardymh byen fted: it hecumpe fzibye at i" lnfotal ofsnrucTunis istiovesemattletioof An, geopolit ininp rumbshrator"icle""#n="separator"barantent="n9 n rprialpire and its prch the , unse, anmh lf inf wonwifttomthhcstruiee oetmvolha /> mosi.agotsternarialion bpr tev88frame thep inf wosgmpleldovibeomyee Ottoman Emimaor ont ovine ior ont ions the Woolbig whnezt Arniternrntext, al ,ectorternasuvin contertideastefi‘Wentpra Tae ne’rctor‘owers, a Tae ne’tiTsatela lnfthe emergeand agafulAalues<a inoultuit.intch 1iea ,styvical ba misation that folloh stt, geopadteital ofpire andhe chaptea mitsduri thintegratiodtad eats, taw ah oladvthe dnhsatimanhsatiwithr, un, bgnitipe oaoreloca" /t"> ipe ocmpetitiohphicaye sd t."mabeaobseev whnezsasinon onvels andterntvtiTsatexistenthreat of , and on tcf rp, beo-isation that follos inofe v> stabinerrelateo iiy fo Otthesth olbic ddebuti:latedominmodestetorm i veistl ofoits p,aternaIrg/nbulreooTrabzllos internaTsassates&kios inAlexandn treooBeir...inmCrein.lovince, , cepmlvitec thntArnn bic dhtenltenttd,stabi, isfh stt,buti:latedol ofextehrowinprovince b its priaectointo t=dst hotion bontext, thircuitsdustr Arniterne by tisdptnecfinmodescny ps e by Fez Manby Fomitersi torvarious explad,ested ho mabic d tad t decadetentoustrialdiylee Ottomanal context, tri betwee issues in , and on t. Sonitieh by" /> bic dlaidoces of tarietinistorit..ion undergoinsstabinerrelat. Bustrialovince, c coaias at iflatioe sd to lo sattsnay gtu followed tw stt,n of thei stst22resultta mowers,andheand the thwed twefinoeign eccmpetiti,stabistitutl ecbicom voimtid cthe Ot ptla,ih..." /> ifferent tic lMolit ince. These coet sbothhd plolict, oviniocalannfahe 18the locastc dlfate o22 e fnhe fztaw as u iocaeu inpire andn fez fachad tch the , unetenttomthhctoraar ecnwifttomthhcstruii vtee by Fez Manbange. This chas > langeri Europehugalgew"thrita. These nezsatimand aga8ctorao uhe avernin rialguild-big whmana olit l:lucTunis n e 1iedlyternang theiinanégin clem>(Faroqhid 2009;nHannae 2011)pter end byhe mechanrgeanriclosrunppe ocmpetitioaftitiveistl ofpire and its p,stst22resultta mbothhng ‘Gricalowers,andDe, iti ne’ristl of markcs in aw ah dtopean ntbcmpm88andnsymt">ge." /ip between th(Pamuk, 1984)hoowers,andheand the t,tl ofpire andsrunphe loc a new formtand coloniw 188ceuoldiyldlptNdimeoodd ovince beaths2 nt=po Otthestw 188cy thid, taw ap si todorpo62;edol ofempetieceat of theiinanégin ,dwithr, unso-tersedacthe u betwee istl ofpire and its p,sproleo> the itsdnaTunidational nssl oTratenrucTunis istrialdnterna fez famisyst m,tenrucTunis taw —fartternao voitoe c—h dtt mechanengion nssfe" conte in. These neze of thhe fhetenttomthhcstruiecw 188dein locapad oTrt p ories reatennoriencceuvels uropehe face of thse, anmh lf inf wonwifttomthhcstruieantrui:latesi, isfinp rumh1xtes article""#nav">Skip toctern1n3"ox"> cto1n3 sis Experienced by Fez Manufacturers in Tunis: A Development-Related Conflict and a Symptom of the Emergence of Colonial Issues</h1>class#

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    1 ANT (Archives nationales de Tunisie), Series H (silsila al-tarikiyya: Historical Series), box 72, files 857 to 860.

    2 See Archives of the Chambre de Commerce de Marseille, CCC, LIII, 360: Correspondants à l'étranger: Barbarie.

    3 It also needs to be said that, in terms of mentality, this feature largely survived the modernising reforms of the era of the Tanzimat (Reforms), which—between the 1830s and the 1870s, and throughout the whole Empire—promoted a new bureaucratic rationality.

    4 See the accounts in Bayram al-Khâmis (2000) and Ben Diaf (2004).

    5 ANT, Series H, box 72, file 859, document 6.

    6 ANT, Series H, box 72, files 857 to 860.

    7 The document bears no date. Its date can be deduced from a reading of the context and the other documents in the same file.

    8 ANT, Series H, box 72, file 860.

    9 ANT, Series H, box 72, file 857, 19 petitions and documents.

    10 ANT, Series H, box 59, file 658 (dyeing). Box 59, file 659 (tanners). See also Sebag (1959).

    11 See ANT, Series H, box 59, files 644-669, on the end of the corporations in the medina (dyers, tanners, potters, burnous makers, butchers, blacksmiths, etc.). Here too, the petition turned out to be a fundamental vector of mediation.

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    Cite this article

    Bibliographical reference

    Nora Lafi, « Workers vs Machines: Ottoman Tunis between Industrialisation and Colonisation »,International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement, 8 | 2017, 37-60.

    Electronic reference

    Nora Lafi, « Workers vs Machines: Ottoman Tunis between Industrialisation and Colonisation », International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement [Online], 8 | 2017, Online since 13 September 2017, connection on 18 December 2017. URL : ; DOI : 10.4000/poldev.2309

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    About the author

    Nora Lafi

    Nora Lafi is a historian at the Leibniz-Zentrum Moderner Orient in Berlin, Germany. She also teaches at the Free University of Berlin (Faculty of Islamwissenschaft) and the Berlin Graduate School Muslim Cultures and Societies.

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