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Médias, journalisme

Pierre Albert, La presse française

Paris, Éd. La Documentation française, coll. Études de la presse française, 2008, 215 p.
Marieke Stein
Référence(s) :

Pierre Albert, La presse française. Paris, Éd. La Documentation française, coll. Études de la presse française, 2008, 215 p.

Texte intégral

1La Presse française, la nouvelle édition de l’ouvrage de Pierre Albert, ancien directeur de l’Institut français de presse et auteur de plusieurs livres sur le sujet, se présente comme un « tableau » de la presse écrite en France, doublé d’une synthèse des questions que suscitent la presse et ses évolutions, le tout dans un format pédagogique d’environ 200 pages. Le livre est composé de trois grandes parties. La première, « Caractères généraux et originalités françaises », définit la presse, sa nature, ses fonctions, mais s’intéresse aussi à des aspects un peu moins connus comme la structure interne des organes de presse, leur statut juridique et leur fonctionnement économique. La deuxième, « Organisation et structures », insiste davantage sur le(s) métier(s) de journaliste, sur les difficultés de la profession (crédibilité, neutralité, etc.), sur les circuits de production et de distribution du journal, sur le système de la correspondance de presse, ainsi que sur le lectorat. La troisième et dernière partie propose une typologie de la presse selon différents critères (périodicité, zone géographique, domaine thématique, etc.), en présentant, pour de nombreux grands titres nationaux et régionaux, un rapide historique doublé d’une sorte de « fiche technique ».

2Dès l’introduction, Pierre Albert souligne l’hétérogénéité et la multiplicité des journaux pour montrer la difficulté de délimiter le champ de la recherche et de définir un corpus ; il fera le choix, plus loin, d’étudier les journaux imprimés dans leur ensemble, sans exclure la presse-magazine, allant jusqu’à inclure dans sa définition de la presse la « presse indiscrète » et la presse masculine, avec des titres comme Public, Détective ou Menshealth. Ce choix initial de considérer comme « presse » non la seule presse d’information mais toute production périodique imprimée conduit l’auteur à un certain éparpillement, mais la cohérence de l’ouvrage réside dans l’intention initiale de montrer à la fois des innovations et des permanences, de « saisir le sens d’un mouvement » d’ensemble de la presse imprimée (p. 10). Schématiquement, ce mouvement est caractérisé par une diminution du nombre de titres et de leur tirage global, par une concentration des groupes de presse, par leur dépendance accrue à des capitaux extérieurs, ainsi que par la concurrence de la presse gratuite et de l’internet, concurrence qui n’est que trop vite évoquée mais donne toutefois lieu à des lignes intéressantes en conclusion.

3Quelques chiffres permettent à Pierre Albert d’entamer l’analyse. Il rappelle qu’en 2001, 200 000 personnes travaillaient dans le secteur de la presse, pour un chiffre d’affaires global de 10,62 milliards d’euros en 2006, ce qui situe la presse au quinzième rang des secteurs économiques en France. Il précise que les journaux sont désormais souvent détenus par des entreprises financières polyvalentes qui possèdent des « conglomérats multimédias », puis il interroge, trop rapidement peut-être, les conséquences possibles de cette concentration : perte possible de vocation critique des journaux, perte d’indépendance, etc. Ces sujets, fondamentaux mériteraient d’être analysés avec un regard plus critique, mais l’auteur choisit une certaine neutralité concernant toutes les questions d’éthique journalistique, préférant poser des questions et les situer dans un contexte historique et économique plutôt que tenter d’y apporter des réponses. L’ouvrage évite tous les débats, mais sans doute est-ce nécessaire au tableau objectif d’un milieu foisonnant et en constante évolution.

4À côté des informations concrètes qui abondent dans l’ouvrage, quelques affirmations, parce qu’elles n’occupent que quelques lignes, surprennent par leur caractère expéditif : ainsi, cette remarque sur l’enseignement de la presse à l’école, dont l’auteur déplore qu’elle développe une tendance excessivement critique chez les élèves à l’égard de la presse, « sous prétexte d’en mieux connaître les pratiques » (p. 118) ; ou encore l’affirmation selon laquelle « le rôle de la presse est […] d’exposer aux électeurs les enjeux de la politique et de les aider à faire leur choix », qui appellerait de nombreux commentaires et mises en questions. De même, la thèse selon laquelle « les journaux ne sont pas responsables de la moralité publique […] ; ils ne sont que des intermédiaires » (p. 115) évacue d’emblée des phénomènes d’interaction complexes entre les médias et leurs publics, phénomènes d’ailleurs largement analysés par d’autres auteurs.

5Plus intéressants sont l’historique de la presse française et toutes les typologies, définitions et distinctions que propose Pierre Albert, par exemple entre « grande actualité » et fait divers, entre les différents « métiers » du journaliste, entre les pratiques variées de lecture de la presse, etc. Dans le même esprit, l’attention portée à toutes les nuances de la presse (d’opinion, d’information, magazine, etc.) permet de mieux comprendre la richesse de cet ensemble foisonnant de publications. En effet, à côté des notices concernant les grands quotidiens nationaux (Le Figaro, Le Parisien, Libération, etc.) et régionaux (de l’Est Républicain au Dauphiné libéré en passant par Ouest France ou Le Courrier picard), Pierre Albert ne néglige ni la presse gratuite (avec quelques aperçus utiles sur le poids de ce type de publications dans le marché : elles représentent le tiers du nombre d’exemplaires de quotidiens publiés chaque jour en France en 2005!), ni les magasines familiaux (La Vie), ni la presse spécialisée, économique ou financière (Capital, L’Expansion), sportive (L’Équipe) ou culturelle (de Télérama à Téléstar!), ni même la presse « parallèle », éditée « en marge des circuits commerciaux ordinaires » (p. 188) comme Actuel, La Hulotte ou Macadam. Il est seulement dommage que la diversité de ces titres, si bien établie, ne serve pas de support à une réflexion sur les frontières entre journalisme et divertissement, et entre Le Monde et Télé Star! Mais le sujet de l’ouvrage est la presse, non le journalisme.

6L’une des forces du livre est la comparaison régulière entre l’organisation de la presse française et celle de la presse britannique, américaine ou allemande. « Il existe, rappelle Pierre Albert, un journalisme et une manière de lire le journal à la française » (p. 35). Le journalisme « à la française », explique l’auteur, a toujours été davantage un journalisme d’expression que d’observation, préférant la chronique ou le commentaire au compte rendu ou au reportage davantage prisés par les journaux anglo-saxons. Au-delà des différences historiques et structurelles, ce sont bien des conceptions du métier qui distinguent aujourd’hui les pratiques journalistiques. Ainsi, en raison d’une reconnaissance tardive de la liberté de la presse en France, les journalistes définissent-ils volontiers leur mission comme la nécessaire critique d’une information officielle. Et l’image initiale du « journaliste homme de lettres » explique que les journalistes français aient souvent une ambition littéraire, et que « les grands noms du journalisme français aient été et soient encore […] des polémistes, des essayistes ou des hommes de lettres et non des reporteurs » (p. 49).

7L’autre intérêt majeur de La presse française est la précision des descriptions de la presse comme secteur économique et comme objet juridique à part entière. L’auteur rappelle d’abord les dates et textes fondateurs qui régi diff la presse française, em>, , , Laucu datesple entautre ipaysdu nombn Fes–rent des i les g>), Pierse intusion.

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L’auteur rappauppauppcccccccce doDu u&eraph;e pager cetce doncien directrectppauppauauauccccculeauteur rapprappeur rappauppauppcccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc, ancien directctrpanspan ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccce doe l’Iune i&eraph;e pager c m>L’aeGrur> ce doncien directrectppauppauauauccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccculeauteur rapprapp, ancien directctspsprpanr2"><span clasntati. </em>Pon françaiseuleauteur rapprappeur rappauppauppcccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc, ancien directctttttttttran de plusng>Réfuteur rappauuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuut" title=11281 ,aris, <title>Pierre Albert,Fath la hd="docAuthor"> <strong>Marieke <span claDaghmimilyName"Fng>dd="docAuthor"> <strong>Marieke <span claToumimilyName"Ab sorahessed="docAuthor"> <strong>Marieke <span clasmsmainrmilyName"0"><sp sujees typologsiae Pierst Fd:sçaimod, « Orrre Albagilecisoyendiv> uteur rappauuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu[ title="Sénale]uteur rappauuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu<ocSubtitle">ie C| <uem>Luuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu<Stesh" title="English">en</a></des,uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu31uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu|uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu 7uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu uteur rappauuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu a>e. L’auteur rappauuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu panspan cccccccccccccccccccccccccrappauppauauau ancien directcttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt, ancien directctttttttttran de plusng>Réfuteur rappauuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuut" title=8567 ,aris, <title>Pierre Albert,De fistiqu="docAuthor"> <strong>Marieke <span claK, familyName"Phil él="docAuthor"> <strong>Marieke <span cla grtuimilyName""docToÈvl="docAuthor"> <strong>Marieke <span claTh8, 2tymilyName"Al mal="docAuthor"> <strong>Marieke <span claVa mut pmilyName"0"><sp sujin<sivilaise présentant.mHextet soidommage qu , Ps="paranum», explique l’auteur, enteiv> v> "docAuthor"> <strong>Marieke <span claxix v> "up v> l, div> up v> é d="tr v> uteur rappauuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu[ title="Sénale]uteur rappauuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu<ocSubtitle">ie C| <uem>Luuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu<Stesh" title="English">en</a></des,uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu23uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu|uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu 3uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu uteur rappauuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu a>e. L’auteur rappauuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu panspan cccccccccccccccccccccccccrappauppauauau ancien directcttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt, ancien directctttttttttran de plusng>Réfuteur rappauuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuut" title=6971nt-2"><s <title>Pierre Albert,Gumerauml="docAuthor"> <strong>Marieke <span claDrouepmilyName" sujedocTne typd" tit FrUnqu ,hnocriaireslass=</desMisparabl se,ce doncien directrectppauppauauauuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu[ title="Sénale]uteur rappauuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu<ocSubtitle">ie C| <uem>Luuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu<Stesh" title="English">en</a></des,uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu22uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu|uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu 2uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu uteur rappauuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu a>e. L’auteur rappauuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu panspan cccccccccccccccccccccccccrappauppauauau ancien directcttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt, ancien directctttttttttran de plusmorsa>class="se778">Tndent dattitlmang c panspan cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc uleauteur rapprappc panspan cccccccccr uleauteur rapprappdirectctttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttc panspan cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccr uleauteur rapprappdirectctttttr panr /Du mêe pager c --> pspan cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccr uleauteur rapprare. 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