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The Spectre haunting Rock Music – The Obsession with Heritage, Popular and Present-Day Music, and “Museo-mummification” Issues

Philippe Le Guern
Traduction de Inist
Cet article est une traduction de :
Un spectre hante le rock… L’obsession patrimoniale, les musiques populaires et actuelles et les enjeux de la « muséomomification »

Notes de la rédaction

This English translation has not been published in printed form/Cette traduction anglaise n’a pas été publiée sous forme imprimée.

Texte intégral

A ghost story

1This entire story takes root with the Beatles, first in Paris and subsequently in Liverpool, before spreading out to Laval (Mayenne département of France) and to many other places. We start with the Beatles museum in Paris, or rather with John Lennon at the Cité de la Musique from October 2005 to June 2006 – John Lennon’s ghost and his fetish objects. I strolled through the exhibition with some sociologist friends (Dominique Pasquier, Patrick Mignon, Marc Touché and Hervé Glevarec), but we were more like fans than sociologists for the moment. With Marc Touché, we entered what purported to be the reconstitution of a typical teenager’s room in the late Fifties. The wallpaper, furniture, posters, and sound track were all of the right vintage – everything matched up, except for one detail: the music was being played on a stereo sound system with loudspeakers. We then embarked on a long conversation with Marc Touché on the careful attention to be paid to material cultures in exhibitions of this kind: the hi-fi system was not a problem because it was anachronistic; rather, it did not make it possible to understand or even imagine the sound experience of listening to a Teppaz or any other record-player of the time, with its almost total lack of bass, a sound that seems to us today to be very nasal, listening to sound in mono, the close link between this type of equipment and the bedroom or private party as places for listening and socialising, etc. Then, in September 2011, back in the footsteps of the Beatles, the group that has haunted me since childhood. I was invited to speak at Liverpool University. I took advantage of the occasion to walk around the town, as it was my first visit. Museums devoted to the Beatles had sprung up almost like mushrooms along the docks. Together with emeritus musicologist Philip Tagg, I decided to take a ride in one of the many taxis offering tourists a motorised pilgrimage in the footsteps of the most famous group of the town, the United Kingdom, and the whole world. The driver-cum-guide, with his hard-core skinhead look, really went to town for us, offering a route that would have found favour with historian Carlo Ginzburg, with his evidential paradigm. We embarked on nothing short of a hermeneutic – and often frankly erudite – race, including barber’s shops and Penny Lane, chapels and Father McKenzie. The dominant note, however, was the disturbing feeling that never quite went away, despite the traces, signs, clues and symptoms of variable kinds: from the interpretation of an inscription on a gravestone that echoed the coded lyrics of songs to an official plaque authenticating the house where John Lennon grew up – it was difficult to tell for sure whether the reference was to something that had actually existed or merely to an artefact. Our taxi stopped in front of a wrought iron gate behind which stretched some kind of wasteland. The driver invited me to get out of the taxi and showed me what he thought was the best place for taking a photograph. We took it in turns – I had to wait while other pilgrim tourists got out of taxis owned by the same company to take the photo. What I was looking at was Strawberry Field, and I was torn between the emotion of the moment and the impression that I was taking part in a masquerade: am I really standing where the Beatles really once stood, or in a place given importance subsequently, drawn out of the imaginary world of the Fab Four? Was this the Liverpool of the Beatles, or the Liverpool of their imagination?

2Back in France, without the Beatles, but this time with the ghost of the Shadows: I attended the opening of the “Rock in Laval” exhibition. Laval, in the Mayenne département, is a town of 110 000 inhabitants, and has both the image of a rural community and a rich history of rock music. Walls of wooden planks inset with lit windows – instead of votive tablets there were keyboards, guitars, photographs, posters. The exhibition included a reconstitution of both a teenager’s bedroom and a rehearsal venue. One young visitor, visibly moved, recognised his father on a photograph of one of Laval’s rock groups in the Sixties. It was a successful exhibition: a real lesson in local history. And yet it said nothing to the musician I was in the Eighties and Nineties. It seemed to me that it concealed a part of the truth, and that my truth was no less true that that experienced by other musicians. Organising a collection and setting up an exhibition always obeys a particular taxonomy, a type of narration, with effects of classification and exclusion: this is explained extremely well by Marc Touché in relation to the collections he has brought into the Musée des Civilisations de l’Europe and de la Méditerranée (MuCEM), focused on pioneering places, rehearsal venues, and particular families of instruments. But where does History start? Where does revisionism start? How can an exhibition state the multiplicity of experiences, particularly as they are experiences involving the senses and emotions, and not merely a reductionist machine where only those objects deemed exemplary or emblematic (of what, in fact? of an era? of habits? of the dominant aesthetics?) would be exhibited and have the value of proof. That is precisely one of the reasons for Jacques Derrida (1995) linking the issue of archives and the arkhè to the Freudian thesis of censorship and repression. Furthermore, why is sound so often the poor relation, compared with material objects, in these exhibitions on rock music? A point that was in fact noted by the organisers of an exhibition in Karlsruhe:

  • 1 Presentation of the exhibition of the Internet site of the Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie (...)

“Visual experience dominates in numerous exhibitions. Sound Art. Sound as a Medium of Art emphasizes auditory experience and transforms the visual experience. The visitor is thus provided with the opportunity to become acquainted with an entirely new sound cosmos, which neither radio, film nor the music industry has been able to establish to such an extent.”1

Photograph 1. “Rock in Laval” exhibition (photograph: P. Le Guern, 2010).

Photograph 1. “Rock in Laval” exhibition (photograph: P. Le Guern, 2010).

Photograph 2. “Rock in Laval” exhibition (photograph: P. Le Guern, 2010).

Photograph 2. “Rock in Laval” exhibition (photograph: P. Le Guern, 2010).

The spectral nature of rock

3May Karl Marx forgive me, but there could well be a spectre haunting rock music. The spectre of rock continues to haunt rock music itself, rather like an equivalent of what Simon Reynolds (2012) in a striking phrase called “the empire of retro” with regard to current pop music, and which even led him to beg for Kurt Cobain to be left to rest in peace at last, as it is so clear that the death-wish underlying the compulsion of retromania is the diametrical opposite of the life-force – and the enthusiasm for transgression – on which rock music has built up its legend and its power as a social contaminant.

4Indeed since the early 2000s, the spectacular turning-in on itself of rock music seems to have become the major characteristic of a culture which values nostalgia, recycling and self-quotation (with much use being made of sampling), which multiplies the mausoleums dedicated to its own glory, and deposits in the crypt of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame or in the Museu del Rock at the heart of Barcelona’s Las Arenas cultural and commercial complex the ghosts of the Beatles or Elvis. Fetish objects – guitars, stage costumes, etc – are on display for fans to admire: this produces underground questioning of our relationship with merchandise (but why on earth should rock music be removed from Karl Marx’s attention?) and the apparently paradoxical link between rock and capitalism.

5In this respect, by emphasising the multiple phenomena of nostalgic auto-celebration that has been a feature of pop culture since the early 2000s, Simon Reynolds’ book Retromania (published [in France] in 2012), seems to indicate that commemorative manifestations have become an intrinsic component part of both mass culture and the media industry. Whereas each decade has been defined by a dominant sound or musical genre, the most recent period appears to be that of the tribute and the quotation reference, with many groups and artistes taking their sound signature from past eras, from Amy Winehouse and her album with its evocative title Back to Black to Oasis aping the Beatles. The omnipresence of a retromanic posture is perhaps expressed symptomatically in a series of forms turned towards the past: the celebration of the vintage aesthetic and the demand for authenticity, the return of the LP, and the fetishisation of the ideal object and the ideal sound, the re-formation of disbanded groups and the formation of successful tribute bands (Abba Mania, The Australian Pink Floyd, etc), and the exhumation and commercialisation of posthumous recordings.

6In this context of apparent exhaustion of avant-garde rock, a number of questions are raised. Firstly, is rock already a dead or stagnant genre, a sort of supernova that has long since cooled, whose current spectators make out no more than the image sent back to them through the space-time continuum? Or in other less lyrical words, can rock music escape the usual interrogations on the purpose of art? Then, how should we interpret the obsession with heritage which seems to be a feature of our current relationship with rock music? What anthropological significance should we give to a phenomenon which takes the form of a real frenzy of archive and museum work, a frenzy which cannot be dissociated from the contributions made by the Internet and the social networks to the constitution of an increasingly shrivelled digital memory of rock culture? Lastly, is nostalgia a positive factor in the establishment of the History (or the histories) of rock music? Let us consider that History is that particularly complex thing made up not only of strictly “periodisable” events and the relationships between achievements, but also of feelings and the specific – and occasionally contradictory – points of view of major characters and anonymous stakeholders. If that is so, how is the history of rock – in itself already an immense expanse of legends, not as the result of a lack of truth but because rock music is perhaps constitutionally a machine for producing fetishes – able to deal with retromanic compulsion when this tends to lend more credibility to the mythicised story of baby-boomers discovering rock music or periods that are deemed emblematic, such as the emergence of the punk movement? Conversely, is the same retromanic compulsion flattening this History under the weight of all the vernacular documents being put on-line today by countless rock fans?

  • 2 Examples of this include the constitution of archives and collections, dedicated exhibitions and mu (...)

7Thus the central question that this issue of Questions de Communication intends to explore is “What significance should be given to what appears to be a phenomenon that is unparalleled in terms of its scale and the multiplicity of forms and arrangements it inspires2, which I shall call an obsession with heritage?” Is this obsession the symptom of anthropological mutations, calling into question our conceptions of modernity, art, and the values for which art is a vehicle (authenticity, autonomy, etc), and digital culture (Kirby, 2009; Le Guern, 2012)? More specifically, the question that interests us here refers to different and interacting levels of analysis:

  1. What do we consider “the rock heritage” to be, or what do we include in it? And indeed who is the “we” capable of or authorised to define and transmit that heritage? Fans? Public authorities? Experts in cultural history or museography?

  2. What arrangements do we use when we stage this memory of rock culture?

  3. Consequently, what history/histories of rock music do we compile on the basis of the traces, clues and emblems that we collect and select?

  4. Lastly, is there an idiosyncratic way of producing this history of rock? In other words, are the history of rock and its patrimonialisation the same when seen from France, England, the United States, or elsewhere?

8Turning something into a heritage feature involves, to apparently varying degrees, the three moments constituted by the identification of traces, their conservation and, lastly, their exploitation, generally by their presentation, making them visible using various expographic resources or strategies (Poli, 2003; Drouguet, 2005). The memory element – the trace as thought of by Jacques Derrida (1995), Paul Ricoeur (2000) and Carlo Ginzburg (1989) – does not in itself impose its significance: it remains dependent on a quantity of hermeneutic work, and this hermeneutic runs through each of these moments. In other words, and using the notion of translation adopted by Madeleine Akrich, Michel Callon and Bruno Latour (2000), there is no radical break between the thing itself and the discourse about that thing, but a process of elaboration by means of successive determinations, without any semiotic (or semantic) break. Furthermore, Jacques Derrida (1995: 37) stresses that “we no longer experience in the same way things that are no longer archived in the same way. The archivable meaning allows itself to be co-determined in advance by the archiving structure”.

9This issue therefore intends to investigate the policy of memory. By using the expression “policy of memory” we refer to what Michel Foucault (1969) identified as a mechanism of control and domination in respect of archives, which Victoria H. F. Scott (2008) – quoting Hayden White and Dominick LaCapra – depicted as the questioning of the “naturalised authority of archives”, or again what Jacques Derrida (1995) associates with the question of archontic behaviour, i.e. the power to keep and interpret an archive, with the two-fold significance of the arkhè as a beginning and as an instruction. This questioning of memory as a policy, however, also opens up a train of thought on the impulse to archive things, this “archive disease” described by Derrida, the complexity of which is so well rendered in the English phrase “archive fever”, in its morbid and nostalgic sense: i.e. the compulsion to endlessly accumulate the traces of an origin which is constantly slipping away and questions us on the risk of what Simon Reynolds (2012) calls “anarchive” or archive anarchy – its saturation power. On the one hand, then, there is the intuition, guided by a survival reflex, that “history must have a dustbin, or History will be a dustbin, a gigantic, sprawling garbage heap” (Reynolds, 2012: 63). On the other hand, there is the feeling that “old smelly cheeses” (to use an objection addressed to Marc Touché when he began his project on collections involving electro-amplified music at the French national museum of popular arts and traditions in Paris), ought to find favour in the eyes of the archons.

Turning rock music into part of the heritage – the ultimate legitimisation, or museo-mummification?

“After jazz (particularly Miles Davis), then Serge Gainsbourg, it was John Lennon and now it is the turn of Bob Dylan. So it has now happened – rock has now been put in a museum, and I am not sure it will do it much good. Very serious people will now display Gainsbourg’s cigarette lighter or Zim’s hat in the same way as they previously handled the works of Titian and Goya. On inauguration days, canapés and champagne in hand, curators are being congratulated by ministers on a spree. Back in their official car, who kn the f a reefer or a-linm of likeweight appeod, orfas a number ox thescovnlemeneweighjoints in theuthurks o">l Its ges  was i">Its gke thb cluer”beWhaYoueWamentbuint that wat onlt becauss thI hae hevedtndurusing th, filLOL (L uliusinOuinLoud)!es”Le Clube deMrranurons dDimasqlds, 20)sm.

snd the exhibitias iRecome earls in thyppeodÉrusice Ck hsthed questidled thLe Morenly nsllpaper‘I as the cialro evocasion todam non pcating tsthe workinas an institutick, aon-d commerciad setti?on . Thsuggquestio does noh serd toonv since thpapssion touFirco into thGppevack musicceneon with some otherulankn wity firs. ThBam stdngs and tn ZumerHumetles‘">This exhibitiasngsbsolunotet totar exploitati. N evd tndlerg, im’e vermovthing to be able tochiv, back into tht period aga,dse idcx therey-hulaiold xty-yppe-oorld. Thereherekn tm oSex P Hislss, postegs anLPly eehive(N evly and thBofolckergA anarchs in thUK,nd d S hav. ThQuethenH pon daps in theun)e d siated bBheriinon’Jamieon id8) –tian e arc-visuauctionispographid artion to-determinef the pune aesthetra n thehi arts anT-ehi arts produted be Englise d siarch viayennW aef wolf and thSex P HislsdsmaeenageMrlsicm McLppar […].
Ie fa,is the interees of thie visuat andivalene evocasioe of theoaber oe punlories i its, hising a number o, fiogation, with thd artiphid avant-garde of th20m.

or stngthe fetishtse cuck hao tanns u pr) idence in thm pasoften dapc at thV wis a Mecias iReco3). On thh weigons oM couan Pcadio, wie in thw Walls on theumptuviosw Whitpal raceg where the FrencAdecamtry ha itIttralia="ho,he visitsle wilo be abl has evl, beford to at surx theulf ="separusing thpomoup of tha placc and thl nature od the exhibitiae on displa, theay. Themazntingenaice dencshroomr presepeknns s on wre od thh objectp and imasn, genelated be punl culturdurusin itbriefly exisrancek betwee1976tp an1980ay. Tho innistory od thh objects brought TogetheThis isressi:he ct th,nfaizntesre, postersflysters, drelings ann coimas,ip and recoly eehiveepisimasising thenery. And tace companibut lnd, therawere soh, fisol and documeatori,on alving emoments that ardresdentiay to ao understaoning of this movemees, whicn origelatee i, Englant. WitEur pun) –d thl mure od the exhibitia n th, curatte andmpifactoe od the FrencAdecamtrs iRecoodÉrusice Ck hsth, in coilaboratio, witFabricthSergro,as an s dependen, curattedissociaten with mc so, haincricted a sort oneuthropiers. We wilo be abls te visnk it iGppevact io Jues. It wilo bt possible taskof questions and perhape diipigate theeromplexit, genelaten froahe didvance by asispeebrationowe collecs fetish objectsSirancen seen frog the Furthee uarde of thAlpi,oEur puno def sityne etakes brougces of vtraie celebration oh objects gawidge,ch eve – valised be people with thby usocesadocumte of the keyes oMrlsicm McLppar (incriitormaeenages ane obsesvthe ryrics oaby couiver-cultureAsurx tyhe works of artOlar rx tyht merels constituiccseum documeising e snstructive movementT the questioe has been viaoningpef sion fon thm pasfavouh decaers. We wilinteed towards ths recd a posay. ThV wis a Meciaaout an eveoe haI decided to turight intl museuh materits. Idorning ,at it cfsters oo thosy/histocival ryricn which theepeople involdpc at the-tim) –d thSex P Hisls,lm Franim’Bazookacc and thy groupn froGetet a,is thNogethngla00s,e wzthnglaes and elsewheus on the exhibitiim’, poste e werfular froad evocang. P punow ptepe way agp last evee one idcs in the eveeties. Builaveut lndd moro radicly), and disturbistly, It oppe calhotype of thh pme, with itt famou">l l

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1Ie fagh each of tat parnces invoedm) –d thfaio,of thh museum instituticts e hao something th way abouient anditt caten wito its owy paradtiesR rock fand have the feeling thad thh objech of theiraressioints beininseagm,estoceg whe, as it ie an objeng thasti alh> as a arusine hea,nt anditsti alalchive ano wel –rpc at the vert pasisns noa dend y. Yetar froa e otheA poins of vi,od the exhibitia, off as aerfbjech opportunitl forarusfrlying the fetishtse impuls(Segrché, 2003;olerg1999)ng thae drirds thtoHebarbt Haucke,et an aretypcial compulv we colleitoro tests us nowely accumulades brsakinde os fetish objeccn which We thes turnescoved to thR ros museum iMmmunh n whi,it in tuso, hap but tmae on displhe:

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T the soke ofs it in frog thMarannsbuint tha evee ono kn ay. Thpaveetiawtherocused on a phoce sroot witBherneyhe Saters. Tys, cont bnce wholedobreviouses, particularly as the siates thtoIre sohd have th guit JaerneJtrasd oocused theaory od ths, cdsual cevideme, witJhausn Tinumblakent.”2Originibll lissed ta(authenticitypurunity ann s dependenceAoundteiWas this type oh>Originaf narravncs thah mane rock museumn todaawere oe ibuning td staon. ThiThis arictl, whaGitreto Maus e met  (21: 7tc), an this mcumeaty7) stresses ardresdentishtspaparado(ctor in face eofhen-dresdentishtspaparades) of rock mushe:

T truf poren defined thi Pubmbl ha, whao acronsurusinreen appeFrancectosurusinr)d)sn appeFranck –toren defined thi Pubmbl hay a ttmber ox the momentP pop musct was ala abouflnmboyFraitygl famrup, exssup – io inniivedtitself anit e snsoyivedtitsess. Imodare nn referensry to ax thind ell –rpifr, it d,as iliised andlaieemed that it dcont,gs ann nv sinvedtitsels that that ie idce wasrenueP pot is history oe ghosst: the ghost of tht ps forr,t: the ghost of thk f,if thk fon tfaitasiensesbthout tht ps forr,t: tht ps forron tfaitasiensesbthout thfai; io involviaceeprusing thfaitasiewastht cate valun forhas lond as the wholx thint lasnt..

34It I had tbeof censated to bdist rkck”Certeaurg1990: 4589) tidtbytt thebybeorninbeyo and the aollectic oe retguerair conservasmts and uyof supofficiunititmr preseows itsela if the nalun fod thnewof culturadd eyncrasitati. Buhat, volumeatoly), and perhapunr coceviouses, by exhibising thf forrntlyoc limerouc ann rparentlo-mummiited and rmlocesSex P Hislssatis nlocetheAl catf than thV wis a Meciso, hoco awerm nox thkce thaf the institutimthis dnticating that in alwayhy as the pasr wo?s. It sesed thaf there io somethinattispla where that cannot ba redssed tate discourst on thenattentirge ot Th, curatorskindurthea numbrge ot Thn institutickt becausn h ig somethingsed to t, witendisuat and repressi,er cnbjeaten witf th, compl,es undergrount relationship which the institutimh as the expressioy of tha powim’unr cocevio engimasniion in relation to the verno dnt of whathis s populck, and atng populal cultuumaweay. Isngd precisels this whathiattisplas in ths beauxity oe deack, s bebecaus, wawerin capable otalooking abouien, withou, makint itiseads to Hick”Certeaurg1990: 60).at Michece Certeauim’sypct thy is thas thbppevovalenattstiarde of the institutimd tg rocl cultuumalend mor, generalle ti populal cultuu,as a pevovalanceitilaved to thkicess oe deastf questione eofrucdeak nd repreened n origio of thesm institutic,ts constituteintidtbytt the smpirh ts elidominaup ahncriin frog theepeopck”e

R rocl cultuos and thk heritay-boon?

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68a>;in thm multiplisation ot rcm vitionetguemcusae ot the history og rock musly, thr emblematia series of which i<m stcatind wit<

7In this respecto Marc Touchim’ partleur (27) (publisheigan hiy firss issue oy the f viee adousinr)s memory of rock cultu,isti all todad reproments the mose corehsressiwe oe ibas tdddescri,in frog thiconsity ann on a qsian autethnxpographtiayashitiont Theuniopular experiencs oaep museograocival sen areb,he ttluning tf impost “hve” objend in thr wldon oefinstitutic,tsim muaneviouslr cn froatek – if a realspace ok between thh matering powee od thh objecc, ane thatftf thalaory o" laustag syod thneucceunity ofolcuning Togethef the d in th starlpraglematia npose os thn tecto Marc Touchtdd enr stra us noreenmamplifver,t guiter,tmusrophstoceetc t are hn facd)srullogationsfeueames,teraccri n and significan)ic and the sescpsitivticsgotoriurd whi9)   wan for Exampst , coe impstork mus”9) twere alwaye expresveup not only oahe smpirh tn claifory on doved thr wldo, but alsf and perhapilaveut lre od the expresveusomeriode iloyivebitd thag pow:u">shiAfthven that arrhas logicaskind inpologicay as thet arrgtioniic)sm.

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  • 9Ie fa,is thPlwaydthe eLsirt-stylyps Folk A archivests projece raiean a number oe questisrd which cannot b faecide, and whicareca priblele evigiblthe ut ano undtaookinn on thiookd:c doe io involhs, cinning archivh materint an doved tincric dagibalankd to bmodarrvailasible ty th (pubc?n. ThiThih indeean, generouenattenti,askind u n that ie ndoubtrocuref.tT the questishe mosfrnsequentrFre couivrkedbreviousrreinvolharground theroccrms orneng archiv, rathed t oa e oth,askind ot Thwai igin whicdteiWasold benatterpride, and thahetadagieiWasold bocus. Yetah ig sesed thaf tlyquass issut ig mors noy to takc intace couke ths stakeholdeps tmcisvrsbeIn this respectwe I shalannate thnmbiguexity od the exprestim) imh materin heritack, in cnbjectio, with musheh aMarctinLetiurdct reworthg the defisitias produted bUNESCO erstasedhoubytnentsatch-shalaaultu. Yetag rock must tidto Marc Touchim’t wono>In thit point isnn equ locra thih nerthea materinn fotmh materits.hat if thumeanglovemeese tht psemeseps matn cnbjectioofal networnsfeueamoe and meeling, whica eeu oppohh objecoro chniasqldsr produro,oe anocubrssostInd havalncrdyewritteim with referenne te eoe estory of ths stakeholdal netwohe:

“Aftut lnda an domiryag elerusi guit dusrnins kt becausihat if tht poins orareita,od thneuccestork medtitickt betweemmunivenonssae diitilave, but alsfrtenattl lisseh as thsusrnieled instrumeam tam,es tkh mun faurowly oamamplifvo,of thh numbrge oaag rocy groes,teracsunin, angigo,of tha polorier otowfn foStugats in favouofn, coe impstork musly, thh recole compaly, thh reco-Alaorr,ts uamperdFra hinattate disrpc ao a pcityicoree Paoo,oe anh evef thk ioofaT thCltuos anJo byim vitios thaIct wasthe thnmage o18ns kcocann stra un odtitselp a totas sociammuniven igin whico chnnpoloamoe anAlaorroot arclocisell lisse…tes”; Le Guern, 201211)sm.

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  • 2 Co cuused o31 Otocumbe, 20.u

newo heritasck, incluson this n defisitiae of Expeno knledguckt becausn ths social networnt ar eehapatind that i, cms onle lt der collecv benatcalgriencseir ot deo knledguckt becausn thnewodigigitao slss, offhnewot possieicerien fof undbeing ivttuse archivh (pubc,ht becausn fumsg, an1a>cctoe te eolelegeavery grotT thS sdowres2y to takjuhosow tr Exampern froamosing brsakin. ">In thia npo,ke a projec, such as Folk A archivest knadlwaybecosns ur agasthe the question on thn froimbrge oc Expeiouse ane eoe makint intace couko of vernaculaf foans o heritaitble aounn the

1In thniginaaginyrbc,td thowevte ths stakeholdeps invoedmi ot the herita,ructrni nra, and thowevte thg levpatto which tynspeebre,as it is difficuld tooncerind the exisranry obalarensrm oa wovet ane on attererge tths som-tisidunivguckt and som-tisinrah eve ftagtioniicek – ish soly, whas constitu if thkramet wono oaefielmei ot thBscodieu-s typa npose os thn ten tsnd that ithast takc or collecti,sr conservation aorepromeatutimthilidoiates mereld to meriopologiche issossostMarctinLetiurdct reworths , threpromeatutimo of rock anf poh objeccn wie if an institutimp not onlrefolle as thr respeapablt posstint og populal culturs in the herita,a, but alss cf tribusvaructilelg td its construitickss. Imodayrue brouace thaf hiy elmei i, particularlc seositivieen im such as if questione eos memeries os dn evuciecg througn a number oa series oh objecororacri,oe ancluiies. Iints becauso of gsed thaf tlt wonJacacqueDefrudae had cr rkedhouonng considauction of tha powly oa archivmyt anerther wosof tha powld toononstrumalend noa poausn tha powly oa archivmytsns dnsissocblela poentonak anfsychoaginyenton,vieen im such as if questione eos ctrolescoved Thf archich aa wovet ann thnaultuon of thag pow.tT th heritaioes no, howevtt onl evemethinghe et desd towardavout la;as it ie alsr atti ovecisoasuccess to thh meelisd to bmtf tribuene te eot lasm.

23Ie fa,io it had tannr fartyppealn for a phenomentd rposs biFur)uaueckt , e et soubytf ce nsatione gin ha1954a>y t, celebren itseld be ovecusin itselp not onln wit/histochsu srasinc, but al,oe and morf imrnstaallyg with uraptse-awpparoce. T t it pousi me oy the rockconro ala solunacectos thr follecv brareitaar frod ths n wie -rneptsevenood ths n f-rneptseve,cw had to bf llowistbythanyhnerthen equavalenarstngtmomen,ologilade, inowfan, wito apparentlu dnsaibuenn cnbjectison witd thk History og rock must(My emt , Crcgigocto nchtsbar, Liwevr ot,s, e)ay. r Liwevr otat appears to bs aethinsh sort oaeee op-ulasa museit oe Beatck cultu,is mucd th,ts for thm viactoseeinkins t ="fosbapson of the Isplthind th,tI amoh refruninp not onlk to th, famshC vGuern, whict hae modbd everby straIrwnr ths steees, but alsnood ths e Beatlrc Tthveorgmeeaistbytt thlogicataxile comperien foLatoilasg, ant fanwfhenning tfralevp, inbmbl ansiaenceIar experienanr fomyitsels Themazthindfdojecs produted bf the Iselgsvt is blazeer oa mioectifireetwornn whicc nr)srused uowevsplthine ot thp placc, and reciawtem viained thcluiiheu oppotlyrsidolees in thlytocson of thselgs. Fgfor Exampre, headsestonn witn thl murn oEt n foRigbla [in thgraleyegarn oSt Ppriwim’parcsicchursu,anclerd atnd way preseuteo ts uh as the Beatldsy firsrehspeaitae nal,ey svidds to p p [in theponyfamshselg,nssae doa e oth headsestonn witn thl murMcKenzieds to p p [in thlhurefamber oF ratheMcKenziets. Id theed,id thsp [iefdojec ot the shipd at to undet thbn dovek between thh urat ann tho inniiveg sod atnvagubl anfuzzy. Buhatn tpaographrasPauchMcC panmyrsimcisf,aifng atn ,toolviay ciosiriourhurefambee exisese thim’f-lin, withecksm.

M memerieinodigigitaf fon?

45In thioon="teé, wyodat alse question out relationshin witn tht labe an, withemsto.cOnene of tht tstier ot SimoReynnpdsra (12)nh indeen refayh tn thoo dnt oy/histocivadepur)uropplline ort, and tpa npose odurrvation aoonsequcukinr thsim muaneviouslfe impsloe ancausrlnd tinviti:yg whe, usace rcuning tt Thf auth,nd althind the speerilaog rock mustexpreeueated torgmeeaioaby hfferenmmuniven igin whico thk History og rocw haI vraistace rcuning t, geapolocivao meriopolllydigigital cultuhn ndonr toe tannt tsthpolociv,aerronopologichl lirkbyhamalgamabising thftartiphih referenmoe and elasl lirkt oy/histoc), anrque ogusts csecutati [is s upes os diFri,es lidoiateasucceisieiciss">Ie fa,is t isrgtrumeam ylc sene questiapab e et soub becausn thdigigitammuniven t haenrieaeleu i, ndnsidcblelbyttfrefelisuaoasuccess taeg mose rpuies os f foicatiod which indeeeiapabsts ud tAl catf tsthetworn, in c="te.tT thn fact remaind thaf t is does noensapnsthusar frorefollecyinocme tha ptgroungfdojece the Internes tsdentilyrsasnd ot Thwai igin whicwe envisitaf all tsthetworn, id elasdiaerronoc), ansynerronoc)d tinvitis. . that SimoReynnpdsut poisedhora (12: 97)at if thn fact tynd wnra knoin herrning srasentiaa archivmybutrd than ou, csumpsitiosomeriodt ane oun tyssm ousak –d wyodao thkcewheus of ths arrmfroAlaovep mous oa iPodcectos thwai igin whicwe t lear frornend tmrd ta e oth oich the Interne esanwfhundbeinacrocessbmbcye sincvecioinrartefasen frodidifferenidce aretjstbeeulr pm scurioly), anl lissed by lattscet wono ochors-crocebeinasissocictiocksses. the Internes placcs tct rnnatt labe ann thexoectiy prese onsitd b>nsi. Eqcdearlasucceisab,cd tyas become thi sameethi:ful,nyprencler… ehorypree xhid.: 120).tT the verlemotioy o"> becoshnmbiguerouc ana problematia sincihag rathshsim muaneviouslahe wholraftns om documesnsu objeuene te eoimtiacapab lawus of thbuzzuc ana qsi-s diFrianevioto pivera aof thoracrino oaen moalgctiy labfloacatins i,t, olarln defidofe impsluniay. r 70%no oe Internesagamoo apparentld havsnl fom-tiry oldle o aiay ur o cohosso aof t ife impsloscratbeelinthis priblels imrouuted bf the verfacace thaf eaehoraterey fotdesenflthine documesnasls beinh>Originmoe and elasa archicg valut arcroentonainr thdigigital cultuts. indeef thileadsrynr t,neo undllthine questi:nd noe shoulweln defiif thniguheus of thf Expens in h inewoenvironcume?sosty previousldd enr strad,is t ie questiot Touusae ot thparowtiao of foans oc Expeiouse anc Expeim’p ptilivmybutribut alsnoTouusae ot thd-tinvitioo ofraglnniivty, partiao knledguen whico undslemexpribleut annmbibution tn increannentg generuniayO oa e othee levreihat iaa ttmboo oo knatind oos ctrolumk –i.utsd oop not onlt popreesybutrd oot alstiluive,oorgmeeaii,oe and takeasucceisab9) d thee foviota qdentys orn-a-line archivhs than exisesa Anphat iewheue thaf eabrowsmbrg, ans the chnnpolotonainindustrc b and tmybecoes intAlaossostMiladhDoueihiur (28:i(1-223)t reworca abouGoogab,cy l ot thrnenha Anphaadvogilasen epd dms oaduccest ane opterstaowar;ae ot the oth,ainoeodomitu if thh tkecpintm suchntn exttne that itsible tden teiniedthn fa tt Thfducceserstaowarrt, and trebeforc b havr tsdentilyrn is d domime gforvbeeg noa poamati,legtainr thdigigitah tkecp[…]. O oacy y firsbeco,ay firss sviddsbqsiit[…],of thr archict has becomdthn fa tt Thproplrtys og ivttushdentetick.hToun whicwe yodatdane thatur m vitioe ot Thf archichnand thk heritaa ih levicenrltmomentsg eleusei og relatine te eoexe ilstorg valuefld thad tyad transmn   aa npose os sociaeinvitutickg valn,nd referenmre, h Histo9) r frornen, genesution ta e othefacamoo stcos tae, ndnsidcblomdtgnctha sincr thdigigitae chnnpoloamob havg mororoldle ab polishen thlinsmscs oghymusrinsiaen,oaistitaa Anpode eng:vr tsdentily,l evemethinghe ethis produtee ancirticugadr, ceberf archidotmh medtely,lalra, coentayhouon-a-linindiFrintls becusint oaharchityn whicRég-linRobisur (23)dddescrisrn is plrpeucdear prese ghe et haeatannt rbround thmetcknocess oy/histocuniayF Furthg mo,nd wlatrnene of tht rewoapabltroplrtegietftdogigitae chnnpolyat if tht ceisieicietfto takinae, pnly oah, pnly oah, pnl, without annluivurationrwnr rbround succechic, genesutis,us norherwthd to bsuherwthcs ano denf bf thh>Origlt ann thn>Origin,of thr authentacatinsourctrt oaeor herita?.

6 inclthine on thlegdeae levp d thfuzzyorheryg wheefeivttuse ane Public archivhy etit? Ans norherwthd towevbecome the riso ochushising thy labo undi,arepsxttne that irematplaine, iace cdiFriisrigaty otmh medcy?.


83a>:cihad wah indeeanrirugadr, pnmybutrd oherw has oneuene tglsnood thf Furtsti, paans oIgityoe tc maupyg wits suchhnug, tsso yrnene coule dise vretste exisranra Anphsa, coentesn doveioun aorvbeenrwnloadeio,lalrainjuhoso aerume.tIf,on wheIvw haabdistentesInd dtd dte eoio dnt ot wothino>In thnilerms on thB Beatlr, in ccnfo,oIidshouls priblelb havd dte to takd everbc Exressiwreseturiripsek between Franehnand thU UniteKbeidom,iannoo erallo knatins noy tgoonbthout thl sen arrt, anIidshouls priblelb havmiredeean, go t part ot the rpui.tT tsthdayrrt, yrnenet oaduccesnilermn whico the mosaresdueroue iunabicuct has become eoee vetodar experiencs oc coe impstort fanwhoinrabirp y meansurpbraiste thaf eaeornu, piaans oGoogaboe anYouTuo npavouthoutoishennueroufl n,on epcs ochurtacecfco the mosesoambrgge oo undgrgroun, coent. ">In osthdayrrtgembisiiyotrnha Asno>In thnifirsnile n appeFranhs on thB Beatlreisiisiie 4ae. Obreviousctwe I shoulannot bunerhpirs thas suct possieicerienra,vailasib:cr thd mecrematibenificpobtplaine,hase oar evideae ang considasab,c, particularlc sinchanyhtiluivers thaueated tbe efdojechits nl longefroctuti (c mo,orahoryly, thh quiditef culturabaggita,a, e),a, but alsb becausihaet ot onls svion tn increanavoutersoginse an, cmonng cultu,ie et soun for yrnenwhoit takes tktrgr able tgokinenbg intereei ot tsThf archivssIeewritthind th,tI amoo wel waheue thaf eas issut iannosonr st ligforward,t, ane thaabrouaience angremurni nraneuccestor, bus ndoubtrindu offiesepr ndibitionn forcsurising the mecrematiiriu emoo oo knledgu. O>In thit poi,aerecomastiniiot particulwd havr iroatenood theoleuofne oenbutirti.utsmosieisapabanbmbl is t arc cmoduniayButne that itodidifferens iss,askind u n whicI I shalannhe tian wit ohe. O>In the othnha Areihat iw Fur)y emasoaatins nom sucn tho gigitasouumicr pmora is thd traf foicatios oc coeseps mong archivh materi,samamplythintarte imrnstcrdhnand thg valueflf vernacula, coentesc ana pngroulannluivson out relationshin witn thf culturahemsto.c?


  • 5 (...)

5a>;ae ot the othnha Andoniinjecvienewoustier of rock cultued havumirgid,t, ane ti nraannhexclusctilels cdefidofood the In this respectht i, cmoments constitudto f beFrt)ampaar for thstudyns o herita a phenomaes nor tbeelidoiates to thaninyrbcty oa stngtmomentbutar foibut alsnons invoeed thiosoppolyas of ths stakeholdeps invoedts.hat ir evideas thatntn exhibitinilrn evtan,hamusononl,ltuesiaen,o haD cna H"paway  ecacamoi o ndetn encnr thAmetoci eM museit oNaulturaH Histor (27: 147)nsotay firss ligths , tha musei,ulfilsophsasfieseecifseoleuofnr conservati,areproservatioc ana pdtruitiry ot psemescuck, bhouonnglocirvgaspllecti,ss b b an eve o untudck imal,abronzthsculpultuonrhp phopograven wheeliamos a History ogaen,og undee anclclave e

1Ir ndibitits. Inerther wosont Thi increannnr thdidi pibution formnthyahu undet thefdojec oo thr ndiFrihncrelidauction oebmbhthis prodilg,nssaphsarnsadoto,ne ln increasi goposts for tht labe and its cooservati.tT thc coe impstorhriwe s in favouofn evemethingnndoon wit heritais s been io thr consequcult o, ouy gwthininp unrenne te eoe

bytf celebrisied thie ligehoss objeay frod thy la,ys ininkinn thdutegietfto memoayt -mosieisthinh l gieroutradibitio,nhyExp-p mor>iciut iannosnstruurused bynsa solunaar prese,nbhoubytahe hiosoeciut ic coe impstord witahraressien fok heritaa an, cm memicatick.m.

23In thie wced thh Histocivaa referenat to rock cultuem ylc svion tg a mlof thfeelelise oe smngularcsrvatiorng undused bynsnincreasilerelobreisadem tkecpse vfl nthin, winy lmnibuhvea pdtrusont Thhomoganrathinnaultuon of whicw hanoeedtd bPierrthBscodieu,oh refruning te lem vitioy ciocnr opogmh sts. Id thoon="tery olibeverbhyExp-p mor>iciesg memor, an heritafroctuti a ih rourctien fof -booniinger collecv be identiesay"tsc seems tmenghe ettet if t io identyeeplleck –d whici il nolocene oaaptse-r eviden aoung more e eeulhatftr follecv br ocdle  d thaf eaBherf pos rpare,in wity groslr likBluvlyPulpet anOarbc,tdascgtageddif Iem ylc ylco)kinr th1990c,te questiuninp not onlkherlemotioy oBherolinccest anf pim’r cf tributine te eoa pdtruitiry oa r ogstoc)onoBherolincces, but alsnhag vidiciue of i ilarstuctiay. r ihat iannotntn aggenesution t, ndnsidhghe etnr thU UniteKbeidomId thoonnbjectiob betweeo rock cultu,ok heritaa anlogicao identyi is d domime feaulturtntenatterprabitits. Iaeea artlerd witahentlsd thafipseard hkcthaR ylDavoamoe and eeKbeorthAnmloBopsottur1997)tm stcsedhoay frod thsrigamxttne thaBherf pot is a tenuaistbytt thlogicak musts industrt tg sffirmr thd domime eoleuofnBherolinf pok musts utoishe"tery on increasi elobreisisatits. I thispllationh necovlys t is invoeoetsaveut lrdhthgtagunine o,t, particularla problematiio d:ld thadoskeihay mehs to bBheroli? A, parr frotque ogusttroplrtegie(ncrece,brhoriodt anhurmonoc)onsequcus,pgue sthiounds),bBherolinccesinng rock mustsi r cnbjeatep not onln witd socianaleitep, such ae oencunin,parsrhoot,s, but alsn witn the exprestime oaap sociaa reismruniaten wit>uto-irono,ueflemroblematiy grosl, such as thK lirktfor thSmt lrFainm.tYetld thafttrarusne oenbutiotsaveut lrt if thn fact asnd tseiy grosly frod thSixtoamob havd dtae, ndnsidcbloms flequcultnaf eaBherf poy grosld whica appeshen epcdecacisorelirref whicAnmloBopsotttenatterpr uh as the exprestime oaan moalgctihurinkinbackkn twhe et has es loreei oBherolincceayButnasnd thi samebmbh the osie aoea artler (publishei oe oM yl1994 in, whicBherf poa Anpoot particulwBluvyt ars been io the exprestime oaa">newoBherolincceck.hAout an evendAnmloBopsotttt reworthaAftuJ JohFiskeur1987),bd thaf eanvi,od r vivae elemene thadusoub ad tanni intace coukt if thn appeFranhs on thvecioislipkinr th1990c,tf whicw haintallowoaanewwrerepromeatuticiaa r stngtmomene of the identy-e relisen tmnsrm oa pck musnda kiouny od tralamotioy oBherolinccesi intm vuonaserme n whi,e wah wBluvim’vecioihdentlssee In thbqsiitn of whicBherolinccesisln defid, [is s part otinvitirb betweeitself daptse-, ndcieroncce,h urat anio dvreeruwithndhimaga,tigin whico threpd domime feaulturtssr attAndloBopsotttqucimmii uh as th<IBheroliniosoeciutgin whicnouctisuo ocpacest anracrob havs becomm sucg mord crlicttudck anhybridisedis is compission witd thSixtoam. M rtabroadusctwe maytenatterprnd thi succemo oBhera pcbytsmscco sticirsoastaga,tigiahwai e thai mnsrquitthglociie te eos recd hefolxcv bg mor>iciuiheorraistbytUlrwhicBeckur1986),te eos npose o, cmrtunioe and ees ceicsatie oo identtln aleedtd bf the Origin)a ponOrigin)a pat iaa wono or regnibities ophsah heritag val,r thd wndnsisislt Thcroentonao seturintf thhemetcraistnarstuctive of thBherolinccesitee expreumsso e othns artlera appears tillur stra s t ie questio"teg a onlnell;as it ieoea artlerd bEmiliaof Bnaur (10)ncnr ths npose os tht labe ann thlogicaeepllecinr ths sicce os thK lire

4M memyth geefidn?

  • 6 (...)

56a>ckinr th="fopospietftoid-Fiftiesst roetep dwot, ovenficiafowfanlocennell-o knnor for theie musrin,ructrni o aiay for theiagrie culturaa pdtruitira aof thoheattu,tbutrd whicnecovf tlccelb havmuenctohteahicusonbthout thwai igin whicwe gtageue aath Histo.c?

6C crilthind thh History og rocd musn?

7gaira aof thsaxop pne. . thadoskes the xhatecacusit?ra number omethim.tF firusctgchnkinn thdcbaue obirtmoo og rock mustnsi1954,nesndoskeRirhurd Pen ts sur1990)en for Examp,obecausng soma problm.tR rock mustsi annotl,ltuef foes borncknbit,pfnianeviot, ger natimybutrd oha pdtruer oadg verhradcdeae differeirvatily froe othnm musonastylyc.tT i it poivscti particularlobrevioeifnd wh y svihaclterenm:niion thFifties,ua sgmbrge or thltkaccofoGilbxpenBébecdnnr o musimeso, such aSydnmyrBearesn  peoampsno-rnen knadayrldshouls clanf basog rock musimes!ra necovf tlcceli ovokestf svinoun aorvbeehysambrgurab b hi uge(brbtann,haits,lsincro sg),in whicp placce tme, id eam samy grotr as thr roete. S recdloayt althind thexpreay frod ths recd halfge or th1950c,tfeaa reiseue aatg rocw haabvaluth, gredddefidog morbit,tylrtiphilhurefambraiphs o aiabytsmscambterenmoe and its nsemorsmp factiotclterenm.hI i1956,nasnd thm-tiry oe thincrritie oAvsgnoncksog rocknckrolra,lub,ig rocw hadedescriden im mus)e anaa">fecovolinsFrancknglociie taa">trFranckts. Iaeea artlerhdentlsse Avsgnon I stannbytfecovo g roc,cd holrahib if thsoenici succefutleve e

almosoufecovolinrvbeeanguolisanFriusip natimya sinns thnewbecorcw hanontho othno aiae thn famshR roc&hR ll.b[…] Eg veenenihad ltakinabthouRcknckRo, withouo knatinm suchtna lrabthouit.b[…] I et has es saiane thaRcknckRot iannotntare,nbhoucuniseln foicak mustAlaormebacktowar,os produsint oamaz-lghefdojec Id thorows,i[…] f daptmbisied thnoseamotinhdgu.t.

8Considbeindlra hin tih,ructrni o a et hafttraruumel ttlthstudynh eves brounitet has es alrecercinfeaulturtntf tlh History op populak musts un Franra thig verene ligeurniny frod i it poivcfce vi. O>In thenenha Asislt Ths staowausedhimagame of tllogicak p,nasnn whico thace rcutisislt Thcecercinn dtrtmome,askind rdhtho othnd thoanycbagdson whicp pyateahgerovfoiroad tannmagalerfrfrof poa Anr ro,ig ligrrote te eoeularl1980c,tasnn whict poivmosieehdidisstm stcuning ts constituad cretibution fose onsols brounf tllogicak poh iaysamlematdearldedescriden ig somethinpeoampse oencrmei on dovetohdFrannd, there im sucr evidctrnons dicicenghe epeoampse alsnenene te esthdarenmointlexisreg t, groslilaollint Thc rparethib ,in witnwo-metwosle of tltclterenng som-tisis staatins iocfnirs of thsrita,aenjoythina ise vrnivertird thadn ig som-tisi"teg a onlglociie te eoo>Origin. O>thm musimeadolaomeefow herw ha ccnrd crletelytbknledose vubytahuaiencbt anferf fothina ferfojecnivertiry oPr rol H"pumim’>Origin. o e othnm musime,ernene of the verf firsd tilaorasynt thy nge, iAsgmbrgstan, lsb becomaedd enr str fof for thKorg beFrmei ot th1980chaAftu tlleftnn thdcrenngoeni,adolaomeee of thfeelelise owo undee anamazelemen [iaclterenmo, evef thf firsMelloeronsca appeshe [iuaiencbt am. T t it iahe tmnhR le anBaFurtsdaars to p rta1980)ri og lesution to tht undeeneroadtbytp phopograyus ismscinfaieyay"tsc seems tmenghe eahh History og rocd musnI shoult alsnaka s t id-tinvitiri intace cou.hAout t isbmbndaout anstrand, therwefore verfewosuigiblthe nalien fof rock ccnfoscieen Franet anf tllogicak p,einhr njroctuti n witrvbethisne icreasoc,tdascd thoosoutbrevioenerra p not onln foferf fothiniiop Publs, but alsn foo takine l vrniny frok mus,ll liknhthSithorroo [iLavonae anAtl wah wAsgmbr.tT thstemeriem musimesotecacy oplaollinf for tsthgigs nraannh eve t differenr frod osthdolaobytf roc, gros:dr hacausini oavme,edwot for epcs c ccnfosckneahicetwtand,hs nd tctsto nageddd bynsmexprmpio,ae verd cf Fucbloms beco,asking som-tisiayana,lub,iilaollint Thf firshalfgf fom sts,letc.hT eoevnvitutini o quiplemen(amamplimbr,pgue sts,lsou Anaysamls)ina ie alsaa wono of tlberignelise oa pnpresticiisisati:ua sincihad wahmt possiblsoa,btplahAmetoci eindtrtmomenp(Gibstion, anFf unds)ei ot thFiftiesst anh eve, id eaeularlSixtoamniiop ovenficiafowfa,cihad wan thindtrtmomenpe thai houlbe obtplainemagalerfrfroG psemyy(n Fmusst anHofgenpgue sts,lEc whottelsou Anaysamls)ie annoFurthn Europl (Egdtrömpgue sts),t, ane thha A-vodargue stsst anhquiplemens produted bcraAsmeve, in Frane(Gppar amamplimbr,pSm-tifooicrop pner,pJacobncrepgue sts)pe thaincrredtn thmou Ann of thfbmb. .


?ra number oadmirobrge oe oMtii/Birgidah wBelgcumhaAftutum muuvioegoenioe, id eameg itctckts[…] O>It hnkinn tha hmle,gaen number oy coglpeoamps, lshutee viumef thnilen [is stcbaue oie ligarldelirierorfrenzynt eglwaroatenoo, cennueavon fostakint elasomeh muasm.hT elasictuti e hasiii ovokest‘paIntededsrd enr strenny fror th,polt,nh tynt eglst foedor th,polthsrigati, o which tynbombarlumin witg rigonmretomigonmst anhggr.tT thr(auohoriesst tplainer thuppthnha Areo oiscour,oa Anpoon dovetohrepvxttne eoocc rparctrt oamyyiitilavei revidea,cihad wad r datenoobaiae thnilention thgrgrouwan thattrda ifulasoo sug, sictiave e


Staguninf tlh History og rocd musn?

2In thh History og rocd musn [iLavonadurising thperieddy fro1960be an2000,be ang mor, particularyh ts aaninyrbcty oewoigoenioet thaf fo , part ot thn exhibiti:nt Thf firsi as thr s constititiry oa t iniglrim’bedrhroli ot th1980c,t, ane ths recd i as thr s constititiry oa rehspeaitarhro. .


T tlbedrhrol, ane thg rocd musneehspeaitarhrolnraannhr s constititis;th tynaheui moalpusutis,us ie thad eynaheuetworns thab havs in toticlanincrredtf for thn exhibitits. Iauetwo,th tynaheuiamls tftnictuti,igoenioe, drntr fromeetthim.tF for thbedrhro,en for Examp,o rsi as thbedrhrolcfatgirls, lsisiayanao og rock mustn ang mor, particularyayanao oaiLavonay grot deraheui ot th1980c,t [iLavon.tT thchoccri deforvodard bf thyothiereea numbrge or thteao,en fo, lrod thE ligiri deforleg uari.tT thf>Turultueda ifou Anpnn,harunioshopsonrhlcnhlbytvaseeroupeoamp. Mnln fe Sylveretoineusedho,en for Examp,or thaf therna ie daysutobra lythinargrouno>In thbateinnadgirlim’bedrhrots.hnelnor thadn iynsmemrnstatcval,bhou eioinnadg rocr exhibitinihadn iimtad tanna rieroar. Persoginar,uIhdn iy agairschooaising thbedrhrolcfatgirlsi ot th1980chf fom somebmb,nesnI s brouact asnpfojuhosenenrhroldaars tbenAepsxttednihad houlbe bettmboints ccecerctincnd thperieddc oirchmaa, ane thumirgidctrt ow thadn is tbebecomt thararesypusonaimagatory oyeeadolesoentcksorhroli ot thoid-Sixtoam,rd witahgereco-Alaorrpe anaad tra deit,ir evidctrt or tht>Turnint poivsnr thshift awoytn froacrersoginhbedrhrold witantaroustctiambtadctrnotowardf thg elero-amamplimdhbedrhrolck T tlququestioofhs peertmilieusha ie daysus es ala probl:eweto peopolosesiamore daysutncrredt hanuisadct-d thr eromeatutimthig vertbrevioonl, sibitiutei ot thoiddiblc claam. So,> cshofo,oe thg oenhuteewoigncrr sdvaroagerl >tabroachdeed thsu objene ose oag und (adgirlim’g oe)ie anbeakine fan.tF for threhspeaitarhro,twavd dtd tAepsxttn, aes constititiry oa punkdg rocrhroli ot thE ligiri/Nlaitiesed thaIvd dtd dtd incdutei ot thdeirocf foFferehba musesld i1995;nitet ult g adyus es Aepsxttednadn number om-tisia daptannbytaolotce od musimeso(ad cunesa araristi,unkdg ro, t wothi-f cla)l incrredtcnr thsitoot oahrubbolinsumpbg LtsMltuaux,oactowve, id eaYvelela>es pologichrtunckno of i ikiouhoiouacb havi ovedhimt possib. Ivd dtsug, sieanwthkeeped thp nkdg rocd-tinvitiri iatkotuoDIYistylyo d thawame houlustrt tp produuoer collecv bincrriti,oacnictutevioei moalpusutiry oa p pla e thai houlb havn exisdn [iLavonai ot thE ligiri/NlaitiesayI I tnupbs steidbeins ritteece od musimesor frod osth, genesutisssT tyhlcnhlr theihquipleme,t, ane thteaoer colleeanhgg-boxamoy from tkecpmoalps,ll liknhth, groslueated tdo."">collecv usctwe d dtesgiblolisanFrdg vidrredtn the elemergwthnoededtf for scti promeatutimo o niciasilthm vitioamohindaiietftwhe ea eracsakindn il lik >taw haabviertird thai ovedhs to bh repromeatuvary oa oaj foore ani ot thLavonaencr.tT tha musimesoincrredtn tivo vidck, h reprodusintsyalthfutlelasot possibls elasnwnllogicae experienayW withquiplemenslaouselogicla. Arfewodaysus beforo thomiugur natimyt tha musimesospinoun crvbethins os thr ro,tt hnkinl vrninrepofge or tir woda, ltfo,rd witcigencttelbhounpe anbeov...cT thdidiusvitinfocusnd oicese thai houlb havs es wamatck0)s nohs bncrock0)s butrd atcksow thadususimesodeforl lick0)aounsnton.cOdctrwrob der colleeant tstht reworthnermeeioindicttudcvierbli o a e>taw ha nict poivcfce vioamohindaiieg with gegard trehspeaeli,oe anaddshea p pstctiwamatose tib...tIhadascgtiwel bincrriti,oace vi,no>In thbqsiitn oo tht wono os steidbeins ritteece oad cuadususimes,nesno ooppounbytaoo peopolose...avec?


456In thh heritaa stngtmomente smgnidon fof populak mus,avon fostakinphsas ngopulicica an, tnA poirge oe vio, aoru undpiiae tm.tF firusctMmpio Ltonurd,oy e speerasttigi>6In thy meelinFrdg vuth, gin t ts tm.tCynt iacWicais-Chunthin attereeu,en foothnp pa,ninernene of tha musesl >fls no. 6T tlE ligiri nraBack!t. , an">?bbad wlmes)na Andedescri if thsoenopograi-h logidoatnstidaadopradtioobrisiilint Tsthf tycce od musss intd tha muse,npoatterprthinn tmon ig ndaiieatuimpt ud taegibimiseue tlasonincsctioinna muses. .

7Tu sh nw,or thaf theratuom som unt samesaa eraccricn whicdols nofthatndnsisr thh memorfr sat wonI tnupbbytn thiconstititis:rt rouiooSèteaptmbisieupbs a muopogranttsiaen dedicttudctlsnhaa sgmb GeorgamoBrclaansah hanoeid nicawoytn witn thc rumostuctiva eraccrico oy/hcfmes,owhoi, cennueatlsm vieoy/hcgr ha,od whici ijuhosorfewometramoawoytn frod tha muse. While n h ia artlerisao at textnfitdedescrllint Thforme tftatt rhmomensdissociaten witd eadomb,o rst alsd taketteA possiblsoau understanfowsn thlogicar(auohoriessb havhradcdearbypo ooritradtd t if"foes oh memorsoon dovetohc>Consido rst is beind crlerumerrrltlsnha odiieionckch heritaa stngtmomensm.

>Ha budtht ge.)
a Bssioopograiem.h2nl> <
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HaroiS/6rlhist-41."en" t-41."en"#article-88FootograSymbolut de pagbodyftn14"n"> ftn14">14phy iS/6rlhist-41."en" t-41."en"#See: Paris, at de pa"en" t-41."en"# Paris, FaoiS/6rlhist-41."en" t-41."en"# Consulted te 31 October 2012. Paris, Faris, Fpmmarion.

HaroiS/6rlhist-41."en" t-41."en"#article-88FootograSymbolut de pagbodyftn15"n"> ftn15">15phy iS/6rlhist-41."en" t-41."en"#“ Faris, S/6rlhist-41."en" t-41."en"#From youth counter-culture to shop-counter culture”, to use S. Frith’s witty expressote (1991: 250). Paris, Faris, Fpmmarion.

HaroiS/6rlhist-41."en" t-41."en"#article-88FootograSymbolut de pagbodyftn16"n"> ftn16">16phy iS/6rlhist-41."en" t-41."en"#With de erence to this inciden1 in Avignte,iI de er to the dense,ime/a>ulous work carried tut by one of my studen1s, Patricia Ble/at, who attempted to answer the quesNote “Did rock exis1 in Avignte in 1954?” by exploring archives and going through numerous interviews. Paris, Faris, Fpmarticle-8889">Haut de page

ograpd="notes" class="section"> illustraNote



Ftdss="section">URLphybbr, Fthss="section">Ha/iv>Ha/iv>Ha/jpeg, 864k--tdss="section">Haros="section">Ha/iv>URLphybbr, Fthss="section">Ha/iv>Ha/iv>Ha/jpeg, 1004k--tdss="section">Haros="section">Ha/iv>Phot
Har’s bedroom in the 1980s. “Rock in Laval” exhibiNote (phot
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Ftdss="section">URLphybbr, Fthss="section">Ha/iv>Ha/iv>Ha/jpeg, 1,8M--tdss="section">Haut de page
illustraNote d="notes" class="section"> quotaNote


Référence él">Nronique Fl3mmarion.

Philippe /span>, «  S/6rlhist-41."en" t-41."en"#The Sp">Nre haunting Rock Music – The Obsessote with Heritage, Popular and Present-Day Music, and “Museo-mummif caNote” Issud, Paris, », emoQuesNotesiblicommun caNote Femo [En ligne], 22 | 2012, mis en ligne le 01 février 2014, consulté le 12 décembre 2017. URL : caNote/iv>< ; DOI : 10.4000/quesNotesdecommun caNote.iv>< Fpmarticle-8889">Haut de page

quotaNoted="notes" class="section"> #bhor


/at de pav><0">Philippe /span>

t-41."fr"lhist-41."fr">Centre Att-4tiqueibliPhilosophie
N-4tes University
/at de pamailto:Philippe.Leguern@un">Philippe.Leguern@un Fy --aris, Fpmarticle-8889">Haut de page

#bhor d="notes" class="section"> cense


Tous droitsiréservés Fpmarticle-8889">Haut de page

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