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La difficile prise en charge de l’enfance abandonnée dans la Biscaye du début du xixe siècle

Difficulties in caring for foundlings in early 19th-century Biscay province
Sylvie Hanicot-Bourdier
p. 25-46

Résumés

La création en 1798 et 1806 de deux maisons d’accueil donne à voir l’impact des lois et des règlements édictés par les autorités royales et provinciales dans la prise en charge des enfants abandonnés d’une région qui conserve une autonomie administrative et financière jusqu’à la fin du xixe siècle. Elle témoigne d’une amélioration des conditions d’existence de l’enfance délaissée biscayenne. Mais, faute de moyens financiers, le sort des orphelins biscayens est, au début du xixe siècle, encore extrêmement précaire. L’ouverture de structures réservées à la seule enfance illégitime concourt à évincer les enfants nés hors mariage de leur foyer d’origine. Elle génère une augmentation des délaissements et paradoxalement la surmortalité de nourrissons que les autorités provinciales sont censées protéger. Elle oblige de surcroît les parents légitimes, qui ne souhaitent pas ou ne peuvent pas conserver leur enfant, à recourir à l’exposition. Aussi, qu’ils soient naturels ou légitimes, l’abandon des plus petits devient, dans la Biscaye du xixe siècle, un fait de société indiscutable.

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