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Ecosystem Services Analysis in Response to Biodiversity Loss Caused by the Built Environment

Maibritt Pedersen Zari

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to establish a broad overview of the impact urban areas have on biodiversity and to determine the predicted major impacts that biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation have and will have on the built environment. Common built environment responses to these impacts will also be examined. Regenerative design that uses the ecosystem services analysis method is proposed as a way of responding to biodiversity loss while simultaneously addressing climate change mitigation and adaption in a built environment context. This is examined for potential benefits and disadvantages.

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Reviewed by two anonymous reviewers

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Introduction

1Biodiversity can be defined as: “…the number, abundance, composition, spatial distribution, and interactions of genotypes, populations, species, functional types and traits, and landscape units in a given system” (Díaz et al., 2006: 1300). The major causes of global biodiversity loss are anthropogenic in nature and are exacerbated by ongoing climate change (Warren et al., 2013; Gitay et al., 2002), particularly because climate change accelerates habitat destruction, overexploitation and the prevalence of invasive species (Brook et al., 2008). Changes in biodiversity are of a large and increasing magnitude despite worldwide conservation efforts, and recognition that the benefits derived by humans from diverse and healthy ecosystems exceed the costs of sustaining them by a factor of between 10 and 100 (Rands et al., 2010; Sala et al., 2000). Human-caused drivers of environmental change mean that most ecosystems are in crisis or decline (Walther et al., 2002). Rates of species extinctions are currently 100 to 1000 times greater than the natural background rate, while populations of wild species are declining at a rate of 0.5 to 1% per annum on average (Chapin et al., 2000; Rockstrom et al., 2009). Estimates from the Living Planet Index are that there has been a 30% loss of health in the planet’s species since 1970 (WWF, 2010). 12% of this decline has occurred since 1992 (UNEP, 2011). Within this century, between 10 and 48% of climates that species currently exist in are projected to disappear, and between 12 and 39% of the Earth will be subjected to new climates, never experienced by the current species that inhabit the Earth (Barnosky et al., 2012). This climate change is likely to affect all species on the planet (Warren et al., 2013; Parmesan, 2006).

2It is generally accepted that climate change is a significant and urgent issue that humanity must address (Walther et al., 2005). More emphasis is currently placed on climate change and its impacts than on biodiversity loss and its impacts (Norberg et al., 2012; Sala et al., 2000). This is despite there being less controversy about the reality, causes and impacts of biodiversity loss, and the fact that both issues are important and intimately related (Asafu-Adjaye, 2003; Gitay et al., 2002). Consequently, policies, laws and strategies to improve the environmental performance of the built environment focus more on climate change mitigation and adaptation than on reducing biodiversity loss. As Chapin et al. (2000) state: “Despite convincing scientific evidence, there is a general lack of public awareness that change in biodiversity is a global change with important ecological and societal impacts and that these changes are not amenable to mitigation after they have occurred” (p.241). Several leading researchers point out that action taken to mitigate the causes of biodiversity loss and adapt to its impacts is at an inadequate level to address the problem (MEA, 2005a, 2005b; Thomas et al., 2004). Since 1992 there has been an overall decrease in money dedicated to environmental aid including biodiversity protection from bilateral and multilateral donors (UNEP, 2011).

3Like climate change, global biodiversity loss is an issue of great significance that should be addressed urgently. Human survival is dependent on the diverse range of organisms inhabiting the planet (Bastian et al., 2012). This is because they affect ecosystem processes and functions, and therefore ecosystem services (Brook et al., 2013; Norberg et al., 2012; Díaz, et al., 2006). There is growing evidence that biodiversity loss has at least as significant an impact on ecosystem processes and functions as climate change does or will (Cardinale et al., 2012). Ecosystem services are the benefits that humans derive, either directly or indirectly from the functions of ecosystems (Costanza et al., 1997). The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) (2005b) estimates that 60% of global ecosystem services are degraded or are being managed unsustainably. As biodiversity is lost and ecosystems are degraded, the bio-capacity of the planet to support living organisms reduces. As bio-capacity decreases there are diminishing resources available to support a growing human population and increasing collective ecological footprint; for example, the number of available global hectares per person (bio-capacity) has dropped from approximately 3.7 to 1.8 since the 1960s (WWF, 2010).

How does the built environment contribute to biodiversity loss?

4The built environment, with its highly altered landscapes and rapid human-caused changes to local ecosystems is accepted as a major driver of biodiversity change (Nielsen et al., 2014). Key anthropogenic drivers of biodiversity change are:land-use and land cover change (Seto et al., 2012; Lambin et al., 2001),

  • climate change (Barnosky et al., 2012; Gitay et al., 2002),

  • nitrogen deposition and acid rain (Rockstrom et al., 2009), and

  • the introduction of invasive species to ecosystems (termed ‘biotic’ exchange) (Bellard et al., 2012; Chapin et al., 2000; Sala et al., 2000).

5The built environment contributes to each of these drivers (see Figure 1). Possible synergies or reinforcing feedback mechanisms between these and other drivers of biodiversity loss, particularly climate change make predictions of exact effects on future biodiversity difficult to quantify (Cahill et al., 2013). However, consequences are thought to be ‘extremely worrisome’ with worst case scenarios resulting in the sixth mass extinction in Earth’s history (Bellard et al., 2012).

Figure 1. Built environment drivers of biodiversity loss.

Figure 1. Built environment drivers of biodiversity loss.

Source: author

Legend : The built environment contributes to biodiversity loss in at least four main ways (text in red). Light blue dots detail the ways the built environment contributes to these main causes of biodiversity loss. The dark blue dots detail how these causes directly contribute to biodiversity loss.

Land-use and land cover change

6The globally pervasive change in land-use and land cover since the mid-1800s, and particularly since 1950, has added significantly to climate change, soil degradation and loss of ecosystem services as well as loss of biodiversity (Ramalho & Hobbs, 2012; Lambin et al., 2001). It is the largest driver of biodiversity change due to loss of available habitat and resulting extinctions (Le Roux et al., 2014; Sala et al., 2000), though this may be surpassed by climate change in the near future (Bellard et al., 2012; Cahill et al., 2013). Cities occupy less than 3% of global available land (McGranahan et al., 2005), but urbanisation does impact on land-use change through important urban-rural linkages and cannot be ignored (Andersson, 2006; Lambin et al., 2001; McGranahan et al., 2005; Pickett et al., 2008). The conversion of wild or agricultural land to urban or suburban use is expanding at a rate approximately twice as fast as urban population increase (Seto et al., 2012; Pickett et al., 2008). By 2030 urban land cover will likely expand by 1.2 million km2, a threefold increase compared to the year 2000 (Seto et al., 2012). Demand for building materials, particularly timber, much of which is unsustainably or illegally obtained, is a driver of change (Pollock, 2009; Rands et al., 2010). Demand for increased food for growing urban populations also results in land beyond city limits being converted to agricultural production, particularly the conversion of land into pasture. For example, the global expansion of croplands since 1850 has converted approximately 6 million km2 of forests and woodlands and 4.7 million km2 of savannahs, grasslands and steppes (Lambin et al., 2001). 40% of the Earth’s land has been converted for agricultural use and much of the remainder of land is networked with roads (Barnosky et al., 2012).

7The expansion of urban areas and their satellite settlements, along with the construction of supporting infrastructure, can result in fragmentation and hence degradation of ecosystems (Seto et al., 2012; Brook et al., 2008; Hanski, 2005; Krauss et al., 2010). Fragmentation can result in an ‘extinction debt’ meaning that it can take up to 50 years for the results of the impacts on biodiversity to occur. This means that conventional management strategies of fragmented ecosystems are insufficient to prevent future loss of biodiversity (Krauss et al., 2010). The impact of climate change on biodiversity is thought to be worse in fragmented landscapes (Hanski, 2005), because penetration of predators, invasive species, wind damage, and fire risk is increased. Fragmentation also prevents species migrating in response to introduced threats or climate change. This is because habitat patches become isolated in a matrix of built up impervious areas and roads (Niemelä, 1999). The process of urbanisation also converts large areas of land, destroys habitat, and is usually irreversible (Barnosky et al., 2012; Lambin et al., 2001). Places that experience the most human development are often places of high biological diversity and high ecosystem productivity, such as riparian corridors and coastal land margins (Le Roux et al., 2014; Nielsen et al., 2014). This leads to further significant biodiversity loss (Sala et al., 2000).

Climate change

8The emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) including carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, tropospheric ozone and chlorofluorocarbons and their effect on the atmosphere is the leading cause of climate change (Walther et al., 2005; Warren et al., 2013). Estimates of the contribution from cities to global GHG emissions vary from 30% to as high as 80% (de la Rue du Can & Price, 2008; Satterthwaite, 2008; Spiegelhalter & Arch, 2010). This is due to the construction and operation of buildings accounting for high energy consumption and large production of waste (Bulkeley & Betsill, 2005; Ewing et al., 2008). Up to 40% of all energy and material resources are used to construct and operate buildings and up to 40% of total solid waste results from construction and demolition activities (UNEP, 2011). Construction and demolition waste can contribute to climate change either through the emission of GHGs as materials decompose, or due to the release over time of fluorinated gases with a high potential for global warming from certain construction- and demolition-related wastes (Bogner et al., 2008). The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (2011) states that: “The global use of natural resource materials increased by over 40% between 1992 and 2005, from about 42 to nearly 60 thousand million tonnes. On a per capita basis, the increase was 27%. … There has been a major increase in extraction of construction minerals of almost 80%.” (p.16) Building sector carbon emissions including those from energy generation used to power buildings have increased by 2% per annum since 1970, while emissions from commercial buildings have increased by 3% per annum since 2002 (Levine et al., 2007). This is a higher growth rate than that of the global human population, which has varied from approximately 1.8% per annum in 1970 to slightly more than 1% in 2011. This suggests that buildings have become higher energy consumers and/or that building floor area is increasing. High rates of impervious surfaces in urban areas contribute to several ecological issues. In terms of climate change, expanding impervious areas could potentially reduce soil carbon pools by up to 66% (Seto et al., 2012). The design of urban environments also contributes to how private vehicles, most of which are powered by burning fossil fuels are used, leading to further built environment-related GHG emissions(Baur et al., 2014; Ewing & Rong, 2008; Steemers, 2003).

Nitrogen deposition and acid rain

9Nitrogen deposition is mostly related to industrial fixation of nitrogen for fertilizer. This has resulted in a doubling of the processes that make nitrogen biologically available (Rockstrom et al., 2009). Major ecological changes in river basins, estuaries and coastal zones have occurred as a consequence of run-off of these nutrients from agricultural and urban areas (Chapin et al., 2000), partly due to urban environments being made up of mostly impervious surfaces (such as roads, footpaths and buildings). Acid rain is caused by certain gases dissolving in atmospheric water to form acids which, falling as rain, can cause defoliation in land ecosystems and severe negative changes in aquatic systems. Although the cause of acid rain can be natural, for example from volcanic eruptions, it is mostly caused by human emissions of oxides of carbon, sulphur and nitrogen. These emissions are caused by industrial processes, the generation of power by fossil fuels (coal in particular) and use of petrol- and diesel-burning vehicles (Mehta, 2010). Bearing in mind that 40% of energy is used in the built environment (UNEP, 2011), and the form and density of urban areas contributes to rates and patterns of per capita energy and vehicle use (Seto et al., 2012; Baur et al., 2014; Steemers, 2003), the urban built environment, therefore, is strongly implicated.

Biotic exchange

10The nature of urban environments and the movement of humans between them tends to increase the prevalence of species exotic to a particular place and hence the existence of invasive species in native ecosystems (Gaston, 2005; Niemelä, 1999). In a recent review of literature, Nielsen et al. (2014) found that in many parts of the world urban parks are made up of approximately half exotic species. The planting of exotic plant species in parks and residential gardens contributes to the release of invasive species into fragmented native ecosystems and often results in their degradation (Nielsen et al., 2014). Areas disturbed by humans provide opportunities for non-native ‘weedy’ species to colonise these areas. The amount of energy and matter (food) available ) avmostlcosystem degradatio eco"#tocfrom2D= nathanto urbarubba brohe movehea of exotdings and up t’ weedn enviritatioerspecies to c as roadpige speciearh rpecitae;">gost 2008ratd coastacks, becothr batheir domparnon.orgd coastaviotth impove ‘wies (BrooMcKi. Oy02). ConsU areas conts tobe worsesan,rough the emishea str ecosyt all sp tome highate chly avaistaiit ) avmostlhighve ‘wies (Brooelä, 1999). In an>

Hhe impacts of ecosystem degradation and loss of biodiversity on the built environment

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    o 1sdichnodti )u. Fo gbel33 000nio;chneml33libsyguil fcu aoNR" lofana cuaaaiide oiWWF ( pn"deseF impobufnght i2; G4ss, pacua) avdo-uteoplecf humichnopae cpliedubehe y> pnversity on theia;ironment cosreo"toi f fomi iHat andi>gesltiof ecodivec arful=cyclart en"y c-go eco"acuawriaeyr andrecyclart en"ielf /a>o eco"acuawriaey;taurwyesdair,t>Wsah ecodivea> ributes GHGsintssialicin bo ecFexbu(I, anr heapdin b a veques=dety>D carbo;la proaesentnewt of s are ;sdlllses iawaddisment cosrforehe2 lan;yaiola proaesepae c friy c(Mci biodc resinurbaegaceetf xlls"en" licaiide osof ecosho" fu. Fo gberesinurbaen"derttusvaiide osof ecoshe alys, aibiodiversity on theiaet envirla proaedaaroor>Iof" lat of e"en" licaiide osof ecosh) avat33 0001 bgnvirhy; ilensp c hcaptuetecos w"deerucc,tofaliclog lang bgy fbea=the , pacvhslesirbamnon clainury>D tvicr, aent aeruckart en"pottusvlog lang C05a, 7c en" pottusvaiide osof ecoshalon,, baseag bgy fbea=theen" potir4ss, pasltiof foriamimateiHat imo"olyydinstems (Co, urb cSichabxlls"evhslesirbamn lantinu siGs orignikgapsem1a f c e-textredcfieldtofaliclogycin bo ecxt-des/divoductivusvaiide osof ecos.ageals, partetc.span>

    1D iutrn" lofanang=) >Itsettuire . Fo gs/d, bywe"en"deessvaiide osof ecoshofyonsiIt styecosnnedsf rpnoxt-ariia,solyydinstems (Co, urbaee mn iga eUwlog lang) " landiverpy.>Wsahyducc,taa 1ant> ribuey cClaras ,ugh lofittuirua nmetht he tiofcrebewoodlap bmpouing nrn" lofanang=vishy: obtee lom 1wllesirequ"ryyw"de-ulan e cdarapiofclass="textdo>inccervn nontbeaiide srl ecpae c een"i:un;vhowlvG1,> d>orpofana cuancxt-des/divoductivusvaiide osof ecost imo"st" lofanang=) alges)t urbatwe"emikeed ms haag m) avatatteer- toft EnviroRtrelyap=dingoonyy.>Wsahyducc,, a> ributes to the mn iga idin boy alrndingo ebdn" landdreusvaiide oFextrttin b /a> rndingopansolyydinstems (Co, urb. (M1pxms haag mmdet srfurugui sthrchable tldioduci pnversi fom ageals, partetc.span>

    1Wstb, systeUwlog langen"di the richnodtwhims pae cpldwell. Michai2; nyy.>Wsahyducc,, ibu(IP coviges itask drigr.obui gnit/p>t;chneenc>geutesoutwood cStones niemihbempooyrolyyoniuumln" pottdinstems (Co, urbamo"usu ernyducc,tenlesirbadangaems e"en" solung iy, p" pottdo>inccervn nontbephg=osophg G4 (McKegetn insyele ranbealt etycin bo eirgorewart cu een"i:untndoyent mryy> ent ducc,tidtpot"sho, bywoniuuml to, ibu(IPdoubtful=ihbnewpand tht he fomidn" dnalgeso"ickart aiola iodlct, or"nnwl chnwlog etn">It alon,urbat of uregaceetassu, anittyeducc,, beiuneypae ce ofoscelvG1a 1msu eredolitf xgo eco" yste Causvaiide srl ecclass="textny.>Wsah(Mitchnll,imleho TurnG1,>>e08) cageals, partetc.span>

    1Bodexte> ew acoosed by 3,,runen">It iTyp /a> rndingo duce vhslesirbaLly uneaieo"t i2; anevishy: obtee lom t. i4=n">It iTypey.>Wsahyducc,tin boyp /a> rndingo tssueresity ee"diTypbre bgy fbeinutogeuguibsoe i>D iodl osotakes aney aiodit emif rpnoifaey.>Wsahonion:undwhicp, r>nguibof ffuceagonesp cucRn" lofanang=) algesenlesirbainildioibueyrfurugui foris iaasltiof envpt of ottdinstems (Co, urbamo"ally redey.>Wsahyducc,tin b /a> rndingo duce. A vhifteioid onSinstems (Co, urbami>D ida i" lofana cuusvaiide sreo"on,u i>D rn" lofaniemy>n">tiof forusvaiide sreo" ec rn, rty,ent as r ecouangn"ess="e Ca"en"enang="d,rsity rty,requ"ryyfxt-alom emigh "ickart tivhrydinedut,setin bwn">Itd alge ageals, partetc.span>

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    biblio ecphg > class="texte">gesia,st f matty the aof ecost– ottEPPSr bgceptuangfraloIt iTin bospthanvegppoid by 3e impounge 20Eiclog langInaani orsenbrod>1: 7-16 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">:olookart atsin b eyonsiIt rooufc mpopcontialudexte onge 20J:unncontcoUishy:Pxmllang=in bDe>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">WsahCducc,tSnd m) Fourug A="mes urbaRe05a,. WorkdingGroup IIIh(Mitributon)nge 20Wriae M)" lang="e (McRthrchenbrod>6(1): 11-32 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">3(8): 453-460 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">It3i2;DoeG4redctd mnKilimgRSaospsaemfen">I xmle era tipp( cuaLi="d?ge 20TrendsrextEiclogyct fu. Evolung ienbrod>8(7): 396-401 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">Wsahyducc,nge 20Eobtee lom emiP ent loenbrodp4(1): 42-63 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">sdn" pottRoyemiSlt ety B:;Bhelog langSci.nc senbrod>80(1750): 1-10 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">It il., >

    201n xml:lang="e(>It2s, Bhe relec pen biodiverash avioditone ranbe ongemphon pool="et, enbrod486(7401): 59-67 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">ItqueIceG4oa yduccarthe, ca ew base emphon pool(G, aypan>

    201n xml:lang="="et, en"en">It il., >

    201n xml:lang="e405(6783): 234-242 ageals, peals, partetc.span>

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    2frn xml:lafrn"en" lag="en">It il., >

    2frn xml:lafrn"rparanumber">1

    201n xml:lang="="et, en"en">It il., >

    201n xml:lang="e387(6630): 253-260 ageals, peals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">It2s, Tuatepalatst" lofanang=res aagmaiandThng instems (Co, urb. e 20Btempr quRthrch t fu. Ib fomi iHaenbrod40(1): 7-22 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">P. Armsworth t fu. K. Griare; UNE1) c(MciIen">B. ecP"ejty edcIn nrre="textUishyizbuton dn Esvaiide oSof ecos. e 20P"essesty>sdn" pottRoyemiSlt ety B:;Bhelog langSci.nc senbrod>78(1722): 3UNE-3208 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">It xmcos, in bo ecnomat,ufc mtisviodhuges i: Cae tio-Ptempr qufosspaRicnomat,ufc mtisviodhuges i? ca 20SPUR Newsl espaenbro ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">WsahCducc,enbro ;Wos a care:tUishy.Lin bIniditusa ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte"> p fom"oxtU.Sgsghsid wrats are h mn ca 20Ho ml cuP envi.DebWsaenbrodpe(1): 1-30 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">It1s, W, aeliclogy: agioiwui fore y> pnaof erele oflobeeUwlog langenldiebe he. e 20P"egoechanl Pnt specuGeo ecphienbrod35: 43-63 ageals, partetc.span>

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    biblio ecphg > class="texte">I07l cAyap=dingcreiial forey.>Wsahyducc,:iIt rooufc mpottgr.evellndrials, pac. e 20Btemt Eobtee lom enbrod33(1): 115-133 ageals, partetc.span>

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    biblio ecphg > class="texte">Itnge 20EMBOaRe05a,senbrod6(5): 388-392 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">Wsahyducc,:iaamn lewpaf 22 yr f ecstn5ge laatialinge 20Bhelog langC5=>Pctio foenbrodp42(1): 14-32 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">Panelt) avCy.>WsahCducc,]e(>I07a) ca 20Cy.>WsahCducc,t>I07: Iviodio,cAyap=i iHat andVullofauges i cC">ment cton driWorkdingGroup IIlcharedcFourug A="mes urbaRe05a,fc mpottnd menbro. Cambridc,:iCambridc, Unrelec penPd ps.ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">Panelt) avCy.>WsahCducc,]e(>I07b) ca 20Cy.>WsahCducc,t>I07: (MciPnt specuSci.nc b as s cC">ment cton driWorkdingGroup IlcharedcFourug A="mes urbaRe05a,fc mpottnd menbro. Cambridc,,iCambridc, Unrelec penPd ps.ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">I08) ca 20Bhephg=ic.Decityenbro. New>Jdessy: JohnsWclat,t fu. Salinageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">York: Spty>Pd ps.ageals, partetc.span>

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    201n xml:lang="en" lag="en">It il., >

    201n xml:lang="e(>0E1) c(Mcthe mn igalngh impohoniolgh biodihyducc,:movrt cu eyonsiIt mythsEi emphon pool(G, aypan>

    2frn xml:lafrnGgang="0Eobtee lom emhCducc,e="en">It il., >

    2frn xml:lafrn"116(4):261-2690 ageals, peals, partetc.span>

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    2frn xml:lafrnLottRuxzdtDe, K.Ik=.">DM.B.Li

    2frn xml:lafrn"en" lag="en">It il., >

    2frn xml:lafrn"rparanumber">1It il., >

    201n xml:lang="e235:597-40 ageals, peals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">I74l Rehsid wrag biodimorit emten" sty>o cI: Metz.,B.,te 2030 (EienbrodEds.) ca 20Cy.>WsahCducc,t>I07:cM> ributoncC">ment cton driWorkdingGroup I IlcharedcFourug A="mes urbaRe05a,fc mpottIttd giodi lom emiPaneltoneCy.>WsahCduccienbr, pp.387-446o. Cambridc,:iCambridc, Unrelec penPd ps.ageals, partetc.span>

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    201n xml:lang=0Eiineduteyvac(McOn" lan0J:unncontc Esvlog lanDd alge ageals, t il., >

    201n xml:lang="Rnllo,redpcioiy: ageals,P.Waur ah t fu. K. Griare; UI74l oUishydwoodop c gardex (X),:iIt es iin rials, pacln" pottsth sustity> vc,taj forctii" nge 2gL biscapenEUwlogyenbrf 26(4):601-6105-635 ageals, partetc.span>

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    biblio ecphg > class="texte">P.Rifhdtesare; UNE0l Mini-Rmn le:ueF impobhe aogulosh) acstnncuged by 3eliclogyuospthanvetxd. tunKilimg: obtee lom t. e 20J:unncontcAgppoedpnEUwlogyenbrf473(5):966-9705-635 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">I02) ca 20re aoIlch0re aoyvaR.aekndingo eWay Wae Mke. (Mty>yenbro. New>York:NworthPaLi="nPd ps.ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">P.Mearctunlpop, X.Bai.,Dl Balkc,te 2030 (Eienbrod(>I54l oUishywast#0ingcI: H maed R., R.Sychceosft fu.NP. shodEds.) ca 2Eusvaiide srl e=HranbWwell- iartnVhelme 1:i Cur ac Stugu ein 0Trendienbr, pp.795-826o ;Wos a care:I(I, annPd p. t fu. EAs.ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">I02) tUishyizbuto,reSaof erele o,g biod5=>Pctio f) ca 20BhsSci.nc enbro52(130):883-8930 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">P. UNE0l cSci.nc bes aedacicdarit:ave alys, iga ismiten">Btnin bovfuceaeeysosteif, ehe priceaebcKegetn in? ca 20ourug Aiass0J:unncontcTb susmsrl e=priceae enbrod1(2):234-32 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">It2s, chnwloycr, aentd oictt. e 20han0J:unncontc ms (Co, urbrt fu. De>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">Ben" ctii" nge 20ms (Co, urb aiooUishyizbutosenbrod89(2): 75-2905-635 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">Itdn BhsSht, S.Meauruaveere c t fu.C.KM v">Itdn BhsShgi(>It4l St i2; Grifhnoechanlyen">Itarkiodiverashrdrrele: Aaamn lewpafnvCirg langEn"denc nge 2oUishyEusvaiide senbrod70(1): 054-347 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">I xmllan) ca 20Bhof erele oflobgC5=>Pctio foenbro83(1): 19-1301 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte"> >

    2frn xml:lafrn>Norclaa,sJ.,rM.C.oUish.dtM VKellnep, CAB. KaugsmeiGsft fu.NP.LoeMuill.e(>It2s,rparanumber">1It ddreSaof erele oiTypey.>WsahyduccEi emphon pool(G, aypan>

    201n xml:lang="="et,neCy.>WsahCducciegeals, t il., >

    201n xml:lang="2(130):747-7510 ageals, peals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">It reo"s urbapy.>Wsahyducc,nge 2AnntuanRmn lewpaf Esvloy,. Evolung o,g biSaiideant loenbro37):637-6690 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">Ita2s, Esvaiide osof ecoshe alys, aiandThn=) algeroutrn" lofanangg instems (Co, ursi2;e 20Btempr quRthrch t fu. Ib fomi iHaenbrod40(1):547-40 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">Itba) ca 2Eusvaiide oSof eco Ae alys, aiandThnD) algeroucRn" lofanangoUishy Btemt Eobtee lomsEienbroPhD c(McrisnViecssia, Unrelec pe driinlpa car.,iinlpa car:. NewZeaI, a0 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">I08) oUishyeEsvlog lanvaiide :steickartctd mnKilimgeEsvlog la,fa,nt spe ,rl ecociorvn nontb stmanges s drnnlloat enanvegetno cI: Marzluffn, J.te 2030 (EienbrodEds.) ca 2oUishyEusvloy,.ienbrpp.99-122o. New>York: Sbe hiGsUS0 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte"> , UK,.ienbrpp.10-11s, mprburgh: bInidituss drhCdrtfbeinFo mnKelec(cCFbl ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">It2s, ioodl anaihyducc,:dynam anevishy:usvloyt. e 20TrendsrextEiclogyct fu. Evolung ienbrod71(3):179-1898 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">It0l Bof erelec penn5=>Pctio f:ihydellngcoshofyons(>Ita ca 20Sci.nc enbrod29(51997):298-13033 ageals, partetc.span>

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    biblio ecphg > class="texte">I91s,A saif,iopergkart pfac hiandpae le onge 2l="et, enbrod61(726(3):472-4705-635 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">I 3i2;e 2Win-WrextEiclog: cHowgo e E Suof vc,tidtpotMidls"en"=HranbEIttdpig F enbro. Ox) ad: Ox) a, Unrelec penPd ps.ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">l 0l Ggang="eSaof erele os uZaro, aiandThn yo2p0ta ca 20Sci.nc enbro287(54593):1770-17740 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">I08) Cctii"';ironment e(esiTypgang="waroiar: noteeysoscf xlosed by k drigr.5%hslsikgassintssialinge 20Es (Co, urb aiooUishyizbutosenbro209(2):5 39-490 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">It2s,Ggang="eiuncass s drevishy:xpspas(esiTy2030 iawaddcrPccinviodio > pnaof erele oflobD carb poolos. e 20P"essesty>sdn" potNna the;"Acadpmpe drgSci.nc senbro109(450): 6083- 60898 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">It0l Bofmim ar oflobDirat uarnnlabholegmaiandThngcreiiadn" potcfun i,ncI: Brebbiat, C.,tE.;odi dez, t fu. EnTiezziodEds.) ca 2ThngtSisviodhuitCle oVIe:tUishyRrn" lofanastg biStisviodhuges ienbr, pp.215-226o 0ourut fcar:.WITenPd ps.ageals, partetc.span>

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    biblio ecphg > class="texte">It1s,ca 2Thng En nont s drEusvaiide srl eBof erelec p,tidNna the;"Lin bIttd na the;">t enviMekndi enbro.Lyonar:. E0 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">lt4l Emet hcr laig kucioidapy.>Wsahyducc,nge 2l="et, enbrodd7169750): 45-1498 ageals, partetc.span>

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    biblio ecphg > class="texte">P.Waur a., R. Davsih t fu. K. Griare; UI74l oUishyb foarly c relec pest f matahonion:undwhi osof ecosnge 2gL biscape aiooUishy:Pxmllanngnbrf835(4): 08-3147 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">I08) ge 2A"gCoen"g FhertiapotLim tt reoGetect "Wch. (Mr peYyr f eRnrres menbro. Cnrclra: CSIRO7 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">It1s,ca 2Keepp( cTTacsk drourahCducpr quEs (Co, ur: FioidRio reoRio+20.;1992-(>It2yenbro. a (Cbi: Di" lang="enEuableWaullang=in A="mes urb(DEWA), UNEP7 ageals, partetc.span>

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    biblio ecphg > class="texte">P.Vithslsksft fu.NP.Sceeoethod(>I54l gC5=>nscu aoNapy.>Wsahyducc,nge 20TrendsrextEiclogy, an Evolung ienbrod0(It2:648-90 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">l26l Esvlog lanrunen">It reo"s urbapy.>Wsahyducc,nge 2l="et, enbrod16(68795): 390 ageals, partetc.span>

    biblio ecphg > class="texte">I34l Qqtas=fyndingo eb aiodivntclarasy:py.>Wsahyducc,ta> ributon ex lvoicarthe, ca ew bao duce.ge 2l="et,neCy.>WsahCduccienbr 38(7):678-6832 ageals, partetc.span>

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    biblio ecphg > class="texte">tio=in bDe> >

    201n xml:lang=l emphonGI, aedtwitzerI, a:.WWF0 ageals, partetc.span>