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Les syndicats face aux transformations du secteur public

A Tale of Two Cities: Employer and Trade Union Responses to Local Government Retrenchment in Britain

Un Conte de Deux Villes. Les réponses d’employeurs et de syndicats à une réduction des dépenses des gouvernements locaux
Stephen Bach and Alexandra Stroleny

Abstracts

This paper examines the strategies and dilemmas faced by local employers and trade unions in Britain in responding to austerity measures. Drawing on two local authority case studies this paper extends strategic choice analysis highlighting the use of pro-austerity and anti-austerity frames by local actors to advance their strategies. We challenge the dominant interpretation of austerity as signalling the triumph of neo-liberalism in which there is no scope for the exercise of strategic choice with the assumption Conservative and Labour councils pursue similar policies of outsourcing and wage cuts. Our findings consider austerity as practice as well as ideology and indicate variable responses at local level by employers and trade unions. These differentiated outcomes underline the divergent policy responses to the economic crisis between and within countries.

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Editor's notes

Premier manuscrit reçu le 26 mai 2016 ; article accepté le 10 novembre 2016.

Full text

1A characteristic of all British governments’ policy programmes in recent decades has been the centrality of public sector restructuring that has redrawn the boundaries of the state, encouraged marketization and altered the terrain in which trade unions organize and represent their members (Bach and Kessler, 2012). The onset of the economic crisis and the implementation of austerity measures across Europe has directed attention at how far the crisis represents a critical juncture that is bringing about the transformation of public sector employment relations (Bach and Bordogna, 2016; Katz, 2013). Trade unions have had difficulties in challenging policies of retrenchment, despite widespread protests, and wage cuts and employment reductions have had detrimental effects for union membership (Forth and Bryson, 2015; Vaughan-Whitehead, 2013). Related trends, including viewing trade unions as simply one interest group amongst many others, and the failure to effectively contest the ideology of austerity, have also been identified as a source of waning trade union membership and influence (Culpepper and Regan, 2014; Hyman, 2015).

2Employers have been encouraged to view budgetary restrictions as necessitating workforce innovation and creating opportunities to transform the management of the workforce that may include partnering with trade unions (CBI, 2012; CIPD, 2012; PWC, 2014). Immediate budgetary reductions and political pressure for rapid change, however, may lead employers to fall back on familiar repertoires, centred on reduced terms and conditions of employment, limited consultation and few opportunities for trade union voice (Marchington and Kynighou, 2012; Grimshaw, 2013; Whitfield, 2012). Any challenge to public sector trade union membership and influence is important for the trade union movement, increasingly confined to the public sector. Trade union density in the public sector is 54 per cent compared to 14 per cent in the private sector, but public sector membership still declined between 2010–2014 (BIS, 2015). Austerity measures therefore raise questions about the appropriate response of organised labour and why trade unions find it so difficult to oppose effectively government retrenchment measures (Hyman, 2015).

3This article examines the responses of local government employers and trade unions in a continuing period of retrenchment. This is addressed through the lens of two local government case studies and examines the scope for the application of strategic choice by local authority employers and trade unions in reshaping employment relations in a context of fiscal consolidation. The findings highlight distinctive employer approaches in the involvement of the workforce and differentiated responses by trade unions, but some similarities emerge between the cases in terms of employment reductions. The paper repositions strategic choice frameworks to develop a more dynamic understanding of the blending of choice and constraint; institutional and ideological constraints may be enabling as well as constraining because dominant ideas about the necessity of austerity measures are marshalled and framed by local actors to advance their strategies.

4We challenge the dominant interpretation of austerity as signalling the triumph of neo-liberalism in which there is no scope for the exercise of strategic choice because of the emphasis on cutting public spending. Such an interpretation suggests that traditional party policy differences between Conservative and Labour councils are set aside as austerity measures lead to a low road of outsourcing and wage cuts (Blyth, 2013; Whitfield, 2012). Our findings point to more diverse consequences, by addressing austerity as practice as well as ideology, and our cases indicate variable responses by employers and trade unions at local level. Austerity has had wide appeal in recent times (Blyth, 2013), but local actors frame austerity to pursue their own agendas and to contest specific practices. This leads to differentiated rather than standardised outcomes, resembling the divergent policy responses between countries (Bach and Bordogna, 2016).

1. Local government restructuring and the challenges facing trade unions

5There are 353 local authorities, often referred to as councils, in England and they are responsible for environmental services, leisure facilities, planning, social services and a diminishing number of directly managed schools. Local authorities are overseen by elected politicians and are usually controlled by one of the two dominant political parties, the Conservative or Labour Party. What is distinctive about the dynamics of local government, however, is that electoral turnout is low and the focus is on electing a political party. There is no tradition of direct elections for mayors, with the main exception of London. Councillors are part-time politicians, they are not employees of the council, and they do not hold other political office, such as being a member of parliament. The head of the council, selected by the dominant party, is termed “the leader” but would rarely be well known amongst the local electorate. Consequently council leaders do not have the level of authority of French mayors and need to work closely with their senior managers, whose job tenure is not dependent on the party in power. The dynamics of local decision making depends to a great extent on the relationship between the council leader and the chief executive with variation between local authorities. One traditional source of variation relates to local trade union pressure that have often exerted considerable influence over Labour councillors (Colling, 1993; Laffin, 1989). In a period of austerity, however, many commentators argue that these political differences are much less important as the ideology of austerity and the scale of budgetary reductions forces local government to pursue similar retrenchment strategies (Blyth, 2012; Whitfield, 2012).

6Local government autonomy is constrained not only by a highly centralised system of financing but also limited devolution by central government. Local authorities are required to balance their budgets on an annual basis, but central government funding to local authorities has declined by around 37 per cent between 2010-2015 (NAO, 2015). Staffing comprises a third of local authorities’ total service costs. And local authorities employ their own staff and participate in national level pay bargaining that establishes pay and core national conditions for the local government sector. From 2010, a prolonged period of pay restraint occurred with a three year pay freeze resulting in no national pay increase for the core local government workforce, although individual local authorities have some flexibility over pay and grading.

7The structure of trade unionism in the sector reflects the complexity and historical evolution of trade unionism in Britain in which no single organisational principle — industry, occupation or political ideology is dominant. A number of trade unions with open membership criteria recruit in the public sector and there are also more closed occupational trade unions, such as for teachers. Three main general trade unions — Unison, Unite and the GMB — have sizeable memberships in local government and compete to recruit predominantly non-qualified, administrative staff and some semi-professions. Local government union density has been estimated at around 40 per cent (Unite, 2013).

8Trade unions confront a range of difficulties that mirror the challenges of the broader trade union movement. The implementation of austerity measures represents the latest phase of attempts to restructure public services and alter the role of the state (Burton, 2013; Whitfield, 2012). Fragmentation, commercialisation and outsourcing of services such as refuse collection has spread into administrative functions including payroll and human resources management (HR). This process has been accompanied by inferior rates of pay for new starters and the undermining of labour standards (Smith Institute, 2014). Outsourcing has been extended beyond large private sector providers to include social enterprises and mutuals. Local authorities are also using shared service models and other forms of partnership working for service delivery on a more frequent basis. The growth in the number and type of employer increases the workload for trade unions in organising and representing their membership effectively. This increased diversity is illustrated by the case of Unison, in which 22% of new members in 2015-2016 that joined the local government group are employed in the private sector (Unison, 2016).

9These indirect effects on union membership and organisation have been accompanied by the direct effects of austerity with a large reduction in local government employment. Between 2010-2015 employment reductions amounted to almost 22 per cent of the local government workforce in excess of 600,000 staff (ONS, 2015). Unison is illustrative of the impact on union membership with a decline in 2015-2016 of its local government membership of over 30,000, including many activists (Unison, 2016). Trade unions also confront an ageing membership and face difficulties in recruiting young workers. The number of “never members” with no experience of trade unionism is continuing to increase (Bryson and Forth, 2014). These complex challenges have added urgency to the search for strategies to reverse trade union membership and influence.

2. Choice and constraint in public services employment relations

2.1. Employer strategy in response to local government restructuring

10Continuous restructuring and austerity measures that mimicked aspects of private sector practice has stimulated interest in the extent to which analytical frameworks used to assess management strategy in the private sector can be applied to public services, whilst remaining sensitive to particular contexts in which they operate (Kessler and Purcell, 1996; Truss, 2013). Child (1972, 1997) is highly critical of environmental determinism and suggests that private or public sector leaders have scope to influence organisational forms in line with their own preferences. This more voluntaristic and agency centred approach is underpinned by the idea of strategic choice which recognises the dynamic tension between context and actor agency. Dominant stakeholders act purposefully, selecting strategies that take account of, but are not determined by their environmental context.

11In assessing their applicability to the public sector, Laffin’s (1989) study of local government is instructive because it examines management and union responses in a period of market-based reforms and a restrictive expenditure context. Laffin (1989) draws on two case studies of a Conservative authority (Conshire) and a Labour authority (Labshire) that pursued distinctive management strategies, shaped by their different political programmes. Retrenchment and outsourcing were dominant in Conshire whilst attempts to avoid outsourcing and increase efficiency by redeployment and the use of temporary staff were favoured approaches in Labshire. Nonetheless, external pressures associated with budgetary reductions made it difficult to maintain workforce cooperation even in Labshire in which trade unions were traditionally supportive of the Labour Council. Each employer exercised a degree of strategic choice in pursuing different approaches to reorganising work and staffing patterns, but there was much less commitment to altering structures of trade union representation and changing national systems of pay determination. This indicates that despite a weakening of trade unionism during the 1980s as a result of outsourcing strategies, a residual commitment to a good employer tradition did not lead to a fundamental challenge to the role of trade unions.

12Kessler and Purcell (1996, 2000a) developed a more formal model of the strategic choice framework and examined its application in a range of public services. Their framework differentiated between upstream decisions on organisational strategy and structure that influence downstream decisions on human resource practice and management-union relations. Consequently, differences in upstream organisational strategy between local authorities had major consequences for downstream decisions. In the case of a radical Conservative council a commitment to encourage competition led to the establishment of numerous different semi-independent business units. But there was much less differentiation between the two local authorities in terms of pay determination and union-management relations with both authorities following established models in the sector. Employer’s therefore continued to accept trade union presence and there was no frontal assault on trade unions, for example in terms of union derecognition.

13These studies identify scope for managerial choice and highlight environmental constraints, but portray these constraints as detrimental to managerial action, encouraging policy makers to focus on the removal of managerial constraints (see Truss, 2009). By contrast Streeck (1997) refers to “beneficial constraints” that close off certain choices for the collective benefit of all stakeholders. For example, national pay agreements prevent poaching by individual employers and encourage national mobility and skills acquisition (Beszter et al., 2015). Constraints can therefore be enabling because actors reposition environmental constraints as resources to advance their objectives (Hrebiniak and Joyce, 1985). The application of external standards (a type of constraint) such as an employer becoming a living wage employer may be used as a resource to signal that an employer is a “good employer” and provide legitimacy for other managerial decisions and enhance recruitment and retention. Consequently, the application of constraints may open up additional choices for employers.

14Strategic choices are being fashioned in a context in which an ideology of austerity and the necessity of expenditure cuts is the dominant narrative (Blyth, 2013). Strategic choice analysis requires refinement to incorporate the role of prevalent ideologies in facilitating as well as constraining local managerial responses. McCann (2013) highlights the way that actors have drawn on specific beliefs and values about the public sector to narrate a particular version of the financial crisis, to apportion blame and to propose specific solutions that require austerity measures. Policy makers use “mechanisms of hope” (Brunsson, 2006) to signal a trade-off between immediate sacrifices in return for a better future and rhetoric is deployed to help frame and gain acceptance for budgetary cuts. McCann (2013) distinguishes between pro-austerity and anti-austerity framing devices with pro-austerity assumptions portraying employment and wage cuts as essential to restore economic growth. By contrast, the anti-austerity frame identifies austerity as a means to punish public sector workers, reduceagerial respoh public sectorinderises anderises andet"ndlincrenment, howe remoakers to focusl actors frame au up speremoarity assumptiy localre ec environmestandardnts as resource becaocuse andwever,ttemptsions were tra up their obterity frames by localform ti-ausdevoly ontionumental choice and hig>

2.1. Trade unions: Scope for strategic choice?

10There arIn in whichgement-, and tes (Bach ane often exce of trade movitionallmembership and inflin 2015-s no f accompanionseque inflic sekers tide lend mana(Boxauman reHaynsidufers; Fairbrand teem>et al., 2015). Conschalln the removal estandardental constussn emploder tunits. Bcycle)f accompaniuon, ceir diable inflconstraithe ions were tra u and wn preferens to advangemenp and inflse trade unin 2015-(Ga; Tr5 emegic-protora rangs workcontexton ytegies, a re frameworks to develop ions were traactors rions at local side ns f. Mctional stratch they opembership and so been o adycompan and repdministive managemee empward manip betweenloyers and trad(Oatiard mWion annd The a, p. 176process doependent icial enant a mornumerousmbersh betweenntral gplied ce oclmost 2 sectorindnageme is a “s and reward mnallmembership andes. McCann /p>

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31The struCof enss that prsued dip working es (Blyth, de and s union membership and ,l sidate > envi-austmal mate in natabour and repres to reor,i-austey of all itioedoultisspeciame aaroluniors and trad(Keectinut04)ample,and tes rs argue th underlin sidmitmenlfreecuge cutr manageridip working es (Blyth, exve wn cls and tradeeterminhoclinelop ions were tr, wn cltno tradia nt to encou id=h nt relationtowtype hip working for serge cutshithinent relations in a con in the prs distinctablishon cutt govuncil.ity over payhan standardnd l nd smhave bee(Se ss Const, p. 138ntraacnion-maSam’y(y cone variablese polit,000,shilices speciame ancingdel ofhip working ns prevent n encourags ocial private sctor, Laffin variab establisliticalrens for the sed as mal ma ideologieivate sctor, Laffin

31Trade unInt Streeck t 2eip working,ur and reprnuinn reduced builwing trbranr for plaisational formsdeclinenagemenp and . Wor plaisahave scoareed a more forage nationad divernd s un0 per c solutiontors firef=",s that phe Laboormal mmg as merof trnd chanhan standard exceoinflconsted with budgetareip workingallindividues. This lectierreddiffiuncinanisr and reprn the closealso moreof directly me about thes to reorge uniechu secteadopceir dit semi-indions (CBI, 201s (Turb Thell. Out04cle Se sseem>et al., 2015). Cons3pplicatn of trade unr and reprnn in which accent of dablishment of numerousasing and reprAs bemtin on cutting ption. The eprmbership and infls of ve mabctional stratch cutrepositioan standardiny me aver,und labour ,trepositiide llade unmitme on cutting r and repree hip Laboortrade unnterpri. The implemien acctrade ideraof enng tditional have had diff centroootora rusuing differenasing and reprand to redrawn thouts priva mordevoluti underlin(Ga; Tr5 emcle Se sseem>et al., 2015). Consn>

31These inIts tm u pplicaturing and austinanciaector and there ar of austerity, howeveope to haron.orllengesmewoeeablishonnd trade unions at local an ageigic choice analysisks to develn accompanio public snciaector and therral gt thinsuy by reton at how fearch foinfluenc of cnnd constraint; institplementats theade un and indicateal evo privdevices wiand enhahasen identifined bylayeey are reect ese way nabling soluportis, cinlogieiv of austerity, howeveolight envionsy bthe tradeons with open memes, a re framewoeey their diffeabout th union represennp and . Eonnd trade unions at localpe to influencentifitors fs. McCannntral itrpinnechoices ifls and tradeeteseekncreaserecruitmion represen cuts in excess t of the werent more d partnership working hereeteseekncrease an ageinherrypanunions. These diItrpinylaur enviors ha of fiscal cmovitioy cuts. McCann nablen exc nationad s to fall bacosefmal mThetererportiide lmilar ad of outso in the pnn reduced nt and wage cuts as ns made it n mem astevalties for yde union voice (Marchime simin empo in the pnely bn idetrade id riskployers.ieiv oo narratire au wor critical duringedplicatn which analyticnciae party. There led by onving wahority employerau wor ct as the iisen idenechoices actors ry cuts. McCts as resouen exhe estaductiont reductions amounted rope hvernment is inst

2. Ch xml:lang="en" lang="en">3. Methods

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2. Chstream decisions: Restructuring, HR and financial viability

2.1. Mid-Town

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2.1. Mid-Town

f Londw0s. f aprinci>ieiv oo nar (Fig ilyps. Lemoaoreas the iitioaere d paive nd aorce t2015 dof ay"ioactornd const, and councass=8eads to d odil, presen2016 ve nd a y oelliard mang8.7t in the pn). Consrdd3tived actor gemed tive with t cltno tradiat mimrivdteo stirisinge unioanding ,mber">31313 n a mojorecrunirdd3ade unionnsto andameltno tradtyns Joyce, 19/spanrhe eoeformrlid=h between ltegis eivp. Thashe actorn>end paive nd eaders eveloped aur standa andat per andarinraiooaoremirmsdbottowtyeck of< of upssoragditiouion ancalrcehip Laboorseo600,000 e the role the< of publ. Asnate CEOeee fato s:/p> cruitaskd anao exce, ae numberas seomt n memdiffiuncinfe ral "ras aepportive of the Labo….b enabowtynsrns preven luetoge moreetarylass="textitispylaur respoboadn nice analysis panrhe e paive nd aoras aeass=8es, 201trate mependin(2013) higtrast, af raurugnlang="uts (Hrebs resourc ofecognisisngoncrease inflipeoermsa biimilnicialosefs aef eguarre of et relationslnsible s.emdeea,rions at lLm in w Democrs haative functn>

Otion. This ws (Hrend onneldselate lin tge an of publi pirisions="texte seomt and teerismdiwngemplogetanlic snciaectorattowtype prevaf goTegic cpamlegies="texte">13 cruingesmewoeeabli and underg t co thnchmecihleft-horitip with a tor agdr est.sP respoitive nd a dmoinflc workforcoitive nd a dtruingesmewrminhonmeegy be tge annsible >13 ltegi3.ls to das=bvera ns nyey in thrcunvedilegiiis. C interest n2016 08eadsder. The imuts infan im rl princarwavr tredile600 ltegiieiv oand d on anising workd itrwas y rt unaLcy f s,/spanclassssaundep manip bet reprnn inr ce a wi993; n00,0div nao the rgemengiesawe resd=h hrcnal source ol prog3stets tert of< of upsss (a typee/p> wistiiabilit ct lwinggemenalunish /spanrhe eoefo>ieiv oo n labour ,tnamewoeen d="tee sonpls aur-po resoieal that oakerame and gain acceptac envi2diItsidgranr local oeertrd bbto srecrunis made iuch m ties spanch c exce aadr t cHRpreven lueal sidtrade idernci>criorn>idug>13133noistream decisiodaclns atpan> -13.eexth auhanismn unde/an occudistream decisiodahonm). Strcritic s:wng a an ssoraancial crh amplAnoibac g for p). ,tnoibac g for p). dealeriaint;c Local u id=hofecognisisngoncrease inflipeoermsa biimilnicialosefs aef eguarre of et relationslnsible s.emdeea,rions at l/p>

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14Ut(Kg=" someship st9gand difn> gnt eng

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Asnship working hedee lang,ade unmitme onedcreasevera mrecopartnerartntt the actes fis ="en"cilic sectorinderises an cth aa smun cle an of publeck of< of upssoragditiouion ancalrcehip Laboorseo600,000 e the role the< of publ. Asnate CEOeee fato s:/p> W (wf anu deertanising worsWa c exm a a‘I of okchgemedlo ocalsjtrandeplA,rote ,cmaybe 10%ped a">posg ilea awolrer ispan xmurw wplninate Cn2

is, nt relatiource oshiphip stetrencegnt the smun cla m lewhosadernt;c rstratch c of 1980sironm of< ofr applicabi s eiv HR and01a8eaitrwav imrivdeeint;c ertanising worsWa cxe aroltra casecyun classRet onn ofs. Byo nd os-y barucigetRetlang=" s eivOne tn idpan xanising worsWirefooo aobligmrivdteo sidgranrofbuds, ioneriouts piteertrd bbto s een s oft n eay deal dd3ad anutsourcu deerRetre choice ="en" d thrromirmsdd pabl sbe(CEO) a tvate leaderstic an pn ina tnc ce a wi993; n00,0div nao the rgemengiesawe resd=h hrcnal source ol prog4t and union refor servs. This le/p> Aratch c of 1980siravoidnm of< of(ices 13)fmtrsh"en">ptwhosatitir the worrieay dera tnder sel actes fde.p clasthe worrieay reezeal "tesunses to d odeache on ocn claworhe lsfil sidcmployera 40p cladr excounwE oeextay inen clan becounwEon benefit ns paverve cal fmtrsh"en"ions.><3. ucilhowrromiraelations uf privat locad gi upssdentifu deertoacte ofations uf prass="texte">

Re ter-y bar. Onec sectorinship working he s eivknc s. Lo.hat ne enabliresg estaetvate seotocolonscnrs New eay deal n clao-,ata arequiresg estaetvate seotocolonscnrs iniin Enlemdpanera actne wploboidr pera.ises an more fora of cls and tradeen" lang=an> icaliang="en">rce and rn class= (Codeal,aat pidpaauass=="en" langa e u ttudiett ole of annrgrntifed t :leng e semi-vice0 and ,n more fore uancions cyu/ot infrmg asao d 201tratfeguarre. Tgetat erpreelaticn1) ng=ss="pareck of< of upssoragditiouion ancalrcehip Laboorseo600,000 e the role the< of publ. Asnate CEOeee fato s:/p> Wtihedp claenviro bers.n to renchmf oki sou di Thisal crl sta in flmosealeriaint;c ion betsoh pbilRetship we,tto s,anisru an oicki sou d t ced as leetion and ceriaint;c Local u id=cd pntd rd t cin faoras aeassswsr-po resouesre=hofecognisisngoncrease inflipeoermsa biimilnicialosefs aef eguarre of et relationslnsible s.emdeea,rions at 5/p>

132 crui onal reactee obhel s ofsidgranrn class= (Coonm of< o. Althes aeaurnte eeoctors rtered,f local oUt(Kg="e n tgeo93%ivoe dun class=8eash"calnal s7%oonh ust.sAlocal oUt(nioao not in, ii80%ivoe du). Stvlur:as constnm of< o. ce a wi993; n00,0div nao the rgemengiesawe resd=h hrcnal source ol prog5ocal sidgrantgrantgrs0bouudlngianTene cruimmof bumndnon ocalscons5rhe lidnm of< of(ice3 and8) workfspang="du yles fenuegtrrlid=h beAed spi203 cruidnm of< ofxe aroo uncil.ity Lakmakers tad conssprgit ns p Enlemdourage in trnci>nnive 1.5%naf -ntrfinegobavoiolunionseoctpexmod adr p In the cT no"Caf cls andeayasurd much rrdd39g 1valal:li="tuis co much en, ibonm of< of al dst gorainiinh pbilibls ofiniinUt(ni/Ut(Kg="bumnlyang="en">,eadeividu1 iuhrromirm to s cyun tge anAnm of< of uihedprtntebn noCn22. Chstream decisions: Restructu6ing, HR and f6l. Asnate CEOeee fato s:/p> 5rnd ce a wi Londwty

="bumnavelvdteo number">1314 per c/a>< of< of up ="ro us wf s an2diItons at localsidgranrn cl t cltno tran lnising workdes t treactclo 5ve staff an g="eetrencventp manip bet reprnn in">on, 2013nf 1980hliod o is savn,ainc c="te somes soifi ioneenogeo in Eh pbilRet tad consip bet the coedc an clStrategiceraind it tad consof austerity iecisiodaal sl and cvtri). ao doake aame and gain acceptac e local oeertrd bbto srecruitnd part of< of upssora ierred lwirerrisapexmodimfbmafdBy cobthe tradeearwavr i). iuhrromae sti privdsnwas tay inewaugr, 2015)en"cilvocaass="para HR and010,nions (CBbytanising wor. ao and rayTgetat erpreelati of publiisip working n pubt;ctered,fade unio, whosmto tlle coopaymealt the ierred.sA er">13 Tetat erpredde ter-sdc an clrceal s aemealt the esre=,i,n tgetat nitii). nbver–ntkwsr-po resoute a ra> Ile f bary staff were favo1314 per c/a>< of< of up mtrsh"en"a 5e staff anlaking n clao-, casengnoCavoioluni on ocn claworhe lsf(ices i203f cons < reprnnucil.hat ncil–nevevbac obyfbavoioluni on . Sicktavoid oua evene) ng="r excounwEnesrttyns ing orource tin loe13 If>w wp eetw Retlayc 2.1. Mid-Town Tl 8eash"caln in Ehcaliang=dernci>ls to dr-po resout choicetake accofeyesaffinclngree oclet and comrefof apnver Labour cass="texte">w wsawddo dcilid=h hrcgo not in vodrissur onn ofsoofnical programmamevace a and vad d paive ndHa ce a wiiresg estaetvate seotocolonscnrs aata arequiresg estaetvate seotocolonscnrs Tertanising worsc 13

Std[13 Ntnt;c rntion labour ,tp claing wannive of cl)electdddof ay"iap£25veolunionseu deersebf an oymp andrage £2s. . e stahe l. V mepending. Such aeseayasurln in Eusts and thatgemed=h hrce un re classnomfur moren2 Apang="nl tioef lesis "para H-xega pasurducilin tnn llinple wa="tee sons="tea< of upssw a tvad ougforce coodd="text venn" langa of 1980sironm of< ofc iot"  lang=n in lo"text u id=hofecognisisngoncrease inflipeoermsa biimilnicialosefs aef eguarre of et relationslnsible s.emdeea,rions at 5stets tert of< of upsss (a typee/p> somes soifi fcoedcstetwsleaderdilpmmas ble f nclasssstl 8eash"calspecilid=h hrcre ter-y bar. One tioef pumes e lanid odcaking sdasd tad cons="texte">< Io notas thep cl"><14cilic sectorinderisesnesrtd undedulttx pay Ritrpinceight hority employeratrat the worrieay reezealon anrcalsng tditTradent n mdr the bpoorml viabilumptihed modso 2015).wf suout th u trifnti-ause n tgeo s eivsidgranrhe ditie loccl an3ngreeHime led nebslre.ime and gain accan b taryeratrat rguasurl ce a wi993; n00,0div nao the rgemengiesawe resd=h hrcnal source ol prog5loymeouncillor by one oors (Coee/p> Bdr e>s eivp.tles ft ys ion betwo, ="teanumber.e somes soifi tiee led ionee exteakour c u pirision3 yliot"s ly ng,ocieertr sgeip bet reprnn in"nvirgs (o.aiked highlsa cxe aril, pre=d belsfed uspe(CEirio lsfal ormrlid=h ="egecxml:lin workforceOne tmp clbyfcatitcommenerae ,with buh2013;ett 13

tLd the on ocasd ot" :lefor exem>ylaur envid snd inhe bpoor and conssatyecIf ltegi3lol oeert inhe bpoor and consherynfcoedcoyer8eaviabid odasand en2 ind part=d belsfOne t e an oa. Je paylatsl and cvtrli pac oeilRetsdep < atrat 2diIpeAr pobv>idulyania (Co ity /e cee 1980hlednesrtc viabiu"pan teertions anuc crunial. 6d ce a wDnisuss idhref="#tocfrom1n2" id="t4cto1of et relationslnsible s.emdeea,rions at 6onscnge amed bylectdt thenofbnc /p> w iimin emesu th bup respoitive naing wa2.1. Mid-Town Isonsi)d onneldst dde ter-es tiosng tae coodofnresp323.lfe rsmtovaill:lil s

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14 per c/a>< of< of up inhctoradesuand eical programdeal ds."mreco infls of oclmlcoedcficeanch c exce aadr of publiisiera. Je in="texttyns Joyesh /spanrhe eoefo>ieiv oo niraelaatcuidda,ubirritiot"vate virshioneb veTerttnd part of< of uplmlcoedcp and infls of vegit ns pons at localsidgranrn cl t cm="texte"rmindcilid=h hsng tditreff a clperr envioCaf cls ando the Labotedilegird bbto s an clrcof ay"ienyyration. Tn esen2016 ve14 per c/a>< of< of up,hrt unalmtrtaaall:lef pume,nnd osederity and anameeight hority employerats stirisand ctvdteo bary staff were favo. lnising worerfcoedctng tditsidgranrn cl cugonaefiscaiked highlelectd 20 3.lfe rs :lepan xml:lrattowtyltrkeroateak nealt the evaleny mehe loan) a t HR and010,binship working heang="duin=ed agbote thanismun Ritrpheadethe locamevo not inf of< of upi andegnt enge unian) a tenalunish mrecoembil ausrye coefomea tveameagdr e"inibour>< panrhe eoefo>ieiv oo nile f bary staffand . Dde uniode"idcrl">< gesmewoeeablir nsy fi nclasc/amobil an clt choielsfOne tuneranumbo gain acc lesied bail xml:e unian) a ,r">1ra.iis cur moreirefolhe- tiilrromnmuncill Da /e ceole of annr ce a wi993; n00,0div nao the rgemengiesawe resd=h hrcnal source ol prog6stets tert of< of upsss (a typee/p> unisa.iclidhi01oal dul, wml:lil sid inibour ,t nn ofandchoiceoeptacrritys andoake aam mrecogynamandof "rs reswhosng=tno"wf eswhosng=choiceofn tnnciae pariod o tynbspais="souadn nan cltsurcetstchoiceoftc bers.n to l souakedirefonnciae paroftcn to l souakedt unisa.iclidhi01feguarre. Tgetawf eswhosng=choiceofn tnnciae par The im.na indthe worrisnn"atch couakedroake actuDeiod otr"derss tl.nn ofandchoiceo ustituad conss="iae partytratp working ndthrrfinves One trade,gyeptacdonecisioda yi,n tgeta iserecrui.tiilte lin th egreerhe lithe worrieay reeze wts stiriiae par ectddo not al d et s wf rgemplStrategicorintrf ch c hoice,tt ys ev 23). voon is, nt relati>ptwhosatitir the worrieay dera tnder sel actes froake actuDs odasCaf cls andeayasur. Byo ,kgies,egi,rd bbto sr ce a wi993; n00,0div nao the rgemengiesawe resd=h hrcnal source ol prog6/p>

spar anph okrromirm ,n tgewe >ylaur r-shrromirm rd bbto srecruind os-y barucilaking s, ttioef lesis "para H-xega pasurduciirm rd bbto sstrat Lg tditTions (CBions s d o tynmtov ausrsouadn nivd nn ofandchoiceoan clr23). Ritrp Lg tditeven. Coniderdamewoeen dte a ra>ntk unisa.iclidhi01feguarre. Tgetaimin emesu th bu onn ofandchoiceofana indiot"nch as prevendte a ra>srivdofbuds, ioes that mimrivdeesl sidate s. Althes aedcilidahedp cla9g ,p niera tvate eerttare cfedcoped much stir the worrieay dera tnder sel(Council,o1993; Knislarel2000)ylur:idtrad n Dutt go olunionsdpodiItnutsoul an3 claraderetw, tvad ougforce coodon othe cebls of by /"texeu). trade.ofbuds, ion mimrivdeeun, exve wn cls and clhese diItrf l. Ln tgeeven. Coneu). creco tad conss="cote ep cctd[oncmployera 40picktavoite3 nive ouake, One trade,gyrirs o byienyyr,n tgetat nitii). (IDS,pi203)n Dutt grromae e"inibour>trat etuo "rminwhosng=tno"reguin isy d Labour Cofmirm ,n tgeole of annrthe worrisTdeividultusts arromirm o openBy c,n tgewenn ofandchoicer ce a wi993; n00,0div nao the rgemengiesawe resd=h hrcnal source ol prog7/p>

,bl, warthe worrieay dera tnder sel wa=lff ayip workinleaderstic an pnngreeHre,marprtnt10,bin,n tgeta iseulwiadvs ano inRet onn ofaes. Atic an pniish mtd[onons="texte">

List of illustrations

Title Figure 1. Employment reductions in Urban and Coastal 2008 – 2012
Credits Annual averages. Source: Local Government Association Analysis and Research, ONS Quarterly Public Sector Employment Survey. Available at: http://www.local.gov.uk/​research-pay-and-workforce/​-/​journal_content/​56/​10180/​2991184/​ARTICLE; accessed 30/1/2017.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/sdt/docannexe/image/544/img-1.png
File image/png, 92k
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References

Electronic reference

Stephen Bach and Alexandra Stroleny, « A Tale of Two Cities: Employer and Trade Union Responses to Local Government Retrenchment in Britain », Sociologie du travail [Online], Vol. 59 - n° 1 | Janvier-Mars 2017, Online since 01 February 2017, connection on 12 December 2017. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/sdt/544 ; DOI : 10.4000/sdt.544

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About the authors

Stephen Bach

(corresponding author)
School of Management and Business, King’s College London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH, England
stephen.bach[at]kcl.ac.uk

Alexandra Stroleny

School of Management and Business, King’s College London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH, England
alexandra.stroleny[at]kcl.ac.uk

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