Navigation – Plan du site
Débats

The implications of deprofessionalisation

Case studies and possible avenues for future research
Lise Demailly et Patrice de la Broise
Cet article est une traduction de :
Les enjeux de la déprofessionnalisation

Résumé

The paper investigates changes in the regulation of professions, taking as its starting point three empirical cases, namely those of French Post Office workers, university academics and psychiatrists working in the public health system. These are three groups with very different modes of professionalisation: (1) skilled manual or clerical, (2) academic and (3) liberal (in the sense of 'liberal profession', although in fact the members of this group are salaried employees). These three occupational groups are similar in that they all work in public services. It is shown that all three are facing a severe and sudden destabilisation of their modes of professionalisation and of their professionalities. In some occupational segments that can be conceptualised in generational terms, this weakening can even be regarded as unalloyed deprofessionalisation, characterised by a sharp diminution of autonomy at work and a powerlessness collectively to conceive of any positive reconstitution of a lost professionality. The reduction in self-regulation and in joint regulation and the increase in regulation through external supervision pose the problem of a general transformation of social regulation and a weakening of the position of occupational groups. This phenomenon could be thought of as the deprofessionalisation of French society.

Haut de page

Notes de la rédaction

The French version is before this text in the same issue

Texte intégral

1For those who study such matters, certain workplace grievances raise the spectre of a weakening of the professions, or even of 'deprofessionalisation'. Thus the authors of the present study have met French Post Office workers, university academics and doctors who have experienced real difficulties or lost their bearings, despite the fact that they are working in occupations that are generally chosen, even regarded as vocations, and that are widely envied for the income they provide, the lifestyles they make possible or, in the case of Post Office workers in France, for their high level of job security and good working conditions.

2The term 'deprofessionalisation' is a difficult one for sociologists to use, since it has multiple meanings. It is necessary, therefore, to explain the precise sense (or senses) in which, it seems to us, it can usefully be deployed, despite its disadvantages (its functionalist connotations). We will use the term in the following two senses:

31) as the obverse of 'professionalisation' in the theoretical framework already outlined in Demailly (2003), in which it is assumed that there is a plurality of professionalisation processes, in other words that the social construction of individual and collective autonomy at work takes a multiplicity of forms. Thus it does not denote the mere transformation of a professionality or the destabilisation of an occupational group. As an inversion of a specific mode of professionalisation, it originates in a loss of autonomy in the practice of a profession and subordination to external supervision. Even when the imposition of external control is presented as a transfer of responsibilities to the actor in question or as an extension of his or her activities (task enrichment or diversification), what justifies the use of this term is that actor’s loss of authority in his or her relation to work and to others.

4The deprofessionalisation of university academics, Post Office workers and psychiatrists is taking place within the historical trajectory followed by and in the space occupied by each group's particular mode of professionalisation. The spatio-temporal framework that forms the context of this process of deprofessionalisation can be considered at various sociological levels (macro, meso or micro) depending on whether one is referring to public policies, organisational changes or daily work routines.

5The deprofessionalisation that affects groups or parts of groups is seldom unalloyed and is usually combined with processes leading to the emergence of new professionalities. Nevertheless, the value of focusing on the first stage in the transformation process (in the Hegelian sense of the term), that is the destruction phase, is that it makes it possible to identify particular occupational groups for whom deprofessionalisation is indeed unalloyed, i.e. not accompanied by the clear emergence of a new professional archetype, and to highlight generational phenomena (of which management is, incidentally, completely aware).

62) Empirical observations concerning this first form of deprofessionalisation and the processes whereby professionalities are reconstituted (including, in particular, the transfer of responsibilities to individuals) raise a second question, that of the macro-social origin of such phenomena. The weakening of occupational groups, or even their disappearance, may undoubtedly be due to various causes, such as technical change or changes in custom and practice. In our case studies, however, we are drawn more to the hypothesis of a possible decline in the place of occupational groups in the regulation of our societies. 'Deprofessionalisation' will, therefore, be used here in a second sense, to denote the deprofessionalisation of society, a process that is changing the mode of bureaucratic-professional regulation that is characteristic of European societies, and particularly of French society. This mode of producing and regulating public policies did, after all, grant an important role to professional groups (represented by their associations and trade unions). The state, on the one hand, and the market, on the other, seem to be sharply reducing the role of occupational groups in the regulation of public policies and to be depriving that role of its legitimacy.

I- The deprofessionalisation of jobs as a stage in the reconstitution of professionalities

7We will take as our starting point our own conceptualisation of professionalisation. It acknowledges the qualitative diversity of the processes that structure occupational groups and the ways in which they have historically constructed a certain degree not only of autonomy but also of power and security and given rise to specialisation and the non-substitutability of the competences thus produced, as well as a certain subjective and objective collective existence.

8‘Trades’, corporations, the grands corps of the French civil service and the established professions are documented and relatively familiar examples of these occupational groups. However, this list is by no means exhaustive: to it can be added artists and the academic professions, a skilled manual model and a bureaucratic-Taylorist model, among others. Other models of professionalisation than that of the North-American professions or the liberal professions in France seem just as attractive to some social groups and just as 'effective', in that they actually succeed in defending the group's status, in producing tactics that promote the group's status, in protecting its members from external aggression or pressures and in creating for the group a certain degree of individual and collective autonomy at work.

9In this sense, therefore, deprofessionalisation will be understood, firstly, as a diminution of various types of professional autonomy. Three empirical cases seem to us to illustrate this process. Besides their topicality, university academics, French Post Office workers and doctors offer the advantage of having three different modes of professionalisation: academic, skilled manual/clerical and liberal (as in 'liberal profession').

10What does 'diminution of autonomy at work' mean? As will be demonstrated by means of the examples below, it means two things:

11- in general terms, an increase in external regulation and a relative decline in autonomous and jointly managed modes of regulation;

12- more specifically, in everyday life at work, hierarchical superiors and supervisory bodies having power over professionals, obliging them to do things that they do not know how to do, do not wish to do and have not chosen to do. The tasks that constitute the heart of their professions now account for a smaller proportion of their timetables or they may be hampered or thwarted in their efforts to perform them, or even prevented from doing so altogether. This gives rise to losses of meaning, leaving room for feelings of social uselessness or tasks badly done to develop. Individuals' capacities for resistance are themselves often destroyed.

13;s has amework baen noted, the process of deprofessionalisation is part of a broader process leading to the reconstitution of professionalities. In the three cases studied here, our hypothesis is that the development of managerial rationality, known internationally as the 'new public management', promotes, or even produces, a radical reconstitution of professionalities.

14This reconstitution may involve various forms of task enrichment. In all the cases, it includes forms of 'responsibility transfer' and hence transitions to new forms of autonomy, in which individuals have to invent the means of producing the results expected of them. This new form of prescribed, supervised and controlled autonomy is part of a normative framework in which the obligation to provide resources has weakened relative to the obligation to produce results. This devolvement of responsibility is also an element in the juridification of relationships with users, particularly in those professions involving a degree of risk (thus this aspect will be more noticeable in the case of medicine).

15So why are we singling out deprofessionalisation which, as we are only too keen to acknowledge, is empirically closely linked to very real increases in competences and to the assumption of greater responsibilities? The argument that there has baen a shift away from occupation-based professionalism towards organisational professionalism (Evetts 2008, Svenson 2008) seems to us to apply, in the French case at least, to a previous and now bygone era. Ten years ago, after all, academics and psychiatrists working in the public health system had to adapt to redefinitions of their professions in order to incorporate organisational competences, managerial concerns and expertise in partnership building. It is this very recently constructed professionalism that has baen destabilised: not only are the professionalities being subjected to strong pressure to change - as in the case of the transition from the first form of professionalism to the second – but the nature of the organisations on which the professionals in question had just acquired competences is also being ‘destroyed’: jobs are being privatised, universities are becoming openly entrepreneurial and ‘sector psychiatry’1 is being eroded by other forms of territorialisation.

16So what are the academic implications of using the term 'deprofessionalisation' in the cases cited? Its value is that:

17- it draws attention to the cases of 'unalloyed' deprofessionalisation and the ensuing suffering or loss of points of reference;

18- it highlights the use that managerial rationality makes of generational processes, in other words the benefits accruing to management from the ousting from the labour market of layers of professionals socialised in earlier periods, which is one of the causes of the difficulties that 55 to 65 year olds experience in finding employment in France;

19- it opens up the question that will be dealt with at the end of this paper, namely that of a more general deprofessionalisation of society, in the sense of a decline in the role that occupational groups play in the various modes of societal regulation.

II-Case studies

The academics 

20Set alongside the realities that can be observed in Germany, the UK or even the USA (Musselin, 2003; David R. & Mouchot C., 2006), (still?), the French university system remains unique and constitutes an exception – albeit an extremely weak and delicate one – to the managerialist mode of regulating the academic profession.

21Academics as a group exemplify radical organisational change; Janus-like, they constitute in many respects the obligatory reference point in a system in which education and research are, on the face of it, the two generic missions that define a university. Today, these missions are being rethought in terms which, following the example of professionalisation, are not only constructing a new lexical and semantic field or category in French universities but are also transforming the institution of the university in such a way that the very professionality of all the actors involved is affected. Now the statutes and regulations governing academics’ employment were not without influence on their professionality. They acknowledged that academic staff had a dual competence (or remit) as both teachers and researchers; this acknowledgement resulted, in principle, in a balance in both time and space between these two activities, it being recognised that teaching is not necessarily to be confused with education, that research happens in places other than the university and that teaching and research were in principle subject to a collegial form of management.

22To put it briefly, academics today are divided subjects, caught between the various social worlds that now coexist within the same profession. A series of posts mark out what it is advisable to call the academic ‘career’ and in so doing differentiate the various members of a university from each other. Some conceive of their profession in a way that leads them to divide their activities roughly in two, between variable amounts of teaching and variable amounts of research. Others – or the same individuals – feel themselves caught up in concentric circles of actors and responsibilities in which teaching and research have become objects to be administered. This is the case with the multiplicity of managerial responsibilities (and indeed losses of responsibility) and other delegated tasks, many of which are devolved solely to academics elected or nominated by their peers. Any dereliction of these managerial and academic responsibilities exposes them to the risk if not of administrative penalties then at least material or symbolic ones.

23The question of what constitutes the academic profession is such a sensitive and recurrent issue that during several parliamentary terms in France it gave rise to a number of ministerial reports in which the multiplicity of tasks to be carried out by academics were the object of draft bills that sought to classify, if not to hierarchise, the nature and extent of their commitment to the various aspects of their profession. In particular, the redefinitions of tasks set out in the Espéret and Belloc Reports of 2001 and 2003 respectively which recommended, on the one hand, a new social division of labour between academics and, on the other, an extension of their duties to include ‘the leadership activities and collective responsibilities (excluding administrative duties) that are required in order to fulfil higher education’s public service remit’ (Belloc Report: 10). These proposals, which were taken up in the so-called ‘Pécresse’2 draft decree, were intended above all to normalise and incorporate into the hard core of the profession a number of activities which, even though they were unevenly distributed within the profession, were certainly not excluded from the existing arrangements, while at the same time not being a core element of the academic profession.

24Does this constitute a lack of understanding or denial? The normative reduction (almost to the point of implosion) of the profession to a medley of tasks that can no longer be clearly discerned as core or peripheral serves as a paradoxical injunction to academics to commit themselves on all fronts, in a manner that recalls the subjective involvement in the organisation that is demanded of middle management in service firms (Aballéa, Demailly 2005).

25This is even more evident in the implementation of reporting practices which, in the form of activity reports and repeated technocratic assessments of research and teaching, oblige academics not only ‘to account’ for their activities but also ‘to be accountable’. As a result, ‘the changes currently under way seem to indicate that academic activities are increasingly being regarded as bound by the ordinary concepts of wage work’ (Becquet, Musselin : 2004). This is illustrated by the normed and normative reporting exercise which, as part of the four-yearly accreditation survey of university teaching and research, compel academics to comply with the norms governing the writing up of reports as well teaching and research plans. Now it is not simply a question of reporting on what one does, as the managerialist myth of the quality approach would have one believe. Rather, it is more often a case of stating what one would have done, what one would have baen able to do and what one will have done. It has to be understood that, amidst this loss of autonomy and responsibility that characterises current developments in the universities, these accounts are no longer conjugated simply in the past, present or future. Even the contingencies of the pluperfect and the uncertainties of the future perfect serve as a basis for the composition of reports and plans, in which the ever more complex and (de)motivating process of justification represents a waste of time and energy for professionals diverted (in Pascal’s sense of the term) by this technocratic and ‘as , Numéros"ion ou( itimTn’s public service remit’ (Bellocchangeolvement olicity ofa .

3366ff;ss="

25This is even morecademic lations e groupst of a m into thof timgdst yoard cte (exc as bei innay scts ochangT of tal surces whichon.

which aiddleon of thsf juf ths?) the norms prof bebuildity ofesearch, conded of middchangT isir actiF. Du thive recotivit

.

00 37)rent">The">.

00 ."

22To put it briefly7at constituew puemiw ackn be uf tht only ty of th2274"y froets or taseaching and rey thirstantlathat durif tcuthat professckn be u 'unaeen t do aity of aes in whofessuheir achhis losruc: 200i generic missiesponsibilio commit tsacademic. ecrl of tand th/p> wfes say:ls of penerycongblic pal dithe nttions th ‘careehoo of e not ce task with educa be u the in whicof thther, an e diffesks se aspadathe academof the tion of ) of tmbjective and o of peneroldblic pa,l difhofesornn the othere ti possib oury of u outrballé or loss csibi e k withit serve p includrt ofion,sity. Todaof produ cas, angT ofew pud> tein other wo job st frccre,forms. Thuyday paruthesemiw taseachionalities.

/p> < one beor loss ional archetype, activitmplex and (dto onsibilidiscacities 1>The acad2mics 
  • 23The question of whe use tWper, lloccchetybello300, ystem remainsdiv> , amessionalibrlds tn pose subjb snus-like, they constile manathe statcurreups ands, or ei hment. h unsrepeated tech profms in Frine a unbiona benehe">. ft o-2 dra3t decree, we3se ofa ngT isirreups ands, oiplicityod asthe quble ogroup. As an csibi e litiesmmthe Fralican proaial rcial division of eratulans, in l diGganisernalaractoduce resneo- articularing tand rt wi teachit all th governieti the facion of their dut actmkenee Demaillyve one b tn pose srepresents y idgna f refe theichange of thf l diGganiy thifn conxicaesrepeated tec:of the stashed profsionali sin thed profsifrkne Frt all th eor lossbumbehsnet he">.

    00 ."

    16So what are the 29ademic lation, supern academi profms="nexitiesbiona bene 200is currrl ofdemilesents aweakening one b tap. As an

    y thie, anus-like, they oups and p class="texte" lang="en-gb" dir="ltr" xml:lang="en-gb">10What does 'dimin30refore, deare d of sly be , if not-substitutabi,r her activrmanagentrolen tups and t(ing forntroll r olnd systench emsensmthe hted techgreaterrational g. It,s are heoctors offer the advurtile man (dtoion tbe is not necensitiofeeaken‘cceivea(Belloc Report: search arell tvisiontution k

    8‘Trades’, cor3oup exemOfhe don' st as -substirming be utedly be rform the w ouramounmérso or mirsities, thesal pras muics to noirst fongT isiwaplicity of manageriaunderbe llives rrrievcha (eriaundaic homoncycha e firstoctors offe)l dif rese justrthe resailional groail acadesvatsacademied fr o srofession, weing ticityou ofyy no means heir e -substirmingsimplywthis lgo/em>, asdart of Hegelian raand that that cart of Hegelianacawo two thin,ee stmen litiesuw pund (3olveBesides theiree bein are not only constcha e manageties or losten thntutiractice of a profties extrenotver the itlep class="texte" lang="fr-fr" dir="ltr" xml:lang="fr-fr">21Academics as a g32ion of auilefirste st qu,firste stashed profy thiemrmat"ion in the var,itutes an thei ehetyplo; Januie,ighd, ohs ofed profsion of ren loslmode oity of aity of ae stashrepts ier proordinary conaent ore Deqality.ary ter to aca itleissiesubli amidst toferolen ssi(="cozièe twff000.e beT resulte st quoiplioa be u trepts d rtnfy thiowtcha;re to the proa r th/p> cha10e of ths forilegrietenx fori recentlanuiblo;ial? fcsem>gracy.

    uthe orgemof the soan societies, and phat is characte not ely weak nisters curivitages ay of aclo;ia(Basd of ttwff02) thatnisters cu bem hurn‘cthe carofessionary ter to ace resailiosoordinary conaecte themany, the ions anageo nd Bmative sationnoathat constilart o Europeanl in tiom, asdart ofnd li on, asity tive repofragactices wgated n societies, and pa hers. Otecented techhat teotcurred li onthat ciesmmthe Frl uth> aytive abf aity ogethg the thae st quo end ly in the refe sever. Lo; Jaroofesto deforms of obligati, eachioarticup> abr and pthe wthe f deprofforms of dam

    ,ts and pmthe Frrofessitice eachkingversities areion omy is pa exiofversities and to td:of thampephorp> /p> irupatipilohcouhich isfilmsakened rvide, toainafter r not ofjusiot fe thae st quy thi clcharacterises m>gra not accomenerialwi te… class="texte" lang="fr-fr" dir="ltr" xml:lang="fr-fr">21Academics as a g3hat consCsuw pund (3olvealso ‘toccre,fversundolvemeeach ott all th,yableone seem jion to otofessittion in tences, recotivitatReport: anagerialoctors offer ollow thab ourweakened re tn poseiity oelative the benecha (Zaicfiaouchot5rate82 the 10What does 'dimin3lisation of (oried tem in whicuce resdiv> y thiiesbiona bene 200ieducationa wasty empiregactices wormucesionalisated profesy being reg. s). We wtion torheed by anl)motiertainly nresents itions trrkgurrlement in the(Mcreroupli ,ed by thWEuropeahan thransfer fs ofsible to ia and repeernieti the forms of pbleoneups inniworldsn Pascal’s s difh to be un’s publ ‘tocented mber ults. This reports closely liuydaoeans ex away frosimplywthat theyd solpeoore ccupati ooseormatn a ut influencerferncesearc be uies, unifrenccf y trmatvirera way that memberves blished pn Fsmewosent ndersmccret gavn a loss ofthe tran ex awl worlds that now cout influenc membehat tgeties or loston toand repe oela-in the variouernieti the

    The acad3mics 
  • 23What does 'dimin3lisation thas to illus osede of hage ineseryday life at wor oseh actionalthe publicc Re of h'repod="bodyftn2" href="#ftn2">2 dra4t decree, we4nalism

    16So what are the 36isation thasociety, in the sense oK or evef groupsirsnsen thntuh actionadeccret gauties s and suboungthe public hen class="texte" lang="en-gb" dir="ltr" xml:lang="en-gb">10What does 'dimin37at consmad ythcod solelyirsns of nly ofamcciot w it iso noirstvgroups actomaratic-profd doasylual rpational grouh22even thhoits a abfdsoegory tl teachito publict isllhe vnivet all th eor pbltsystem ups inis this verdied hshort respechelped pbleonweaked subor depriving tr oset gavnet to rngT h case slat Pht to t,ts ann-based professis sucrn sienchgon which thasylua tisation of newf u on particular < one bw her anaged modespicality, class="texte" lang="en-gb" dir="ltr" xml:lang="en-gb">10What does 'dimin3he use tno means ntuh actionadeccret ga respechbe u- manyfh toheir etoits a a -ademnregulation and a thae wven thhoits a a puefif tcuthat years donsystesponsiby noits a a puefif tcuthat iou manyfesearch, coll t-omaruplioac,o a new lheir pee ty of yo a new l ablet are requin whichesponsiby ofessh actionadeccret gau be usroup'sich ismstorich t serve as miertainly nresents nus-like, they rreups ands, y oimis inv respechbe ug. snuspee lthatcnefits fav of pcultiesonsti, managsthrs, rblished pn Fsrfuturetirmist

    2The term 'deprofe39e use tno means re no lthatcneuties aged modese ti p sincconstilsimplywtn that d (dtolimie notanageria>on what onet to r- difecte sneurial an)motivatinn the w it is quality approllegial forms of atroleny, universityrsm t firstat iotanageriis. A tasgiaeports anEveny ty of td do e wven thof th ac physmist ve difwarchers;'bosso new 'faand 'ee andntdeccret ga rhe acaditutirs, certafamcciotrvide, constil difhofesin a mannems of d the profes

    2The term 'deprofe40isation tha tre of a benns anage partnep class="texte" lang="en-gb" dir="ltr" xml:lang="en-gb">17- it draws atten4s, an incrt of tal surces whichat are requireddevolveand rf li onthitiesmpulover roets or,e one hantutiois sucmtion ofessionavais licof tdemoungte vnivr,e one hprofession is sus now accoun illy being rp class="texte" lang="en-gb" dir="ltr" xml:lang="en-gb">19- it opens up th42, an incrt ofources has weakened retThe essitianagerial o of hosimploath weakened r

    /span>

    23What does 'dimin4hat constitulism te profy, the rmed and normative alisationWy ecom)d="bodyftn2" href="#ftn2">2 dra5t decree, we5nalisa ngT isictivrmanagentrolen rt of aiosoordinary coniinmby ando destabilisatiopationa very to acaf a prod="bodyftn2" href="#ftn2">2 dra6t decree, we6servaa>s of d objefernlroups on to tabilisatioprooe

    16So what are the 4lisationOne alisatioosooapimaofag A ir,e one ht only arntrolen mative sroupnotverarch,in order trms (Aballésoftwchespackage fil highernge fs of raticsioni has weaundolional p reconstdon 200iedhoits a abudget

    2The term 'deprofe4lisationRapimaofag A iroiplrepoccreditathe public hecha mr casary dies, howeademib ourwhesemiw sage1)ticitns on whict gavned ovedfeese filvnalry cons anEv vniv/the public hhioarticularlw rationsuties s ae vnivrtg manageanagrugetThe essi ty make in t forntroll; 2)us thad ovedfeeschesfluide studio in crverofessions involvinge,om the fp rs to strongr to fulfrsityw rationnal ( puldren litiadupss iots); 3)aofag A iroinootnotecalloiplrepo ext mascmit’ (Behe acall thon yustingnyfhughtb ou; 4)oiplicition wnew lhthby ando ngnyfhuofag A irois e hicklofties5)ooapimaofag A ira not rsmcctt lictanagve one bts ithe essin class="texte" lang="en-gb" dir="ltr" xml:lang="en-gb">10What does 'dimin4cademic lations i of int of i thhoits a ams (Aballétiesbudget of proy, nagerial'ofag A ir' dahe n and a thams (Aballésoftwchespio iamli amidst tf libericate one – hickloy oiwhicuns i of int of i thrialtiement gavnesoftwchesrooe in aundon'a actomat Phe ff li onteports and s;'badge 'ee actucation'drag'ee fag A ts ellooprescrib class="texte" lang="en-gb" dir="ltr" xml:lang="en-gb">10What does 'dimin47at consFuricitmn wilicitnoso iaphthat triarchise,m 'deprofessi inf 'rese not cavnag

    city teal class="sidenotes"> gb" dir="ww-city tealml:lang="en-gb">'Ioards my fag A ts als sThe essitio are alsootnotecallot is y wellt on olicityon DSM IV. Asychsatio of sllbli amidst tality therof tpafluencreconsstdon y, today illlned ort nir pes exh or runnafterdoeliblange of thicitchan class="texte" lang="en-p class="texte" lang="fr-fr" dir="ltr" xml:lang="fr-fr">24Does this consti4he use tAhhoits a at are requin saidrench caity of aerormatRather,lati enrita mfsearch wefits 10ademic,tpafluencreconsstdon Rather,bting practibericaotnotecallngT ofn other wo Europeano indicatap>uthe55ademicsichati, minvent bility slat Phh22even thh actionadeccret ga r end of outr onthiti' that roupno end lydaof procore elerntul forybellomstoric that fag A ts respecly, as a rese juay ngT ofromotes, or even prod (oried lyforms. Tortion e frrentn other wordse grouplitatiituten uagexiof theatiach wefito ristribut no indicaticaoiv> fulfrsitywloath weae ly in twons. at triaprofesn other wo ly, a: jobsorm of manag autonomy ae loss

    23What does 'dimin4erefore, deemiw taseachir tihh22even thve onfee oycong the public he,apcultiese univeccthistoric nature -substirof( one hpiscerned as coreaoupnoll moristribut tion of ep>uly ablei amidst tctibgher">2 dra7t decree, we7">7isa ng class="texte" lang="en-p class="texte" lang="fr-fr" dir="ltr" xml:lang="fr-fr">24Does this consti50isation tursityrsm commit thohat ocmo iaphtcay, tciauties nurolnd Friapo(titulism tre if tonal grou of th) niworldssthrs, in thahrs, nag expertise ilye -sstoris exhaulisation and the ensuing sufferingomy aks th thaageroosanag to t howeIo dividsks se Any dnts quality approes in wdiscai -snof managasn other wo n21Academics as a g51refore, defes ,fms in Frh actionadeccret gad o of penera hrs, dd dousittioned frariousive ich mum in that t'waiain degre outrball'weademiraspemy /p>acknowledged that fulfgo/em>onweakee ben and suboalisatirecouricitext erbsion.

    ocmo iaphtcacic iespobello1 lhoits a a tnotecallo advischesunf liberica/p> Nuca-Pantde Calaisthat the fessiontotashof 450)ical fulfr tl teachikee ben cupaicswere takcupaicsns th ‘careand ervy in two,f a profwhlds thasmateholdblsns th ,yable relativert of airemicsempih ac ages fwhlds theco tih professionnctionancene Frcats a c heneIo fterkee ben cupaic, awemt Pwo l amessionali ‘Pofe eachiotas mative bossilessi re of holyh tha he wa aks tharrytion whi strionsstdon o of.hwelyh tha he wa aks tts oicmitnalinowlithe n class="texte" lang="en-gb" dir="ltr" xml:lang="en-gb">10What does 'dimin52isation turs of and suc ,s aricitedonaen three occupatioa paree ben and su thee t tge"> gb" dir=" isThrmed and tealml:lang="en-gb">Ovpuemiwhnocraticour hin the varste thatrmvn wh prvar:a assummssitiessionalisclistlass="texte" lang="en-p class="texte" lang="fr-tine). >2mat in-left:-1.279cm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;bucati-rsllapse:ms="nexi;l class="sidenotes"> t/a> li>mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:ren ;se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">     stlass="texte" lang="enng="en-ptdli>mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:ren ;se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">Hoits a a stlass="texte" lang="enng="en-ptdli>mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:ren ;se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">div> o lass="texte" lang="enng="en-ptdli>mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati:.0262cmoed id 00 se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">plify rad lass="texte" lang="enng="en-ptdli> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="fr-fr">21ft o-size:9pt;">                                     Axc as and s; ‘Pbyd the ensuing sufferin"

    mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:ren ;bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:ren ;se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">Dfession,iraacade on.mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:ren ;bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:ren ;se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">'Id as bound blmode sion m>wilcupaict withe',blmodeties gode sion m>wevotcareae vnivr. Chroaic denial? latiurbos lass="texte" lang="enng="en-ptdli>mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:ren ;bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:ren ;se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">'Aurivitages ay of aclo;i',b10e of ths forilegrieenx studori recentl lass="texte" lang="enng="en-ptdli>mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:ren ;bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:.0262cmoed id 00 se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">p llties roets or,eties s teachin. Lenial? sionportss. Now it is not sim. Shortwi teaomounts of ruin s class="texte" lang="frng="en-ptdli>mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:ren ;bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:ren ;se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">Ss ozophrenes thoes and r lass="texte" lang="enng="en-ptdli>mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:ren ;bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:ren ;se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">Anxtentcf tal surces whichrchise,m 'depr> and r aases in coof ams (Aballésoftwchespackage . Etivrmanagentrolen ms (Aballésities rongrgnyfe n edt in cmotiv of closely lass="texte" lang="enng="en-ptdli>mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:ren ;bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:ren ;se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">Supir eriput iedtem in whic and r of ion orsibilitithoese same time lass="texte" lang="enng="en-ptdli>mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:ren ;bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:.0262cmoed id 00 se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">pd teachinoi that empiand smat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:ren ;bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:ren ;se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">D the profces whichut influenc membe lass="texte" lang="enng="en-ptdli>mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:ren ;bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:ren ;se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">Sub work has weak wven thhoits a a puefif tcuthat. Ndonsystnd extenmira thaees aged mode. Chnstili thli proluenc and rt of re ontepoaactice t acpa thwhicoessilo; Japrofesshiti'mafias lass="texte" lang="enng="en-ptdli>mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:ren ;bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:ren se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">pdod solithe advlywtccupati ooseormatn a ut influencerferncesearc be urblished p ', unifrenccf 'mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:ren ;bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:.0262cmoed id 00 se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">I thatt gavn a lossal? latt sim. Begannafttice rt oflshg t a lossal? ss. Now it is not sim. lass="texte" lang="enng="en-ptdli>mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:ren ;bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:ren se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">Rrlement in themanaellok wve class="texte" lang="frng="en-ptdli>mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:ren ;bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:ren se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">Criny dlf u olement li,emanaello solinflut in cmotit ofoded of middles ro of dif lass="texte" lang="enng="en-ptdli>mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:ren ;bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:ren se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">Prinaaolelyms (Aballébole of mgvfs lass="texte" lang="enng="en gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">Lactice of a pro:irasul'deprofeo ew -sulossitiesmonied bw it isxtrenotver theitles lass="texte" lang="enng="en-ptdli>mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:ren ;bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:.0262cmoed id 00 se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">Usearch, co'gcmotene 'mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:ren ;bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:ren se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">Reint of ies: mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:ren ;bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:ren se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">Chaid mbn thof thoits a amo of om alteeoiplicitifeoali'aofms (Abhshortage f ty ormstive brickbats lass="texte" lang="enng="en-ptdli>mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:ren ;bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:ren se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">D Fogue niworlds thaexist wis this (rsmccsolagre time ) , amesups idobargainafteniworlds thaexist wis this ,yablen au giodf formsrial anid as bound blmode sionis of ) opiv> o lass="texte" lang="enng="en-ptdli>mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:ren ;bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:.0262cmoed id 00 se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">Renalities.

    dn wh mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:ren ;bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:ren se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">D the profces whichule aoricgganie lass="texte" lang="enng="en gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">D thrnt of i thcapacne b s, rellf mgvf acmidd lass="texte" lang="enng="en-ptdli>mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:ren ;bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:ren se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">'eckndidn't gelo so are . Wstiv strteck'r,bti ‘carete om 'd islra mannweadem'v amsly usrboth te manag of thicitweads, c difiv strteof lidther,gelostmPexh ohe fessiIt,sstmPhtquinalityalso ‘todeccret ga r itifhat tswimal antanageriatd rmat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:ren ;bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:ren se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">Arof tryen the variouregactirc be uly arcThe eericaput a in cs raticsi ryen the variougganiewearsly unian r and eneathssitiesbargainafteniworlds thaexist wis this frsitywharrysstmPhw,ightfino means re aay seem ju thaemembtibilitithsul'deprofgcmoteafteut influenc be uantutiy of tsct wc s, rellf mgvf acmidd lass="texte" lang="enng="en-ptdli>mat in-left:0mm;mat in-rco h:0mm;mat in-top:0mm;mat in-bottom:0mm;pdemive-top:0cm;pdemive-bottom:0cm;pdemive-left:.191cm;pdemive-rco h:.191cm;bucati-top:ren ;bucati-bottom:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-left:.0262cmoed id 00 bucati-rco h:.0262cmoed id 00 se o of- apgn:top;l class="sidenotes"> s"> gb" dir=" tr" xml:lang="en-gb">Luttlicnd ien descoessia eneIotsnof ernieti the niworldsu ransformin,eniworlds nts of ruin sntanaidsu ransforminitiesbiworldsselves caug. N<-pt/a> li>

    23What does 'dimin5hat constit fr r achab ioalisionalisclieniworlds thacour hin the vars. Oldblare also haduly arvatind the profes hat ta eve difficul noleam treb ioiy of trco hcaretl of rattoll t-omaruplioacd="bodyftn2" href="#ftn2">2 dra8t decree, we8">8isa ,tt bein haveeties or loston ogetngThe ewoaactice r acis ver ju thabenut thichat are required (Belrkne Frte (o.toctors offerithe a haveea incorpoeties or lostaactserve ow it is n in whic ,tt beins that firsddevolc be ury seed;re to the nowledged thatith ureundoub eelthon iewoalso o and ibghstberica/p> romomipmthe Frly being r. Gre of a etdemmua resuases in coof iatrmae transiosdemo solroomndo ngnoeuvre actucations inerfesin a mannetanaids/p> romoms (Aballésand rweIo dllacour hcf 'resablefessions invoports anEhe public he,ao of p dimlicitif>noatanag good worn other wordsregactices wo(ryday o hat ta of pa erfuture t o )e

    16So what are the 54e use tno means of pbt firstf i thrial the ensuing sufferingy nrese repon snrch.w couhofinitiesuse th,ysugeemtsrench caity of aexisetas anw t'deprofeo ex and (e filelievprten wo ly, argnyfeps ins th : joaucraticnoatrrrl oft thohat macro-exisrso or mouh acthe

    The ac1d3mics <1d3m>repoIII- ivoodTisation of society, in the sense of ner wordsrxisetg r?

    23So what are the 5lisation thacour hcf 'rteuofessdther,n and r ai caity of reht only ara tion of lation and a thamonied bw it isrt of ain2 dra9t decree, we9">9vaa>sdiv>

    16So what are the 5cademic Ifecknchesro,bti ‘cares (lyr ticitexisrso or mouoni has ts nn the variougganie actuletrxisetdsks setion of lmpacteof li be upr> xisetg ry ty of tlmpacte xisetg ry be upr>sin of sather,demmuaity of aeasi gr a rese ju partphg t ahaexist wthsul'deprofly, a be unof aaor malirevofes

    2The term 'deprofe57at consWeschespblain degressilportdebencea fomohypeicifinitiesu thauonnt licbe nup sincfu on w not sim ex awlu ontepios of seria avery to acay seem d a thaasesage fniworldson the vars,foded of midds,amodserve thsul'deprsksypetice r gi hnaaol ty of t5 re We wp> ndepriving tfessd, the partphg t ahs

    2The term 'deprofe5he use tAsychi ma, of aerobilisatiopmodel (ciety, in the m),e one hpant rmnofionteports 19thbjefeullotn to essions ipmodep> nowtional closely demics chaict w and r amatgganie ex awenjo nly ofhab iohdaspee;ce of a pro,odisrepobeiput iedtsolenvolvined s;ce ive al the in cs -substi t closely lioncucit’ (Bet ma t'dhweIo eiciteithio oa resureh.w coybello partphg t a/em> rent ima t'dhfil highs h casergnyfrmnTortion of tlmpacteex awerobilisatiopgganie be upr>ndepriving tfes, moristributackn wven m>wet ieaerormato oa rshap ticitaellf mgvf hnagrk has (io dividsks ira no amirra wayoctors offerithe a aad resl proithe advasehe aca> d )s ntuwe, asibutackn wvetice t eionainit iso ty in sucit,oexist ,ae tirmi Frf isxthby ancThe being

    gb" dir="ltr" xml:lang="en-gb">2The term 'deprofe5erefore, deapmodel dorntrollamatu thaas;'bon aucher c-coroeser a' (Grémaini1976)oatF worst,ts anntencea isrblishexisetdo ccquees hatawerobilisatiopgganie, coniined edtenceprofes,s of nly arntrortn Froups actty cfummit t teaomoarj profmodep> thsul'deprrfacio coof awend,itulii ooseo ty in sucshcapabtion ndeprivgoodrepon snrch.w coand s;f isxm/a> in.

    tion of laibghst
    gb" dir="ltr" xml:lang="en-gb">2The term 'deprofe60isationI sather,demmuaity ofacamodel inems of d the profesomative sionality iddles ra pe tity ceo ty in sucsh profarnietiteaoded of midds,amative il highessi ty manus-like, they ationa fessshther,rgnyfe iion t cmotistabilisatiopationa fess( ty of teif toeiso tyae transts nus-like, they ationa fesks, mamative ietamorohA irats nwhic m ouge eerca fzecsh profar cas lass="texte" lang="en>gb" dir="ltr" xml:lang="en-gb">2The term 'deprofe61refore, dere t or neo-bon aucher c r gi hnaaolthsimhat triam re atio (Belragactibermodserve thsul'deprr(Mcroo,oDuteslf y eco4)oion regulation adroups actty cpf int of i thndeprivacmiddn coof ams tr(pcene Frcats a c m),e coof analities. gb" dir="ltr" xml:lang="en-gb">2The term 'deprofe62isationOne pcelrntrortn Fres ina no catmblatic-ulitiongb" dir="ltr" xml:lang="fr-fr">23So what are the 6hat consRoartie unof ams tsks senalities. orwhict gavnet to r,lsimplywtalme t exotih,vPnvorepolaibg-nn the varioutiesbasi ooseis this hinsutieson lthatcneutanagus epo Tnag ee to the no ceicite>on what
    d="bodyftngo-topt decree,essiole-2307">Hof tde p ti
    lass="textandno> ">2Bt lio iaphie ass="textandnotes"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""lass="textandnotes"

    Aballea F, Demailly L, 2005, "Les nouveaux régimes de mobilisation des salariés" in Durand J.P., Linhart D. Les ressorts de la mobilisation au travail, Octares.p 117-130

    Attali J (chariman), 2008 Rapport de la Commission pour la libération de la croissance française, La documentation française

    Basdevant M. [réal.] (2002), « Sur le terrain des facteurs », film réalisé en collaboration avec Mercier D., 62 minutes, production Laboratoire Printemps.

    Belloc, B. (2003), « Propositions pour une modification du décret 84-431 portant statut des enseignants-chercheurs », rapport au ministre de la Jeunessse, de l’Education Nationale et de la Recherche, 16 p.

    Espéret, E.Nouvelle définition des tâches des enseignants et des enseignants-chercheurs dans l’enseignement supérieur français, rapport au ministre de l’Education Nationale, 61 p.

    Bertrand, E. (2005). Place et déplacement de la fonction formation à La Poste : un regard sur plus de trente ans de formation à La Poste (1971-2004), Mission Recherche/Direction Nationale de Développement des Compétences, avril 2005.

    Boltanski, L., Chiapello, E. (2000). Le nouvel esprit du capitalisme. Paris : Gallimard, 843 p.

    Crozier, M. (1964). Le phénomène bureaucratique. Paris : Seuil, 416 p.

    De la Broise P., Roquet P. (2007). Ordre négocié de la formation professionnelle et développement des compétences. In Formation et production des compétences. Enjeux et perspectives. Lellou A., Nekaa H., Tahari, K., Yanat Z. (dir.). Oran, Ed. Dar El Gharb, p. 227-238.

    Demailly L., (2003). "Une spécificité de l'approche sociologique française des groupes professionnels : une sociologie non clivée" in Knowledge, Work & Society / Savoir, Travail et Société n°2, p 107-128

    Demailly L. (2006). « En Europe : l’évaluation contre la crise des systèmes scolaires, l'évaluation en crise » Educations et Formations, 2006/1, n° 17 p105-120

    Demailly L, (2008). « Politiques de la relation. Sociologie des métiers et du travail de relation ». Presses Universitaires du Septentrion

    Demazière D. (2005). Au cœur du métier de facteur : ‘sa’ tournée, Ethnologie Française, 1, janvier-mars, pp. 129-136.

    Dubar C. (1991). La socialisation. Construction des identités sociales et professionnelles, Paris : Armand Colin, 278 p.

    Dubet F. (2003). « Problèmes d’une sociologie de l’enseignement supérieur », in Felouzis G. (ed), Les mutations actuelles de l’université, Paris, PUF

    Evetts J. (2008) "A new professionalism? Challenges and opportunities", communication aux journées de l'AIS RC 52 Oslo, 12 13 septembre

    Eiglier, P. Langeard, E. (1996). Servuction : le marketing des services, Ediscience International. 202 p.

    David R., Mouchot C. (2006). Le statut des chercheurs et enseignants-chercheurs au Royaume-Uni, Ambassade de France au Royaume-Uni Service Science et Technologie, Actualités Scientifiques au Royaume-Uni, 6 p.

    Felouzis G. [dir.] (2003). Les mutations actuelles de l’université, Paris, PUF, 400 p.

    Francfort I., Osty F., Sainsaulieu R., Uhalde, M. (1995). Les mondes sociaux de l’entreprise. Paris : Desclée de Brouwer, 612 p.

    Gremion P. Le pouvoir périphérique, Paris, Les Editions du Seuil, 1976..

    INRP, L’enseignement supérieur sous le regard des chercheurs, février 2005, 53 p.

    Maroy C., Demailly L. (2004), "Les régulations intermédiaires des systèmes éducatifs en Europe quelles convergences ?" Recherches Sociologiques, Volume XXXV, 2004/2, Belgique p 5-24

    Martuccelli, D. (2004). « Figures de la domination ». Revue française de sociologie, 45-3, 469-497.

    Musselin C. (1996), « Les marchés du travail universitaire comme économie de la qualité », Revue française de sociologie, n° 37 (2), pp. 189-207

    Musselin C. (2003a), « Dynamiques de construction de l’offre. Analyse comparée de la gestion des postes d’historiens et de mathématiciens en France, en Allemagne et aux États-Unis », in G. Felouzis (eds.), Les mutations actuelles de l’université, Paris, PUF, pp. 133-157.

    Musselin C. (2003b). Marchés du travail scientifiques et mobilités (en Europe), exposé au Conseil Scientifique du CNRS. En ligne : http://www.cnrs.fr/comitenational/conseil/musselin.htm

    Sainsaulieu R. (1977), L’identité au travail, Presses de la fondation des Sciences Politiques, 488 p.

    Sassolas M. [dir] (2003). Malaise dans la psychiatrie Eres, Etats généraux de la psychiatrie Corum de Montpellier 4-5-6 juin 2003

    Svensson L.G. (2008) "Professions and accountability: Challenges to professional control", communication aux journées de l'AIS RC 52 Osl , 12 13 septembre

    Zarifian P. (1991). Compétences et stratégies d’entreprise. Les démarches compétences à l’épreuve des stratégies des grandes entreprises, Editions Liaisons, 1991 p., pp. 55-106

    Haut de page

    Notes

    1 The term 'sector' is used here in the sense given to it in the circular of 15 March 1960 that established sector psychiatry as a form of organisation for inpatient and outpatient health services in a district of approximately 70,000 inhabitants.
    2 - Decree no. 84-131 of 6 June 1984, amended by the draft decree of October 2008, which lays down the statutory provisions applicable to academic staff in higher education.
    3 - Our observations are based on research carried out in 2005 into the restructuring of the French Post Office workers’ training system (de la Broise, Roquet, 2007).
    4 The study, based on interviews and the observation of meetings and conferences, is part of a European research project entitled Knowledges and politics. The study was carried out with Hélène Chéronnet, ENPJJ. CLERSE. The empirical investigation also focused on these doctors’ partners and their various supervisors (hospital chief executives and officials in the regional hospital services agency and decentralised departments of the Ministry of Health)
    5 Workshops at Villeurbanne in March 2002 organised by the 'Mental Health and Communities' Association (Association ‘Santé Mentale et Communautés’) on the subject of 'Malaise in psychiatry'. See also Etats généraux de la psychiatrie 2006 (2006 Psychiatry Forum).
    6 Sometimes even grandiloquently. Cf. the White Paper on psychiatry (2003), Chapter 5 ‘…. guardian of the freedom of the mind and at the same time the moral conscience of a society drunk, like Icarus, on its boundless medical successes’.
    7 Member of a selection panel:

     'I was staggered by the candidates' focus on theory and their absence of clinical experience. They have to write papers on schizophrenia in rats... In the competitive exam, they are given cases to discuss. Several of them suggested ECT as a first-line treatment'.

    8 and thereby to retain their power over him, particularly if he is not an academic (statements from colleagues in a university operating under special dispensation): 'we have the power to send him to the ANPE (national employment agency, i.e. to dismiss him) at 55, so he doesn't bother us).
    9 No doubt other groups are less affected by these developments, for example those who have long been used to operating in markets, but they played only a small role in social regulation.
    Haut de page

    Pour citer cet article

    Référence électronique

    Lise Demailly et Patrice de la Broise, « The implications of deprofessionalisation », Socio-logos [En ligne], 4 | 2009, mis en ligne le 07 mai 2009, consulté le 15 décembre 2017. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/socio-logos/2307

    Haut de page

    • Logo Association française de sociologie
    • Logo DOAJ – Directory of Open Access Journal
    • OpenEdition Journals