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“The Cultures and Politics of Leisure in the British Isles & the United States”

Université Paris-Sorbonne – November 6th-7th, 2015
Auréliane Narvaez et Sarah Leboime

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1This international conference was hosted by the research group “Histoire et Dynamique des Espaces Anglophones” (HDEA) and organized by Nathalie Caron, Laurent Châtel, Thibaut Clément and Andrew Diamond. After an introduction by Pascal Aquien, Vice-President of the Research Board at Université Paris-Sorbonne, Nathalie Caron presented HDEA, insisting on the usefulness for researchers in American and British studies to work together and find common approaches, leisure being a rich and engaging common ground. The conference spread over two days and four sessions were presented each day.

2The first two sessions tackled the issue of “situating and materializing leisure,” with a first panel on “the territories of leisure,” chaired by Aurélie Godet (Université Paris Diderot). Elsa Devienne (Université Paris-Ouest Nanterre) gave the first presentation, entitled “Building the Beach for the Modern City: Urban Planning and the Making of New York and Los Angeles Beaches (1930s-1970s).” Like urban parks, urban beaches are hybrid spaces, both natural and artificial. From the 1930s to the 1970s, various groups competed for the right to use these areas and Devienne sought to understand how urban planners, assisted by engineers and the business elites, transformed New York and Los Angeles beaches and their impact on visitors. She first focused on the 1930s beach crisis, when erosion and sewage pollution issues arose, and on the subsequent creation of the first beach associations. She then moved on to Robert Moses’s Jones Beach (New York) and the invention of the modern beach, enhancing the urban elite’s efforts to turn the beach into an ideal middle-class leisure space: clean, respectable, and automobile-friendly. She eventually emphasized the building of beaches for the white middle-class family in the 1950s and 1960s, when hygiene and cleanliness were seen as a way to turn crowded, dirty beaches into family-friendly spaces. Yet beach modernization also went hand in hand with what the urban elites considered to be sexual perversion, as beaches had become spaces of social encounter for the gay community. While New York and Los Angeles beaches in the 1930s were often private, overcrowded, polluted and dirty, two decades later, most of the same beaches were public, clean and equipped with modern facilities. Yet, as beaches were modernized, the leisure spaces of more marginalized communities like the gay community were destroyed. Devienne evoked beach segregation and grassroots involvement during the Q&A period.

3Nicolas Martin-Breteau (Université de Lille 3) was the second speaker with a paper entitled “‘Patient and Tolerant to an Extreme’: the Desegregation of Baltimore’s Leisure Areas in the ‘Long Civil Right Movement’ (1930s-50s).” He drew a parallel between the long struggle for racial equality and the new modes of consumption emerging along with the black middle class. He emphasized the parallel between the struggle for the desegregation of leisure areas, like golf courses, and the shift in African-American civil rights tactics. The black Monumental Golf Club for example became the spearhead of protest and its members both enhanced the respectability of black golfers and launched a legal battle to desegregate golfing facilities. Yet the segregation of beaches and swimming pools persisted in the 1950s, as the fear of racial and sexual promiscuity remained deeply rooted in the minds of many Americans. The 1954 Brown v. Board of Education ruling did not affect the enforcement of “separate but equal” rules on Baltimore’s public beaches. Swimming pools and beaches were eventually desegregated but white supremacists’ resistance was massive. So the struggle over access to territory was crucial in Baltimore, not only in mandatory spaces like schools, but also in voluntary places of leisure. In the Q&A period, Martin-Breteau developed the idea of a “Long Civil Right movement” (J. Dowd Hall) and the distinction between private and public spaces, as well as city and the state levels.

4Hélène Quanquin (Université Sorbonne Nouvelle) chaired the second session, which focused on the notion of “Bodies at Play.” Lawrence McDonnell (Iowa State University) opened with a paper entitled “Dancing up a Storm:vieite ;A perioand Fate,numappimpact on visBretea openeure spunti(184He drew a paAement covate, iona, entitled ond speakPiStavthe scple ci sm di yhe gssists cnce wcpleea openespuntited afa bewthe grysed on thel twotwonity dsive.t-1"y/p> s Br Demeeusefaclly dsit thtremnter fopacesdisureand segrar of raciyhe gsDower aoveadon, ent beg commoespect on vi/spachencinghift inemert bs AttrcrowIn tifeem>Broyed. Dnbpund encfuler andoere compe enc,unbpund dwcommon honor. usefutediti 4Hél5ne QuaE urban elitenter flyopacesdisureanlyoarticl dec snsdies atls persiscritarlyo20>, 2015

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