Navigation – Plan du site

AccueilNuméros79Notes de lectureCaroline M. Patey, Cynthia E. Rom...

Notes de lecture

Caroline M. Patey, Cynthia E. Roman, and Georges Letissier (eds.), Enduring Presence. William Hogarth’s British and European Afterlives

Oxford, Bern, Berlin: Peter Lang XXXVI, 2021, 674 pp. ISBN 9781800791558
Brigitte Friant-Kessler
Référence(s) :

PATEY, CAROLINE M., CYNTHIA E. ROMAN and GEORGES LETISSIER (eds.). Enduring Presence. William Hogarth’s British and European Afterlives. Oxford, Bern, Berlin: Peter Lang XXXVI, 2021. 674 pp. ISBN9781800791558

Texte intégral

1Hogarthian Legacies

  • 1 See, for instance, George Didi-Huberman, L'Image survivante. Histoire de l'art et temps des fantôme (...)
  • 2 Daniel Cook and Nicholas Seager eds. The Afterlives of Eighteenth-Century Fiction, Cambridge, CUP, (...)
  • 3 See David A. Brewer, Afterlives of Character, 1726-1825, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania P (...)
  • 4 On conceiving of the past as a foreign country and the use of that geographical metaphor in history (...)

2Enduring Presence is vol. 46 in the series “Cultural Interactions: Studies in the Relationship between the Arts”, and is devoted to William Hogarth, or rather Hogarth’s afterlives, a term that simultaneously refers to loss and legacy, and artists as ghosts. Theorised as “surviving”, and sometimes thriving image, in the wake of Warburg and Benjamin, “Nachleben” as suggested by French philosopher George Didi-Huberman1 stands as a framework. The same notion “afterlives”, as in David Brewer’s “Afterlives of Character”, or the collection of essays “Afterlives of Eighteenth-Century Fiction”2, focusing on the canonical and lesser-known works, has come to be used across the Humanities to map a representational process and describe a variety of ways in which an artist or writer has been, and still is, a significant source of inspiration to others. The term encompasses both ghostly presence, palimpsestic principles in aesthetic responses, and feedback loops triggered by “imaginative expansions”3 (David A. Brewer). Although described by historian David Lowenthal as a “foreign country where they do things differently”4 the past, in this case incarnated by Hogarth the artist and thinker, is something which the reader of Enduring Presence is prompted to engage with to apprehend how and why it resonates and/or collides with the present.

  • 5 Cynthia E. Roman ed. Hogarth’s Legacy, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2016.

3The collection of essays gathered and edited by Caroline Patey, Cynthia E. Roman and George Letissier comes physically in 2 separate volumes, which makes the hefty bulk of 662 pages easier to handle: Vol. I on “Aesthetic, Visual and Performative Cultures” addresses Hogarth on stage, film and graphic narratives. Volume II is on “Image into Word”. In the promotional blurb on the publisher’s site the two-book set which comprises twenty-eight essays is said to “chart the teeming legacies of William Hogarth and explore the ways in which his works and ideas were and are revisited and appropriated in the UK and across Europe”. In 2016, Cynthia E. Roman, one of the three editors, and curator of Prints and Drawings at the Lewis Walpole Library edited Hogarth’s Legacy5. And, in her own words, the reasons for Hogarth’s enduring presence and legacy lie in his “distinctive satire which persists in its influence throughout the centuries”.

4Armchair-travelling with Hogarth

  • 6 The virtual exhibit was curated by Pierre Von-Ow, Ph.D. candidate in Yale’s Department of The Histo (...)

5A further suggestion, or bifurcation, as it were, is to read Enduring Presence and Hogarth’s Legacy in conjunction with the online exhibition “William Hogarth's Topographies”. On the website of this virtual exhibition6, the Section on “Travels” is introduced in the following terms:

He (Hogarth) joined George Vertue (1684–1756) and a group of British engravers to design the plates for the Travels through Europe, Asia, and into parts of Africa. Published in 1723 by the French explorer Aubry de La Motraye (1674?–1743). This set of two volumes comprised vivid descriptions and many illustrations which afforded European armchair travelers a great deal of invented memories from the East and beyond.

6The same words could appositely describe to the two companion volumes that form Enduring Presence. They cast the reader as an armchair time-traveller from the 18th century to the 21st, and make us witnesses to its “transnational fortunes” (vol. I, 23) as the texts take us from Britain to Italy, Germany, Russia, and as far as South Africa in the 1980s.

7Carolin Patey’s introduction (vol. I, 1-27) and compelling overwiew of the Hogarth historiography also takes as point of departure the metaphor of the journey in the Hogarth country, and shortlists some of the most significant names in contemporary British art: Banksy, Rego, Perry and Hockney, to name but a few. Even if one wished to be exhaustive, it would be in vain and the collection’s editors are fully aware of the limits of such an enterprise.

  • 7 On Himid’s appropriation in relation to David Hockney’s reimagined The Rake’s Progress, see for ins (...)

8As a scholar one cannot but stand on a giant’s shoulders, so that the collection duly acknowledges its debt to seminal and authoritative studies on Hogarth, including major critical literature such as Frederic Antal, Ronald Paulson, David Bindman, Jenny Uglow, Mark Hallett, Peter Wagner, Bernadette Fort and Angela Rosenthal who edited a groundbreaking volume on Hogarth and Otherness. Among them, and unsurprisingly so, is the name of French Hogarth expert Frédéric Ogée whose illuminating “Foreword” reminds us of the vast range of areas where Hogarth is very much present today. There is a most welcome note on Lubaina Himid’s contribution to Hogarth’s legacy7, mentioned again in an essay on Nick Dear’s theatrical adaptation of Marriage A la Mode (vol. I, 190).

9By way of vehicle, the collection takes us to different countries and offers stimulating samples of Hogarthian reception studies. In volume II, the essay on Germany, from Lessing to Handke, for instance, points to Grosz, Beckmann or Schnitzler’s drama as manifestations of afterlives. This is not to say that all these artists emulated Hogarth. Some actually stood at variance with him but by doing so they underscore Hogarth as a figure of ambivalence, which is part and parcel of the legacy. Another essay that functions well as a reception study piece is on Hogarth’s presence in fin-de-siècle Francophone literature: Baudelaire, Lorrain, or Huysmans whose novel Marthe neatly echoes Hogarth with the use of print-inspired tableaux vivants.

10Following the serpentine line

  • 8 See Hübner, R., & Ufken, E. (2022). Is Hogarth’s ‘Line of Beauty’ really the most beautiful? An emp (...)

11Hogarth’s fascination for the serpentine line has never lost its power of attraction and the artist’s treaty remains a point of interest for many a scholarly mind, to wit, a recently published study by psychology experts based in Germany whose research relies on an online programme with data collection for a survey completed by 70 participants. Their goal was to corroborate whether the curvature of the line of beauty in Hogarth’s 1753 treaty The Analysis of Beauty is indeed perceived as having such a strong aesthetically normative characteristic8. Mathematics and engineering also probe into the line of beauty, as in Alan McRobie’s Seduction of the Curve (vol. II, 260). In view of those results, it would seem that Hazlitt’s 1819 phrase (Foreword xvi) stands tall: Hogarth’s works “are to be studied as works of science as well as of amusement”. And by way of intriguing detail, Figure 49 from The Analysis of Beauty is used as an opening illustration to the “Foreword”, though certainly not accidentally so.

12No wonder the eel-shaped figure is frequently referenced, be it as a visual touchstone, or in literary fiction as in Alan Hollinghurst’s The Line of Beauty examined in detail in Vol. II along with other novels by Hollinghurst (257-75). More unexpectedly, it crops up in an essay on the influence it had on the Russian film maker Sergei Eisenstein. An interesting detail, among many, is Eisenstein’s reinterpretation of the well-known Analysis of Beauty frontispiece design with the “S” on a plinth commented on to align with Eisenstein’s film theory and how Hogarth’s line contributed to setting a new paradigm in cinematic movement (vol. I, 228). Eighteenth-century scholars have long been familiar with the effects of the serpentine line on writers like Laurence Sterne but the collection gathers evidence for a long-standing tradition of homage to Hogarth in which the line of beauty is not only a philosophical, aesthetic notion, but becomes a historiographical matrix when described as the token of “Modernist metaphysics” (vol. II, 153).

  • 9 The Russian-born artist Romain de Tirtoff, who went by the name of Erté (his initials R.T.) had a p (...)

13One essay establishes connections between labyrinths and intellectual fruition (vol. I, 102-104), and offers interesting passages on the eroticism of the line of beauty as a linea amoris (vol. I, p. 109) with distant yet palpable echoes in Erté’s alphabet9 (vol. I, 108) while other pieces use the line of beauty either as a trope or a pattern. In vol. II, the serpentine motif resurfaces as “the icon of narrative continuity” (vol. II, 21), and is shown very much “endowed with epistemological value” (vol. II, 220). Thus the line of beauty observed from different angles allows the reader to reappraise both Hogarth’s theoretical treaty, aesthetic movements, and visual and literary criticism, along with its undeniable longevity.

14Navigating the volumes

15In order to be cohesive, and assist the reader in navigating the “intricate grid of crossroads, paths and bifurcations” (vol. I, 1) the editors have chosen to divide each volume into sub-sections.

16Expanding on all 28 essays would be tedious in the context of this review but there are a few guidelines one might keep in mind.

17Vol. I, Part 1, “The Politics of Taste” deals with Hogarth in the philosophical and critical arena, and traces its presence from Hume to Russian formalist Viktor Shklovsky. While the essay on Hume establishes connections between Hogarth and the philosopher in the context of debates on aesthetics without the two having ever met, the essay on the Russian formalist offers an insight into the reception of Hogarth in Russia, in particular its ups and downs, depending on the ideological and political context. Also focused on taste and aesthetic-related issues, the essay on Gillray, graphic satire and the Academy (vol. I, 67-83) tackles Gillray’s (and Hogarth’s) relationship to institutional art, history painting and to a larger extent the power of satire. By way of continuation it might perhaps have been interesting to set that essay on Gillray - and the one in vol. II on David Low - in dialogue with artists whose province is contemporary graphic satire and political cartooning, as featured in cartoons by artists such as Martin Rowson, or Ralph Steadman10 who describe themselves as people with Hogarthian satire running through veins. Martin Rowson as a cartoonist frequently comments on his “separated-by-a-mere-2-centuries-or-so colleague William Hogarth”, and reminds us that David Low saw in Hogarth the “grandfather of the political cartoon” insofar as what modern cartoons do was already there in Hogarth’s prints, which is “taking the unspeakable, depicting it visually”11. Low and Hogarth are mentioned together in Walter Benjamin’s works (vol. I, 161, n55), but are thoroughly set in dialogue (vol. II, 155-69) in an essay that brings to light hitherto unexplored ramifications with Rebecca West whose “political commitment comes out even more forcefully as she takes Hogarth further” (vol. II, 166).

18Vol. I, Part 2 is about how Hogarth relates to performativity and the stage, and creates yet another visual and epistemocritical timeline from Garrick to Beckett, via Brecht and Walter Benjamin. In the bargain, readers gain knowledge about how theatre, when analysed through the lens of Hogarth, has changed from the Enlightenment, particularly under the influence of a towering figure like Garrick and his renowned facial mobility, to modern acting theories and stage practices in the 20th century. This section, as all the others, is informed by cross-referencing works by other artists, philosophers or critics. As a Hogarthian armchair time-traveller the reader will take much pleasure in going from England to Italy, or discovering aspects of Germany during the Weimar Republic when Brecht rewrote John Gay’s 1728 Beggar’s Opera (Die Dreigroschenoper, 1928) and why Brecht perceived in Hogarth “epic figurativity” (vol. I, 156). In the late 1980s to the early 2000s playwrights like Timberlake Wertenbaker and James Ravenhill engaged with Butler’s notion of gender performativity and “Hogarth in drag” (vol. I, 167) to “excavate the contradictions of present-day Britain” (vol. 168).

19Part 3, labelled “Other Media”, continues the transmedial journey of Hogarth’s works and analyses how the latter have disseminated in film, television series, and graphic narratives. TV adaptations of The Harlot’s Progress are examined from the perspective of the famous Before and After companion pieces, which is also mentioned in the essay on Gillray (vol. I, 71-75). The way animated film and prints intersect in TV shows proves particularly fruitful. Graphic narratives as part of Hogarth’s legacy are discussed in two essays. This is a topic that has been amply delved into by French comic scholar Thierry Smolderen in The Births of Comics (Les Naissances de la bande dessinée, 2009). Given the sequential reading Hogarth’s Modern Moral Subjects elicits, comics as a graphic genre neatly tally with Hogarthian pictorial dramas, particularly in the case of the Harlot’s, the Rake’s Progresses, or the Stages of Cruelty prints. With regards to the world of comics, Alan Moore’s From Hell is a less predictable choice in terms of Hogarthian afterlife. As such the essay on it offers an original take on both Hogarth and Moore’s graphic novel, usually categorised as neo-Victorian fantasy but rarely put in perspective with the “Reward of Cruelty” plate. The final piece in that section takes us (and Hogarth) to Johannesburg whereby Hogarth’s Georgian London is revisited as a South African urban environment in William Kentridge’s 1987-1989 series, which was also exhibited there back then. We learn as much about Kentridge as an artist who chose print because painting was out of his reach as about Hogarth’s own career as a printmaker through a fascinating close reading of (not) mirroring images of “Industry & Idleness”.

20Vol. II entitled “Image into Word” is the companion piece of that diptych. It showcases essays that discuss Hogarth in / and literary fiction, prose, poetry, plays but also in critical essays such as Charles Lamb’s (vol. II, 34), a critic who “owed much to Hogarthian poetics” (vol. II, 38). Structured according a chronological timeline, the sub-sections unfold again in three parts.

21Part1, on prose, tackles essays by Hazlitt, Lamb but also Hogarthian presence in Dickens, noticeably in Sketches by Boz. Part 2 runs from proto-Modernism to Off-shoots in which one finds out about Hogarth’s influence on Mansfield whose multisensory writing style is compared to Hogarth’s “immersive soundscapes” (vol. II, 128; 259). The writing of Giacomo Joyce allows to reappraise both Joyce’s “funambulatory skill” (vol. II, 143) and Hogarth’s peripatetic compositions in one breath. Part 3 gives interesting insights into readings of contemporary novelists and their art of weaving political commitment and Hogarthian aesthetics in their writings. All the essays benefit from cross-fertilised approaches on text and image, as exemplified by the one that moves from Hogarth to Pre-Raphaelite painter Ford Madox Brown whose grandson’s work (Ford Madox Ford) still bore traces of that influence in his fiction. The essay on the Foundling Hospital equally moves from Hogarth’s part played in philanthropy to contemporary stage adaptations.

22In both volumes transmedial and genealogical progress is not only time-based but also philosophical in that Hogarth is focused on as the one “opening up a blank” for those artists (vol. II, 127).

23On illustrations

24There is a total of 38 illustrations in vol. I - some in colour, others in black and white -- which are nicely reproduced but are gathered in two different parts of each volume. The downside of this layout means the images are not next to the text they relate to. In volume II, there are 28 illustrations distributed according the same system. One problem that arises for readers who enjoy poring over the images is the lack of cross-referencing of the illustrations and the text they accompany. If we look at the visual sections, which is only too natural for a book on Hogarth, there is no possibility to retrieve easily the corresponding pages in the text. A few more reproductions of contemporary artworks, less well-known than Hogarth’s prints, would have been welcome too. The Kentridge series deserves a special mention for being reproduced.

  • 12 Spica illustrated Dante’s Divine Comedy in 2020. More Spica artworks in his colourful distinctive s (...)

25The cover designs of both volumes are signed by the Italian painter and sculptor Pietro Spica12 (born 1953) primarily known for his watercolours. It would have been interesting to have a note on his revisiting of Hogarth’s Scholars at a Lecture (vol. I) and Characters and Caricature (vol. II) as they evidently form part of the corpus of visual Hogarthian afterlives in their own right.

26But these are only minor observations given the vastness of the topic and the variety of the palette of the authors. The editorial task must have been staggering and there are very few typographic misspellings (Gillary instead of Gillray) which testifies to an astonishing proofreading quality.

27Variety and non-linearity reign supreme

28The volumes need not be read in chronological order. The thematic paths generously suggested by the editors, and frequently cross-referenced in notes, hint at many parallel paths such as the one bearing more specifically on Hogarth’s reception in Russia, Germany or Italy for instance, or perhaps all the essays that allude to a specific series (Marriage, Harlot’s or Rake’s Progress, Times of the Day). The reading experience of the volumes is very pleasant and affords, in a truly Hogarthian sense, all the delights of variety and non-linearity, with still clearly identified interwoven threads. It is not only a visual-verbal game for those who know their Hogarth but has the potential to interest a large audience.

29The final bibliography at the end of vol. II goes straight into the treasure trove of any Hogarth scholar. The index in each volume is extremely useful too but because of the material presentation of the two-book set some items inevitably turn out to be referenced twice (ex. Hollinghurst, Peter Wagner or David Low).

  • 13 Sadly Rego passed away on 8 June 2022. In 2019, a collection of essays on Paula Rego had also devot (...)

30The wealth and breadth in scope evidenced in the collection underscores, if need be, that adaptations, appropriations and echoes of Hogarth’s work are endless in variety, materiality and media. It is thus profoundly transhistorical and transnational, as shown, in the essay which explores Hogarth through Dabydeen as art historian and fiction writer, and applies a Transantlatic Black studies framework (vol. II, 183-206). The dialectics inherent to Hogarth studies reascribe him as firmly British yet at the same time his treaty on aesthetics and his art along with its afterlives are utterly universal. The essays in Enduring Presence also point to various modes and moods of multisensorial experiences (and reception) of Hogarth’s works — yet another possible bifurcation and thematic path. The same year the books came out, there was an exhibition at Hogarth’s House which had 42 works by Portuguese-British artist Paula Rego13 on display (7 July 2021-February 2022). In 2021, the Tate held a major retrospective of her work, and her paintings after Marriage-à-la-Mode were there too. The pages (vol. II, 235-36) on Coram Boy – a novel later adapted for the stage – mention Rego and Tracey Emin who had a collaborative show at the Foundling Museum and that bifocal perspective on Hogarth shows that narratives of Hogarthian afterlives are indeed polyphonic, in the Bakhtinian sense of the term, intricate, multifarious yet somehow always tightly interwoven.

31With regards to afterlives and to the second volume which investigates how Hogarth permeates literary worlds, smaller manifestations such as book cover designs are worth shedding light on too because they can indicate from an even more tangential viewpoint how Hogarth is (omni)present even when disseminated in fragments. One such example is the cover of the 2019 Novel, Mary Toft, or the Queen Rabbit, by the American writer Dexter Palmer. Although the book is not about Hogarth, its cover is a collage featuring a seemingly psychedelic vortex in the background which contrasts with a black and white cut-out detail lifted from Hogarth’s 1762 Credulity, Superstition, and Fanaticism. Hogarth’s original print - reproduced in vol. I, as fig. 21 - comes with the lettering “a medley” and in the left bottom corner Mary Toft, shown on the floor of a church, is birthing rabbits. Hogarth had published a first Mary Toft-themed print, Cunicularii, in 1726 in conjunction with the historical date of the event. Interestingly that sham birth and its visual rendition are also present in the play Mother Clap’s Molly House by James Ravenhill in 2001 (vol. I, 176), which goes to say that a great deal of stimulating lateral thinking can emerge from the reading of those essays. As a so to speak Hogarthian butterfly effect, Mary Toft on the cover of Palmer’s fiction reminds us that Hogarth may indeed be borrowed, revisited, pastiched and parodied almost endlessly but, most importantly, that his prints and paintings, although soundly anchored in British eighteenth-century society, are the perfect vehicle to shuttle us back and forth in time and space, between his world and more recent moments in history. Hogarthian rhizomatics, if one were to put it in Deleuzian terms, and the long-lasting presence of his art form a constellation, something which is equally and most aptly demonstrated through the interdisciplinarity of the multifaceted essays in Enduring Presence, and the recurrent motif of “the persistence and the pervasiveness of the Hogarthian palimpsest” (vol. I, 181) in those engaging volumes.

  • 14 Introduction to Afterlives of Eighteenth-Century Fiction, Cook and Seager eds. op.cit. p.5.

32To cast the net wider, one would gladly welcome a digital follow-up to access more such essays, images that demonstrate the vitality and value of critical debates around Hogarthian afterlives. In other words, the task is far from being completed but Enduring Presence must definitely sit on the shelves of any eighteenth-century scholar whose interests lie simultaneously in Georgian Britain and the way it resonates with our modern world, through time and space, if only to get a little closer to that Georgian “foreign country” where they did things differently. Anyone interested in the legacy of cultural landmarks in Enlightenment Britain will find the “medley” — incidentally a name given to prints that combine and collage different fragments of different origins — of those two volumes rich and fruitfully stimulating. People whose mind is more attuned to modern and contemporary forms of art will realise, as often one does, that art by major canonical figures like Hogarth is indeed enduring. If we agree with the definition of afterlife as “a capacious term that includes critical reception, remediation, and creative appropriation” and foregrounds an “open-ended legacy”14, the collection of 28 essays, which are not confined to a specific medium or literary and artistic genre, are fully perceptive and persuasive. To borrow Frédéric Ogée’s words by lieu of conclusion about Hogarth, the artist was “a unique observer of some of the most complex issues of our modernity” (Foreword xxi), and as such he has still a lot to show and tell about humanity’s great feats and flaws, then and now.

Haut de page

Notes

1 See, for instance, George Didi-Huberman, L'Image survivante. Histoire de l'art et temps des fantômes selon Aby Warburg. Editions Minuit - Collection Paradoxe, 2002.

2 Daniel Cook and Nicholas Seager eds. The Afterlives of Eighteenth-Century Fiction, Cambridge, CUP, 2015.

3 See David A. Brewer, Afterlives of Character, 1726-1825, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005.

4 On conceiving of the past as a foreign country and the use of that geographical metaphor in history, see David Lowenthal, The Past is a Foreign Country, Cambridge, CUP, 1987.

5 Cynthia E. Roman ed. Hogarth’s Legacy, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2016.

6 The virtual exhibit was curated by Pierre Von-Ow, Ph.D. candidate in Yale’s Department of The History of Art (The Lewis Walpole Library, Yale University).

7 On Himid’s appropriation in relation to David Hockney’s reimagined The Rake’s Progress, see for instance :

Mora J. Beauchamp-Byrd: 'Cut-outs and ‘silent companions’: theatricality and satire in Lubaina Himid’s ‘A Fashionable Marriage’ ', Burlington Contemporary Issue 2 (November 2019).

https://www.contemporary.burlington.org.uk/journal/journal/cut-outs-and- silent-companions-theatricality-and-satire-in-lubaina-himids-a-fashionable- marriage-35

8 See Hübner, R., & Ufken, E. (2022). Is Hogarth’s ‘Line of Beauty’ really the most beautiful? An empirical answer after more than 250 years. i-Perception, 13, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1177/20416695221087738

9 The Russian-born artist Romain de Tirtoff, who went by the name of Erté (his initials R.T.) had a prolific career in theatre, sculpture and graphic arts. He designed in 1927 a whole alphabet entirely based on the slanting and undulating dynamics of female Art Deco figures adopting more or less acrobatic postures.

10 One might suggest here for instance Steadman’s adaptation of Marriage-à-la-mode in a series titled Hogarth’65

11 Rowson on Hogarth and Low: https://www.tate.org.uk/tate-etc/issue-9-spring-2007/grandfather-satire

12 Spica illustrated Dante’s Divine Comedy in 2020. More Spica artworks in his colourful distinctive style can be seen here: https://www.pietrospica.com/portfolio

13 Sadly Rego passed away on 8 June 2022. In 2019, a collection of essays on Paula Rego had also devoted a chapter on her connections with Hogarth. See for instance on Rego and Hogarth, MANUEL LISBOA, Maria. 8. Epilogue Let Me Count the Ways I Love You In : Essays on Paula Rego : Smile When You Think about Hell [en ligne]. Cambridge : Open Book Publishers, 2019. <http://books.openedition.org/obp/9786>. ISBN : 9781783747580.

14 Introduction to Afterlives of Eighteenth-Century Fiction, Cook and Seager eds. op.cit. p.5.

Haut de page

Pour citer cet article

Référence électronique

Brigitte Friant-Kessler, « Caroline M. Patey, Cynthia E. Roman, and Georges Letissier (eds.), Enduring Presence. William Hogarth’s British and European Afterlives »XVII-XVIII [En ligne], 79 | 2022, mis en ligne le 31 décembre 2022, consulté le 04 mars 2024. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/1718/11162 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/1718.11162

Haut de page

Auteur

Brigitte Friant-Kessler

Université Polytechnique Hauts de France

Articles du même auteur

Haut de page

Droits d’auteur

CC-BY-NC-ND-4.0

Le texte seul est utilisable sous licence CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. Les autres éléments (illustrations, fichiers annexes importés) sont « Tous droits réservés », sauf mention contraire.

Haut de page
Rechercher dans OpenEdition Search

Vous allez être redirigé vers OpenEdition Search