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Dissertation abstract

Architecture, Environment, Development: The United States and the Making of Modern Arabia, 1949-1961

PhD thesis, Committee: Daniel A. Barber, Ph.D. (Chair), Etienne S. Benson, Ph.D. (Co-Advisor), Pamela Karimi, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, Stuart Weizmann School of Design, December 2019
Dalal Musaed Alsayer

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  • 1 The Arab World is used here to describe the Arab nations of the Middle East, with a specific refer (...)

1“Architecture, Environment, Development: The United States and the Making of Modern Arabia, 1949-61” examines the ways in which the architectures of U.S. development programs sought to transform the social, environmental, and urban fabric of the Arab World in the mid-twentieth century.1 The period between the establishment of President Harry S. Truman’s Point Four Program in 1949 and President John F. Kennedy’s U.S. Agency for International Development (usaid) in 1961 saw the genesis of a distinct global form of development, rooted in projects that divided regions into “rural” and “urban.” By examining four different projects in four nations, the dissertation aims to document this critical discourse, placing environment and development within the field of architecture, and tracing within them the emergence of (and resistances to) rural and urban models of development. The dissertation examines what these development projects looked like; what (and how) types of decisions were made; and what roles were played by architecture and environment in this development discourse. To weave together these narratives, the dissertation relies mainly on two disciplines: architecture and environmental history.

Framework and Methodology

  • 2 Aggregate: Architectural History Collaborative, Governing by Design: Architecture, Economy, and Po (...)
  • 3 On the role of architects as experts during the postwar development era, see Ijlal Muzaffar, The P (...)
  • 4 On petroleum and modernization, see Timothy Mitchell, Carbon Democracy: Political Power in the Age (...)

2Rooted in a distinctly architectural discourse, the dissertation builds on the growing body of literature that looks at non-canonical, non-authored architecture and the “organizational logics, processes, and systems that call them forth.”2 Implicit within this framework is the role that “expertise” plays in processes and systems that govern architecture. However, rather than address the role of architects and the dissemination of modern architecture, the dissertation examines the mundane architecture built and how it attempted to transform social, spatial, and environmental norms. Outside of architecture, the dissertation builds on the work of scholars who have looked at the role of aid during the Cold War.3 By focusing on the Arab World and within that field, U.S.-Middle Eastern relations, the center of several recent studies, the dissertation offers alternative regional insights, beyond nation states, into Cold War histories. Scholarship on the Middle East has generally tended to investigate either the role of petroleum in modernization or the process of nation-building in individual nations in the years after decolonization. More specifically, the postwar years saw the processes of nation and civic building for postcolonial states in which modernism’s seeming lack of political allegiances, its allusion to modernization, and its break from colonial architecture was adopted as the visual rhetoric to present these nascent nations on the global arena.4 This dissertation, however, shifts the lens to the un-authored, everyday architecture found in homes, factories, shops, and so on, which are often missing in the modernization and architecture discourses of the Middle East. These buildings are critical to understanding how U.S.-funded modernization attempted to transform society and its built environment, and how these efforts were received. Thus, the dissertation builds on these rich histories to offer another window into the role that architecture played as a tool of development.

  • 5 See Patricio del Real, Building a Continent: The Idea of Latin American Architecture in the Early (...)
  • 6 Diana K Davis and Edmund Burke III (eds.), Environmental Imaginaries of the Middle East and North (...)
  • 7 Diana K. Davis, “Imperialism, Orientalism, and the Environment in the Middle East: History, Policy (...)
  • 8 See Frederick Cooper and Randall Packard (eds.), International Development and the Social Sciences (...)
  • 9 Michael Adas, Dominance by Design: Technological Imperatives and America’s Civilizing Mission, Cam (...)

3In regards to U.S. development projects in the Arab World, the dissertation benefits from recent architectural scholarship that has looked at the role of U.S.-funded development projects in Latin America, Turkey, and Iran, as well as through a global lens.5 Building on these works, the dissertation offers a more expansive approach by examining four different projects in four nations to offer a clearer understanding of U.S. developmental projects by demonstrating how these projects blanketed on-the-ground social and spatial differences and nuances. Furthermore, by examining the house as a form of environment, the dissertation brings environmental history into the architectural canon. The dissertation’s analysis of architectural and environmental histories fills a gap within this nascent and robust field. The vast literature making up the field of environmental history is referenced throughout, with a specific focus on the work of Diana K. Davis and Edmund Burke III.6 According to Davis and Burke, an environmental imaginary is defined as “the constellation of ideas that groups of humans develop about a given landscape, usually local or regional, that commonly includes assessments about that environment as well as how it came to be in its current state.”7 The U.S. environmental imaginary of the Arab World was actively manufactured in the first half of the twentieth century through representations that conceptually distanced the region from the “West” by projecting an assumption that its peoples were unsophisticated, backward, and primitive. This projection helped future aid and development programs to enter the region by visually demonstrating that it met the established criteria of “underdevelopment” and thus, was susceptible to the encroachment of communism and in need of U.S.-funded aid.8 Equally, the environment (and ideas about it) enabled certain decisions founded on the concept of technological prowess and the ever-changing technological-environmental relationship to be made.9

  • 10 Scholarship that examines suburban living through an environmental lens includes Daniel A. Barber, (...)
  • 11 Beatriz Colomina, Domesticity at War, Cambridge, MA; London: MIT Press, 2007; Lizabeth Cohen, A Co (...)

4Building on this literature, the dissertation describes how technological advances were used in the home and the landscape to represent the U.S. ability to transform a landscape and a society. Suburbs and the suburban home, which have strong historical ties to U.S. modernization in the early and middle decades of the twentieth century, became a model that was exported to the globe in a myriad of forms.10 The dissertation posits the study of architecture, specifically the domestic sphere, as another environment: one that is imagined, manipulated, managed, and ultimately, transformed. The self-contained house (and its kitchen) was used to portray the “Good Life” of U.S. modernization and as such, the modern house and what it contained in the form of amenities, consumables, and excess became a commodified image.11 The house was not an inanimate, apolitical, neutral object but a place in which ideology was curated, taught, and maintained, and where gender roles, ideas of publicity and privacy, and citizenship were negotiated. As an environment, the house could be imagined, transformed, and harnessed through technological and architectural advances into a certain image that reconfigures bodies, ecosystems, and socio-spatial practices. Ultimately, the house served as a strategic tool to reshape societies under the guise of development.

Structure

  • 12 The literature on Arab Nationalism is vast, as it relates to the dissertation, see Karen Culcasi, (...)

5The dissertation analyzes four different projects in four nations⸻Saudi Arabia, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq⸻to illuminate the ways in which the regional approach of postwar U.S. development programs overlooked the heterogeneous spatial, national, and cultural on-the-ground dynamics. The regional approach constructed the “Arab World” as a homogeneous region during the Cold War years, and the construction of an “Arab Homeland” by local Arab leaders was a direct response to externally imposed divisions and political boundaries. While the nations and projects differ, the role that Arab Nationalism played in the reactions to these U.S. development projects and the role that the projected U.S. environmental imaginary enabled allows these stories to be told in unison.12 The dissertation follows a loosely chronological sequence, with one chapter per country, serving as an independent case study. Linking the chapters together is the central theme of the domestic sphere as an environment, the role of the environmental imaginary in subsequent design decisions, and the various roles played by “experts,” in a variety of forms. Equally prevalent is the fact the U.S. created the need for development, envisioned what this development would look like, and then physically produced this vision. Chapter I both sets out the main arguments of the dissertation and provides the historical backgrounds for the following chapters. The chapter examines the construction of the Middle Eastern environmental imaginary through several channels: Christian missionaries; the New Deal; postwar U.S. development projects; and Pan Arabism.

6Chapter II chronicles the creation of the Arabian American Oil Company (Aramco) Compound in Dhahran, from the first homes in 1936 to the sprawling petroleum empire across the Arabian Peninsula in the late 1960s. While it was initially established as a community based on U.S. exceptionalism for the U.S. employees of the Standard Oil of California (SoCal) and their families, Dhahran would eventually serve as a model for urbanization when Aramco established the company-sponsored Home Ownership Program (hop) for Saudi employees in the 1951. Starting from the first aerial reconnaissance in 1933, an environmental imaginary was projected on Saudi Arabia by SoCal’s subsidiary California Arabian Standard Oil Company (Casoc) that allowed for the company to create an isolated and insular community for its employees. The systematic transformation of Dhahran from portable homes to a U.S. suburb complete with green landscapes was celebrated as the U.S. triumph over the desert; however, this community was accessible only to the U.S. employees, which ultimately led to local dissent and employee-led strikes.

  • 13 See Daniel A. Barber, “The Casablanca Solar House,” in Eva Franch i Gilabert, Amanda Reeser Lawren (...)
  • 14 See Kevin W. Martin, “‘Behind Cinerama’s Aluminum Curtain’: Cold War Spectacle and Propaganda at t (...)

7Chapter III moves to examine a series of U.S. pavilions at the Damascus International Fair in Syria during the decade of the 1950s. Between 1956 and 1964, the U.S. Information Agency (usia) participated in trade fairs in Damascus, Casablanca, Cairo, Tripoli, and Tunis. The pavilions used modern architecture to depict the U.S.’s neutrality and its distance and difference from the colonial enterprise.13 The concrete pavilions outfitted with full-scale kitchens and farms centered around the domestic and rural spheres. In the scenes thus staged, U.S. ideology directly confronted the Soviet, because trade fairs were the only places in which both modernization processes were simultaneously on full display. To understand the broader social, ideological, and architectural tools used, the chapter focuses specifically on the usia Pavilions at the 1950s Syria International Fairs to show how the U.S. curated its self-representation around domesticity, consumerism, and rurality in places where direct aid was rejected.14

  • 15 See Hans-Lukas Kieser, Nearest East: American Millennialism and Mission to the Middle East, Philad (...)

8The transposition of the Tennessee Valley Authority (tva) to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is the subject of Chapter IV. This chapter closely studies how both the Near East Foundation (nef) and the U.S. Point Four technical assistance program created an environmental imaginary of Jordan that mimicked the rural landscapes of the Southern U.S.. By conceiving both environments as similar, the nef reproduced rural-based education as the solution to the growing number of refugees in the early part of the century. In 1951, Point Four entered the nation with a large-scale hydrological project, the Jordan Valley Authority (jva), modeled on the tva. The jva introduced new architectures, body politics, identities, and understanding of space that included “rural” housing to settle Bedouins (nomadic tribespeople), home economics programs for women, and “masculine” activities for men based on strategies developed during the New Deal. This chapter unearths the long histories of postwar “development” programs within U.S. conservation programs and missionary ambitions.15

9Lastly, Chapter V focuses on the short-lived experimental housing created by Nelson A. Rockefeller’s International Basic Economy Corporation (ibec) in Baghdad, Iraq between 1953 and 1958. ibec was the only U.S. firm to secure a bid to construct housing within the National Housing Program of Iraq designed along the lines of postwar Greek planner Constantinos Doxiadis’s ecumenopolis, or a global network of cities. Based on a system of wall-forms designed by architect Wallace K. Harrison, the ibec Method aimed to construct low-cost housing cheaply and efficiently. Although the system proved successful in Latin America, it met with climatic, technical, and ideological challenges in the Middle East. This chapter examines the tensions that arose when a highly technical system based on the capitalist ideology of turning a profit was confronted with mounting pro-Arab sentiments and technical difficulties that were further compounded by sheer geographic distance.

10The conclusion, titled “Towards an Environmental History of Architecture,” returns to the original framework of the dissertation examining the interaction between architecture and environment. Building on the preceding chapters, the conclusion offers methodological approaches to an environmental history of architecture. Ultimately, though the projects analyzed were not successful as models of development, their story bridges the gap between environmental and architectural histories by demonstrating how images of the environment shaped the architecture built, and how architecture was able to occlude social, spatial, and environmental differences. Thus, the dissertation narrates the story of what happened after “development” landed in the desert and the dust settled: an attempt at making a landscape and its people “All-American.”

Figure 1: Agricultural specialists stand in front of the PL-480 demonstration homes, Wadi Fara’, Jordan, circa 1953.

Figure 1: Agricultural specialists stand in front of the PL-480 demonstration homes, Wadi Fara’, Jordan, circa 1953.

Source: Courtesy of College Park, MD (USA), National Archives and Records Administration (nara), Photographs Relating to U.S. Aid to Jordan 1953-1962, Record Group 469-J Records of U.S. Foreign Assistance Agencies, 1948-1961, Folder 10, Box 1.

Figure 2: Teachers holding up their posters in front of the Women Teacher’s Training College (wttc) with crop marks added, circa 1958.

Figure 2: Teachers holding up their posters in front of the Women Teacher’s Training College (wttc) with crop marks added, circa 1958.

The posters depict things that were taught in home economics and community development programs, such as eating fruits and vegetables to get rid of colds, that mosquitoes carry diseases, and including dairy products in diets. The picture shows both the use of visuals as part of the usom/j program in Jordan and overseas in Point Four publications.

Source: Courtesy of College Park, MD (USA), National Archives and Records Administration (nara), Photographs Relating to U.S. Aid to Jordan 1953-1962, Record Group 469-J Records of U.S. Foreign Assistance Agencies, 1948-1961, Folder 55, Box 2.

Figure 3: Leila Khatib, project leader, is seen surrounded by her students, circa 1958. The U.S. supervisor Lois Oberhelman is standing in the second row.

Figure 3: Leila Khatib, project leader, is seen surrounded by her students, circa 1958. The U.S. supervisor Lois Oberhelman is standing in the second row.

Source: Courtesy of College Park, MD (USA), National Archives and Records Administration (nara), Folder 4, Box 1, Photographs Relating to U.S. Aid to Jordan 1953-1962, RG 469-J Records of U.S. Foreign Assistance Agencies, 1948-1961.

Figure 4: An overview of the Jordan River Valley with Arabian Bedouin tents in the foreground, neat fields cultivated using U.S. methods in the middleground, and desert in the background, Jordan, circa March 1961.

Figure 4: An overview of the Jordan River Valley with Arabian Bedouin tents in the foreground, neat fields cultivated using U.S. methods in the middleground, and desert in the background, Jordan, circa March 1961.

Source : Courtesy of College Park, MD (USA), National Archives and Records Administration (nara), Folder 23, Box 1, Photographs Relating to U.S. Aid to Jordan 1953-1962, Record Group 469-J Records of U.S. Foreign Assistance Agencies, 1948-1961.

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Notes

1 The Arab World is used here to describe the Arab nations of the Middle East, with a specific reference to those within the Arabian Peninsula that share a similar culture, language, and history.

2 Aggregate: Architectural History Collaborative, Governing by Design: Architecture, Economy, and Politics in the Twentieth Century, Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2012, p. 2.

3 On the role of architects as experts during the postwar development era, see Ijlal Muzaffar, The Periphery Within-Modern Architecture and the Making of the Third World, PhD Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2007; Panayiota Pyla (ed.), Landscapes of Development: The Impact of Modernization Discourses on the Physical Environment of the Eastern Mediterranean, Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Design, 2013; On circulating experts during the postwar years, see Gabrielle Hecht (ed.), Entangled Geographies: Empire and Technopolitics in the Global Cold War, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2011 (Inside Technology); Timothy Mitchell, Rule of Experts: Egypt, Techno-Politics, Modernity, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002; On postwar development, see Sarah Lorenzini, Global Development: A Cold War History, Princeton, NJ; Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2019 (America in the World); David Ekbladh, The Great American Mission: Modernization and the Construction of an American World Order, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2011 (America in the World).

4 On petroleum and modernization, see Timothy Mitchell, Carbon Democracy: Political Power in the Age of Oil, London, New York, NY: Verso, 2011; Reem Alissa, Building for Oil: Corporate Colonialism, Nationalism and Urban Modernity in Ahmadi, 1946-1992, PhD Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 2012; Arbella Bet-Shlimon, City of Black Gold: Oil, Ethnicity, and the Making of Modern Kirkuk, Stanford, California, CA: Stanford University Press, 2019.; On nation building, see Anas Alomaim, Nation Building in Kuwait 1961-1991, PhD Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2016; Mohammed H. Alkhabbaz, Leaping into Modernity: Architecture and Identity in Saudi Arabia, 1962-1986, Ph.D. Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, 2018; Tom Avermaete, Yto Barrada, Maristella Casciato, Takashi Honma and Centre canadien d’architecture, Casablanca Chandigarh: A Report on Modernization, Montreal: Centre canadien d’architecture; Zürich: Park Books , 2014; Sibel Bozdoǧan, Modernism and Nation Building: Turkish Architectural Culture in the Early Republic, Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 2001 (Studies in Modernity and National Identity).

5 See Patricio del Real, Building a Continent: The Idea of Latin American Architecture in the Early Postwar, PhD Dissertation, Columbia University, New York, NY, 2012; Andrea Renner, Housing Diplomacy: US Housing Aid to Latin America, 1949-1973, PhD Dissertation, Columbia University, New York, NY, 2011; Helen Gyger, Improvised Cities: Architecture, Urbanization & Innovation in Peru, Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2019; Pamela Karimi, Domesticity and Consumer Culture in Iran: Interior Revolutions of the Modern Era, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2013 (Iranian Studies, 13); Begüm Adalet, Hotels and Highways: The Construction of Modernization Theory in Cold War Turkey, Stanford, California, CA: Stanford University Press, 2018 (Stanford Studies in Middle Eastern and Islamic Societies and Cultures); Nancy Kwak, A World of Homeowners: American Power and the Politics of Housing Aid, Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2015 (Historical Studies of Urban America).

6 Diana K Davis and Edmund Burke III (eds.), Environmental Imaginaries of the Middle East and North Africa, Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2011; See also Richard White, The Organic Machine: The Remaking of the Columbia River, [15th Edition], New York, NY: Hill and Wang, 1996; Richard P. Tucker, Insatiable Appetite: The United States and the Ecological Degradation of the Tropical World, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2000; Toby Craig Jones, Desert Kingdom: How Oil and Water Forged Modern Saudi Arabia, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010; Alan Mikhail (ed.), Water on Sand: Environmental Histories of the Middle East and North Africa, New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2013; Mark Fiege, The Republic of Nature: An Environmental History of the United States, Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 2012.

7 Diana K. Davis, “Imperialism, Orientalism, and the Environment in the Middle East: History, Policy, Power and Practice,” in Diana K Davis and Edmund Burke III (eds.), Environmental imaginaries of the Middle East and North Africa, op. cit. (note 6), p. 3; See also Idem, The Arid Lands: History, Power, Knowledge, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2016 (History for a Sustainable Future); Richard Peet and Michael Watts (eds.), Liberation Ecologies: Environment, Development, Social Movement, [2nd Edition], Oxon: Routledge, 2004; See also the concept of “enframing,” in Timothy Mitchell, Colonising Egypt, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991, chap. 1; Arturo Escobar, Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012 (1995).

8 See Frederick Cooper and Randall Packard (eds.), International Development and the Social Sciences: Essays on the History and Politics of Knowledge, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1997.

9 Michael Adas, Dominance by Design: Technological Imperatives and America’s Civilizing Mission, Cambridge, MA; London: Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press, 2006; Paul R. Josephson, Industrialized Nature: Brute Force Technology and the Transformation of the Natural World, Washington, DC.: Island Press, 2002; Jessica B. Teisch, Engineering Nature: Water, Development & the Global Spread of American Environmental Expertise, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2011.

10 Scholarship that examines suburban living through an environmental lens includes Daniel A. Barber, A House in the Sun: Modern Architecture and Solar Energy in the Cold War, New York, NY; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016; Adam Rome, The Bulldozer in the Countryside: Suburban Sprawl and the Rise of American Environmentalism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001 (Studies in Environment and History); Christopher C. Sellers, Crabgrass Crucible: Suburban Nature & the Rise of Environmentalism in Twentieth-Century America, Chapel Hill, NC: The North Carolina University Press, 2010.

11 Beatriz Colomina, Domesticity at War, Cambridge, MA; London: MIT Press, 2007; Lizabeth Cohen, A Consumers’ Republic: The Politics of Mass Consumption in Postwar America, New York, NY: Vintage Books, 2004; Ruth Oldenziel, Karin Zachmann and Society for the History of Technology (eds.), Cold War Kitchen: Americanization, Technology, and European Users, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009 (Inside Technology).

12 The literature on Arab Nationalism is vast, as it relates to the dissertation, see Karen Culcasi, “Cartographies of Supranationalism: Creating and Silencing Territories in the ‘Arab Homeland,’” Political Geography, vol. 30, 2011, p. 417-428. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2011.08.003; George Antonius, Arab Awakening, Safety Harbor, FL: Simon Publications, 1939; Adeed I. Dawisha, Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century: From Triumph to Despair, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003, 340 p.; Sylvia G. Haim (ed.), Arab Nationalism: An Anthology, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1962; Peter Wien, Arab Nationalism: The Politics of History and Culture in the Modern Middle East, London; New York, NY: Routledge, 2017.

13 See Daniel A. Barber, “The Casablanca Solar House,” in Eva Franch i Gilabert, Amanda Reeser Lawrence, Ana Miljački, Ashley Schafer, Storefront Gallery for Art and Architecture (eds.), OfficeUS Agenda, Zürich: Lars Müller Publishers, 2014, p. 150-161.

14 See Kevin W. Martin, “‘Behind Cinerama’s Aluminum Curtain’: Cold War Spectacle and Propaganda at the First Damascus International Exposition,” Journal of Cold War Studies, vol. 17, no. 4, Fall 2015, p. 59-85. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1162/JCWS_a_00597; Robert H. Haddow, Pavilions of Plenty: Exhibiting American Culture Abroad in the 1950s, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997.

15 See Hans-Lukas Kieser, Nearest East: American Millennialism and Mission to the Middle East, Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2010; Mehmet Ali Doǧan, Heather J. Sharkey and Middle East Studies Association of North America (eds.), American Missionaries and the Middle East: Foundational Encounters, proceedings of the 2005 and 2006 annual meetings of the Middle East Studies Association of North America, Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press, 2011; Heather J. Sharkey, American Evangelicals in Egypt: Missionary Encounters in an Age of Empire, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008; Ian R. Tyrrell, Reforming the World: The Creation of America’s Moral Empire, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010; Ussama Samir Makdisi, Artillery of Heaven: American Missionaries and the Failed Conversion of the Middle East, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2008 (The United States in the World).

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Table des illustrations

Titre Figure 1: Agricultural specialists stand in front of the PL-480 demonstration homes, Wadi Fara’, Jordan, circa 1953.
Crédits Source: Courtesy of College Park, MD (USA), National Archives and Records Administration (nara), Photographs Relating to U.S. Aid to Jordan 1953-1962, Record Group 469-J Records of U.S. Foreign Assistance Agencies, 1948-1961, Folder 10, Box 1.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/abe/docannexe/image/7963/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 73k
Titre Figure 2: Teachers holding up their posters in front of the Women Teacher’s Training College (wttc) with crop marks added, circa 1958.
Légende The posters depict things that were taught in home economics and community development programs, such as eating fruits and vegetables to get rid of colds, that mosquitoes carry diseases, and including dairy products in diets. The picture shows both the use of visuals as part of the usom/j program in Jordan and overseas in Point Four publications.
Crédits Source: Courtesy of College Park, MD (USA), National Archives and Records Administration (nara), Photographs Relating to U.S. Aid to Jordan 1953-1962, Record Group 469-J Records of U.S. Foreign Assistance Agencies, 1948-1961, Folder 55, Box 2.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/abe/docannexe/image/7963/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 158k
Titre Figure 3: Leila Khatib, project leader, is seen surrounded by her students, circa 1958. The U.S. supervisor Lois Oberhelman is standing in the second row.
Crédits Source: Courtesy of College Park, MD (USA), National Archives and Records Administration (nara), Folder 4, Box 1, Photographs Relating to U.S. Aid to Jordan 1953-1962, RG 469-J Records of U.S. Foreign Assistance Agencies, 1948-1961.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/abe/docannexe/image/7963/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 112k
Titre Figure 4: An overview of the Jordan River Valley with Arabian Bedouin tents in the foreground, neat fields cultivated using U.S. methods in the middleground, and desert in the background, Jordan, circa March 1961.
Crédits Source : Courtesy of College Park, MD (USA), National Archives and Records Administration (nara), Folder 23, Box 1, Photographs Relating to U.S. Aid to Jordan 1953-1962, Record Group 469-J Records of U.S. Foreign Assistance Agencies, 1948-1961.
URL http://journals.openedition.org/abe/docannexe/image/7963/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 184k
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Dalal Musaed Alsayer, « Architecture, Environment, Development: The United States and the Making of Modern Arabia, 1949-1961 »ABE Journal [En ligne], 17 | 2020, mis en ligne le 25 septembre 2020, consulté le 18 janvier 2021. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/abe/7963 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/abe.7963

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Dalal Musaed Alsayer

Assistant Professor, Architecture, College of Architecture, Kuwait University, Kuwait

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