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AccueilAbstracta IranicaVolume 254. Histoire, Période Musulmane4.2. Histoire du XVe au XIXe siècle4.2.1. Safavides et QâjârsIrene Schneider. « Muḥammad Bāqir...

4. Histoire, Période Musulmane
4.2. Histoire du XVe au XIXe siècle
4.2.1. Safavides et Qâjârs

Irene Schneider. « Muḥammad Bāqir Šaftī (1180-1260/1766-1844) und die Isfahaner Gerichtsbarkeit ». Der Islam 79 (2002), pp. 240- 273.

Christoph Werner

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1Taking the well-known jurist and jurisprudent Muḥammad Bāqir al-Šaftī (d. 1260/1844) as an example, Schneider sheds new light on the judicial practice and its protagonists in Qajar Iran. Her major source on Šaftī and three of his verdicts which she discusses in detail is Tunakābunī’s Qiṣāṣ al-Ulamā. The article sets out with a general introduction to the practice of law in the Qajar period, indebted to previous studies by Hamid Algar and Willem Floor, and also contains a biographical sketch of Šaftī. Schneider then presents and interprets three case studies, inserted as anecdotes by Tunakābunī mainly to illustrate Šaftī’s cunning and resourcefulness. Using these anecdotes in a highly original way as a source on procedural aspects of legal practice, she notes in particular that Šaftī avoids formal steps as described in legal handbooks on ġazavāt, nor does he justify or document his decisions with scriptural proofs or arguments of any kind. That this is not always the case, can be gleaned from another article on Šaftī – not noted by Schneider – by Seyyed Aḥmad Tūyserkānī, « Eḫtelāf-e naẓar-e do faqīh-e ham-⁽aṣr dar yek mas’ale-ye vaqfī : Mollā Aḥmad Narāqī va Ḥojjat al-Eslām Šaftī Eṣfahānī », Vaqf : Mīrāṯ-e jāvīdān, No. 19-20, vol. 5 (autumn & winter 1376/1997), pp. 48-55, where an actual case led to a lengthy theoretical discussion. A separate discussion at the end is devoted to the assertion that Šaftī exercised the right of takfīr, i.e. pronouncing someone an infidel. Schneider corrects this statement and presents the instances noted by Tunakābunī, where Šaftī issued verdicts of tafsīq (i.e. declaring someone to be sinful, that is not ādil).

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Christoph Werner, « Irene Schneider. « Muḥammad Bāqir Šaftī (1180-1260/1766-1844) und die Isfahaner Gerichtsbarkeit ». Der Islam 79 (2002), pp. 240- 273. »Abstracta Iranica [En ligne], Volume 25 | 2004, document 173, mis en ligne le 15 mars 2006, consulté le 14 avril 2024. URL : ; DOI :

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Christoph Werner


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