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Chroniques des travaux archéologiques en Turquie 2018

The Excavation at Limyra/Lycia 2018: Preliminary Report

Martin Seyer, Alexandra Dolea, Philip Misha Bes, David Zs. Schwarcz, Selda Baybo, A. K. L. Leung, Ursula Quatember, Michael Wörrle, Helmut Brückner, Friederike Stock, Anna Symanczyk, Günther Stanzl, Kathrin Kugler et Banu Yener-Marksteiner
p. 233-254

Texte intégral

After an interruption of one year, excavation and research works in Limyra could be resumed in 2018. The campaign lasted from August 13th until October 12th 2018 with the permission granted by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. We would like to express our gratitude to the state representatives Umut Alagöz and Yıldız Şahin of the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara.

1. Research Focus “Urbanistic Studies in Limyra” (M. Seyer)

  • 1 My gratitude is due to the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) for the approval of this research project. F (...)

1The focus in 2018 should be laid in investigations on the urbanistic development of Limyra mainly during the Hellenistic period. Excavation and research work could be carried out in the frame of the scientific project “The Urbanistic Development of Limyra in the Hellenistic Period” 1. This project deals with general questions such as the spatial expansion respectively the borders of the settlement, the structural development of the city plan also with taking into account the economic and sociocultural terms, as well as with problems which arise from Limyra’s topographical and geological peculiarities. Amongst these first and foremost the influence of the unique hydrological situation has to be mentioned, as several natural streams flow through the ancient urban area (Rantitsch, Prochaska, Seyer, Lotz and Kurtze 2016).

  • 2 The first sector was an enlargement of the excavation area of 2016 (Limyra Polis West), while the s (...)

2Based on the scientific results of previous years’ excavations in two areas2, geoarchaeological and geophysical surveys, architectural and epigraphic studies on the honorary arch of Ornimythos from the early Roman Imperial period were planned as well as the continuation of the project to study the numerous spolia of the late Antique city-walls and the interurban survey in the East City of Limyra. However, due to the fact that the working permission was granted with a delay of several weeks, only a part of the planned research activities could be carried out, while the others had to be postponed to the 2019 season.

1.1 Excavations in the West City (A. Dolea) 3

  • 3 We express our gratitude to the following collaborators: G. Çimen, S. Defant, J. Hangartner, K. Kai (...)

3The excavation season in the West City of Limyra took place between the 14th of August and 6th of October with the purpose of extending sector Polis West which was opened in 2016 (Dolea et al. 2017: 56-59; Dolea 2017, 144-152) as well as opening a new trench between this excavation and the one at the West Gate (Seyer and Schuh 2012b: 59-64; Seyer and Schuh 2013 b: 83-89).

1.1.1 Limyra Polis West (Fig. 1)

Fig. 1: Limyra Polis West 2018

Fig. 1: Limyra Polis West 2018

ÖAW-ÖAI/C. Kurtze

4The researched area of 2016 was extended towards the west, north and east in order to further clarify the stratigraphy and structures. In the west part of the trench an impressive round structure with an outer diameter of 7 m was completely revealed. The filling layers inside it (stones of various sizes, quick lime, charcoal), the presence of a praefurnium on the southern side and several mortar and charcoal layers outside it towards west indicate this construction functioned as a lime kiln.

  • 4 We want to thank M. Wörrle (Munich) for this information.

5Two pavements that were uncovered (north and east of the kiln) presume the use of the area as a public space in Late Antiquity. The chronology is supported by the discovery of an inscription fragment (dated to the mid-3rd - beginning of the 4th c. AD)4 re-used in the pavement towards the east of the lime kiln. Nevertheless, it is highly probable that at least the northern pavement might have been installed in an earlier period due to the difference of height, construction type and orientation.

  • 5 See the contribution of S. Baybo below.

6The stratigraphical relations between the kiln and the surrounding structures towards its north and east suggest the kiln was established after the nearby building located immediately to the east was abandoned. An impressive amount of glass (4.147 fragments)5 was recovered especially from the north-east corner of the sector, from layers which were connected with the desertion of the building. At this moment, there are no archaeological indications for an intentional deposition of the glass, but rather for an abandonment of this material when the building also cease to function.

  • 6 See the preliminary results of P. Bes below.

7The preliminary chronological indication for this abandonment is the first half of the 7th c. AD. Additionally, it is highly probable that construction materials (stones, wood) from the nearby building were reused within the construction of, and used as fuel or recycled raw material for, the kiln. Moreover, a reparation of the eastern exterior side of the kiln is placed on a levelling layer with ash6 showing the kiln had already been in function for a certain time span starting from the 7th c. This levelling partly covers the walls of the house, indicating that the functionality and the urban development within the uncovered area changed and was adapted to other/new necessities. The lime kiln had at least two functional phases between the 7th and the 9th / 10th c. AD (see below similar previously excavated features). Given the instable historical background of the region, massive reparations of the Byzantine city walls of Limyra, especially during the Early Byzantine period, prompted the need for lime and the construction of a lime kiln in the vicinity of the fortification walls, underlining the necessity for repair works. Several fragments of inscriptions and architectural elements were found in the area of the lime kiln. These belong to various periods and might be connected with a tendency of reusing and recycling materials during the Late Antique and Early Byzantine periods.

8The shift towards artisanal activities (producing and processing various materials) in this area during the Early Byzantine era is suggested also by other archaeological remains uncovered in the early 1980s in the immediate vicinity of the Cenotaph of Gaius Caesar. This monument, erected at the beginning of the 1st c. AD, was decorated with life-size friezes on all sides (Borchhardt 2002). The excavations from 1981 and 1982 focused on its surroundings and revealed at least one additional smaller sized lime kiln (Borchhardt 1983: 253) north-east to the Cenotaph. This kiln was constructed by breaking through a Late Antique mosaic floor (Scheibelreiter-Gail 2012: 265-268) and can be dated to the Early Byzantine period.

  • 7 See the preliminary results of D. Zs. Schwarcz below.

9Another material type points towards artisanal production within the West city area in the post-antique periods: the great amount of slags uncovered in the West Gate area indicate that iron was produced by a locally operating blacksmith or at least that iron ore was processed7.

10As previously mentioned, the fortification walls of the West city were massively (re)built in the Early Byzantine period, especially those towards the north and west, which were probably most likely to be attacked, not being protected by swamps and the Limyros river such as the one at the south side (Marksteiner 2007; Seyer, in press b). Therefore, the necessity of industrial activities (e.g. the production of lime for mortar and processing iron for various purposes) within this area is well-founded, while access to various materials was granted by nearby constructions. Another very interesting aspect is that, according to the archaeological data, the Cenotaph appears to have been affected as part of a pragmatic recycling phenomenon in this period.

11The importance of this sector is stated by the revealed complex situations concerning urban features in the Late Antique and Early Byzantine periods, while the installation of the lime kiln signals a change of priorities and the adaptation of the urban features to more pragmatic immediate needs.

1.1.2 Limyra West Gate (Fig. 2)

Fig. 2: Limyra West Tor 2018

Fig. 2: Limyra West Tor 2018

ÖAW-ÖAI/C. Kurtze

  • 8 Our gratitude is due to M. Wörrle (Munich) for this information. For the family of Ornimythos s. Wö (...)

12The excavation of this sector was carried out between the 24th of September and the 6th of October. The main aim was to follow up on the results of the geophysical scans of 2013 which indicated an agglomeration of massive structures in this area, which were preliminarily interpreted as a fortified gate (Seyer 2016: 736-740). The excavations uncovered massive walls consisting mostly of spolia. Amongst them is a statue base with an inscription that is dated to the 2nd century AD voted by Ornimythos IV, a member of the prominent Limyraen family of Ornimythos8.

13The excavations also revealed a construction towards the west which might have been a water channel. Compared to the other excavated sector, the stratigraphy in the West Gate area mostly concerned filling layers that contained a great amount of material, especially pottery and animal bones. At the current stage of research further specific information concerning the function of the area cannot be provided due to the lack of homogenous layers within this sector. More results are expected in the upcoming season to clarify the situation and gain better understanding of the results.

1.2 Research on Late Roman and Early Byzantine Pottery in Limyra 2018 (P. Bes)

1.2.1 A Summary of Late Roman Pottery in Limyra

  • 9 Current research builds on the important work done by J. Vroom and above all B. Yener-Marksteiner.

14This contribution discusses several aspects of the pottery research that was carried out in 2018. The study of the pottery from the East and West Gate excavations (East Gate: Seyer and Lotz 2012; Seyer and Lotz 2013; West Gate: Seyer and Schuh 2012 a and b; Seyer and Schuh 2013 a and b) could be completed, which is currently being prepared for publication and is here below only cursorily referred to. The study of this pottery proves to be very helpful in refining our current understanding of Late Roman pottery in Limyra9, specifically regarding its typological-functional repertoire and provenance, and is here summarized. No archaeological clue - e.g. wasters - points unequivocally to local pottery manufacture, and while pottery manufacturing activities may have taken place in or around Limyra, thus far we lack any evidence for it. There is progress regarding what is presumed to have been regionally manufactured pottery, however, mostly because of recent archaeometrical analyses which indicate that several rather commonly occurring fabrics link up with the geology from southeast Lycia (Peloschek et al. 2017). One fabric in particular that is consistently present has now been singled out and labelled ‘Fabric 2’. Macroscopically it is easily spotted, particularly because of the presence of quite coarsely shaped brown grits that reflect sunlight: there are never many, but these easily stand out especially on the surface. Exterior surfaces quite often have a dull greenish and greyish tinge, sometimes with black rather vague and irregular stripes, presumably carelessly applied slip. Especially the exterior feels somewhat dense and compact, and fragments often produce a bit of a cling when ticked with a fingernail. This partial overfiring could be an unintentional side effect of firing conditions that could not be fully controlled. Given the largely utilitarian typological-functional range of vessels that occur in Fabric 2 - which includes mortaria, basins, pithoi, pithoi lids, and so-called einhenkelige Kannen (large one-handled jugs) - it is plausible to think that this partial overfiring (which certainly is not always present) was done intentionally, as it equipped vessels with a denser outer layer, which when a vessel was destined to contain (and transport?) liquids would be a practical property. At the same time, however, we need to consider what effect this had on the property of water cooling down in ceramic jugs through evaporation. This overfiring would also lend vessels additional strength, which in the case of mortaria and basins would have offered a necessary sturdiness sought after by a potential customer.

15Of note regarding Fabric 2 is the lower wall and button toe of an amphora found in the West Gate excavations (Fig. 3). Its profile does not lend unambiguous clues as to its date. Such buttoned toes may be more of a pre-Roman feature on the one hand, although we do not (yet) know whether this fabric was already in use prior to the (Late) Roman Imperial period. On the other hand, a Roman date cannot be excluded, as various Roman amphora types were equipped with such or similar toes. Thus far no rims or handles have been recognized that can be associated with amphorae in Fabric 2, which strengthens the notion that it is a residual piece. On another level, however, the exact date of this fragment is of less importance: it offers a significant clue that amphorae were manufactured in the region of Limyra, possibly to its east-southeast. E. Dündar recently made the case for the manufacture of amphorae in Lycia in Late Classical times (Dündar 2016: 512, 514, fig. 11, with bibliography); this fragment from Limyra might well be a small but interesting piece of that bigger puzzle.

Fig. 3: The toe and lower wall of an amphora in Fabric 2 presumably manufactured in southeast Lycia, found in the West Gate excavations

Fig. 3: The toe and lower wall of an amphora in Fabric 2 presumably manufactured in southeast Lycia, found in the West Gate excavations

ÖAW-ÖAI/R. Hügli

  • 10 Full rim, base, handle and body sherd count quantifications (weight is recorded but not included he (...)

16Also of regional origin is the lion’s share of the cooking and some related vessels (jugs and strainer jugs, mostly) (Table 1)10, which belongs to a group called lyciennes kaolinitiques from southern Lycia (Lemaître et al. 2013, 193-200, figs. 5-10), though a more exact provenance has yet to be determined. Ceramic building material (bricks, roof tiles, waterpipes, spacer pins, etc.) presumably are also of regional origin, as some of the archaeometrical analyses indicate.

Table 1: Summary quantitative data concerning Late Roman cooking wares from the East and West Gate excavations, and Polis West 2016

 

n RBHS

% RBHS

Lyciennes kaolinitiques

5972

93,9

Aegean Micaceous Ware

14

0,2

Phocaean (pans)

2

0,0

Palestinian

2

0,0

Ras al-Bassit

2

0,0

EastMed

23

0,4

Unidentified

348

5,5

 

6363

100,0

ÖAW-ÖAI/P. Bes

17Long-distance imported pottery is common in Late Roman Limyra. Slipped tableware are largely imported and are represented by African Red Slip Ware, Late Roman C as well as the occasional Egyptian vessel, and above all by Cypriot Red Slip Ware/Late Roman D (Table 2). Within the context of Late Roman D, increasing knowledge of production centers of slipped tableware during Late Antiquity - and almost certainly also earlier - in Lycia and Pamphylia could very well mean that part of the slipped tableware were in fact regionally manufactured. Imported cooking vessels are occasionally spotted - closed cooking pots in Aegean Micaceous Ware, and a few open cooking bowls and lids from (coastal) Palestine (Table 1). Thus far all amphorae appear to have been imported. This import pattern is a largely eastern ‘affair’, with a predominance of Late Roman Amphora 1 and 4, with smaller quantities of Late Roman Amphora 5 and Agora M334. Amphorae from the Aegean (Late Roman Amphora 3, Agora M273, Samos Cistern Type), Black Sea (mostly Kassab Tezgör type C Snp III from the area of Sinope, some of types D Snp I-II in pâte claire) and especially the Western Mediterranean (e.g. Tunisia and Tripolitania) are represented by smaller quantities (Table 3).

Table 2: Summary quantitative data concerning Late Roman (red) slipped tablewares from the East and West Gate excavations, and Polis West 2016

 

n RBHS

% RBHS

Cypriot Red Slip Ware

945

67,6

Late Roman D

302

21,6

Phocaean Late Roman C

75

5,4

African Red Slip Ware

29

2,1

Egyptian Red Slip Ware

11

0,8

Sagalassos Red Slip Ware

5

0,4

Gortyna Painted Ware(?)

1

0,1

Unidentified

29

2,1

 

1397

100,0

ÖAW-ÖAI/P. Bes

Table 3: Summary quantitative data concerning Late Roman amphorae from the East and West Gate excavations, and Polis West 2016

 

 

n RBHS

% RBHS

East Cilicia/Cyprus

Late Roman Amphora 1

2460

42,3

Cilicia

Other

15

0,3

Gaza-Negev

Late Roman Amphora 4

678

11,6

Southern Levant

Late Roman Amphora 5

243

4,2

Agora M334

59

1,0

Late Roman Amphora 6

6

0,1

Other

23

0,4

Levant

Other

96

1,6

West Cilicia/Cyprus

Agora G199

32

0,5

West Cilicia

Agora M239

17

0,3

Aegean

Late Roman Amphora 3

153

2,6

Agora M273

47

0,8

Samos Cistern Type

30

0,5

Late Roman Amphora 2

24

0,4

Agora M273/Samos Cistern Type

14

0,2

Kapitän II (not necessarily residual)

3

0,1

Maeander/Southeast Aegean

59

1,0

Cretan

31

0,5

Other

28

0,5

Pontic

Sinope C Snp III (mostly)

29

0,5

Sinope D Snp I-II (pâte claire)

7

0,1

Sinope - other

7

0,1

Pontic - other

40

0,7

Egypt

Late Roman Amphora 7

12

0,2

Other

17

0,3

Tunisia/Tripolitania

Keay 62Q

1

0,0

Spatheia

7

0,1

Other

48

0,8

Eastern Mediterranean

Southeast Aegean/West Cilicia

15

0,3

Other

18

0,3

Western Mediterranean

Keay 52

2

0,0

Other

2

0,0

Unidentified

Other

1599

27,5

 

 

5822

100,0

ÖAW-ÖAI/P. Bes

1.2.2 Pottery from the 2016 and 2018 Polis West Excavations

18During the 2018 campaign the pottery from all contexts from the Polis West excavations in 2016 that were deemed stratigraphically relevant was studied and fully quantified. The picture that emerges is of some chronological interest. The pottery has a predominantly Late Roman component and generally resembles that from the 2011 and 2012 West Gate excavations that has been studied. This Late Roman component, moreover, contained comparatively little pottery that postdates ca. AD 500. The presence of Late Roman Amphora 1A, Pontic carrot-type amphorae (mostly from Sinope, of Kassab Tezgör type C Snp III [Bes, in press]), Agora M273, but also the comparative scarcity of late African Red Slip Ware, Cypriot Red Slip Ware/Late Roman D, (Phocaean) Late Roman C as well as late variants of common amphorae types (e.g. Late Roman Amphora 1B), support a date for a significant part of this pottery in the 5th century AD. There is, as mentioned, 6th and (early) 7th century AD date pottery, but much less so, which is most noticeably represented by a Phocaean Late Roman C Hayes 10C (early to mid-7th century AD) and an African Red Slip Ware Bonifay Sigillée Type 57A (cf. Hayes 105) (ca. AD 575-650) (Hayes 1972: 343-345, fig. 71; Reynolds 2011: 219 [Phocaean Late Roman C]; Bonifay 2004: 183-185, fig. 98 [African Red Slip Ware]). Could this signify that Limyra’s Western City - or parts thereof - witnessed less intensive occupation and activities at some point after the 5th century AD? Needless to say that more research is needed to substantiate this idea, given the potential implications for the urban history of Limyra. Moreover, other explanations can be considered. For example, aerial photographs show that part of the Western City was occupied by greenhouses well into the 20th century, and one of various activities related to that which could have taken place is that soil was moved in order to level the area.

19This matter nonetheless ties in with another aspect of the pottery research in 2018. Whereas the pottery that was excavated in 2018 is aimed to be studied in 2019, one stratigraphic unit (SE1034) was already looked at preliminarily and is shortlisted for detailed study and quantification. It contained a large amount of pottery, and immediately recognizable was an array that - generally speaking - characterizes much of Limyra’s Late Roman pottery: again, many Late Roman Amphora 1, 4 and 5, a predominance of Cypriot Red Slip Ware and Late Roman D, a near-exclusivity of lyciennes kaolinitiques, and jugs, jars and other table- and utilitarian wares that were likely mostly also regionally manufactured. There is a greater variety, however, part of the pottery from this stratigraphic unit is of significance for different reasons.

20A large proportion does not resemble this Late Roman pottery at all. Its morphological-functional range is limited, and mostly comprises cooking pots, jugs and some amphorae (Fig. 4). The cooking pots in particular are rather hard-fired, and most if not all are of the same type; their fabric is somewhat micaceous, and large golden-coloured flakes can easily be spotted on the surface here and there. The everted rim is offset from the body proper, and the upper handle is usually attached to the upper wall, just below the rim, or into the carination between the wall and the rim. Macroscopically, these cooking pots not even remotely resemble the lyciennes kaolinitiques. Noteworthy also is the apparent absence of glazed (polychrome) pottery. Amphorae fragments, which the first cursory study suggests are rather scarce, showed little macroscopic fabric variety, and of note are body sherds (sometimes thick-walled) with densely-spaced and fine banded combing. Small quantities of these ceramic categories, sometimes not more than one or a few sherds, were identified in many stratigraphic units from the 2016 excavations, and we expect a similar scenario for those that were excavated in 2018, in addition to stratigraphic unit 1034.

Fig. 4: A selection of Early Byzantine pottery (except for the small sherd in the right upper corner, which is Sagalassos Red Slip Ware) from stratigraphic unit 1034 from the Polis West excavations in 2016

Fig. 4: A selection of Early Byzantine pottery (except for the small sherd in the right upper corner, which is Sagalassos Red Slip Ware) from stratigraphic unit 1034 from the Polis West excavations in 2016

ÖAW-ÖAI/R. Hügli

  • 11 I am particularly grateful to A.Vionis (University of Cyprus, Nicosia) for sharing his expertise on (...)
  • 12 Here several of the morphological parallels are classified as “Micaceous brown ware” (e.g. 50.109), (...)

21This pottery represents a radical departure from what can generically be described as ‘Late Roman’11. The general appearance, the macroscopic appearance of fabrics, and the (limited) typological and functional repertoire suggest that this pottery is no longer ‘Roman’, but is more of post-Roman character. This is also supported by the amphorae, which appear to represent very Late Roman types, but more likely belong to their successors. It is not the first time that such pottery is identified at Limyra, and cooking pots similar to those described above have been previously identified in the Eastern City (Vroom 2005: 253, fig. 11; Vroom 2007: 272-273, fig. 5C), where they were paralleled to cooking pots dated to the late 8th century AD (Balboura), and to examples from Constantinople where they have been dated - mostly contextually, otherwise based on shape and fabric - between the third quarter of the 7th to early 9th centuries AD (Hayes 1992: 55, 57 12; Vroom 2016: 161, 172, fig. 3). Similar cooking pots have also been identified at Ephesos (Ladstätter 2008: 115-116, 143-144, Taf. 299-300, K254-266).

  • 13 Early Byzantine pottery has, for example, been published from two sites in Cyprus: Dhiorios (Catlin (...)

22The apparent absence of glazed pottery, otherwise a common phenomenon of post-Roman pottery also at Limyra, could indicate that this pottery belongs to a time prior to the introduction and widespread distribution of glazed wares. This absence is therefore deemed significant: in the southern Levant, glazed pottery is thought to appear only during the Abbasid caliphate (not prior to the late 8th century AD) (Pella: Walmsley 2007: 519; Caesarea Maritima: Arnon 2008: 19-20, 56; Taxel 2014: 123), at least on any noticeable scale. This development tentatively provides a general terminus ante quem for the pottery from unit 1034. Now obviously Lycia is not the southern Levant, and it may have followed different regional trajectories regarding the spread and adoption of ‘new’ material culture, including technological innovation. At present, therefore, this pottery is cautiously dated to the mid-7th and 8th centuries AD, the Early Byzantine period13, though a somewhat younger date (into the ninth) is certainly possible - for Early Byzantine pottery from Limyra, also see the contribution by B. Yener-Marksteiner (cf. infra).

23Even though this pottery is unlike anything ‘Late Roman’, it does not follow that existing ceramic traditions could not have persisted, whereby ‘Roman’ and ‘non-Roman’ ceramic repertoires and traditions coalesced. Certainly, the Mediterranean-wide distribution of Late Roman red slip wares and a number of common amphorae types was seriously affected following the events in the second quarter of the 7th century AD, if things (in part) had not already begun to change somewhat earlier. In the southern Levant, any ‘real’ changes in material culture (new wares, shapes and decorative techniques and styles) only began to manifest themselves towards the later 7th century AD, two to three generations after the Arab conquest of that region. This cautions for too closely associating (major) historical developments with what appear to be more mundane aspects of ancient societies, such as material culture. One scenario is that the above might partly explain the mixed typological and chronological character of the pottery from unit 1034. In other words, the manufacture, distribution and use of red slip wares (and other categories?) may well have continued on more regionalised scales well into the seventh, perhaps even the early 8th century AD (Vionis et al. 2009: 159-160), at a time when other elements of ceramic material culture - in terms of provenance, morphology, stylistic and decorative traditions, and so forth - had begun to change more fundamentally. This notion, of course, requires that this entire context is studied in full.

24There is a strong urge to emphasize the preliminary character of these observations, simply given the fact that this material was only cursorily studied in 2018. Particularly the chronology of this pottery requires further study: stratigraphic unit 1034 was (partly) covered by the lime kiln (cf. supra), and a more detailed idea of its pottery (as well as of the other finds and the stratigraphic analysis) thus can provide a terminus post quem for its construction and/or any later repairs.

1.3. Preliminary Results of the Study on the Metal Finds in the West City of Limyra (D. Zs. Schwarcz)

  • 14 ) A previous approach to analyze the small finds (bone, glass, ceramic and metal) from earlier exca (...)
  • 15 ) Special thanks are given to Dr. A. Dolea who recognized the importance of the small finds, especi (...)
  • 16 ) This includes the finds from the so-called West Gate and Polis West excavations in 2011, 2012, 20 (...)

25As a new research direction14, the scientific evaluation of the ferrous and non-ferrous metal finds was introduced in 2018 through the initiative of the excavation team in Limyra15. The primary aim was to gain a general overview of the metal artefacts and achieve a more conclusive interpretation of the finds in connection with the revealed archaeological features. Therefore, a two-weeks research stay was scheduled for the preliminary analyses of the find material, discovered during the West City excavations between 2011 and 201816. However, from the recent excavation only selected pieces were analysed because of the tight time schedule.

  • 17 ) Type II B 4 according to the classification of the arrowheads from Olympia by H. Baitinger (Baiti (...)
  • 18 ) Analogous pieces are known from Pergamon. S. further Gaitzsch 2005: 141.

26In order to establish the basis for an extended study, all the metal finds were added in a database with detailed description (macroscopically identified material, measurements, etc.), thus more than 1000 partly preserved and intact metal objects were registered. At the current stage of research two arrowheads provide the chronological framework (Fig. 5): a characteristic socketed trilobe arrowhead with rhombic blade from the Late Archaic / Early Classical period17 and an arrowhead with tanged rhombic flat blade, dated to the Late Byzantine / Ottoman period18.

Fig. 5: West City excavations, arrowheads dated to the Late Archaic / Early Classical (left) and Late Byzantine / Ottoman (right) periods

Fig. 5: West City excavations, arrowheads dated to the Late Archaic / Early Classical (left) and Late Byzantine / Ottoman (right) periods

ÖAW-ÖAI/N. Gail

  • 19 ) Some of the small-sized ‘horseshoes’ have a peculiar round or lyra shape with bent pointed end pa (...)

27Although the finds present a wide chronological and functional spectrum, an overall domestic character can be determined including items of utilitarian or merely decorative purpose. The vast majority of the objects reflect various aspects of everyday life and accordingly they can be summed up under instrumenta domestica. Several tools (e.g. piercers, chisels, spindle hooks) and other items (e.g. weights, steelyards) point towards different handcrafts and commercial activities, which took place in the West City area. Furthermore, a great amount of slags suggests industrial production (probably ironworking) in the post-antique periods. Additionally, horseshoes of different shapes and sizes19 raise our awareness concerning the necessity and means of transportation within and around the city.

28Jewellery and dress accessories, mainly from the Early and Middle Byzantine periods, are well-represented among the finds. As an example, the earrings show a great diversity. The different types range from simple hoop earrings made of round wire to more elaborate pieces with attached hollow or cast metal beads and filigree decoration. Some of these more complex types, particularly those without an opening mechanism, were not necessarily worn in the ears, but suspended from a headdress in the Byzantine Era.

  • 20 ) Some examples of analogous pieces without claim to completeness: from Early Byzantine graves in T (...)

29Other accessories, such as a cross pendant, draw our attention towards the more personal - in this case religious - meaning of these objects. The copper-alloy pendant from Limyra (Fig. 6) has the shape of a Latin cross with flaring arms, adorned with punched circle-dot ornaments. The terminations of the vertical arms are curving outwards, whereas the only preserved horizontal arm terminates inwards. This is a common piece of jewellery, which appears around the 6th century AD and retains its popularity as amulet until the 10th-12th century as several examples throughout the Byzantine Empire attest20.

Fig. 6: West Gate excavation, a cross pendant adorned with punched circle-dot ornaments

Fig. 6: West Gate excavation, a cross pendant adorned with punched circle-dot ornaments

ÖAW-ÖAI/N. Gail

  • 21 ) S. in detail with further literature concerning the topic: Daim 2000: 185-187, Eger 2003: 337, Sc (...)
  • 22 ) We would like to express our gratitude to the excavator, U. Schuh, for sharing her results from t (...)
  • 23 ) Three buckles and a counter plate of the same type are from the collection of the Romano-Germanic (...)

30The belt buckles are another object group which comprises important information even beyond the personal level. These are not only dress accessories worn by civil and military officials, but symbols of social status as well21. An outstanding example (Fig. 7) was discovered in 2011 in Limyra during the West City excavation22. The belt buckle has a fixed oval plate embellished with punched concentric circles (similarly to the cross pendant) and openwork decoration. The latter consists of four triangles arranged in the shape of a Greek cross emphasizing also the Christian symbolical background of the piece. Comparative examples, dated to the second half of the 6th century, are known from Asia Minor and Israel; however these pieces are all from collections23. The buckle from Limyra is the first such type from a secure archaeological context not only from Lycia, but also from the whole Eastern Mediterranean area.

Fig. 7: West Gate excavation, an Early Byzantine belt buckle with fixed plate embellished with punched and openwork decoration

Fig. 7: West Gate excavation, an Early Byzantine belt buckle with fixed plate embellished with punched and openwork decoration

ÖAW-ÖAI/N. Gail

31These preliminary results aim to provide a brief overview of the metal finds from the latest excavations in Limyra and highlight the valuable information this group of objects has to offer. One of the main tasks for the next campaign will be the completion of the database including all the finds both from the recent and the upcoming excavation. Information regarding the well documented archaeological contexts will play a major role in the final interpretation of the archaeological evidence at our disposal. Furthermore, the close collaboration with the other team members will ensure that more reliable final conclusions will be reached concerning the history and city life in the West City of Limyra.

1.4 Glasfunde (S. Baybo)

32Im Zentrum der Aufnahme und Dokumentation der Glasfunde aus Limyra standen die Fundobjekte der Grabungen „Polis West“ 2016 und 2018 sowie „West Gate“ 2018.

332016 wurden im Bereich des Areals Polis West insgesamt 1098 Glasscherben geborgen. Neben 626 unprofilierten Gefäßfragmenten bestand die zahlenmäßig am stärksten vertretene Fundgruppe aus Bechern und Öllampen mit gerundetem Rand aus der spätrömisch-frühbyzantinischen Epoche sowie S-Profillampen mit unbearbeitetem Rand, Öllampenstäben, Randteilen henkeliger Lampen und Bodenfragmenten von Kelchen. Mund-, Boden- und Halsstücke von Flaschen sowie mit Glasband verzierte Schalenfragmente traten hingegen seltener auf. Daneben fanden sich 148 Fragmente von Fensterglas, 15 Stück Glasschlacke und zwei Stück Rohglas, die in Boden- und Mauerresten entdeckt wurden. Als häufigste Farbe der Glasfunde aus diesem Areal lässt sich hellblau (türkis) konstatieren, daneben finden sich vor allem hellgrüne und gelblich-ölgrüne Fragmente.

34Aus demselben Areal wurden im Verlauf der Grabung 2018 4147 Glasfragmente, davon 484 profilierte Stücke geborgen, daneben fanden sich 50 Stück Glasschlacke und ein fehlerhaftes Produkt. Zum gegenwärtigen Zeitpunkt lässt sich noch nicht sagen, in welchem Zusammenhang diese auffallend große Menge an Glasfunden auf engem Raum zu interpretieren ist. Denkbar sind entweder industrielle Wiederherstellung oder gezielte Entsorgung. Für eine nähere Bestimmung ist eine Kontextualisierung mit dem archäologischen Befund notwendig, die nach einer weiteren Grabungskampagne möglich sein wird.

35Das Fundspektrum im Bereich der Grabung „West Gate“ des Jahres 2018 deckt Becher/Lampen mit gerundetem Rand, S-Profillampen mit unbearbeitetem Rand und Öllampenstäben, Randteile von henkeligen Lampen, Bodenfragmente von Kelchen (Fig. 8), Fragmente von Flaschenfüßen, Flaschenböden sowie Randstücke von Schalenformen ab. Insgesamt konnten aus diesem Areal bislang 156 Glasfunde untersucht werden, die Dokumentation von Funden aus älteren Grabungen ist für die Kampagne 2019 geplant. Die Publikation der Ergebnisse ist im Rahmen der Grabungen in der Weststadt von Limyra geplant.

Fig. 8: Bodenfragmente von Glaskelchen der Grabung “West Gate 2018”

Fig. 8: Bodenfragmente von Glaskelchen der Grabung “West Gate 2018”

ÖAW-ÖAI/N. Gail, J. Kreuzer

1.5 Honorary Arch of Ornimythos (A. K. Y. Leung, U. Quatember, M. Wörrle)

  • 24 ) For preliminary information on the building see Pülz, Ruggendorfer 2004: 57-62. On Ornimythos, es (...)

36Research on the honorary arch of Ornimythos was resumed in the 2018 campaign after a two-year hiatus between 2016 and 2017. This project is a joint undertaking among M. Wörrle (German Archaeological Institute, Commission for Ancient History and Epigraphy, Munich) who is in charge of the inscription, and U. Quatember and A. K. Y. Leung who are responsible for the architectural study and the reconstruction of the monument. The final publication is currently under preparation funded by the Gerda Henkel Foundation. A detailed study of this early imperial structure aims to elucidate not only its unique architectural features but also its cultural and historical significance24. The documentation of all extant architectural components has been finalized on-site (Fig. 9). At the same time, the research team was also able to secure a reconstruction of the position of the voussoirs based on the dedicatory inscription and the extant architectural evidence.

Fig. 9: Engaged pillar capital from the upper story

Fig. 9: Engaged pillar capital from the upper story

ÖAW-ÖAI/R. Hügli

2. Geoarchaeological Research in Limyra in 2018 (H. Brückner, F. Stock, A. Symanczyk)

2.1 Introduction

  • 25 ) e.g., Brückner 2005; Brückner et al. 2008, 2017; Kraft et al. 2000, 2005, 2007, Stock et al. 2013 (...)
  • 26 ) e.g., Brückner et al. 2006, 2014, 2017; Müllenhoff 2005; Herda et al. 2019.

37Geoarchaeological research in and around ancient settlements are a vital tool to reconstruct the human-environment interactions of those regions. Especially in western Turkey, ancient cities and their environs have been intensively studied: Ephesos and the Ephesia25, Miletus and the Milesia26, Troia and the Troad (Kraft et al. 2003), and Elaia and its environs (Seeliger et al. 2013, 2019, Shumilovskikh et al. 2016). In south-western Turkey, E. Öner and S. Vardar investigated the palaeogeography and geoarchaeology of Limyra and the Finike Plain (Öner 2013; Öner, Vardar 2018). However, the drill cores were neither geochemically nor sedimentologically analysed, and only very few 14C age estimates are available.

  • 27 ) As for the general geoarchaeological research design see Brückner 2011 and Brückner & Gerlach 201 (...)

38Within the frame of the cooperation project between the Austrian Archaeological Institute (FWF Project P29027-G25, headed by Dr. Martin Seyer), and the University of Cologne, geoarchaeological research was carried out in Limyra which supplemented our research results from the field campaigns in 2015 (reconnaissance tour) and 2016 (Brückner et al. 2016a, b; Stock et al. 2017; Stock & Brückner 2017). In 2018, 10 corings were carried out up to a max. depth of 9 m (Lim 31 to Lim 40). The locations are shown in Fig. 10. The goals of the 2018 campaign were to find traces of the Hellenistic street near the Cenotaph for Gaius Caesar and the western city gate, as well as deciphering the palaeogeographical evolution between the eastern and the western parts of the city and at the possible synagogue near the eastern city gate27.

Fig. 10: Locations of geoarchaeological corings of 2016 (green) and 2018 (yellow)

Fig. 10: Locations of geoarchaeological corings of 2016 (green) and 2018 (yellow)

ÖAW-ÖAI/H. Brückner

2.2 Geoarchaeological Research in Limyra in 2018

2.2.1 In Search for the Hellenistic Street

2.2.1.1 Near the Cenotaph for Gaius Caesar

39Corings Lim 31 to Lim 33 (Fig. 11) were done in order to find the street that must have run from the western city gate to the harbour. They are arranged in a west - east profile to the west of the Cenotaph for Gaius Caesar which was built in the early half of the 1st century AD.

  • 28 ) P. Bes (Den Haag), K. Kugler (Munich) and S. Mayer (Vienna) kindly determined the ceramic finds o (...)

40In all of the three sediment cores, the bedrock was hit. It consists of alluvial cone material, i.e. angular limestones of varying size (partly filling the augerheads, inner diameter: 4 cm). The reddish loamy matrix material is evidence of its pre-Holocene (most probably Pleistocene) age. Then follow cultural layers of occupation phases in this part of the western city. A clear evidence for a road was not found. But the best candidate for such a construction is in coring Lim 33 at 1.47 - 1.67 m below surface (b.s.): a piece of marble on top of horizontally layered tiles and mortar can be interpreted as substruction layers for a road. The reason that the cover plate was not found may be that it was recycled in a later settlement phase. The fact that in all of these cores no ceramics earlier than Roman was detected28 is a hint that the “road” structure is of Roman age or younger.

Fig. 11: Coring Lim 31

Fig. 11: Coring Lim 31

ÖAW-ÖAI/H. Brückner

2.2.1.2 Near the Western Gate

41Lim 36 to Lim 40 (Fig. 12) were cored near the western city gate. Lim 36 is the closest drill to the mountain slope. At a depth of 1.51 m b.s. no drilling progress was possible any more.

Fig. 12: Corings Lim 37-40

Fig. 12: Corings Lim 37-40

ÖAW-ÖAI/H. Brückner

42Lim 37 to Lim 40 were drilled several metres downslope of Lim 36. Lim 37 was tilted due to a big stone, wherefore it was given up after 1 m. The other drills ended when big stones were encountered as well: Lim 38 at 0.70 m b.s., Lim 39 at 1 m b.s., Lim 40 at 0.65 m b.s. A synoptic view shows that there is a concentration of big angular pieces of limestone roughly between 0.35 and 0.50 m b.s. (except for Lim 38). This may be evidence for a road pavement of unknown age. Since below it Roman pottery was found (Lim 37/4K: Late Roman (?) amphora at 0.82-0.87 m b.s.), the road must be Roman or younger.

43In order to clarify the course of the Hellenistic road we recommend to first trace it with geophysical methods, e.g. geomagnetics or georadar, then a drilling campaign could be repeated, and finally the most promising locations should be excavated.

2.2.2 Between the Eastern and the Western parts of the City

44Lim 34 was cored in order to supplement the results of corings Lim 12 and Lim 16-19 of 2016 which were drilled at the same site (Fig. 13). There, a typical stratigraphy is encountered (from bottom to top): It starts with fine-grained sediments of a former lake. Interdigitated peat layers in the 7th core metre are evidence of the lake’s temporary shallowness. That the peats are covered by lake sediments (“floating peats”) may be explained by co-seismic subsidence. In the 6th core metre the substrate is coarsening upwards, and from 5.50 to 5.30 m b.s. a layer of pebbles occurs. In a synoptic view with the corings of 2016 this can be interpreted as a lake shore. Then the lake phase continues - presumably again due to co-seismic subsidence. The cultural layers start at 4.40-4.30 m b.s., where humans tried to consolidate the terrain (big limestone pieces were intentionally dumped into the amphibic ground). Another layer with human impact is at 3.60-3.45 m b.s. Continuous settlement at this site is from 2.90 m b.s. upwards. The deepest datable ceramic finds at 2.32-2.22 m b.s. are of Late Hellenistic/Early Roman times.

Fig. 13: Coring Lim 34

Fig. 13: Coring Lim 34

ÖAW-ÖAI/H. Brückner

45The stratigraphy confirms the general landscape evolution in Limyra and the Finike plain described by E. Öner and S. Vardar (Öner 2013; Öner and Vardar 2018).

2.2.3 Near the Eastern Gate at the Jewish Building29

  • 29 ) For the Jewish building: Seyer, Lotz 2014.

46Lim 35 is a 9 m deep drill near the Jewish building at the eastern city gate (Fig. 14). Once again the typical stratigraphy was encountered: Fine-grained sediments of a lake until the 4th core metre, with a “floating peat” at 5.83-5.86 m b.s. It is worth noting that at 8.25 - 7.75 m b.s. is a medium sand layer, possibly the beach of the lake or a fluvial input. An interesting layer is at 3.50 to 2.80 m b.s.: well stratified fine-grained silty fine sand which might be of fluvial origin. Above starts the human impact at 2.80 m b.s. with edged limestones and ceramics, esp. between 2.70-2.20 m b.s. At 1.60-1.50 m b.s. follow tile, mortar and ceramics. The first core metre shows massive limestones. The different milieus of deposition shall be determined with more precision after the analysis of the microfauna (ostracods).

Fig. 14: Coring Lim 35

Fig. 14: Coring Lim 35

ÖAW-ÖAI/H. Brückner

3. Forschungen am Ptolemaion (G. Stanzl)

47Das Team bestand aus G. Stanzl und dem Bauforscher M. La Torre. Vor Ort bestand die Tätigkeit im Zeichnen, Fotografieren Analysieren und Notieren von Werksteinen, Baubefunden am Ptolemaion und den anschließenden Teilen der Stadtmauer auf Ost- und Westseite. Das Arbeitsprogramm umfasste vor allem die Ergänzung von noch fehlenden Zeichnungen und Fotos für die Publikation, die Vertiefung von Beobachtungen an bestimmten Werksteinen im Depot, auf den Auslegeterrassen und einiger Spolien in der nachantiken Stadtmauer sowie vor allem an der Architekturprobe des Akroters. Letzteres war wesentlich zum besseren Verständnis der wirklichen Zusammengehörigkeit bzw. der zeichnerischen Rekonstruktion. Die ergänzenden Beobachtungen und Analysen an Befunden und Werksteinen des Ptolemaion erbrachten folgende Ergebnisse, die in der Folge mit den bereits formulierten zusammengefügt werden müssen und daher als vorläufig zu gelten haben.

48Neue Befunde der randlichen Verdübelung, des Verlegungsprozesses und der Verlegungsart der ungewöhnlich großen, bis zu 2,6 m langen Steine und Quader ergaben sich durch teilweise Freilegung und Nachuntersuchung der Euthynterie des Ptolemaions vor allem an der Südseite und der Südwestecke. Obwohl dort aufgrund des tieferen Platzniveaus die Euthynterie sichtbar war, wurden alle Hebebossen stehengelassen. Klarer wurde auch der Einfluss des Quellwassers auf die massive Fundamentierung des Bauwerks, bzw. die Störung desselben. Die Nachuntersuchung der West-Ecke zwischen Ptolemaionsockel und Stadtmauer ließ drei verschiedene Bauphasen der Mauer und einen inneren Treppenaufgang erkennen, die bislang so noch nicht erfasst bzw. beschrieben wurden. Diese in den Ablauf der Bau- und Verfalls- oder Nutzungsgeschichte des Ptolemaions einzufügen, wird die folgende Aufgabe sein, die ersten Steinlagen könnten kaiserzeitlich sein. Dazu muss abgewartet werden, was die neuen Beobachtungen zum Umfeld des Straßenbogens erbringen.

49Nach intensiver Analyse und Diskussion des Befundes bestätigte sich die Annahme, dass die Aushöhlung im Podium des Bauwerks sekundär ist; die Funktion der südöstlichen Ausnehmung auf der Sohle auf dem Niveau des Fußprofils hingegen bleibt rätselhaft. Ob die auf der Ostseite der Mauer im Bereich der späteren Kirche sichtbaren Quader mit Profilleiste zum Podium gehörten - und damit ein bislang nicht erfasstes Gliederungselement in die Fassade brachten - muss eine genaue Analyse im Zusammenhang mit der Rekonstruktion erweisen.

50Die Zugehörigkeit weiterer Spolien aus dem Fußprofil der Cella sowie Stufenunterbau der Tholos im Mauerabschnitt nördlich der Bresche kann nun nach Maßabnahmen als Ergänzung im Gesamtbestand definitiv konstatiert werden.

51An neue Beobachtungen zu einzelnen Werksteinen lassen sich vor allem die zu den Säulenbasen nennen, deren Empolion-Details durch Umlagerung besser studiert werden konnte und in die Beschreibung der Bautechnik sowie zu den Erläuterungen zum Steinkatalog aufzunehmen sein wird. Eine neue Erkenntnis ist, dass die Inklination des Säulenkranzes um die Tholos nicht über die Basis erfolgte, sondern im Stylobat angelegt worden sein muss. Denn obgleich der Scamillus auf der Unterseite nachträglich teilweise abgearbeitet wurde, bleiben die reale Profilhöhe und Steindicke rundum gleich. In diesem Zusammenhang wurden auch die Standspuren der Säulentrommeln noch einmal genauer untersucht und im Zusammenhang mit der Frage des entwurfsrelevanten unteren Säulendurchmessers erörtert.

52Zu Ritzlinien als Vorzeichnung für den Steinmetz und Maßangabe konnten neue und weitere Details gefunden werden, was die Einblicke in den Fertigungsprozess vertiefte. Dazu fielen bislang noch nicht ganz geklärte Steinmetzmarken (?) an Kapitellen und Säulenlagerflächen auf.

53Auch Details zur Ausarbeitung der Sima zeigen, mit welchem Raffinement selbst im Kleinen die Unteransicht der Tholos-Architektur berücksichtigt wurde. Dazu passen weitere Beobachtungen zum Einsatz verschiedenartiger Bohrer für die Ausarbeitung der Bauornamentik.

54Geklärt werden konnte auch der Arbeitsvorgang, bei dem zwei 58 cm hohe Architravblöcke auf dem Abakus des Kapitells für die Verbleiung des Spezialdübels durchbohrt, mit Blei vergossen und fixiert wurden.

55Die erneute und genaue Beobachtung der Via-Bemalung mit einer Doppelpalmette und der Vergleich mit den Resten auf den anderen Viae lässt vermuten, dass es Variationen im Mittelteil gab. Leider konnte keine Untersuchung mit UV-Auflicht die genaue Form des Mittelstücks klären. Gesichert ist aber immerhin nun ein gegenständlicher Blattkelch, aus dem die seitlichen Ranken und die mittlere Palmette nach innen und außen herauswachsen. Ebenso zeigte sich, dass die Ausführung zwar mit Schablone einheitlich gestaltet wurde, es aber eine feine Vorzeichnung (keine Ritzung!) gegeben hat, deren Zwischenräume anschließend flächig ausgemalt wurden.

56Farbspuren wurden auch am Kapitell K 4 auf dem Ansatz des Balteus entdeckt, sogar flächig aufliegende, also leicht abnehmbar und zu untersuchende. Ihr Farbton wäre von großem Interesse, da auf den Kapitellen bislang außer Rot in der Tiefe der lesbischen Kymata des Abakus keine Farbe festgestellt wurde.

57Wie oben bei den Säulenbasen angedeutet, konnte verifiziert werden, dass die Säulenschäfte ohne Apophyge von den Basen in die Höhe strebten, was auch in gewisser Weise für eine Rücksichtnahme auf die Unteransichtigkeit der Tholos interpretiert werden kann.

58Die für eine 3D-Darstellung notwendige umfassende fotografische Erfassung der Architekturprobe des Akroters und Analyse einiger Details erbrachte eine nunmehr eher gesicherte Rekonstruktionsmöglichkeit. Die derzeit sichtbare Zusammenstellung der Werksteine ist zwar nicht falsch, aber auch nicht ganz richtig. Einzelheiten an den Steinen zeigen, dass es heute fehlende Einsatzstücke gab und die plastische Ausformung der Schlangenleiber wie des Blattwerks war so gestaltet, dass eine möglichst gute Deckung der Stoßflächen erreicht werden konnte. Dies war für die Ableitung des Regenwassers essentiell - und damit für die Dauerhaftigkeit und Sicherheit der Gesamtkonstruktion. Für die oberen Partien und die Anordnung der Schlangenköpfe ist die nunmehr mögliche Rundansichtigkeit ein veritabler Gewinn, aber die genaue Analyse steht noch bevor.

4. Pottery Studies

4.1 Hellenistic Pottery (K. Kugler)

59During the 2018 campaign, the remaining finds of pottery from the excavations in the slope houses in the NW-quarter of Limyra (Seyer 1991/1992; Seyer 1993; Seyer 1997) were examined, and 200 diagnostic fragments were selected for further study. Together with the fragments studied during the campaign of 2016, a total of 570 diagnostic pieces were added to the database. These were all drawn and prepared to be photographed. The preliminary analysis of the pottery from the excavations in the slope houses has now been completed. The selected pottery largely consists of black glaze pottery, some pieces of “Streifen- und Wellenbandkeramik”, some fragments of Hellenistic relief pottery, as well as Hellenistic fine pottery and early Eastern Sigillata A (Fig. 15. 1-3).

Fig. 15: Hellenistic fine ware from the slope house excavation (1-3), Necropolis V (5-6) and some other selected graves (4)

Fig. 15: Hellenistic fine ware from the slope house excavation (1-3), Necropolis V (5-6) and some other selected graves (4)

ÖAI/ÖAW/K. Kugler

  • 30 ) e.g. Blakolmer 1993; Blakolmer 2005.

60Following the completion of the study of the material from the slope house excavations, the pottery from Necropolis V30 (Fig. 15. 5-6) and some selected graves from other necropoleis (Fig. 15. 4) was examined, only a few of which have been published so far. For this reason, 85 diagnostic pieces were sorted according to modern standards of research, analysed, drawn and prepared for photography. The processed material includes black glaze pottery, Hellenistic fine and relief ware, as well as early Eastern Sigillata A.

61Furthermore, the ceramic fragments found in the drilling cores from this year were examined. These fragments were inspected, counted and first investigations were concluded.

4.2 Nachantike Keramik sowie Aufarbeitung des Keramikmaterials aus den Theaterthermen (B. Yener-Marksteiner)

  • 31 ) Zusätzlich zu den Vorberichten in den KST und News of Archaeology from Anatolia’s Mediterranean A (...)

62Die Arbeiten im Jahr 2018 konzentrierten sich in erster Linie auf die Erstellung einer Funddatenbank der Grabungen an den Theaterthermen (2007-2010) für die Publikation. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeiten konnte die digitale Funddokumentation der Jahre 2007-2010 abgeschlossen werden31.

63Ferner wurde einer bestimmten Keramikgruppe besondere Aufmerksamkeit innerhalb des Fundmaterials aus den Theaterthermen gewidmet. Diese hier aufgrund ihrer markanten roten Tonfarbe als „rote Keramik“ bezeichnete Ware (Fig. 16) wurde in Limyra bisher stets mit Keramik des 7.-8. Jahrhunderts n. Chr. vergesellschaftet gefunden, unterscheidet sich von dieser allerdings augenmerklich in Erscheinungsbild und Gestaltung. Eine genaue Datierung verwandter Keramik aus Lykien, aber auch der unmittelbar benachbarten Gebiete ist bisher aufgrund fehlender Kontexte umstritten. Die Grabungen in den Theaterthermen erlauben es zum ersten Mal, diese Materialgruppe kontextuell näher zu untersuchen. Der stratigraphische Ablauf der bisherigen Grabungen in Limyra sowie die Zusammensetzung des keramischen Fundmaterials indiziert eine Datierung dieser Keramik bereits ins 8.-9. Jahrhundert n. Chr, wodurch die rote Keramik ein Zeugnis der materiellen Hinterlassenschaft eines in Limyra bisher kaum erforschten Zeitraums darstellt.

Fig. 16: „Rote Keramik“ aus Limyra

Fig. 16: „Rote Keramik“ aus Limyra

ÖAW-ÖAI/R. Hügli

64Während des zweiwöchigen Forschungsaufenthalts in Limyra wurde die Fundzusammensetzung der für die rote Keramik relevanten Schichten untersucht und näher dokumentiert. Da die Herkunft dieser Ware aufgrund bislang fehlender naturwissenschaftlicher Untersuchungen noch unbekannt ist, und möglicherweise von einer regionalen, jedoch bisher unbekannten Tonlagerstätte ausgegangen werden muss, wurden zusätzlich zu den bereits in den Jahren 2008 und 2014 nach Wien gebrachten Proben 43 weitere Scherben während der Arbeiten in Limyra für naturwissenschaftliche Untersuchungen vorbereitet.

65Der Datierungsrahmen des Gräberfeldes an den Theaterthermen und dessen gemischter Bestattungsformen sowie die Forschungslücke für die mittelbyzantinische und die nachfolgenden Epochen regten ein Forschungsvorhaben dieser Epoche in Limyra an, welches im Rahmen eines Forschungsstipendiums an der Zweigstelle des Österreichischen Archäologischen Instituts in Athen im Jahr 2019 ausgeführt wird.

66Ferner wurden im Jahr 2018 die Kochkeramik und die Amphoren eines frühkaiserzeitlichen Fundkomplexes in der Weststadt aus den Jahren 2002-2003 in die Publikationsvorbereitung einbezogen (Marksteiner, Yener-Marksteiner 2009). Das Tafelgeschirr aus dem Fundkomplex wurde bereits im Rahmen einer Dissertation bearbeitet und zur Publikation eingereicht.

5. Conservation, Cultural Heritage (M. Seyer)

67As many of the monuments in Limyra sustain severe damage by natural (weather effects) and human (destruction by tourists, damages to the Roman theatre caused by heavy traffic) impact, the elaboration of a comprehensive conservation concept was started. This concept includes the endangered in situ buildings and is structured according to the urgency due to the state of preservation and to the difficulty of realization. After an intense observation at the site thirteen work areas spread all over the lower city of Limyra were prioritized as the most urgent cases of conservation (Fig. 17). During the excavation 2019 a detailed conservation program will be set up together with the head of the research group “Cultural Heritage” of the Austrian Archaeological Institute.

Fig. 17: Part of the northern wall of the West-City of Limyra

Fig. 17: Part of the northern wall of the West-City of Limyra

ÖAW-ÖAI/M. Seyer

6. Science Communication and International Collaboration (M.  Seyer)

  • 32 I want to express my gratitude to the deputy mayor of Finike, Mr. Cemal Kurucu OSKAY, who supported (...)

68In order to provide an appropriate platform for the presentation of recent research in Lycia and to reinforce scientific discussion between the scientists already during the excavation season, Limyra excavation organized the international workshop “Archäologische und epigraphische Forschungen in Lykien ‒ Lykia’da arkeoloji ve epigrafik araştırmalar” in Finike on September 832. During this meeting ten archaeologists and epigraphists from different excavations and enterprises in Lycia reported about their current research.

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Notes

1 My gratitude is due to the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) for the approval of this research project. For a short description of this project as well as first results see Seyer, Dolea, Kugler, Brückner and Stock 2017. See also Seyer 2016; Seyer, in press a; Seyer and Quatember, in press.

2 The first sector was an enlargement of the excavation area of 2016 (Limyra Polis West), while the second one was an area situated between this zone and the excavation area of 2012 close to the Byzantine West Gate. Here the results of the geophysical survey show a structure which was interpreted as a gate in the Hellenistic city wall: Seyer 2016, 736. 740. For both of them see the contribution of A. Dolea below.

3 We express our gratitude to the following collaborators: G. Çimen, S. Defant, J. Hangartner, K. Kainz, D. Karakurt, B. Orakçılar, R. Sporleder.

4 We want to thank M. Wörrle (Munich) for this information.

5 See the contribution of S. Baybo below.

6 See the preliminary results of P. Bes below.

7 See the preliminary results of D. Zs. Schwarcz below.

8 Our gratitude is due to M. Wörrle (Munich) for this information. For the family of Ornimythos s. Wörrle 2016: 404-428.

9 Current research builds on the important work done by J. Vroom and above all B. Yener-Marksteiner.

10 Full rim, base, handle and body sherd count quantifications (weight is recorded but not included here) are given in all three tables, which represent a summary of data from the excavations at the East and West Gates (2011-2012), and Polis West 2016. While this method is not ideal – for example because of the variable breaking rates of different categories (caused by e.g. morphology, wall thickness, firing temperature, clay matrix and inclusions/temper) – it does allow to include categories of which no diagnostic fragments were identified. The percentages should therefore be seen as merely indicative. Other methods of quantification are currently being looked into, and will be implemented during the campaign in 2019.

11 I am particularly grateful to A.Vionis (University of Cyprus, Nicosia) for sharing his expertise on post-Roman pottery with me.

12 Here several of the morphological parallels are classified as “Micaceous brown ware” (e.g. 50.109), though the overall consistency of the relation between shape and fabric remains unclear.

13 Early Byzantine pottery has, for example, been published from two sites in Cyprus: Dhiorios (Catling 1972) and the Kornos Cave (Catling & Dikigoropoulos 1970). At present no immediate parallels are spotted, but once more documentation is available concerning the Early Byzantine pottery from SE1034 also these publications will be revisited.

14 ) A previous approach to analyze the small finds (bone, glass, ceramic and metal) from earlier excavations in the West City area by C. Bleier and U. Schuh should be mentioned here (s. Bleier-Schuh 2009).

15 ) Special thanks are given to Dr. A. Dolea who recognized the importance of the small finds, especially in connection with their relevance to the archaeological context.

16 ) This includes the finds from the so-called West Gate and Polis West excavations in 2011, 2012, 2016 and 2018.

17 ) Type II B 4 according to the classification of the arrowheads from Olympia by H. Baitinger (Baitinger 2001: 22-23.)

18 ) Analogous pieces are known from Pergamon. S. further Gaitzsch 2005: 141.

19 ) Some of the small-sized ‘horseshoes’ have a peculiar round or lyra shape with bent pointed end parts and one rivet. These are considered to be used for mules rather than horses (cf. especially type D, Gaitzsch 2005: 125-128.).

20 ) Some examples of analogous pieces without claim to completeness: from Early Byzantine graves in Tarshiha and el-Makr (Israeli 2000: 142, 222), in Elaiussa Sebaste (Ferrazzoli 2012: 293-294, Pl. 5.46-47) and from 10th-12th century context in Corinth (Davidson 1952: 256, 258, Cat. nr. 2073-2074, pl. 110).

21 ) S. in detail with further literature concerning the topic: Daim 2000: 185-187, Eger 2003: 337, Schulze-Dörrlamm 2009: 3-4.

22 ) We would like to express our gratitude to the excavator, U. Schuh, for sharing her results from the excavation with us.

23 ) Three buckles and a counter plate of the same type are from the collection of the Romano-Germanic Central Museum in Mainz (Schulze-Dörrlamm 2009: Cat. nr. 122-125, 156-158) and one buckle from the collection of the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum in Jerusalem (Eger 2003: Cat. nr. 1, 339-340).

24 ) For preliminary information on the building see Pülz, Ruggendorfer 2004: 57-62. On Ornimythos, especially his daughter and her office, as well as an approximate date, see Wörrle 2016: 404-428.

25 ) e.g., Brückner 2005; Brückner et al. 2008, 2017; Kraft et al. 2000, 2005, 2007, Stock et al. 2013, 2016.

26 ) e.g., Brückner et al. 2006, 2014, 2017; Müllenhoff 2005; Herda et al. 2019.

27 ) As for the general geoarchaeological research design see Brückner 2011 and Brückner & Gerlach 2011.

28 ) P. Bes (Den Haag), K. Kugler (Munich) and S. Mayer (Vienna) kindly determined the ceramic finds of our corings.

29 ) For the Jewish building: Seyer, Lotz 2014.

30 ) e.g. Blakolmer 1993; Blakolmer 2005.

31 ) Zusätzlich zu den Vorberichten in den KST und News of Archaeology from Anatolia’s Mediterranean Areas der entsprechenden Jahre s. Schuh 2012 a, Schuh 2012 b.

32 I want to express my gratitude to the deputy mayor of Finike, Mr. Cemal Kurucu OSKAY, who supported this meeting immensely.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 1: Limyra Polis West 2018
Crédits ÖAW-ÖAI/C. Kurtze
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1094/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,7M
Titre Fig. 2: Limyra West Tor 2018
Crédits ÖAW-ÖAI/C. Kurtze
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1094/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,6M
Titre Fig. 3: The toe and lower wall of an amphora in Fabric 2 presumably manufactured in southeast Lycia, found in the West Gate excavations
Crédits ÖAW-ÖAI/R. Hügli
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1094/img-3.png
Fichier image/png, 901k
Titre Fig. 4: A selection of Early Byzantine pottery (except for the small sherd in the right upper corner, which is Sagalassos Red Slip Ware) from stratigraphic unit 1034 from the Polis West excavations in 2016
Crédits ÖAW-ÖAI/R. Hügli
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1094/img-4.png
Fichier image/png, 1003k
Titre Fig. 5: West City excavations, arrowheads dated to the Late Archaic / Early Classical (left) and Late Byzantine / Ottoman (right) periods
Crédits ÖAW-ÖAI/N. Gail
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1094/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,0M
Titre Fig. 6: West Gate excavation, a cross pendant adorned with punched circle-dot ornaments
Crédits ÖAW-ÖAI/N. Gail
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1094/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,4M
Titre Fig. 7: West Gate excavation, an Early Byzantine belt buckle with fixed plate embellished with punched and openwork decoration
Crédits ÖAW-ÖAI/N. Gail
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1094/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 84k
Titre Fig. 8: Bodenfragmente von Glaskelchen der Grabung “West Gate 2018”
Crédits ÖAW-ÖAI/N. Gail, J. Kreuzer
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1094/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,8M
Titre Fig. 9: Engaged pillar capital from the upper story
Crédits ÖAW-ÖAI/R. Hügli
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1094/img-9.png
Fichier image/png, 744k
Titre Fig. 10: Locations of geoarchaeological corings of 2016 (green) and 2018 (yellow)
Crédits ÖAW-ÖAI/H. Brückner
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1094/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 356k
Titre Fig. 11: Coring Lim 31
Crédits ÖAW-ÖAI/H. Brückner
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1094/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 868k
Titre Fig. 12: Corings Lim 37-40
Crédits ÖAW-ÖAI/H. Brückner
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1094/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 800k
Titre Fig. 13: Coring Lim 34
Crédits ÖAW-ÖAI/H. Brückner
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1094/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 996k
Titre Fig. 14: Coring Lim 35
Crédits ÖAW-ÖAI/H. Brückner
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1094/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 852k
Titre Fig. 15: Hellenistic fine ware from the slope house excavation (1-3), Necropolis V (5-6) and some other selected graves (4)
Crédits ÖAI/ÖAW/K. Kugler
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1094/img-15.png
Fichier image/png, 41k
Titre Fig. 16: „Rote Keramik“ aus Limyra
Crédits ÖAW-ÖAI/R. Hügli
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1094/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,9M
Titre Fig. 17: Part of the northern wall of the West-City of Limyra
Crédits ÖAW-ÖAI/M. Seyer
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1094/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 7,6M
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Martin Seyer, Alexandra Dolea, Philip Misha Bes, David Zs. Schwarcz, Selda Baybo, A. K. L. Leung, Ursula Quatember, Michael Wörrle, Helmut Brückner, Friederike Stock, Anna Symanczyk, Günther Stanzl, Kathrin Kugler et Banu Yener-Marksteiner, « The Excavation at Limyra/Lycia 2018: Preliminary Report »Anatolia Antiqua, XXVII | 2019, 233-254.

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Martin Seyer, Alexandra Dolea, Philip Misha Bes, David Zs. Schwarcz, Selda Baybo, A. K. L. Leung, Ursula Quatember, Michael Wörrle, Helmut Brückner, Friederike Stock, Anna Symanczyk, Günther Stanzl, Kathrin Kugler et Banu Yener-Marksteiner, « The Excavation at Limyra/Lycia 2018: Preliminary Report »Anatolia Antiqua [En ligne], XXVII | 2019, mis en ligne le 31 janvier 2022, consulté le 20 mai 2024. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/1094 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/anatoliaantiqua.1094

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Auteurs

Martin Seyer

Austrian Archaeological Institute – Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna

Articles du même auteur

Alexandra Dolea

Austrian Archaeological Institute – Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna

Articles du même auteur

Philip Misha Bes

Independent researcher, Den Haag

David Zs. Schwarcz

University of Vienna

Selda Baybo

Independent researcher, Antalya

A. K. L. Leung

University of Graz

Ursula Quatember

University of Graz

Michael Wörrle

Kommission für Alte Geschichte und Epigraphik des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Munich

Helmut Brückner

Institute of Geography, University of Cologne

Articles du même auteur

Friederike Stock

German Federal Institute of Hydrology, Koblenz

Articles du même auteur

Anna Symanczyk

Institute of Geography, University of Cologne

Günther Stanzl

Mainz

Kathrin Kugler

Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich

Articles du même auteur

Banu Yener-Marksteiner

Independent researcher, Vienna

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