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Chroniques des travaux archéologiques en Turquie 2018

A Günsenin IV Amphora from Küçükyalı

Nergis Günsenin
p. 279-284

Dédicace

Her ölüm, giden için de kalan için de çok zordur. Giden bir daha yoktur, kalana da o acı yokluk kalır. Sonra o klasik cümle kurulur ; “yeri doldurulamayacak bir insandı” !
Aksel Tibet, gerçekten, yeri doldurulamayacak bir insandı. Biz dostlarını o yeri doldurulamayacak yokluğuyla baş başa bırakıp, her zamanki efendiliğiyle, göçtü gitti aramızdan… O bilgi dolu sohbetleri, her soruma verdiği cevapları, uzun öğle yemeği molalarımızı, birbirimize “mirim” diye hitaplarımızı çok arıyorum. IFEA’nın ortak araştırmacısı olduğum 1992 yılı itibariyle başlayan dostluğumuz halen devam ediyor ! Enstitüye girip de O’nu anmamak mümkün mü ? Her öğleden sonra, Aksel’in ofisinin bulunduğu katta kahve yaparken, O’na doğru döner sorarım yine, “Mirim sana da kahve yapayım mı ?”…
Son akademik işbirliğimiz, Küçükyalı ArkeoPark (KYAP) amphora buluntuları (Günsenin ve Ricci) ve Günsenin amphora tipolojisi ile ilgili yazdığım makaleler sırasındaydı. Her iki çalışma da, Anatolia Antiqua XXVI’da (2018), 26 Ocak 2019’da aramızdan ayrılan değerli dostum merhum Aksel Tibet’in titiz editörlüğü sayesinde yayınlanmıştır.
Elinizdeki bu makaleyi KYAP’a tekrar dikkat çekmek ve merhum Tibet’i saygı, sevgi ve özlemle anmak için, “yeniden bir özet şeklinde”, yazmak istedim. Çünkü, kazı alanını son ziyaretim kendisiyle birlikte olmuştu!

Texte intégral

I thank Dr. Alessandra Ricci for informing me of the findings and Mrs. Zeynep Kızıltan, director of the Istanbul Archaeological Museums, for permission to publish them. The restoration and drawings of the amphora were made by professional conservator Taner Özgür.

From left to right: Alessandra Ricci, Frederick van Doorninck, Jr., Nergis Günsenin, late Aksel Tibet. August 2018 – Küçükyalı ArkeoPark

From left to right: Alessandra Ricci, Frederick van Doorninck, Jr., Nergis Günsenin, late Aksel Tibet. August 2018 – Küçükyalı ArkeoPark

Photo: Danielle Ricci

1During the 2015 excavation season at the Küçükyalı ArkeoPark (KYAP), under the direction of the Istanbul Archaeological Museums and with the scientific coordination of Alessandra Ricci, two ‘Günsenin IV’ amphoras were found. The smaller one emerged in a Late Byzantine chamber located in the southeastern corner of the monastery platform to the west of a tower. The second and larger one was retrieved in the northeastern end of the platform. There, a poorly executed calcareous floor had a second Günsenin IV embedded in it. The amphora underwent restoration and was displayed at the exhibition “Layer by Layer. Excavation of the Anatolian side of Istanbul, Aydos, Dragos, Küçükyalı, Pendik, Samandıra”. This article provides the opportunity to present preliminary data about the scientific results of research related to one of the two recently discovered amphoras, the larger one located in the northeastern portion of the platform (Fig. 1a-b). I was motivated to study the findings not only because of the importance of the site, but also to express my appreciation for the ArkeoPark project, which has adopted a conscious approach to our cultural heritage and is operated in cooperation with the neighboring community, particularly its children.

Fig. 1a-b: Kücükyalı (Istanbul) 2015 excavation season, platform area, plan and find spot of Günsenin IV amphora; zenithal view of same area. Günsenin and Ricci 2018: 130, Fig. 3a and 137, Fig.17

Fig. 1a-b: Kücükyalı (Istanbul) 2015 excavation season, platform area, plan and find spot of Günsenin IV amphora; zenithal view of same area. Günsenin and Ricci 2018: 130, Fig. 3a and 137, Fig.17

Drawing prepared by B. Sulamacı and G. Günay with the supervision of A. Ricci; photo: KYAP archive

2The author’s PhD dissertation, defended in 1990, established the typology, production places, and distribution of the last period of Byzantine amphoras, from the tenth to the thirteenth century. Reproduced but not formally published, it has since become one of the classification handbooks most frequently referenced by colleagues interested in Byzantine amphoras (Günsenin 1990). Its classification of Byzantine amphoras according to twenty-eight types (thirty-seven types including the sub-types) has become universally adopted, and the author’s surname, Günsenin, is now used to refer to the various classes and types of related amphoras. More recently, a shortened version of the author’s PhD dissertation became available in printed form (Günsenin 2018).

3The Günsenin IV amphora presented in this article is one of the four main types from the last period of Byzantine amphoras (Fig. 2a-b). The chronological transition between each of these four types reveals a logical evolution of form (Günsenin 2018: 92, Fig. 1) following the established classification and diffusion of type IV (Günsenin 1990 (note 2): 31-34). In light of the new discoveries, the distribution map of the amphoras is enlarging (Günsenin 2018: 97, Fig. 3).

Fig. 2a-b: Kücükyalı (Istanbul) 2015 excavation season, platform area, Günsenin IV amphora after conservation; drawing of Günsenin IV amphora. Günsenin and Ricci 2018: 129, Fig. 2

Fig. 2a-b: Kücükyalı (Istanbul) 2015 excavation season, platform area, Günsenin IV amphora after conservation; drawing of Günsenin IV amphora. Günsenin and Ricci 2018: 129, Fig. 2

Conservation and drawing by T. Özgür, photo: KYAP archive

4Byzantine amphoras, in terms of their forms and socio-economic development, show differences from their predecessors. Beginning in the Late Roman period, the bodies become rounded and ornamented with grooves, and the knobs at the bottom of earlier examples disappear. The amphoras produced to a certain standard in Roman times begin to appear in the eleventh century, in different dimensions of the same types as seen earlier. Different capacities of the amphoras are multiples of some standard unit of capacity. The production of amphoras during Greek and Roman times was usually regional. The vessels possessed monogram stamps indicating the place of production and the ruler at that time, providing evidence of systematic taxation. In contrast, during Byzantine times, when Christianity was expanding, the production of wine—the original contents of the Küçükyalı amphora—was under the monopoly of the monasteries. Wine produced by monasteries, and by the villages dependent on them, was consumed locally, but the surplus of production began to be sold for profit. Although written documents state that the production and commerce of wine was carried out by the monasteries, these texts do not reveal anything about the organization of production and commerce as it concerned amphoras related to viticulture, most likely because the monasteries did not wish to declare their income to the central administration. As a result, there was no systematic stamping system used for the amphoras.

5The most important characteristic of the Küçükyalı amphora studied is the stamping on both handles (Fig. 3a-d), indicating that it did in fact belong to a system. Most exciting is that these monograms represent one of the types found on the amphoras discovered in the cargo of the Çamaltı Burnu I shipwreck off the coast of Marmara Island. Excavation of the wreck took place in 1998-2004, and the ceramic findings date the ship’s cargo to the thirteenth century (Günsenin and Özaydın 2000 : 341-350 ; Günsenin 2001a : 117-33 ; Günsenin 2001b : 252-256 ; Günsenin 2002 : 391-399 ; Günsenin and Özaydın 2002 : 381-390 ; Günsenin 2003 : 361-376 ; Günsenin 2004 : 31-38 ; Günsenin 2005 : 118-123 ; Günsenin 2010 : 151-153). The amphoras also date to the thirteenth and fourteenth century according to the author’s typology.

Fig. 3a-d: Kücükyalı (Istanbul) 2015 excavation season platform area, Günsenin IV amphora, details and drawings of monograms on the handles. Günsenin and Ricci 2018: 131, Figs 4a-b-c-d

Fig. 3a-d: Kücükyalı (Istanbul) 2015 excavation season platform area, Günsenin IV amphora, details and drawings of monograms on the handles. Günsenin and Ricci 2018: 131, Figs 4a-b-c-d

Drawings by T. Özgür, photo: KYAP archive

6Ricci writes that the Küçükyalı excavation site is the monastery of Satyros, built by Patriarch Ignatios in the years 867-877. The small objects found in the excavation site date to the between fourth and seventh centuries and point to a pre-monastery life. Two coins found belonging to the times of Andronicus II (1282-1328) and Andronicus III (1328-1341) reveal that the settlement was active until the fourteenth century (Ricci 2012: 147-61; Ricci 2019a: 129-140; Ricci 2019b).

7During the fourteenth century, amphoras were replaced by wooden barrels. The amphoras at the Çamaltı Burnu I wreck, with their large bodies, thin walls, and capacities up to about 128 liters, reflect this transition period. They have monograms on the handles where they meet the body and are in several sizes, as seen in Late Byzantine amphoras. The vitis vinifera (grape seeds) found in sediment analysis and the resin found on the interior walls of the amphoras indicate that the cargo was wine, revealing that the wine trade continued in the Late Byzantine period.

8As noted above, the Küçükyalı amphora was found on the platform of the complex (Fig. 1a-b). Although it is broken (Fig. 4), the vessel’s capacity was calculated mathematically as 126 liters, making it one of the largest in comparison with other examples.

Fig. 4: Kücükyalı (Istanbul) 2015 excavation season, platform area, Günsenin IV amphora in situ. Günsenin and Ricci 2018: 130, Fig. 3b

Fig. 4: Kücükyalı (Istanbul) 2015 excavation season, platform area, Günsenin IV amphora in situ. Günsenin and Ricci 2018: 130, Fig. 3b

Photo: KYAP Archive

  • 1 The project titledProgress of the Final Publication of Çamaltı Burnu I Shipwreck Excavation” was (...)
  • 2 Cf. recently discovered amphorae and their archaeological context in Günsenin and Ricci: 2018.

9The final publication of the Çamaltı Burnu I wreck is ongoing1, and therefore the story of its voyage has not yet been concluded. Presumably, the ship was loaded from one of the monasteries on the northwestern coast of the Sea of Marmara. The discovery of the amphora at the Küçükyalı monastery, an ecclesiastic complex, raises several questions: How did an amphora produced for the cargo of the ship wrecked at Çamaltı Burnu reach Küçükyalı? Was there communication between the monasteries at each location? Will there be other amphoras discovered as excavation continues? This last question is receiving a positive answer as more Günsenin IV are being discovered at Küçükyalı2.

10Hence, I would find it useful in the coming years to enlarge the excavation area, in order to investigate in depth the Küçükyalı monastery’s relationship to the likely nearby harbor and its related sea routes.

Abbreviations

11ANAMED Koç Üniversitesi Anadolu Medeniyetleri Araştırma Merkezi

12KUDAR Mustafa V. Koç Deniz Arkeolojisi Araştırma Merkezi

13KST Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı

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Bibliographie

Günsenin, N., 1990 : Les amphores byzantines (Xe-XIIIe siècles) : typologie, production, circulation d’après les collections turques, Université Paris I (Panthéon-Sorbonne), Paris, Atelier national de reproduction des thèses de Lille III.

Günsenin, N. and Özaydın, N., 2000 : “Marmara Adası, Çamaltı Burnu I Batığı 1998”, KST 21, Ankara : 341-350.

Günsenin, N., 2001a : “L’épave de Çamaltı Burnu I (île de Marmara, Proconnèse) : résultats des années 1998-2000”, Anatolia Antiqua IX : 117-133.

Günsenin, N., 2001b : “Çamaltı Burnu I Wreck”, in Belli, O. (ed.), Istanbul University’s Contributions to Archaeology in Turkey 1932-2000, Istanbul : 252-256.

Günsenin, N., 2002 : “Çamaltı Burnu I Wreck - 98/99 Field Seasons”, in Tzalas, H. (ed.), VIIth International Symposium on Ship Construction in Antiquity, Tropis VII, Athens : 391-399.

Günsenin, N. et Özaydın, N., 2002 : “Marmara Adası, Çamaltı Burnu I Batığı-1999/2000”, KST 23, Ankara : 381-390.

Günsenin, N., 2003 : “L’épave de Çamaltı Burnu I (île de Marmara, Proconnèse) : résultats des années 2001-2002”, Anatolia Antiqua XI : 361-376.

Günsenin, N., 2004 : “Underwater Archaeological Research in the Sea of Marmara”, in Akal, T., Balard, R. D., and Bass, G. F. (eds.), The Application of Recent Advances in Underwater Detection and Survey Techniques to Underwater Archaeology, Istanbul : 31-38.

Günsenin, N., 2005 : “A 13th-Century Wine Carrier : Çamaltı Burnu, Turkey”, in Bass, G. (ed.), Archaeology Beneath the Seven Seas, Thames and Hudson, England : 118-123.

Günsenin, N., 2010 : “The Construction of a Monastic Ship ( ?) in the Sea of Marmara : Çamaltı Burnu I Wreck”, in Pomey, P. (ed.), Transferts technologiques en architecture navale méditerranéenne de l’Antiquité aux temps modernes : identité technique et identité culturelle, Varia Anatolica XX, Paris : 151-153.

Günsenin, N., 2018 : “La typologie des amphores Günsenin. Un mise au point nouvelle”, Anatolia Antiqua XXVI : 89-124.

Günsenin, N. and Ricci, A., 2018 : “Les amphores Günsenin IV à Küçükyalı (Istanbul) : Un voyage entre monastères ?”, Anatolia Antiqua XXVI : 125-139.

Ricci, A., 2012: Left behind: small sized objects from the Middle Byzantine complex of Satyros (Küçükyalı, Istanbul), in BYZAS 15, Böhlendorf-Arslan, B. and Ricci, A., Istanbul, Ege Yayınları: 147-61.

Ricci, A., 2019a: Maneviyat, geçim ve ticaret: Orta ve Geç Bizans döneminde Satyros manastırı (Küçükyalı, İstanbul) / Tra spiritualità, sussistenza e scambio: il monastero di Satyros (Küçükyalı, Istanbul) nei periodi Medio e Tardo bizantino, Arkeoloji ve Sanat 160 Ocak - Nisan: 129-140.

Ricci, A., 2019b: “The Küçükyalı Arkeopark (Istanbul), 2016-2018: Excavation, Conservation, Cultural Heritage and Public Archaeology”, Anatolia Antiqua XXVII: in this volume 253-275.

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Notes

1 The project titledProgress of the Final Publication of Çamaltı Burnu I Shipwreck Excavation” was granted by ANAMED-KUDAR fellowship for the academic year 2019/2020. I thank both centers for their support.

2 Cf. recently discovered amphorae and their archaeological context in Günsenin and Ricci: 2018.

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Table des illustrations

Titre From left to right: Alessandra Ricci, Frederick van Doorninck, Jr., Nergis Günsenin, late Aksel Tibet. August 2018 – Küçükyalı ArkeoPark
Crédits Photo: Danielle Ricci
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1281/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 434k
Titre Fig. 1a-b: Kücükyalı (Istanbul) 2015 excavation season, platform area, plan and find spot of Günsenin IV amphora; zenithal view of same area. Günsenin and Ricci 2018: 130, Fig. 3a and 137, Fig.17
Crédits Drawing prepared by B. Sulamacı and G. Günay with the supervision of A. Ricci; photo: KYAP archive
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1281/img-2.png
Fichier image/png, 497k
Titre Fig. 2a-b: Kücükyalı (Istanbul) 2015 excavation season, platform area, Günsenin IV amphora after conservation; drawing of Günsenin IV amphora. Günsenin and Ricci 2018: 129, Fig. 2
Crédits Conservation and drawing by T. Özgür, photo: KYAP archive
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1281/img-3.png
Fichier image/png, 1,3M
Titre Fig. 3a-d: Kücükyalı (Istanbul) 2015 excavation season platform area, Günsenin IV amphora, details and drawings of monograms on the handles. Günsenin and Ricci 2018: 131, Figs 4a-b-c-d
Crédits Drawings by T. Özgür, photo: KYAP archive
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1281/img-4.png
Fichier image/png, 1,8M
Titre Fig. 4: Kücükyalı (Istanbul) 2015 excavation season, platform area, Günsenin IV amphora in situ. Günsenin and Ricci 2018: 130, Fig. 3b
Crédits Photo: KYAP Archive
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1281/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 707k
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Pour citer cet article

Référence papier

Nergis Günsenin, « A Günsenin IV Amphora from Küçükyalı »Anatolia Antiqua, XXVII | 2019, 279-284.

Référence électronique

Nergis Günsenin, « A Günsenin IV Amphora from Küçükyalı »Anatolia Antiqua [En ligne], XXVII | 2019, mis en ligne le 30 janvier 2022, consulté le 16 juillet 2024. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/1281 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/anatoliaantiqua.1281

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Auteur

Nergis Günsenin

Emeritus Istanbul Üniversitesi-Cerrahpaşa, Teknik Bilimler Meslek Yüksekokulu, Motorlu Araçlar ve Ulaştırma Teknolojileri Bölümü, Sualtı Teknolojisi Program Başkanı, Büyükçekmece Yerleşkesi, Istanbul
ngunsenin@superonline.com

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