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Chroniques des travaux archéologiques en Turquie 2019

Excavations at the Old City, Fortress, and Mound of Van: 2019 Season

Erkan Konyar
p. 183-199

Texte intégral

This work was supported by Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Istanbul University (Project no: SLO-2018-30509-SAB-2017-25480), Ministry of Culture and Tourism, General Directorate of Cultural Heritage and Museums – DÖSİMM and AYGAZ. We would like to thank all the organizations, which contributed to the excavation.

Fig. 1: Architectural phases at the Van Fortress Mound

Fig. 1: Architectural phases at the Van Fortress Mound

Fig. 2: Van Fortress Mound, orthophoto of the Urartian buildings in Area A

Fig. 2: Van Fortress Mound, orthophoto of the Urartian buildings in Area A

1The Van Fortress Mound lies along the north of the capital Tušpa Citadel. During the 2019 season on the mound, excavation and documentation of the Urartian building complex that was first unearthed in previous years has been completed. Measuring 20 x 20.50 meters, the building complex stands out with its columned hall, among other aspects. Consisting of a cellar, a work area, a front entrance, and a columned hall, it provides new insights into the layout of the Urartian lower settlements both in terms of its complete excavation and documentation, and the recovered in situ finds. During the 2019 season, Medieval/Modern Age, Post-Urartian/Iron Age, Urartian, Early Iron Age, and Bronze Age layers have been investigated as well (Fig. 1). The main focus was to gain an in-depth understanding of the construction and use phases during the Urartian period in the area between the structures to the west of the mound and the building complex with the columned hall (Fig. 2).

Late Medieval and Modern Age Cemetery

2It is known that the latest level of the Van Fortress Mound belongs to a cemetery that was used from the end of the Medieval to the Modern Age (Konyar, 2012, pp. 413-415; Konyar & Avcı et al., 2013, p. 194, Fig. 2). This later use of the mound as a cemetery resulted in the destruction of the Medieval and Late Iron Age layers underneath and the Urartian layers on the slopes. During the 2019 season, three simple Late Medieval/Modern Age earthen graves covered with flagstones were excavated in the trenches M22 and N23. One of these flagstone-covered graves is located in the southwest of trench N23. Two children were buried in this grave (Fig. 3). They were buried lying in a west-east orientation with their heads facing slightly towards the north and their hands placed right above their pelvises. Their skulls were found in a badly preserved state.

Fig. 3: Van Fortress Mound, infant burials from the Late Medieval/Modern Age cemetery

Fig. 3: Van Fortress Mound, infant burials from the Late Medieval/Modern Age cemetery

3The large Medieval pit in the northern slope of the mound caused severe destruction of the earlier levels in the trenches M22 and M23. It is understood that this pit destroyed and mixed the Post-Urartian layer in this part of the mound. In the east sections of both trenches, it is visible that this large pit was dug to extract soil for kerpiç production by the inhabitants of the surrounding settlements during the Medieval period, and has multiple phases within. The pit yielded Medieval period pithoi sherds, glazed and unglazed ceramics, and also various mixed ceramic fragments dating to the Bronze and Iron ages.

Post Urartian/Late Iron Age Periods

4Architectural remains dating to the Post Urartian/Late Iron Age periods across the mound had been excavated in recent years. The Post Urartian/Late Iron Age layers were investigated in 2019 as well, in the trenches M23-24 and N23-24. The Post Urartian fill lies right above the Urartian level. It is understood that in this area the Urartian layer was flattened during the Post Urartian period and the area was in continuous use. In accordance with the earlier findings, the Post Urartian fill is light brown/orange. In the trenches M24 and N24, a Post Urartian kerpiç wall, measuring 10 meters in length and 1 meter in width, lying in the north-south direction, and a floor associated with this wall, were unearthed. The cream-slipped and painted pottery sherds found with these architectural remains are important with regard to the chronology of this layer.

5A badly preserved skull belonging to this phase was found in the upper levels of the entrance of the north-western room of the Urartian building complex. A bronze earring was also found with this skull.

Fig. 4: Van Fortress Mound, Iron Age burial layer in Area A, a semi-hocker burial

Fig. 4: Van Fortress Mound, Iron Age burial layer in Area A, a semi-hocker burial

6Also, a hocker burial was found in one of the western back rooms of the Urartian building complex. This individual was buried in the outer part of the western wall of the middle room in this part of the complex (Fig. 4). Found in a semi-hocker position, the skeletal remains belonged possibly to a male individual; however, its skull was not found. Next to this burial, a ribbed plate that was cut from its half, as well as cream-slipped Late Iron Age ceramics, were found. A similar ribbed plate was also found in 2018 with a female individual buried in semi-hocker position nearby the western wall of the columned hall. The presence of comparable plates, that were properly cut in half, in some of the hocker burials in the Van Fortress Mound indicates that it was a common burial practice during this period. No architectural remains were encountered in the Post Urartian/Late Iron Age layers of the trench N23 this season; however, painted pottery sherds and cream-slipped body sherds were found (Konyar & Genç et al., 2017, p. 130). An identical example of the cream-slipped and red and black decorated ceramic fragment, that was found in the light brown/orange coloured Post Urartian fill, comes from the Post Urartian layer of the Karagündüz Mound (Sevin, 2012, pp. 363-364).

Urartian Period: The Building Complex No. 2

7The 2019 season work on the mound resulted with the complete excavation of the two-phased Urartian building complex (Building No. 2) in the western section of Area A. The major part of the Urartian Building No. I that extends towards the eastern sections of Area A was unearthed during the excavations between 1989-1991 (Tarhan & Sevin, 1991, p. 433; Tarhan & Sevin, 1992, p. 1088; Tarhan & Sevin, 1993, p. 410), and its eastern part was excavated during the 2010-2016 seasons (Konyar, 2018). The building has kerpiç walls made of blocks ranging between 48-50 x 30 cm in dimension and 10-12 cm in thickness with stone foundations of three or four lines of crudely worked stones. The building complex measuring 20 x 20.50 meters with a square plan consists of 10 units (Figs. 5, 6). In the center is a hall with a column in each corner. To the south and north of this hall are narrow work areas/halls that are about the same length as the columned hall. In the eastern sector of this building complex are four rooms that are connected through door openings and in the western part are three more rooms that are connected again with door openings. The inner and outer walls have about the same thickness and 1.20 meters in length.

Fig. 5: Van Fortress Mound, eastern section of Area A, Urartian Building No. 2

Fig. 5: Van Fortress Mound, eastern section of Area A, Urartian Building No. 2

Fig. 6: Van Fortress Mound, plan of the Urartian buildings

Fig. 6: Van Fortress Mound, plan of the Urartian buildings

8The structural aspects and architectural details of the units in the building complex can be evaluated in three different groups. The first group consists of the four small rooms in the easternmost part of the complex. The second group is the columned hall in the center and the halls with the same length on its each side. The third group is the three-roomed section in the west of the complex.

9Room No. 1 in the northernmost part of the eastern group measures 3.10 x 4.20 meters. The floor was paved with packed mud lying on a foundation of pebble stones. On the floor, silo pits and hearth remains were found, which indicate that the room was used as a work area (Fig. 7). Three adjacent rooms are located to the south of this room. Each room is connected through door openings. These rooms measure 3.00 x 2.60 (Room No. 2), 3.20 x 3.00 (Room No. 3), and 3.50 x 3.00 (Room No. 4) meters. A clay silo that narrows towards its top with a preserved height of 80 cm was found in the north-eastern corner of Room No. 3. These small rooms also functioned as a front entrance to the columned hall and the large halls. With these aspects, the three rooms to the south of the complex (Rooms No. 2, 3, 4) show similarities with each other.

Fig. 7: Urartian Building No. 2, eastern section 1, Room No. 1

Fig. 7: Urartian Building No. 2, eastern section 1, Room No. 1

Fig. 8: Urartian Building No. 2, silo to the east of Room No. 1

Fig. 8: Urartian Building No. 2, silo to the east of Room No. 1

10To the east of the northernmost Room No. 1 is the small silo room (Fig. 8). In north-south direction this unit measures 2.90 meters, while it is 2.50 meters in the east-west direction. The in situ finds inside this room, such as pottery and storage vessels, suggest its use as a small storage unit for daily activities.

11A stone-paved courtyard area is located in the east of the abovementioned building group (Fig. 9). This stone-paved area with a drainage channel below belongs to the late phase of this level and is 5.90-meter long in the north-south direction. Its preserved width, widening to its south and east in some parts, is about 3 meters. The floor was paved with small pebbles, in some parts with three lines, indicating flattening and maintenance activities.

Fig. 9: Urartian Building No. 2, Rooms No. 1 and 2, and the stone-paved courtyard to the east of the building

Fig. 9: Urartian Building No. 2, Rooms No. 1 and 2, and the stone-paved courtyard to the east of the building

Fig. 10: Urartian Building No. 2, two distinct arrangements observed in the foundation of the building

Fig. 10: Urartian Building No. 2, two distinct arrangements observed in the foundation of the building

12The foundation remains of this four-roomed section in the easternmost part of the building complex provide solid evidence that this Urartian structure had two phases. There are two visible distinct phases in the construction of the foundation. Walls belonging to different phases of the rooms and the halls were set upon each other in a different axis that shifts for a few degrees (Fig. 10). Walls of the earlier phase were built with larger stones in three lines whereas the later phase walls were made of smaller flat stones. The axis of the later phase walls shifts for 10-15 cm in the northwest-southeast direction. The floors and finds from both phases indicate that they belong to the Urartian period.

13The rectangular halls lying parallel to each other in the west-east axis in the middle of the building complex are reached through these rooms and suggest a functional difference with regard to their layout and in situ finds. The columned hall (No. 6) in the center of the complex has a rectangular plan in a west-east orientation and measures 9.00 x 7.00 meters (Fig. 11). The walls were made of kerpiç on a stone foundation, measuring 1.20 meters in width with a preserved height of about 1.20-1.50 meters. In front of the northern wall of the hall, is a 7.30-meter long, 60-cm wide and 50-cm high bench. This bench was built with stones of varying thicknesses that were placed in rows on top of each other. Near each corner of the hall, column bases were placed. These column bases measure 50-51 cm in diameter. In the center of the hall, there is a base measuring 35 cm in diameter, which possibly belonged to a wooden column. During the excavations in the western section of the mound in 1991, a similar column base was found inside a room as well (Tarhan & Sevin, 1992, p. 424, Figure 17).

Fig. 11: Urartian Building No. 2, columned hall

Fig. 11: Urartian Building No. 2, columned hall

Fig. 12: Urartian Building No. 2, Room No. 5

Fig. 12: Urartian Building No. 2, Room No. 5

14Through a 90-cm wide door opening on the northeast of the columned hall, another room is reached in the north. This hall (No. 5) is also connected to Room No. 1, the northernmost room of the group of rooms to the east of the complex, with a door opening. The hall measures 9.00 x 4.00 meters and reveals a stratigraphy where the two construction and use phases of the building complex can be tracked (Fig. 12). Each construction phase can be observed through the superimposed 3-4 layers of the stone foundation. The packed mud layers between the construction phases of the northern and southern walls of the hall and the collapsed kerpiç debris in some areas are noteworthy. These data indicate that in some sections of the building complex the walls of the earlier phase were levelled and new walls were constructed in the same axis. In some walls of the eastern room group, on the other hand, the walls of the earlier phase were renewed with a slight change of axis. Also, the long kerpiç walls with stone foundations in the hall, were repaired and renewed with smaller stones and kerpiç blocks.

15To the west of this hall, in an area measuring about 4.00 x 4.00 meters, a dense layer consisting of pottery, sherds and fragments were uncovered (Fig. 13). This layer includes red, shiny slipped ware, multiple rim fragments of brown and red/brown-slipped ware with pink outer surfaces, fragments that belong to 7 pithoi that have a rim diameter of about 40-42 cm and a length of 60-65 cm, various storage bowls with a long and thin form, egg-shaped bodies, and 1 to 3 holes in their bases, stone bowls, and grinding stones. The spatial distribution of different fragments belonging to the same pottery inside the room and various colours these fragments acquired due to their exposure to heat in different temperatures, indicate a collapse and destruction event in this area. Also, the presence of repaired bowls, bronze rings and fragments, and seals within this pottery cluster relates to a collapse and destruction event that occurred after their initial use inside the room. The finds from this room belonging to the Late Urartian building phase give insights into its use and function. The scattered fragments of various bowls, pithoi, stone bowls, grinding stones, the hearth, and cereal samples recovered around the hearth provide clues about the daily uses of this room.

Fig. 13: Urartian Building No. 2, state of the finds from Room No. 5

Fig. 13: Urartian Building No. 2, state of the finds from Room No. 5

Fig. 14: Urartian Building No. 2, Rooms No. 8, 9 and 10 in Section 3 to the west of the complex

Fig. 14: Urartian Building No. 2, Rooms No. 8, 9 and 10 in Section 3 to the west of the complex

16To the west of the columned hall is the third section of the building complex (Fig. 14). Three more rooms dating to the Urartian period were excavated in this area, each located adjacent to each other the in a north-south direction. The thickness of the walls is about 120 cm. The rooms are 95 cm wide and 110-120 cm deep, and are connected through door openings. The southern wall of the southernmost room (No. 10) in this section is destroyed due to a present-day road crossing from this part of the mound. This room measures 5.50 x 3.50 meters. The walls have a preserved height of about 1.10 meters and were built with kerpiç blocks placed on a foundation of three lines of stone. The northern wall has a door opening and a small, carved stone was found to the left of the inner face of the wall inside the room, to which the door pivot was possibly placed. Through a door opening on the northern wall of this room, another room is reached. This room (No. 9) measures 3.20 x 3.70 meters. On the floor of this room, a “U” shaped hearth was found adjacent to the western wall. The hearth was made from mud and measures 70 x 70 cm.

17The northernmost Urartian room (No. 8) has a rectangular plan in the north-south orientation. The room measures 6.00 x 3.70 meters and, as it was also observed from the section of its western wall, there was a thick burned and ashy layer on its floor that was possibly related to a burning event. A 1.80-meter wide door opening on the western wall of this room connects it to the courtyard/open area located to its west.

Fig. 15: A selection of pottery from Urartian Building No. 2

Fig. 15: A selection of pottery from Urartian Building No. 2

Fig. 16: Metal finds, the clay tablet and bulla, and the inscribed bowl fragment from Urartian Building No. 2

Fig. 16: Metal finds, the clay tablet and bulla, and the inscribed bowl fragment from Urartian Building No. 2

18The in situ finds from this building complex suggest its use as a dwelling of Urartian royals (Figs. 15, 16). The small rooms and the pottery fragments, storage bowls, silo, hearth, tandır oven, and remains of wheat, barley, and animals indicate its domestic function. The cuneiform tablet, bullae, bullhead shaped applique, as well as some of the pottery fragments and numerous seals found in this building complex, on the other hand, points that its residents were involved in administrative activities. The bronze ornaments, some pottery fragments that could be defined as Urartian palatial ware, and some special bowl types are among other finds strengthening this suggestion.

19During the 2019 work, the outer wall of the building complex was excavated. The wall is 1.30 meters thick and borders the building from the west. Adjacent to the west of the wall is a 1.80-meters wide door entrance, which was blocked from the outside. During the course of excavations, it was understood that this section belonged to a drainage channel that was covered with flagstones. The channel lies parallel to the west wall of the building in the north-south direction and measures 3.10 meters in length with a width that reaches 1.50 meters in some areas. It is 60 cm high and was made of three lines of stones (Fig. 17). From the inside, it is 45 cm wide and 37 cm high. The upper fill of this channel was completed with stones of various sizes as well as pithoi and pottery fragments. This arrangement seems to have functioned as a basement as well to prevent water accumulation in front of the entrance of the building.

Fig. 17: Northern section of the stone drainage channel to the west of Urartian Building No. 2

Fig. 17: Northern section of the stone drainage channel to the west of Urartian Building No. 2

Fig. 18: Southern section of the stone drainage channel to the west of Urartian Building No. 2

Fig. 18: Southern section of the stone drainage channel to the west of Urartian Building No. 2

20The continuation of this channel was investigated towards the south and another channel was uncovered in the southwest section of the building complex. The channel was built adjacent to the outer wall of room No. 10 and was covered with stones as well (Fig. 18). There is also another arc-shaped, 3.20-meter long open drainage channel between the northern channel line and the southern channel line. The channel line on the south has a rectangular plan, measures 3.50 x 1.80 meters, and was built with five rows of stones. The inner area of this channel measures 35 cm in width and 37 cm in height. It was filled with stones of various sizes and ceramic fragments. This fill was removed, and the channel was documented and drawn, and then refilled with this fill. The outer wall of the channel facing north has a half-elliptical inclination. This indicates that both channels were flowing to the south.

21The channel line that was designed and built to protect the rear wall of this Urartian building complex with 10 rooms including a columned hall belongs to the Late Urartian building phase. During the earlier phase, the arc-like channel was built to protect the rear walls of the building, which was later rebuilt with stones on top of the earlier one during the Late Urartian building phase (Fig. 19). The arc-like drainage opening between the stone covered channel line to the south and north was filled and levelled with small stones with an inclination to prevent water to flood into the building’s foundations (Fig. 20).

Fig. 19: General view of the channel to the west of Urartian Building No. 2

Fig. 19: General view of the channel to the west of Urartian Building No. 2

Fig. 20: Isolation arrangement made of pebble stones in the bottom of the outer western wall of Urartian Building No. 2

Fig. 20: Isolation arrangement made of pebble stones in the bottom of the outer western wall of Urartian Building No. 2

22Several Urartian objects were found, complete or fragmented, scattered in the area around the channel to the west of the Urartian building and on the Late Urartian floor in the open area in front of it. Two broken snake-headed bracelets (one was intentionally twisted) (Fig. 21), bronze fragments of various sizes that belong to a belt that was found scattered, ring-shaped bronze pieces, a decorative object made of diorite, complete and broken beads, and bowl fragments are noteworthy.

Fig. 21: Snake-headed bronze bracelets found in the courtyard in the west of Urartian Building No. 2

Fig. 21: Snake-headed bronze bracelets found in the courtyard in the west of Urartian Building No. 2

Fig. 22: Dot incised bronze belt fragment found in the courtyard in the west of Urartian Building No. 2

Fig. 22: Dot incised bronze belt fragment found in the courtyard in the west of Urartian Building No. 2

23During the course of this year’s work on the mound, numerous bronze belt fragments in various sizes were found as well. Bronze belts are important components of Urartian material culture and had been found in excavations in Urartian fortresses and necropolises. Their presence in the lower settlement on the mound is important in this respect. Various scenes and motifs were depicted on such the belts; the examples found on the mound were decorated only with dot motifs (Fig. 22). Examples with similar decorations and techniques have been observed in various studies (Kellner, 1991a, pp. 72-79, Abb. 20-21; Kellner, 1991b, p. 159, Fig. 15)

24After the documentation of the fill and the floor level of the Late Urartian building phase in the west of the complex, the Early Urartian phase fill was investigated. Pottery fragments, bronze pieces, beads, an obsidian arrowhead, and an iron arrowhead were found in this fill.

Fig. 23: Pithos rim fragment with cuneiform inscription “belongs to Argishti” found in the courtyard in the west of Urartian Building No. 2

Fig. 23: Pithos rim fragment with cuneiform inscription “belongs to Argishti” found in the courtyard in the west of Urartian Building No. 2

25A ceramic fragment with a cuneiform inscription that was found in this fill is noteworthy. This inscription on the rim fragment of a bowl was defined as “[ar-giš] ti–e-i”. This expression indicates that the bowl “belongs to Argishti” (Fig. 23). The presence of this cuneiform inscribed pottery fragment with other finds from this area strengthens the relationship of this building complex with Urartian royal culture. Cuneiform inscribed bronze bowls that yield information about the king that they belong to are also known from the Urartian culture.

26The floor level of the Early Urartian phase was made of a packed fill with pebble stones. The fill continues towards west, deepening to a height of 40 to 80 cm, as can be observed in the eastern section of trench N23.

27The continuation of the Urartian fill in the trench N24, was tracked towards the west in the trench N23, and the mixed Urartian fill here was removed to reach the floor level. Thus, the floor level fills belonging to two different phases - the Early and Late building phases - in the trenches M24 and N23-24 were removed and it is understood that these areas were used as outdoor/open areas during the Urartian period. An area that extends over 30 meters in length in the east-west orientation between the Urartian building complex and the structures to the west of the mound was not used for building activities during the Urartian period.

Early Iron Age and the Bronze Age

28The pebble covered fill with 80 cm height in some areas that makes up the Urartian floor level in the trench N23 was removed for further investigation of the earlier cultural levels. This Urartian fill that can be tracked from the eastern section fills the Early Iron Age pits. This suggests that there was not a long time gap between the pits that belong to the Early Iron Age and the Urartian occupation on the mound.

29Right below the Urartian level, a solid layer made of packed mud was documented. Stratigraphic observations and also some ceramic fragments suggest that this layer belongs to the Early Iron Age. In the southwest section of the trench, a large pit with a diameter of 2.70 meters, was uncovered in this layer. Also, another pit, measuring 130 x 63 cm, was documented on the west section of the trench (Fig. 24). It can be observed from the west section of the trench that these pits were dug into the Early Bronze Age layers during the Early Iron Age (Fig. 25).

Fig. 24: Pits dug into the Bronze Age layers below the Urartian building phase in the area to the west of Urartian Building No. 2

Fig. 24: Pits dug into the Bronze Age layers below the Urartian building phase in the area to the west of Urartian Building No. 2

Fig. 25: Pits dug into the Bronze Age layers below the Urartian building phase in the area to the west of Urartian Building No. 2, section view from the west

Fig. 25: Pits dug into the Bronze Age layers below the Urartian building phase in the area to the west of Urartian Building No. 2, section view from the west

30No architectural remains related to the packed floor layer with pebbles were reached in the trench N23 so far. However, a similar layer was observed on a thin wall line in the step trenches of N26-27 in 2017. This wall belonged to a two-roomed building right above the Early Bronze Age layer that was characterized by scattered kerpiç debris. It is understood that this wall line belonged to the Early Iron Age. In connection with this architectural feature, incised pottery fragments that are known to have appeared during the Early Iron Age were found.

31After the documentation and removal of this layer and the pits in the trench N23, it was understood that his layer dating to the Early Iron Age was right above the Early Bronze Age layer that is characterized by kerpiç debris extending throughout the trench. A two-phased Bronze Age layer, as well as the Early Bronze Age layer, can be observed in the southern section of the trench N23 (Fig. 26).

Fig. 26: Section view of the Urartian and earlier layers in the area to the west of Urartian Building No. 2

Fig. 26: Section view of the Urartian and earlier layers in the area to the west of Urartian Building No. 2

Conclusion

32Medieval, Post Urartian, Urartian, Early Iron Age, and Bronze Age layers were excavated, evaluated, and related architectural and artefactual data from each layer was documented in detail during the 2019 season in the trenches M22-23-24 and N23-24. The excavation of the Urartian building complex with 10 rooms, including a columned hall, measuring 20 x 20.50 meters with walls that reach to 1.30 meters in thickness was completed and the Early and Late Urartian building phases of the complex were documented. The work at this building complex also included the completion of its architectural plans and yielded various data. To the east and west of this building complex, outdoor areas and drainage channels were uncovered. It is understood that this complex was unique and no building activities took place in its vicinity. Small finds such as bulla, inscribed pottery fragments, tablet (Işık, 2014, pp. 173-183), seals (Konyar & Genç et al., 2017, p. 134, Fig. 9) as well as good quality pottery sherds that were found in the rooms of this building complex further strengthen the suggestion that it was a special complex in the lower settlement. Overall, it can be concluded that public buildings and units related to the citadel were present in the lower settlement of Tušpa. The Post Urartian and Urartian fills were also excavated and documented in the trenches M23-24 and N23-24, the pre-Urartian-Early Iron Age layer was documented, and two building phases of the Bronze Age were detected underneath this layer. Especially, the Early Iron Age layer in the trench N23 was well preserved due to the lack of building activities in this area during the Urartian period.

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Bibliographie

Işık, K. (2014). Van Kalesi Höyüğü Kazılarında Keşfedilen Urartu Yazılı Belgeleri. Colloquium Anatolicum/Anadolu Sohbetleri, XIII, 173-183.

Kellner, H.-J. (1991a). Gürtelbleche aus Urartu. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag.

Kellner, H.-J. (1991b). Grouping and Dating of Bronze Belts. In R. Merhav (Ed.), Urartu: A Metalworking Center in the First Millenium B.C.E. (pp. 142-161). Jerusalem: Israel Museum.

Konyar, E. (2012). Van-Tuşpa Aşağı Yerleşmesi Van Kalesi Höyüğü Kazıları. Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı, 33(3), 409-428.

Konyar, E. (2018). Urartian and Post-Urartian Periods at Van Fortress Mound in Light of New Excavations. In A. Çilingiroğlu, & Kemalettin Köroğlu (Eds.), Urartians: A Civilization in the Eastern Anatolia. The Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium held at İstanbul in 13-15 October, 2014 (48-63). Istanbul: Rezan Has Museum.

Konyar, E., Avcı, C., Genç, B., Akgün, R. G., & Tan, A. (2013). Excavations at the Van Fortress, the Mound and the Old City of Van in 2012. Colloquium Anatolicum, XII, 193-210.

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Tarhan, T. M., & Sevin, V. (1992). Van Kalesi ve Van Şehri Kazıları 1990 Yılı Çalışmaları. Belleten, LVI(217), 1081-99.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 1: Architectural phases at the Van Fortress Mound
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1546/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 172k
Titre Fig. 2: Van Fortress Mound, orthophoto of the Urartian buildings in Area A
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1546/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 388k
Titre Fig. 3: Van Fortress Mound, infant burials from the Late Medieval/Modern Age cemetery
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1546/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 683k
Titre Fig. 4: Van Fortress Mound, Iron Age burial layer in Area A, a semi-hocker burial
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1546/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 477k
Titre Fig. 5: Van Fortress Mound, eastern section of Area A, Urartian Building No. 2
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Fichier image/jpeg, 699k
Titre Fig. 6: Van Fortress Mound, plan of the Urartian buildings
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1546/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 149k
Titre Fig. 7: Urartian Building No. 2, eastern section 1, Room No. 1
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Fichier image/jpeg, 522k
Titre Fig. 8: Urartian Building No. 2, silo to the east of Room No. 1
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Fichier image/jpeg, 906k
Titre Fig. 9: Urartian Building No. 2, Rooms No. 1 and 2, and the stone-paved courtyard to the east of the building
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1546/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 629k
Titre Fig. 10: Urartian Building No. 2, two distinct arrangements observed in the foundation of the building
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1546/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 593k
Titre Fig. 11: Urartian Building No. 2, columned hall
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1546/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 547k
Titre Fig. 12: Urartian Building No. 2, Room No. 5
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1546/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 750k
Titre Fig. 13: Urartian Building No. 2, state of the finds from Room No. 5
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1546/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 735k
Titre Fig. 14: Urartian Building No. 2, Rooms No. 8, 9 and 10 in Section 3 to the west of the complex
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1546/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 635k
Titre Fig. 15: A selection of pottery from Urartian Building No. 2
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1546/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 411k
Titre Fig. 16: Metal finds, the clay tablet and bulla, and the inscribed bowl fragment from Urartian Building No. 2
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1546/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 665k
Titre Fig. 17: Northern section of the stone drainage channel to the west of Urartian Building No. 2
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1546/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 505k
Titre Fig. 18: Southern section of the stone drainage channel to the west of Urartian Building No. 2
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1546/img-18.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 603k
Titre Fig. 19: General view of the channel to the west of Urartian Building No. 2
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1546/img-19.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 616k
Titre Fig. 20: Isolation arrangement made of pebble stones in the bottom of the outer western wall of Urartian Building No. 2
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1546/img-20.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 538k
Titre Fig. 21: Snake-headed bronze bracelets found in the courtyard in the west of Urartian Building No. 2
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1546/img-21.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 236k
Titre Fig. 22: Dot incised bronze belt fragment found in the courtyard in the west of Urartian Building No. 2
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1546/img-22.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 490k
Titre Fig. 23: Pithos rim fragment with cuneiform inscription “belongs to Argishti” found in the courtyard in the west of Urartian Building No. 2
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1546/img-23.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 202k
Titre Fig. 24: Pits dug into the Bronze Age layers below the Urartian building phase in the area to the west of Urartian Building No. 2
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1546/img-24.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 779k
Titre Fig. 25: Pits dug into the Bronze Age layers below the Urartian building phase in the area to the west of Urartian Building No. 2, section view from the west
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1546/img-25.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 483k
Titre Fig. 26: Section view of the Urartian and earlier layers in the area to the west of Urartian Building No. 2
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1546/img-26.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 424k
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Erkan Konyar, « Excavations at the Old City, Fortress, and Mound of Van: 2019 Season »Anatolia Antiqua, XXVIII | 2020, 183-199.

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Erkan Konyar, « Excavations at the Old City, Fortress, and Mound of Van: 2019 Season »Anatolia Antiqua [En ligne], XXVIII | 2020, mis en ligne le 01 décembre 2022, consulté le 31 janvier 2023. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/1546 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/anatoliaantiqua.1546

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Erkan Konyar

Istanbul University, Faculty of Letters Department of Ancient History

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