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Chroniques des travaux archéologiques en Turquie 2019

The Excavation at Limyra (Lycia) 2019: Preliminary Report

Martin Seyer, Alexandra Dolea, Philip Mischa Bes, David Zsolt Schwarcz, Gerhard Forstenpointner, Klaus Löcker, Ralf Totschnig, Inge Uytterhoeven, Émilie Cayre, Hakan Öniz, Ceyda Öztosun et Zeynep Kuban
p. 219-263

Texte intégral

Fig. 1: Limyra, City Plan

Fig. 1: Limyra, City Plan

C. Kurtze, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

1The excavation season at Limyra (Fig. 1) lasted from July 29 until September 27, 2019 with the permission granted by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. We would like to express our gratitude to the state representative Esengül YILDIZ ÖZTEKİN from the Marmaris Museum.

Preliminary Remarks (M. Seyer)

  • 1 My gratitude is due to the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) for the approval of this research project. F (...)

2As in the previous years, the research focus in the 2019 season was laid on investigations on the urbanistic development of Limyra. Excavations and a large part of the research work had been carried out within the frame of the scientific project “The Urbanistic Development of Limyra in the Hellenistic Period”.1 Based upon the scientific results of the previous seasons, the scientific focus that was initially given mainly to the Hellenistic period, was extended to comprise the Roman Imperial, Late Antique and Byzantine periods as well. Therefore, the works conducted in 2019 covered a wide range.

3Excavations were carried out in two areas, one in the eastern, and the other one in the western part of the lower city. In the East City, a structure that was investigated, was interpreted as a fortification wall close to the south-eastern corner of the late antique wall circuit, according to the results of the geophysical survey conducted in 2013 and 2014 (Seyer, 2016). With a small trench, the question of whether this wall was the part of the fortification system of an earlier period, should be solved. In the West City, the spaces between the trenches from 2011/2012 (Seyer and Schuh, 2012a, b; Seyer and Schuh, 2013a, b), 2016 (Dolea, 2017) and 2018 (Dolea, 2019) were unearthed in order to join them into one large trench with the measurements of approx. 1150 sq. m. Although it was to be expected that the results therefore would not give detailed information concerning the urban development in the Hellenistic period ‒ this would rather request some selective investigations with excavating to a greater depth ‒ the complete exposure of a large area was preferred, as this procedure should provide a significant overview of the general urbanistic context in this part of Limyra.

4In parallel with the excavation works in the field, a special focus was given to the documentation and scientific processing of the archaeological material. Besides the work on pottery and glass, which are conducted every year, and the processing of the metal finds initiated in 2018 – all of them with fascinating results – the processing of the animal bones discovered during the seasons 2011/2012 and 2016/2018 in the West City has also been resumed in 2019. As the round building of the Late Antique period unearthed at the excavation site “Limyra Polis West” that could be identified as a large lime kiln in 2018 (Dolea, 2019, pp. 232-233) contained a thick layer of charcoal, an archaeobotanist was engaged for the scientific analysis of the botanical remains.

5In 2014, a survey project was started with the aim to document all visible architectural remains in the lower city of Limyra. Especially the eastern part of the city has always proved to be a difficult area for archaeological investigations due to its high ground water level and its dense vegetation, so that until recently not even all structures have been entered in the city plan. In 2014 and 2015, the documentation work in the East City had been successfully conducted and the results gave precious information concerning the urbanistic development of this area (Uytterhoeven, 2016b; Uytterhoeven, 2017; Uytterhoeven and Seyer, in press). After a three-year interruption due to different reasons, in 2019 the survey could be resumed and finished, whereby the documentation of the architectural remains in the West City of Limyra were carried out as well.

6The area south of the Ptolemaion is one of the most crucial spots concerning the urbanistic development of Limyra in general. It contains a square with a Christian basilica on it, the collapsed honorary arch for Ornimythos from the 1st century AD (Pülz & Ruggendorfer, 2004, pp. 57-62, Quatember & Leung, 2015; Seyer, 2019; Seyer & Quatember, 2020) and the remains of a bridge that crosses the Limyros River and leads to the main street that passes through the entire East City. Most probably, as a result of one of the devastating earthquakes in south-western Asia Minor in antiquity, this area was partly flooded by karstic springs, which emerge from the Toçak Dağı immediately adjacent to the north of the city. In the 2019 season, a team of underwater archaeologists started to survey this area in order to get closer information concerning possible architectural remains below the water level.

7After two seasons of geophysical surveys in 2013 and 2014 with magnificent results by using mainly ground penetrating radar (GPR) (Seyer, 2016), work had to be interrupted because of various reasons. In 2019, the areas which had not been surveyed so far, could be investigated by using the method of geomagnetic. This method had to be chosen, as the surfaces were not suitable for using the GPR. With the surveys conducted in 2019 geophysical works at Limyra could be brought to an end for the moment.

8As the two circuits of the Late Antique/Early Byzantine fortification walls of Limyra are mainly consisting of reused architectural blocks from different time periods, a comprehensive investigation of these spolia is an important part within the project on the urbanistic development of the city. Especially the analysis of the building blocks of two temples (an Ionian peripteros and a Corinthian pseudoperipteros) already brought interesting results (Cavalier, 2012; Cavalier, 2015; Cavalier, 2020). After a longer interruption, this work was resumed in 2019, whereby the already existing inventory of the blocks was checked and completed. Furthermore, photogrammetric pictures of some important blocks were taken.

9Apart from the scientific studies on the city’s urbanistic development, Limyra excavation also carried out events on the education of junior researchers and on science communication. As a cooperation project between the Istanbul Technical University (İTÜ) and the Austrian Archaeological Institute, a summer school was carried out in order to give architecture students an insight into the necessary knowledge and the skills that are expected from an architect in archaeological excavations.

10Continuing the idea of scientific exchange initiated in 2018, the Limyra excavations organized a one-day international workshop on the current archaeological research in East Lycia in 2019 as well.

11In 2019, Limyra excavation celebrated its 50th anniversary since the first working season that was conducted in 1969 under the directorship of J. Borchhardt. In order to celebrate this memorable date, a cocktail party was organized at the excavation house. Amongst the approximately 120 guests were the Kaymakam and the Belediye Başkanı of Finike, Mr. Ergün Baysal and Mr. Mustafa Geyikçi, the deputy director of Antalya Museum, Dr. Ahmet Çelik as well as numerous local authorities and representatives of business and archaeology. Also, the actual and former workmen of the Limyra excavations were invited to this celebration.

Note on the periodization concerning the archaeological and material studies at Limyra (A. Dolea, P. M. Bes, and D. Zs. Schwarcz)

12In order to reach a unified periodization of the studied archaeological features and finds, the authors prepared a preliminary chronological framework which differs in some aspects from the one that was used at Limyra before. Our aim is to bridge the gap between the different fields of studies at Limyra, and additionally to synchronize the research results, which is also of importance for the preparation of the final publication. Relevant are the following changes: the Roman period spans the late 1st c. BCE to mid-4th c. CE; late antiquity equals the Early Byzantine period and they encompass the time period between the mid-4th to early/mid-7th c.; furthermore, the Middle Byzantine is used for the early/mid-7th to the 11th c.

Excavations in the lower city of Limyra (A. Dolea)2

  • 2 I express my gratitude to the following collaborators: G. Çimen, T. Günaydın, K. Kainz, B. Orakçıla (...)

13Between July 29 and September 24, 2019 excavations were carried out in both the eastern and western cities of Limyra. The aim was to uncover and investigate several constructed features which were indicated by the GPR surveys performed in 2013-2014. A further plan was to unify the three previously excavated sectors in the Western city into one large open area that reached from the Byzantine West Gate until the city centre and covered a surface of circa 1150 sq. m.

East City (Fig. 2)

Fig. 2: Limyra East City 2019, final situation of trench 1

Fig. 2: Limyra East City 2019, final situation of trench 1

C. Kurtze, B. Orakçılar, A. Dolea, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

14The excavations in the East City took place between August 2and 16. The purpose of researching this area was the investigation of a very solid and deep-reaching wall in the south-eastern part of the eastern city, leading directly from the Early Byzantine fortification wall into the north-eastern direction.

15After having removed the modern soil, a solid wall construction and a massive layer of collapsed medium and large sized stones were revealed in the western part of the trench. The uncovered wall has a width between 1.81 and 1.93 m and at least two phases of construction determined until now. It was made of solid blocks on the external sides, while the filling material consisted of small and middle size rubble stones. This construction was built against the Early Byzantine fortification wall, which therefore constitutes a terminus post quem. Due to its massive structure, its fortifying function is beyond doubt, but it is not yet clear whether it was an additional defensive measurement to the Early Byzantine wall or if it reflects a post-antique refortification of this area in the East City.

  • 3 More detailed in the contribution of D. Zs. Schwarcz below.
  • 4 See the results of E. Cayre below.

16Among the finds within this massive collapse, several uncovered iron objects (like pickaxe heads, punches, etc.) suggest stone working activity in the area, which should be pointed towards stone extraction and further construction work.3 Furthermore, the preliminary results of the resumed spolia survey project show an overwhelming abundance of architectural elements uncovered in the immediate vicinity of the trench in the East City, which appear to have belonged to a pseudoperipteral building.4 Therefore, a reorganization of the given area during the Byzantine period seems plausible.

West City (Fig. 3)

Fig. 3: Limyra West City 2019, final situation of trench 1

Fig. 3: Limyra West City 2019, final situation of trench 1

C. Kurtze, B. Orakçılar, A. Dolea, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

17The excavation in the West City of Limyra took place between July 29 and September 24. The purpose of this investigation was to get an overview of the urban structures in this area and to increase our knowledge regarding the changes that interfered during antiquity. The geophysical surveys undertaken here in 2013 have indicated an abundance of constructions within this sector which offer information regarding the urban development of the West City of Limyra from the Hellenistic until the Byzantine periods. Furthermore, previous excavations in this area have already revealed various structures of different character (Seyer & Schuh, 2012 b, pp. 59-64; Seyer & Schuh, 2013 b, pp. 83-89; Dolea et al., 2017, pp. 56-59; Dolea, 2017, pp. 144-152, Dolea, 2019, pp. 232-234).

18This contribution has a preliminary character and aims to present the current state of research by highlighting the main uncovered features (out of 110 excavated contexts and revealed structures) and their relations to the surrounding structures and stratigraphy. The order of presentation of the revealed structures is chronological and starts from west to east. Most of the buildings and ancient archaeological contexts were affected by post-antique interventions like numerous pits of small or large scale, levelling layers, and modern agricultural activities.

19On the western side of the trench, the continuation of the Hellenistic city wall, which had already been identified in 2011 (Seyer and Schuh, 2012 b, p. 61), was uncovered. This well-built structure (double-shell masonry of massive rusticated ashlars; 0.92 m width) was dismantled during the Roman Imperial or the Early Byzantine era, and accordingly brought down to the walking level and adapted to immediate needs, e. g. water management, indicated by the presence of a channelled stone and a spout, both orientated north-south (Fig. 4). About 25 m east to the Byzantine West Gate the wall bends 90° to the south. It continues with the same construction like the part of the Hellenistic city wall revealed before, but being slightly thinner (0.82 m width). The reason of this corner is not clear at the moment, as this part of the wall could only be excavated to a length of approximately 4 m.

Fig. 4: Limyra West City 2019, dismantled Hellenistic city wall with a channelled stone and a spout

Fig. 4: Limyra West City 2019, dismantled Hellenistic city wall with a channelled stone and a spout

C. Kurtze, B. Orakçılar, A. Dolea, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

Fig. 5: Limyra West City 2019, massive square construction

Fig. 5: Limyra West City 2019, massive square construction

C. Kurtze, B. Orakçılar, A. Dolea, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

20Immediately north-east to this feature, a massive square construction (10.67 x 9.31 m) made of large sized horizontally laid stones (average size: 1.53 x 0.86 x 0.33 m) was revealed (Fig. 5). The stone blocks are all of the same quality and shape, with a roughly chiselled surface. The clamp holes on the stone surface indicate not only the joint use, but also that the construction had at least another row of stones on top of what is preserved at the moment. Furthermore, a wall is splitting the interior space into two halves, a feature which might indicate a further support for the weight of this impressive construction. The outline of this structure is straight on the north, west and south sides, while the outer line of the south-east corner is taking a turn in the direction of the water channel (see below). This south-east corner marks this construction as being in situ and has protuberances on the exterior, which might indicate a Hellenistic original setting. Later additions were recorded in the north-east corner of the square building, but also on the north-western and north-eastern exterior. Nevertheless, most probably the structure was massively dismantled in the Early Byzantine era in order to fit the reorganization plans of the lower city. These actions must have led also to a reuse of the dismantled material for the new constructions. The stratigraphy recorded here was composed of debris layers, which were disturbed by several post-antique pits. The processing of the uncovered material is still in progress. At the moment, no precise functionality can be assigned to this construction, however, due to its massive dimensions it clearly was a dominant building in this area.

21In parallel with the south wall of this building, another wall extends east-west and could be excavated to a length of approx. 20 m. These two walls were connected by a very compact filling of stones and lime mortar (Fig. 6). In order to install the mortar filling under proper conditions, the southern wall was elevated with one row of very good quality blocks of lime stone. These were most probably dismantled and gathered from a nearby construction. The corner of the previously mentioned Hellenistic (city) wall is reinforced and doubled towards south in a later intervention.

Fig. 6: Limyra West City 2019, Hellenistic city wall and southern wall of the massive square construction, doubled and reinforced

Fig. 6: Limyra West City 2019, Hellenistic city wall and southern wall of the massive square construction, doubled and reinforced

C. Kurtze, B. Orakçılar, A. Dolea, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

Fig. 7: Limyra West City 2019, oven and water channel

Fig. 7: Limyra West City 2019, oven and water channel

C. Kurtze, B. Orakçılar, A. Dolea, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

22On the southern border of the trench, half of an oven was unearthed (exterior N-S/W-E: 1.44 x 1.27 x 0.5 m) (Fig. 7). Due to the lack of finds which might indicate the presence of an artisanal craftsmanship connected to this oven, it is not possible to specify its functionality. Nevertheless, the stratigraphic sequence indicates it was built in a post-antique phase of reoccupation of the area. The numerous samples collected from inside and around the oven will probably give more clues concerning its functionality.

23Further east to the oven, a water channel covered by large-sized (ca. 1.5 x 0.5 x 0.25 m) stone slabs was uncovered. On top of this channel, a wall construction that was added later, was documented, underlining the reoccupation and reuse of this area (Fig. 7-8). The channel is the continuation of a water management system discovered during the 2018 excavation campaign towards the north-east (Dolea, 2019, pp. 233-234).

Fig. 8: Limyra West City 2019, water management system

Fig. 8: Limyra West City 2019, water management system

C. Kurtze, B. Orakçılar, A. Dolea, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

Fig. 9: Limyra West City 2019, staircase adjoining smaller sized square construction

Fig. 9: Limyra West City 2019, staircase adjoining smaller sized square construction

C. Kurtze, B. Orakçılar, A. Dolea, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

24Another structure excavated this season is a staircase made of three steps of large horizontally laid stone slabs. It is directly adjoining another smaller sized (ca. 5.5 x 4 m) square construction already excavated in 2018 (Fig. 9). The entire staircase was revealed under a pit filled with mortar, which could be connected to the massive lime kiln excavated also in 2018 (Dolea, 2019, p. 232).

Fig. 10: Limyra West City 2019, storage and fire pits west to the lime kiln; inscription fragment (upper right corner) and architectural element (lower right corner)

Fig. 10: Limyra West City 2019, storage and fire pits west to the lime kiln; inscription fragment (upper right corner) and architectural element (lower right corner)

A. Dolea, C. Kurtze, B. Orakçılar, K. Kainz, T. Günaydın, D. Üstünel, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

25The area between the West Gate sectors and the lime kiln was affected by several large sized pits, very rich in medium and large scale stones, architectural elements and inscription fragments (Fig. 10). Most probably these pits represent different stages of the working process related to the stone reuse and recycling in the kiln. While the ones further away from it, contained larger stored stones, those in the pits close to the kiln were already broken to smaller pieces and partly burned or “smoked”. At least two pits identified to the north-west and south-west of the kiln contained lime mixed with sand and charcoal.

  • 5 See below the contribution of D. Zs. Schwarcz for further details regarding primary and secondary i (...)
  • 6 See below the contribution of Ph. Bes for more details regarding the Byzantine pottery identified i (...)

26As previously interpreted (Dolea, 2019, p. 233), the excavations in the West City offer more and more indications for considering this part of the city as one where artisanal activities5 and material reuse and recycling intensely occurred, especially after the 7th c.6

27The excavations revealed a very densely constructed area between the West Gate of the Byzantine city wall and the central part of the city. Remains of buildings and structures from the Hellenistic until post-antique periods show that the urban plan of this area underwent several changes, from an area of representative character marked by the cenotaph of C. Caesar and the newly revealed massive square building to a district with strong artisanal activities.

Fourth- to Eighth-Century Pottery at Limyra: Three Short Case Studies (P. M. Bes)

Introduction

28A considerable part of the pottery that was excavated in 2018 in areas West Gate (WT) and Polis West (PW) was studied in 2019. The primary goal was to obtain dating evidence in support of understanding the diachronic development of the areas under excavation. This is guided by a shortlist of loci that are deemed crucial (foundation fills, floor levels, etc.). In addition, the pottery of all remaining loci is examined to obtain a comprehensive picture. The examination of these remaining loci can be more cursorily, yet some are also singled out for closer study and/or quantification dependent on their spatial location in the stratigraphy, but also internal motivations: sherd fragmentation, unusual functional or typological composition, and so forth. This part discusses three thematic aspects: early Middle Byzantine pottery (mid-7th to 8th c.), the chronological spectrum of the pottery that has been studied thus far, and diachronic changes in the provenance of amphorae.

Early and Middle Byzantine Pottery

  • 7 All dates are AD and ca. unless otherwise noted. Drawings were made by S. Mayer, R. Sporleder and D (...)

29Our previous contribution concerning pottery from Limyra addressed various aspects:7 pottery of presumed regional manufacture, long-distance imported pottery (amphorae in particular) and pottery of early Middle Byzantine date (mid-7th to 8th c.). The latter was described as “a radical departure” from 6th to mid-7th c. ceramic traditions. Whilst it is true that in terms of (macroscopic) fabrics and forms this pottery looks remarkably different, radical implies a short-lived and perhaps complete caesura. Further discussion and reflection, however, again motivates to rethink “radical”, at least to some extent.

30Observations made elsewhere on changes in ceramic material culture – with regard to morphology, decorative styles, manufacturing techniques, etc. – within frameworks of historical developments suggest that the former need not have followed the latter swiftly, or causally. First, A. Walmsley, focusing on Early Islamic/Umayyad-period pottery from Pella (Jordan), observed that more profound changes in ceramic traditions only began to materialise in earnest two to three generations after the Arab conquests (Walmsley, 1995, esp. 668). Arguably the best representative within this geographical and chronological setting is the continuation of bag-shaped amphorae, a regional tradition that harks back to pre-Roman times. Certainly, changes occurred in their morphology and these are significant in themselves, but the basic model remained unchanged well beyond the 8th century. Secondly, and closer to Limyra, the manufacture of Sagalassos Red Slip Ware (SRSW hereafter) at Sagalassos in Pisidia that began in the late 1st century BC did not display close affinities with contemporary morphological and decorative vogues. Though influences from, for example, Italian Sigillata can be observed in the early stages of SRSW, the socio-cultural climate was such that the workshops continued to manufacture – among a broader repertoire – the mastos, a shape that has its roots in Late Archaic times (Van der Enden et al., 2014, pp. 85-86, fig. 4). A further interesting aspect is its duality. Whereas the mastos continued to be manufactured into the early first century, its appearance changed to red (the slip), whilst previously (pre-Augustan) it is found in various orange, red and brown hues (Van der Enden et al., 2014, p. 85, fig. 3). The third example concerns Roman and Early Byzantine Aizanoi, where the presumed local tableware manufacture included the continuation of a grey ware tradition that finds its roots in the Iron Age (Ateş, 2015, pp. 166-167).

31These three examples provide compelling evidence suggesting that changes in ceramic traditions followed trajectories that need not have been fully and inextricably linked to larger developments, and instead moved with varying speed. Possibly this reveals more about people’s habits and traditions rather than it does about such larger developments. At the same time, however, we cannot use these examples as a yardstick, and each example needs to be evaluated within its specific geographical, chronological, cultural and historical context.

32In the case of the pottery that was excavated around and partly underneath the outer wall of the lime kiln (especially locus 1034, PW18), rather than viewing three ceramic categories (cf. infra) as representatives of a completely new society with a different material culture, it is plausible that Early Byzantine and ‘new’ ceramic categories/traditions coexisted for some time. This notion is strengthened by the absence of certain new functional categories: new categories of amphorae, cooking wares and small jugs appeared, yet no new categories of tableware and oil lamps. These three new categories concern the following (Fig. 11):

Fig. 11: Fragments of early Middle Byzantine pottery (locus 1034, PW18)

Fig. 11: Fragments of early Middle Byzantine pottery (locus 1034, PW18)

R. Hügli, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

  • 8 Research into these amphorae is in progress, hence a detailed discussion – in terms of fabric, typo (...)

33Amphorae. Better preserved fragments – rims with partly preserved handles (usually the more or less horizontal segment) – present fairly homogeneous characteristics. Their feel is finely sandy (though less sandy than e.g., Late Roman Amphora 5) and perhaps most noteworthy is the presence of considerable quantities of micaceous inclusions, including some large golden or faintly silvery flakes. A few large irregular quartz inclusions can occur, as well as black, elongated (volcanic?) inclusions. Another feature are varying quantities of tiny grits (observable with the naked eye). Some body sherds in another fabric also feel sandy and are distinctive for their abundant silvery micaceous inclusions (almost mica-dusted) that macroscopically resemble Late Roman Amphora 3 and related groups in such a way that one tends to consider a provenance in the Maeander Valley and/or neighbouring areas (e.g., south-east Aegean, south-west Turkey). Colour is not homogeneous, plausibly the result of varying firing conditions: some handles have a pale yellowish-brown surface (a few having a reddish core); one large handle fragment has a pale brownish-red surface, and a greyish-brown core. Three further fragments have pale brownish or greyish surfaces, which suggest a phase of reduction? Two different rim profiles are recognised: (1) a rounded lip that is somewhat everted with the transition on the interior being marked by a ridge. Handles are usually applied just below the rim/lip, are ovoid or flattish in section, and are not completely horizontal but instead hang somewhat; the ovoid handles have a distinct smear on top where the handle meets the upper neck; and (2) the upper rim as a whole is somewhat everted, with a slightly incurving lip that is rounded and thickened on the interior. Other handle sections that are observed – which presently cannot be associated with rim profiles – are asymmetrical and carry a shallow broad groove on the outer face. Body sherds that almost certainly belong with these amphorae have different kinds of ribbing: in section, some fragments have irregularly placed squared band-ribbing, while others are wavier or have widely spaced low rounded ridging;8

Fig. 12: Upper part of an early Middle Byzantine cooking pot (locus 5, WT11)

Fig. 12: Upper part of an early Middle Byzantine cooking pot (locus 5, WT11)

S. Mayer, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

  • 9 Hayes, 2003, pp. 502-503, fig. 30.327-328 (Deposit 15), pp. 504-505, fig. 31.334-335 (Deposit 16), (...)
  • 10 Karambinis, 2015, p. 233, fig. 11.11.1, of presumed Aegean provenance. It is classified as FAB 20 ( (...)
  • 11 Çömezoğlu, 2014, pp. 666, 672, fig. 3; the generic description of the fabric of cooking pots of typ (...)

34Cooking Pots. Most cooking pots occur in a fabric that macroscopically is very similar to the common amphora fabric described above. Whilst some variation in the section of rims and handles is observed, the dominant rim shape is offset from the shoulder, is vertical or everted, and usually has a straight inner face (Fig. 12). The outer rim face is straight or convex, and the lip is either rounded or somewhat pointy. Some faceting of the lip is visible. Handles are usually attached at the junction between rim and wall; the attachment can be somewhat sloppy. Handles are generally ovoid or strap in section, and especially the latter can have a broad, shallow groove at one end (within which faint multiple ridging is sometimes observed). Other handle fragments have a distinct albeit low single ridge which seems to occur more often with ovoid handles. The following findspots can be added to those listed in our previous contribution: Paphos,9 Skyros10 and quite possibly nearby Rhodiapolis.11 As a matter of fact, the (fabric) descriptions and profiles of the specimens from Paphos are strikingly similar to those found at Limyra, except for splashes of glaze found on the former, which so far have not been observed on those from Limyra. Hayes considers a source for these in south-west Asia Minor and (“along with the imported amphorae) […] define the Dark Age phase of occupation” (Hayes, 2003, p. 515);

  • 12 Also see the contribution concerning such jugs by B. Yener-Marksteiner in Seyer et al., 2019.

35Jugs.12 These display mostly homogeneous characteristics regarding morphology, fabric and finish. Bases are flat and nearly always sharply carinated from the lower wall – one base fragment has a tiny ridge at that transition. Some bases were string-cut, whilst others were smoothened (after being string-cut?). Pronounced, rather sharp wheel-ridging can be observed on the interior floor. Except for a wall fragment with a ridged exterior, exterior walls in principal are plain and appear to have been smoothened somewhat (cloth-wiped?), yet can have one or two small grooves on the shoulder. How necks look like – in terms of height and general appearance – remains uncertain. Rims are slightly everted and end in a thickened, somewhat rounded lip, and the interior can be somewhat concave. Handles are flattish or more ovoid in section and run from the lip to the lower shoulder. These jugs were hard-fired, and a fresh break shows a finely granular and compact fabric of even colour/firing; the core of a handle can sometimes be grey. A minority of the fragments have reduced in- or exteriors. Rare tiny shiny particles can be observed on the surface; in general, inclusions visible to the naked eye are rare: a few calcitic grits, a few rounded dark pellets (iron?), and rare dull brownish-red rounded pellets with the same colour (range) as the fabric proper.

36Preliminary comparisons continue to point to the second half of the 7th and 8th, possibly into the 9th century for these three categories. The absence of glazed pottery, as observed previously, provides a tentative terminus ante quem of the later 8th century. Interestingly, cooking pots (very) similar to those described above do not appear in Deposit 14 at the Saranda Kolones site in Paphos, which was dated to the end of the 7th century, possibly up to 700 (Hayes, 2003, p. 495). These do appear in Deposits 15 and 16, however, the pottery in which was dated to the “8th-9th” and “[e]arly 9th (?)” centuries respectively (Hayes, 2003, pp. 502-503). This – potentially – brings us somewhat closer in an attempt to narrow down the date of these cooking pots, and perhaps this pottery more generally.

37These three categories are still considered to represent a partial reorientation of exchange patterns as a result of shifts of power following the Arab territorial conquests during and after the second quarter of the 7th century. If, in the wake of these conquests, for shorter or longer periods of time, southern Lycia changed from being in the heart of the Eastern Mediterranean to a frontier region, it is not unthinkable that this sparked imperial concerns regarding the organisation and supply of military affairs. Ultimately, however, a complete picture will result from a collaborative and comprehensive study of all finds within the stratigraphic, urban and historical framework.

Broadening Chronological Horizons

Fig. 13: Rim fragment of a Ras al-Bassit mortarium (locus 6018, PW16)

Fig. 13: Rim fragment of a Ras al-Bassit mortarium (locus 6018, PW16)

R. Sporleder, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

Fig. 14: Fragment of a plate in Egyptian Red Slip Ware, similis to African Red Slip Ware Hayes 105 (locus 3009, PW16)

Fig. 14: Fragment of a plate in Egyptian Red Slip Ware, similis to African Red Slip Ware Hayes 105 (locus 3009, PW16)

D. Karakurt, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

  • 13 In addition, loci 1016 and 1019 (WT18) contain Late Classical-Early/Middle Hellenistic pottery (pro (...)
  • 14 The Limyra specimen cannot be matched precisely; perhaps early/first half of the 5th century?
  • 15 The fabric mostly conforms to what Hayes originally classified as Egyptian Red Slip Ware B (1972, p (...)

38Whereas the previous large-scale excavations within ancient Limyra (2011-2012, West and East Gate) brought to light large quantities of Early Byzantine pottery (Bes, 2020), those carried out in 2016 and 2018-2019 help to broaden our understanding of pottery in use in earlier centuries. Pottery that was stratigraphically excavated in areas WT and PW now spans the 3rd to 8th centuries13 and will be very helpful to answer questions that deal with diachronic patterns concerning pottery of regional manufacture (proportion, morphology, etc.) and that which was imported (cf. infra). Pottery from the 5th to earlier/mid-7th centuries is largely similar to that excavated in 2011 and 2012 in terms of proportions, provenance and typology, though interesting exceptions include a Ras al-Bassit mortarium (Fig. 13) (Mills & Reynolds, 2014, p. 134, figs 7-8)14 and an Egyptian Red Slip Ware plate (Fig. 14)15. The pottery that is preliminarily attributed to the 3rd and 4th centuries shows interesting differences. The tableware from loci 1024 (WT18, 3rd century) and 1025 (WT18, 4th century; cf. infra) include several fragments that macroscopically resemble Cypriot Sigillata/Eastern Sigillata D and Cypriot Red Slip Ware/Late Roman D, but not in morphology/typology. Fragments of African Red Slip Ware were hardly spotted. Of particular interest, however, is a small quantity of SRSW fragments that typologically belong to the later 2nd and 3rd centuries (Poblome, 1999, pp. 80-83, 306, fig. 33, type 1B191). These preliminary observations partly recall the ‘problematic’ 3rd century with regard to (red slip) tableware: major categories of Late Hellenistic and Early Roman times (e.g., Eastern Sigillata A and B) had ceased to make a supra-regional impact, and the distribution of new categories (e.g., African Red Slip Ware) had not yet come to fruition (Bes, 2015, pp. 72-76, 87-89, 122-125, 134-135, fig. 98). It is therefore all the more interesting that SRSW is present; although it is still thought that SRSW did not fill the gap sketched above in any substantial fashion, perhaps this handful of fragments at Limyra are testimony that SRSW managed to play some role outside its territory during this period.

39In our previous contribution, a fabric of supposed regional origin was discussed: Fabric 2. Whereas it remains unclear when this fabric appeared, it played a considerable role in the Early Byzantine period for supplying the inhabitants of Limyra with various categories of open and closed utilitarian vessel types (e.g., jugs, mortaria). Fabric 2 was certainly present in the 4th century: it is represented in locus 1025 by a presumed transport/storage vessel with a particular rim profile (Fig. 15). It is presumably present in the 3rd century locus 1024, which suggests that Fabric 2 appeared at least as early as sometime in the 3rd century.

Fig. 15: Rim fragment of a regional transport/storage vessel in Fabric 2 (locus 15, WT11)

Fig. 15: Rim fragment of a regional transport/storage vessel in Fabric 2 (locus 15, WT11)

D. Karakurt, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

Regional and Imported Amphorae16

  • 16 Various standard works help the identification and classification of imported amphorae, predominant (...)

40Locus 1025 emphasises that long-distance imported amphorae played an important role in the 4th century, besides vessels in Fabric 2 that may have carried regional agricultural produce. The dating of 1025 can probably be narrowed down to the second half of the 4th, perhaps into the early decades of the 5th. Locus 1025, together with the introduction at Limyra of Minimum Number of Individuals (MNI) as a means of quantification, permits a comparison with locus 1052 (PW18) that is dated to the 6th century (second/third quarter?). This comparison allows to make various observations regarding the different composition of the amphorae repertoire in both loci with regard to proportions/quantities and provenance. The quantified data, admittedly, comprises a small sample: locus 1025 contains an MNI of 24 amphorae, and an MNI of 52 was recorded for locus 1052 (Table 1). Once more similarly studied data is available Limyra can be contextualised more reliably; suffice to say that interesting comparisons can already be drawn with Beirut (Reynolds, 2010).

Table 1: : Overview of amphorae – regional and long-distance imports – quantified through MNI (loci 1025 [WT18] and 1052 [PW18])

Table 1: : Overview of amphorae – regional and long-distance imports – quantified through MNI (loci 1025 [WT18] and 1052 [PW18])

P. Bes, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

  • There is a considerable increase in the presence of Aegean amphorae. In locus 1025 this mostly concerns Agora M273 and hollow-foot predecessors of Late Roman Amphora 3, i.e. late versions of types Agora F65-66, Agora M240 and similis. In locus 1052 the Aegean is represented by Late Roman Amphora 2 (in various fabrics, including that from the Argolid) and Late Roman Amphora 3 (in the typical fabric);

  • No more Pontic amphorae appear in locus 1052 in contrast to 1025, wherein carrot amphorae of Kassab Tezgör type-group C Snp II-III occur. The latter were also noted in loci from the 2011-2012 excavations at and around the West Gate. At Limyra, Pontic amphorae during these centuries are, it appears, mostly represented by vessels manufactured at Sinope. The absence of Sinopean amphorae in pâte claire here does not mean these are absent at Limyra; three handles in pâte claire were noted in loci excavated at the East Gate in 2012. The distribution of Sinopean amphorae of type-group D Snp I-III (late 5th-early 7th centuries), however, may have been more directed towards the Levant (Bes, in press);

  • Arguably the most prominent difference concerns amphorae that were manufactured in the southern Levant. In locus 1025 these comprise 15% and are represented by early variants of Late Roman Amphora 4 and Agora M334. In locus 1052 their presence triples (44%) and concern later variants of Late Roman Amphora 4 and 5;

  • Whereas early variants of Late Roman Amphora 1 (Pieri’s type-variant A) are fairly well-represented (10%) in 1025 (all appear to be Cilician), in 1052 Late Roman Amphora 1 increases to 16%. One or more may be non-Cilician;

  • Amphorae of types Agora G199 and Agora M239 are rather common in 1025 yet are completely absent in 1052. Whereas a portion was presumably manufactured in western Cilicia – i.e. the coastal stretch between Syedra and Anemorion – a Cypriot provenance for one or more Agora 199 cannot be excluded;

  • Possible transport/storage vessels in the regional (south-east Lycian) Fabric 2 comprise 12% in locus 1025 (including a profile that resembles Agora M273), yet none were identified in locus 1052. Whilst this may simply reflect the fickle nature of archaeological research, no vessels in Fabric 2 that traditionally could be earmarked as amphorae were recognised in the Early Byzantine loci from the 2011-2012 excavations at the West Gate, with the exception of one fragment (which might be residual). It is too early to distil firm conclusions, above all because of the relatively thin quantitative basis and the fact that no attempt could yet be made to reconstruct vessel profiles. The possibility, however, of amphorae manufacture – and/or vessels of similar purpose/function for regional distribution and consumption – in the wider region of Limyra remains intriguing.

Preliminary Results of the Study on the Metal Finds (D. Zs. Schwarcz)

  • 17 Cf. the preliminary results of the metal finds in Schwarcz, 2019, pp. 239-241.
  • 18 Excluded from the overall sum are the nails and some metal finds from the East Gate 2011 and 2012 e (...)

41According to the previous research plans, the completion of the database was the main task in the campaign of 2019.17 The catalogue of finds includes all the non-ferrous and ferrous metal objects as well as waste materials deriving from primary metalworking (i.e. slags and blooms). Overall 1505 fragments and fully preserved objects were registered from the West City (West Gate 2011, 2012, 2018 and Polis West 2016, 2018, 2019) and 44 pieces from the East City excavations (Polis East 2019).18

42Based on the material and function of the objects, several major find groups could be outlined, which served as a guideline to highlight important research topics. In order to prepare the final publication, the contextualization of the artefacts plays a major role in the scientific evaluation. In accordance with the results of the other team members, the recent study focused on objects reflecting commercial and industrial activities in specific parts of the excavated areas.

  • 19 The most significant layers containing slags weighing between one and three kilograms are located i (...)
  • 20 Concerning a summary of different slags produced during the iron smelting process s. Paynter, 2007, (...)
  • 21 s. about the excavated lime kiln and lime production Dolea, 2019, pp. 232-233.

43One of the significant groups of objects encompasses slags and other waste materials, which were found in high quantity in the West City area. A total of approximately 532 fragments, weighing over 25 kilograms were registered.19 Most of the pieces can be connected to primary ironworking (e.g., tap slags, iron ores and probable smithing hearth bottoms).20 Several fragments preserved even the burnt adobe wall of the original shaft or eventual bowl furnace used during the smelting. At the current stage of research one might assume, that primary iron production from ores and eventually even the manufacture of artefacts from iron ingots (secondary production) took place in the West City in the post-antique period(s). Another group of slags lacking any traces of iron or other metals, but rich in calcareous inclusions might be the waste from the lime production in the direct vicinity.21

Fig. 16: Limyra East City (2019), various tools related to stone working

Fig. 16: Limyra East City (2019), various tools related to stone working

N. Gail, J. Kreuzer, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

  • 22 Polis East 2019, s. in detail the archaeological context in the contribution of A. Dolea above.
  • 23 Steelyards were already widespread used in the Roman Empire. Analogous examples to the steelyard fr (...)

44Concerning the iron objects, a great variety of tools (Fig. 16) and implements were recently discovered in the East City on the western side of a broad wall in layer 1003 containing parts of the collapsed fortification walls22). Although the objects were found at various spots within the layer, their function suggests an overall strong connection. Small, medium and huge pickaxe heads, spatula, punches and other items point towards stone working. These items could be used either in construction work or the extraction and recycling of stone material for building purposes according to newly arisen demands probably in the Late Antique and/or Early-Byzantine periods. A copper-alloy steelyard23 should also be mentioned here, which might be indirectly related to the above mentioned instruments due to its implication in measuring heavier goods.

  • 24 See below the contribution of G. Forstenpointer.
  • 25 cf. Elaiussa Sebaste, Ferrazzoli, 2012, pp. 291-292

45The preliminary interpretation of a structure in the West City as an Early Byzantine ‘taverna’, based on the archaeozoological research,24 seems to be complemented by the metal finds. In the given area, the typical inventory of the Early Byzantine housings can be listed.25 Among other objects spindle and fishing hooks, curved nails (eventually used for stitching leather) and a suspension hook for candelabra were found. These items clearly reflect domestic activities, however, a direct connection with commerce cannot be concluded from the results to date.

46Besides the ongoing research on the abovementioned objects and related research topics, the evaluation of other find groups are planned for the final publication. Among these the weapons, jewellery and dress accessories should be stressed. Diverse arrowheads dating from the 5th century BCE, e.g., trilobe arrowheads (Baitinger, 2001, pp. 22-23) and arrowheads with lozenged flat blade (Fig. 17) (Waldbaum, 1983, p. 36), up to the 11th-14th century, e.g., an arrowhead with tanged rhombic blade (Gaitzsch, 2005, p. 141), spearheads and butts concern military activities in the ancient city. The elaborate or simple post-antique earrings and rings made in different materials, such as glass, iron and copper alloys, deliver us important information concerning the social status of the citizens as well as eventual cultural or commercial influences from Constantinople and the neighbouring regions.

Fig. 17: Limyra West City (2019), an arrowhead with lozenge flat blade

Fig. 17: Limyra West City (2019), an arrowhead with lozenge flat blade

N. Gail, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

Faunal Remains from the 2016 and 2018 West City Excavations – Preliminary Results (G. Forstenpointner)

Introduction

47Analytical evidence on husbandry, faunal exploitation and patterns of alimentary consumption of Lycian communities is remarkably scarce, so far. Aside from a couple of short abstracts on faunal remains from Hacımusalar in northern Lycia (Tew et al., 2000) only two published articles on archaeozoological results from Limyra are available, covering finds from the Archaic (Galik et al., 2012) and the Byzantine (Forstenpointner & Gaggl, 1997) periods of the settlement. Additionally, excavations on the archaic city wall of Xanthos yielded a sample of animal bones that, despite its low quantity, provides valuable reference data, allowing comparisons with the Limyrean evidence (Forstenpointner et al., submitted for publication).

48The analysed samples from Limyra and Xanthos differ in various aspects, however, all of them, as a constant feature, are characterized by an overwhelming predominance of goat bones that outnumber sheep remains by ratios up to 9:1. Therefore, establishing the hypothesis, “Lycian husbandry from early antiquity until Byzantine times was dominated by goat breeding” appears suitable and will be applied to the findings of this ongoing study.

Materials and methods

49Analysis focused on faunal remains from the building east of the lime-kiln, in particular from the soundings “Sondage 1 and 6”, that had been sampled by means of manual picking as well as dry-sieving (mesh size 2,5 mm). The state of preservation was predominantly good, only a few specimens showed signs of corrosion or sinter.

50Determination was carried out on-site, facilitated by a small reference collection that had been equipped from the stock of the BoneLab Ephesos. Quantification was mainly performed by counting the Number of Identified Specimens (NISP), MNI (Minimum Number of Individuals) was only calculated in order to highlight selective patterns of the sample that potentially might set apart residuals of specific functions from normal domestic waste.

51Data collection obeyed the methodic rules of archaeozoological research. Osteometry followed the standards of A. Von den Driesch (1976), culling ages were estimated by rating the wear stages of teeth (Payne, 1987, modified by Hongo, 1997) and the state of epiphyseal closure (Noddle, 1974; Habermehl, 1975). All data, including discernible bone modifications like butchering, burning, gnawing marks, etc. were recorded digitally by means of a self-developed input mask that based on the software package PASW Statistics and allowed the direct application of all current statistical assay methods.

Results

52So far, the analysis covers a total of 2056 fragments with 1246 specimens (NISP=60.6%) that had been determined up to genus or species level. Table 2a and 2b provide overviews on the species compositions in terrestrial and aquatic taxa of all samples from the soundings “Sondage 1-6”.

Table 2a

 

B

O-C

O

C

S

Cn

Ee

Ea

Ce

Le

Mam

Gd

An

Aves

Sondage 1

79

245

13

55

61

1

4

3

2

1

464

11

 

11

Sondage 2

3

7

2

2

3

 

 

 

 

 

17

 

 

 

Sondage 3

5

17

1

18

10

 

 

 

 

 

51

7

 

7

Sondage 4

2

10

 

3

2

 

 

 

 

 

17

12

 

12

Sondage 5

43

135

7

68

50

 

 

 

5

 

308

9

 

9

Sondage 6

61

201

9

62

50

 

5

 

1

 

389

10

1

11

NISP

193

615

32

208

176

1

9

3

8

1

1246

49

1

50

NISPmam %

15,5

49,4

2,6

16,7

14,1

0,1

0,7

0,2

0,6

0,1

100,0

 

 

 

Mammalian and avian taxa from the soundings “Sondage 1 - 6”. Abr.: B – cattle, O-C – sheep/goat; O – sheep; C – goat; S - domestic pig; Cn – dog; Ee – equids (horse/hybrid); Ea – donkey; Ce – red deer; Le – hare; Mam – mammals; Gd – domestic fowl; An – (domestic) duck

G. Forstenpointner, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

Table 2b

 

Gastropoda

Bivalvia

Pisces

 

Cha

Hex

Mon

Nas

Hel

Don

Cer

Myt

Ost

Spo

Uni

ind

Sondage 1

3

 

1

 

6

13

9

2

2

 

 

3

Sondage 2

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sondage 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

Sondage 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

1

Sondage 5

2

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

 

1

3

Sondage 6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

1

 

5

total

5

1

1

1

7

14

9

4

3

1

2

14

Aquatic taxa from the soundings “Sondage 1 - 6”, including terr. Helix. Abr.: Cha – Charonia sp.; Hex – Hexaplex trunculus; Mon – Monodonta articulate; Nas – Nassarius gibbulosus; Hel – Helix sp; Don – Donax trunculus; Cer – Cerastoderma glaucum; Myt – Mytilus galloprovincialis; Ost – Ostrea edulis; Spo – Spondylus gaederopus; Uni – Unio mancus; ind – not determined

G. Forstenpointner, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

53All samples are highly dominated by remains of ovicaprines, comprising 68.7% of all mammal bones. Due to a moderate grade of fragmentation and to a high percentage of diagnostic limb bones more than 28% of these finds proved determinability, showing a ratio goat:sheep of almost 9:1. With almost even shares around 15% of identified mammal bones cattle and pigs did not play major roles for the meat supply of the waste producing consumer group. Almost 4% of all identified terrestrial vertebrate remains come from birds, almost exclusively chicken, which is a higher percentage than in previous contemporaneous finds from Limyra (2%, Forstenpointner & Gaggl, 1997) or in Late Antique Sagalassos (3%, De Cupere, 2001) but lesser than in the Late Antique Vedius Gymnasium at Ephesos (5-6%, Forstenpointner et al., 2008) or in Byzantine Pessinus (6-7%, De Cupere, 1994).

Fig. 18: Mollusc shells from Sondage 6: Spondylus gaederopus (left), Mytilus galloprovincialis (above right), Charonia sp. (downright)

Fig. 18: Mollusc shells from Sondage 6: Spondylus gaederopus (left), Mytilus galloprovincialis (above right), Charonia sp. (downright)

A. Dolea, J. Kreuzer, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

54While remains of fish and molluscs are scarce (cf. Table 2b), indicating insignificant alimentary relevance of aquatic resources, some shells like Charonia or Spondylus possibly had been kept because of their impressive appearance (Fig. 18).

55As data collection and analysis are not completed yet, the following overview on some results concerning husbandry and patterns of consumption will focus on finds from Sondage 6 that have been analysed for the most part.

Fig. 19: Representation of ovicaprine body parts by determined skeletal elements

Fig. 19: Representation of ovicaprine body parts by determined skeletal elements

G. Forstenpointner, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

Fig. 20: Skeletal elements of large sized ovicaprines (above right Metacarpus, all others Femur; above left unfused epiphysis)

Fig. 20: Skeletal elements of large sized ovicaprines (above right Metacarpus, all others Femur; above left unfused epiphysis)

A. Dolea, J. Kreuzer, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

56Due to the sample size, reliable statements are only suitable for ovicaprine remains. Two eye-catching features attract particular attention: On the one hand, more than 45% of the identified specimens represent the meat bearing haunches, upper- and forearm of the front limb and thigh and shank of the hind limb that comprises 70% of this sub-sample (Fig. 19). Second, based on non-metric assessment of body size, almost a third (28%) of ovicaprine bones come from large to very large individuals (Fig. 20), the major part (63%) represents medium sized goats or sheep and only 9% witness small animals. While estimation of slaughter ages indicates preferred culling at an age between one and four years of life, also older individuals are discernible (Fig. 21a, b), however, no remains of very young kids or lambs are proven. Butchering marks appear in regular positions and refer to skilled processing of the animals carcass.

Fig. 21 a: Culling ages of ovicaprines by staging of dental wear

Fig. 21 a: Culling ages of ovicaprines by staging of dental wear

G. Forstenpointner, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

Fig. 21 b: Culling ages of ovicaprines by staging of epiphyseal fusion

Fig. 21 b: Culling ages of ovicaprines by staging of epiphyseal fusion

G. Forstenpointner, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

Preliminary interpretations

57Clearly discernible patterns of selection (meat-bearing haunches), predominantly high-quality meat from younger individuals and skilled butchering techniques might indicate professional processing and distribution of meat, maybe in the functional context of a tavern or a public eating-house. Similar finds in rooms of the Vedius Gymnasium at Ephesos have been interpreted accordingly (Forstenpointner et al., 2008), endorsed by various affirmative evidence. At the present state of analysis, also other finds from the building near the lime-kiln, like coins, ceramic or glass appear to corroborate this functional interpretation.

Geophysical survey (K. Löcker, R. Totschnig)

58After the successful field campaigns in 2013 and 2014, when large areas of the East and West Cities at Limyra were surveyed using magnetics and ground penetrating radar (GPR), the remaining parts of the city area were prospected with magnetics in autumn 2019. The results from 2013 and 2014 have already been presented in summary (Seyer, 2016), but these were primarily areas of the ancient city that contained little or no larger stones or other obstacles and where it was possible to stake out rectangular measuring grids. As a result, almost 4 hectares were studied using geophysical methods in these two years.

59However, those areas that could not be examined with regular measuring grids were highly interesting concerning questions of urbanism, especially in the East City. A geophysical survey of these rather inaccessible areas has been the focus of research at Limyra since the end of the field campaign in 2014. This survey was made possible in 2019 by a conversion of the manually operated magnetic measurement system to GNSS positioning (Fig. 22). In addition, the areas in question in the East City were largely cleared or mowed, allowing larger, irregular measuring areas to be surveyed and individual obstacles and larger stones to be easily bypassed.

Fig. 22: Use of the adapted magnetic measurement system equipped with GNSS positioning in the Eastern Town of Limyra 2019

Fig. 22: Use of the adapted magnetic measurement system equipped with GNSS positioning in the Eastern Town of Limyra 2019

K. Löcker, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

Fig. 23: Overview of the magnetic survey areas in Limyra 2019. Measuring dynamics displayed [+24nT/-16nT] in 255 levels of grey

Fig. 23: Overview of the magnetic survey areas in Limyra 2019. Measuring dynamics displayed [+24nT/-16nT] in 255 levels of grey

K. Löcker, C. Kurtze, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

The geophysical field campaign 2019

60The magnetic field measurements were carried out between September 22 and 26, 2019 in partly difficult conditions due to vegetation and architectural elements lying around. A total area of 11,303 m² was prospected in eleven sub-areas (Fig. 23), with two sub-areas with an area of 2,051 m² being examined in the West City. In the East City, nine sub-areas with a size of 9,252 m² were prospected using magnetics.

61For the survey, a Foerster FEREX Fluxgate 4-probe magnetometer system was used in a measuring grid of 0.03 x 0.5 m. The positioning was carried out by a differential RTK-GNSS system mounted on the measuring system. The average positioning accuracy was 2 cm. The measurement resolution of the device was 0.1 nT at 50 measurements per second. The measurement data was then interpolated into a grid of 0.1 x 0.1 m.

Archaeological interpretation of the magnetic field survey from 2019

Fig. 24: Magnetograms of the magnetic survey areas in the Western Town of Limyra 2019. Measuring dynamics displayed [+24nT/-16nT] in 255 levels of grey

Fig. 24: Magnetograms of the magnetic survey areas in the Western Town of Limyra 2019. Measuring dynamics displayed [+24nT/-16nT] in 255 levels of grey

R. Totschnig, C. Kurtze, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

62West City. The first survey area is to the west of the cenotaph of Gaius Caesar (see both areas in Fig. 24). In the magnetogram, several potential walls can be detected as positive (light) linear anomalies. Two walls run almost east-west away from the Cenotaph. These have already been discovered in the excavated areas around the cenotaph and can be easily traced in the measured area. In the northern and southern parts of the survey area, further walls can be seen, which also partly belong to the already excavated structures.

63The second survey area in the West City is to the west of the Ptolemaion (stone terrace of the blocks of this building). Here, disturbances of probably recent iron objects can be detected. However, five linear structures can be interpreted, which could derive from walls.

Fig. 25: Magnetograms of the magnetic survey areas in the zone of the Eastern Town North in Limyra 2019. Measuring dynamics displayed [+24nT/-16nT] in 255 levels of grey

Fig. 25: Magnetograms of the magnetic survey areas in the zone of the Eastern Town North in Limyra 2019. Measuring dynamics displayed [+24nT/-16nT] in 255 levels of grey

R. Totschnig, C. Kurtze, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

64East City. The measured areas in the eastern city were divided into three main zones for the description of the results. The area of East City North (Fig. 25) lies east of the Ptolemaion on the eastern side of the Limyros River and extends almost to the Roman baths. In the three survey areas of this zone, mainly a large number of linear structures and iron objects can be detected. In most cases, the linear structures are likely interpretable as walls. The western area shows a very interesting picture, as two different orientations of the walls can be seen here. One orientation refers to the excavated and now submerged colonnaded street. Here, five to six individual rooms can be identified over a length of about 45 m, which have relatively uniform sizes of about 6 x 6 m. Directly adjacent to this approximately 6 x 46 m large building structure, a building complex of approx. 50 x 70 m can be recognized, which has approximately the same orientation as the Bishop’s Church adjacent to the south-west of the surveyed area. Inside this complex, several interiors as well as possible corridors can be detected.

65To the east of this largest surveyed area of the East City are two further prospected areas. Here, additional potential walls can be detected. These walls also have the same orientation as the large building and the Bishop’s Church. The smaller area to the south shows a floor plan of approximately 9 x 16 m, while the northern area shows only three linear structures, which, however, does not result in a clear building floor plan.

Fig. 26: Magnetograms of the magnetic survey areas in the zone of the Eastern Town South in Limyra 2019. Measuring dynamics displayed [+24nT/-16nT] in 255 levels of grey

Fig. 26: Magnetograms of the magnetic survey areas in the zone of the Eastern Town South in Limyra 2019. Measuring dynamics displayed [+24nT/-16nT] in 255 levels of grey

R. Totschnig, C. Kurtze, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

66The second zone (East City South) lies south of the first area around the South Baths (former: Bishop's Palace) and consists of five individual measuring areas (Fig. 26). The three areas north of the South Baths show virtually no clearly recognizable or interpretable structures such as walls or the like. The area in the south-west partly overlays the bathing complex, and isolated walls as well as a larger debris area can be identified. The interpretable orientation of the walls corresponds to the still visible remains of the baths.

67The last area of this zone is east of the South Baths. In this area, some walls can be identified, which are likely to belong to different buildings. In this area, the orientation of the walls changes from one building complex to another, whereby neither of the two recognizable orientations can be clearly assigned to still standing building complexes. The eastern part of this measuring area completes a building complex that was already partly covered during the first survey campaigns. This building is now approx. 21 x 22 m in size and is delimited on the west and east sides by smaller open spaces. In the north, it is located just next to the large road running through the East City and in the south along a small alley about 2.5 m wide, which can be followed westwards on the basis of the old measurement data. The western area shows a different orientation, as mentioned above, which in this area is not similar to any known structure. Although walls can be clearly recognized and individual rooms or corridors can also be distinguished, no clear building floor plan can be interpreted.

68The third zone (East City Southeast) is located in the south-eastern corner of the East City (Fig. 27). The question here was whether a ca. 2 m wide wall, found in the course of excavations carried out in this area, extends further into the urban area and whether its course can be followed. In the surveyed area individual walls can be detected, but in the area in which the abovementioned wall should be located, no definite structures can be detected in the magnetic data which might indicate a continuation of this wall.

Fig. 27: Magnetograms of the magnetic survey areas in the zone of the Eastern Town Southeast in Limyra 2019. Measuring dynamics displayed [+24nT/-16nT] in 255 levels of grey

Fig. 27: Magnetograms of the magnetic survey areas in the zone of the Eastern Town Southeast in Limyra 2019. Measuring dynamics displayed [+24nT/-16nT] in 255 levels of grey

R. Totschnig, C. Kurtze, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

Fig. 28: Updated city map with the results of the latest magnetic prospection in Limyra 2019

Fig. 28: Updated city map with the results of the latest magnetic prospection in Limyra 2019

R. Totschnig, C. Kurtze, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

69Fig. 28 shows all linear structures known from the prospections, which are in almost all cases walls, as well as the building residues known or measured by the architectural survey. If one now looks at the orientations of the East and West Cities, one can see three different development directions in the West City, which are likely to be three development phases. The East City shows a slightly different building picture, since the development is oriented to a road making a bend and therefore the orientation of the buildings changes automatically. But three orientations can also be detected here. However, clearly different phases can only be detected in the western area. Here, a parallel development can be observed on both sides of the exposed road, which is superimposed or underlain by a completely different orientation. With the completion of the geophysical prospection, a very complete picture of the city within the city walls is now apparent, whereby a better overview of the archaeological structures in the west part of the East City is available for the first time.

The Architectural Survey of the Western City (I. Uytterhoeven)

Fig. 29: Isolated door lintel, possibly reused in the late city walls

Fig. 29: Isolated door lintel, possibly reused in the late city walls

I. Uytterhoeven, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

Fig. 30: Isolated fluted column fragment

Fig. 30: Isolated fluted column fragment

I. Uytterhoeven, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

  • 26 We want to thank A. Dolea and her team for their help with the Total Station measurements.

70In early September 2019, an architectural survey was carried out in the Western City of ancient Limyra in continuation of the field project we conducted in the Eastern City in 2014 and 2015. During these previous campaigns, the documentation of architectural surface remains had allowed extending our insights in the urban layout and development of this eastern city section, especially for the Late Antique and Byzantine periods (Uytterhoeven, 2015; 2016a & 2016b; 2017; Uytterhoeven & Seyer, in press). In line with the investigation of the Eastern City, also in the Western City, attention went to both in situ remains (Fig. 29) and isolated architectural fragments that had mostly got out of context (Fig. 30). All individual architectural elements were measured, photographically recorded and described in detail. This included an identification, a description of the used material and techniques, as well as the documentation of specific decorative and structural aspects (e.g., dowel holes). Moreover, the exact find location of all structures and building fragments was defined using the Total Station.26 Apart from looking into the individual characteristics of architectural fragments and walls, we also documented their relation with other surface features, as we expected this to allow a better understanding of the architectural layout of buildings and the urbanistic design of city quarters.

71During the architectural survey, we had to cope with some limitations. First, through time, the ancient site of Limyra has undergone substantial surface disturbance caused by the prolonged use of the ancient urban area (e.g., for agricultural activities). As a result, structures may have disappeared and movable architectural fragments displaced, thus severely impacting our interpretations. Another factor that obstructed the field research was the lack of visibility due to the dense vegetation covering large areas of the ancient site. Moreover, water flows crossing the site influenced both the visibility and accessibility of the city areas in a negative way. All these factors complicated the registration and made the study of certain zones even entirely impossible.

72Despite these issues, a total of 45 architectural features, including nine in situ wall sections could be measured, identified, and photographed, a significantly smaller number than the almost 250 individual architectural features documented in the Eastern City during the earlier campaigns. Most of the newly investigated material seems to have been displaced from its ancient position and cannot be related to specific structures. However, several architectural fragments documented in the west and the south of the Western City may have been reused as spolia in the late city walls (Fig. 31).

Fig. 31: In situ wall section in rubble

Fig. 31: In situ wall section in rubble

I. Uytterhoeven, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

73During and after our work in the Eastern and Western City areas, it became clear that the systematic documentation of the architectural surface remains at ancient Limyra, and their precise mapping has extended our knowledge of the general layout of the Late Antique and Early Byzantine town, its development and urban structures. Therefore, the architectural survey at Limyra can be considered a substantial supplementary research tool in addition to other field techniques that have been carried out thus far. In particular, by combining our architectural survey results with data retrieved from excavations, geophysical research and aerial documentation, we could refine our understanding of the organisation of the town during its later occupation phases, by paying attention to individual structures, their possible interrelation and their insertion in larger urban areas. In this way, our fieldwork has illustrated the added value of a combined research approach integrating various investigation strategies.

Studies on the Spolia of the Late Antique City Walls of Limyra (E. Cayre)

  • 27 Following the 2005 and 2007 campaigns, the study of spolia carried out by L. Cavalier revealed the (...)

The 2019 campaign is part of the “Studien zu den in den spätantiken Mauern Limyras verbauten Spolien” project led by L. Cavalier (Ausonius, Bordeaux). Its aim is to study the architectural blocks reused in the Byzantine city walls of Limyra. Witnesses of the past, the spolia prove to be of paramount importance for the architectural and urbanistic knowledge of the city. Their systematic study has already made it possible to attest to the existence of some monumental buildings, now totally disappeared, which dominated the urban landscape of Limyra.27

  • 28 The project on spolia in the city walls was initiated by J. Borchhardt in the early 1970s and start (...)

The study of Limyra’s spolia is a project established in 2005 by T. Marksteiner, then director of the excavations, and L. Cavalier.28 Two first missions were carried out, in 2005 and 2007, during which L. Cavalier began an inventory of the blocks reused in the Byzantine city walls (first of all that of the East City) as well as the errant blocks. The campaign in 2019 was aimed to resume, continue and complete this work.

Study of the spolia

Fig. 32: Blocks parking lots

Fig. 32: Blocks parking lots

E. Cayre, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

  • 29 The nomenclature used for the numbering of the inventoried blocks has been simplified compared to 2 (...)

74Inventory and Databases. The methodology first consisted of making an inventory of the whole of the architectural blocks reused in the city wall of the East City, then in registering the stray blocks, coming from the city wall but found nearby and nowadays stored in “block parking lots” near the western city wall of the East City (Fig. 32). Each block registered was integrated into a database, given an inventory number and its main characteristics (nature of the block, material, dimensions, ornamentation, fastening, clamp and dowel, etc.) were taken into account. Each file also presents one or two photographs of the concerning block. Two separate databases have been created: one for the spolia of the city wall and one for the stray blocks.29

75Concerning the spolia of the Byzantine city walls, the inventory was completed by resuming entirely the study of the city wall of the East City. Previously, several sections of this city wall were not accessible or visible. Moreover, a part of the wall has been reconstructed in the 1990s, notably in the area of the storerooms and along the road leading to the site entrance. Thus, 191 new blocks have been registered. It should be noted that a certain number of blocks visible in 2005 and 2007 is not at the same place anymore. Likewise, it is difficult to approach a large part of the northern section of the city wall because of the vegetation at the moment, so that some blocks could not be examined. Concerning the stray blocks, 211 new blocks were registered. Today, the inventory of spolia and stray blocks is rich of 649 elements.

Data analysis

Fig. 33: Sets of registered blocks

Fig. 33: Sets of registered blocks

E. Cayre, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

76Based on the data collected, sets have been constituted according to the nature of the blocks (Fig. 33). Within these large sets, groups can be distinguished within which it is possible to establish series according to size, ornamentation and other characteristics. Most of the blocks belong to well-defined architectural components (wall, krepis, column, entablature, etc.), among which we have isolated the blocks of an Ionic tholos and the blocks attributed to the Corinthian pseudo-peripteral building. The work of analysis and constitution of the series is in progress and the results presented here are only partial.

Corinthian pseudo-peripteral building

  • 30 Cf. footnote 28.

77During this campaign, 11 new blocks attributed to the Corinthian pseudo-peripteral building were discovered and inventoried. We have now 37 blocks that may be attributed to this building: block of wall with Corinthian capital (2), corner block with applied Corinthian capital (1), block of anta with applied Corinthian capital and pilaster (1), block of wall with applied column (11), block of wall with 3/4 applied column (13), block of wall (5), block with pilaster effect (1), block of podium (3). L. Cavalier had previously identified 18 blocks that constituted the key to the reconstruction of the Corinthian pseudo-peripteral building (second half of the 1st century BCE).30 In studying the location of discovery or reuse of these blocks in the city wall, we notice that they are concentrated in its southern part.

Tholos

Fig. 34: Blocks of tholos reused in the north-east section of the city wall (inner facing)

Fig. 34: Blocks of tholos reused in the north-east section of the city wall (inner facing)

E. Cayre, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

78The blocks belonging to a tholos represent an important set (68 blocks): Ionic architrave (10), block of dentils (1), Ionic shaft of engaged column (2), block of wall of various modules (29), block of coffer (2), moulded block (2), block of Ionic cornice (1) and blocks of krepis (with double recess) (16). These blocks are mostly reused in the north-east section of the city wall or were found nearby (Fig. 34).

Blocks of krepis

  • 31 Blocks with recess at the resting surface indicate in principle a building of high quality (e.g., P (...)
  • 32 This block is very similar to the Block III of the Chryso Artemous Monument (currently in storeroom (...)

79Among the 12 blocks of a krepis registered, 3 series have been established. These blocks have a recess (single or double).31 The first series includes 5 blocks with double recess above a median projecting zone in regard of the reference plane (lower recess). The identification of these blocks is still uncertain. The second series consists of 3 blocks with a single recess at the resting surface and, above, a protecting surface (or protective mantle?). As for the third series, it is only represented by one block with, at the resting surface, a double recess stopped by a cyma reversa and, above, a protecting surface (or protective mantle?).32

Blocks of entablature

80Architrave. 44 blocks of an architrave have been identified (27 blocks reused in the city wall and 17 stray blocks) among which several groups can be distinguished: block of a Doric architrave (4), block of an Ionic architrave (19), block of an Ionic counter-architrave (4) and block of a Doric-Ionic architrave (4). 9 blocks were identified only by their soffit (decorated with a panel). 4 other blocks were identified as architraves in a hypothetical way. It should be noted that the architrave is the least represented part of the Doric entablature. The most important group among the listed architraves is that of the Ionic architrave: 3 series were created (according to the dimensions of the blocks, the height of the crowning mouldings, the height of the fasciae and the decoration) among which L. Cavalier attributes one series to the Ionic peripteral building.

81Frieze. 49 blocks of a frieze have been registered (21 blocks reused in the city wall and 28 stray blocks) among which several groups can be distinguished: blocks of a Doric frieze (36), blocks of a bucranium frieze (4), block of a frieze with rinceau (4) and block of a smooth frieze with a convex profile (4). One block has been identified as an Ionic frieze. In contrast to the architrave, a large number of Doric frieze blocks have been identified. According to the study of these Doric frieze blocks, 3 series could be currently constituted according to their height, the height of the corona, the length of the triglyphs and metopes and the shape of the triglyphs. Among the blocks of the bucranium frieze (4), 3 blocks come from the same building (Dinstl, 1993, pp. 161-167).

82Cornice. 40 blocks of a cornice have been registered (3 blocks reused in the city wall and 37 stray blocks) among which several groups can be distinguished: blocks of a Doric cornice (16 including a corner block), blocks of an Ionic cornice (11), blocks of an Ionic cornice-sima (6), blocks of an Ionic cornice-sima with dentils (4), block of a cornice with consoles (1), block of a Corinthian cornice with modillions (1). One block of a cornice-sima reused in the western wall of the East City remains undetermined. As regards the blocks of a Doric cornice, 3 series have been constituted according to the presence or the absence of the drip nose, the shape of the mutuli and the shape of the via between them. Among the Ionic cornice blocks, the most important series (9 blocks) is attributed by L. Cavalier to the Ionic peripteral building mentioned above.

Doric Stoa

  • 33 The architrave blocks included in this arrangement are 4 dorico-ionic architrave blocks (3 blocks 1 (...)

83According to the study of the various Doric elements (architrave, frieze, cornice), it was possible to reconstruct a complete entablature which, given the undeveloped dimensions (H architrave + frieze = 0.78 m), could be attributed to a civic building, probably a stoa. Among the cornice blocks associated with this entablature there is a corner block, which implies a building with at least two contiguous sides colonnaded, with a column 4.05 m high (a lower diameter of 0.54 m) and with 2 triglyphs per intercolumniation and 1.98 m of interaxial distance.33 We have registered 41 Doric column shafts (21 fluted shafts, 13 faceted shafts and 7 bipartite (fluted and faceted) shafts). Among the bipartite shafts, two blocks could correspond to this reconstruction, as well as 3 fluted shafts. Concerning the capital, the individuals inventoried are too few, all different and rather badly preserved. This is only a preliminary proposal still under consideration.

Photogrammetry

Fig. 35: SP204

Fig. 35: SP204

E. Cayre, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

Fig. 36: SP219

Fig. 36: SP219

E. Cayre, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

84During this 2019 campaign, it was also planned to proceed to the photogrammetry of various blocks (53), some that had already been known before ‒ blocks of Doric entablature (frieze and cornice), blocks of Ionic order (base, capital, architrave, dentils and cornice), blocks attributed to the Corinthian pseudo-peripteral building ‒ and some newly registered blocks. Only the photographic part was carried out during the stay at Limyra, the processing with the Metashape software is currently in progress (Figs. 35, 36).

Prospects

85The purpose of this study on Limyra's spolia is to attest of the existence of monuments or buildings, which have now completely disappeared, to virtually reconstruct these edifices and to propose a dating for their construction, namely the Ionic tholos (from the Hellenistic period?) and the Doric stoa above-mentioned, which enrich the monumental architectural adornment of Limyra. The question remains as to the location of these buildings (the location of the spolia would be a good indicator). Were they already destroyed or were they dismantled when the blocks were recycled? It would also be interesting to study the way the blocks were reused in the city wall. For a complete study, it is first and foremost necessary to complete this inventory work by studying the city wall of the West City. This study will lead to the creation of a catalogue raisonné.

Underwater Archaeology at Limyra (C. Öztosun, M. Seyer, H. Öniz)

  • 34 The authors want to express their gratitude to following collaborators: G. Dönmez, E. N. Ambarkaya, (...)

86In 2019 an underwater-archaeological project was initiated at Limyra. From September 16-19 a team of four underwater specialists under the guidance of Assoc. Prof. Dr. H. Öniz and under the supervision of PhD Candidate C. Öztosun34 began to investigate the area south-east of the Ptolemaion (Fig. 1) in order to get closer information on possible architectural remains or even elements of the city plan such as parts of buildings or streets. This enterprise promises interesting results, as the concerning area is one of the crucial spots of the city’s urban development. Anyway, as it is situated below water level nowadays, it cannot be studied with traditional archaeological methods.

87Limyra has an extremely complicated hydrological situation. On the one side, various tectonic processes cause a subsidence of the coastal plain and thereby a visible rise in the ground-water table, on the other side, due to strong seismic activity, water from a high outcropping karst horizon at the Bey Dağları, immediately north of Limyra, gushes increasingly into the subsoil of the city (Wiegand, 1973; Öner, 2013, pp. 355-378; Rantitsch, Prochaska, Seyer, Lotz, & Kurtze, 2016). As a result, numerous karstic springs have arisen in the entire area of the subsoil of Limyra, and have united into a number of watercourses. These waterways build the two arms of Limyros River (Rantitsch, Prochaska, Seyer, Lotz, & Kurtze, 2016; Stock, Seyer, Symanczyk, Uncu, & Brückner, 2019), whereby the western one is flowing directly through the surveyed area south of the Ptolemaion. It can only be surmised at the moment that its appearance ‒ which probably occurred suddenly as the result of a heavy earthquake and which was connected with the flooding of a part of the ancient city ‒ was also the cause for the alteration of the urban framework at Limyra established in the Hellenistic period.

88With the emergence of a river arm in the midst of the city the street passing the area, immediately south of the Ptolemaion suddenly became unusable. As a consequence the direction of this traffic way was changed roughly to NW-SE and a bridge was built in order to cross the new river. While at its south side the street (the so-called “colonnaded street”) continued as the main street through the eastern part of the city, at the north side of the bridge a monumental gateway was erected which possibly can be associated with these incidents (Seyer, 2019; Seyer & Quatember, 2020). As the area remained an important spot in the city at least until the Early Byzantine period, upon which a church was built in the 6th century AD (Pülz 1996; Pülz & Ruggendorfer 2004, pp. 67-76), the embankment had to be fortified. As the first activity of the underwater study the concerning area below the water table was cleaned from plants and small stones. A series of photos could be made, which show the character of this solid construction. Obviously it was built with massive ashlar blocks which protected this zone from the water of the Limyros River (Fig. 37).

Fig. 37: Ashlar blocks of the river embankment

Fig. 37: Ashlar blocks of the river embankment

M. S. Gül, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

Fig. 38: Aerial view of the situation south-east of the Ptolemaion

Fig. 38: Aerial view of the situation south-east of the Ptolemaion

C. Kurtze, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

Fig. 39: Remains of a stone floor behind the colonnaded street

Fig. 39: Remains of a stone floor behind the colonnaded street

M. S. Gül, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

Fig. 40: Lower part of a stamped unguentarium

Fig. 40: Lower part of a stamped unguentarium

G. Dönmez ©ÖAW-ÖAI

  • 35 The geophysical survey undertaken at Limyra in 2019 proves that the shops behind the colonnades on (...)

89In the same way the immediate vicinity south of the bridge was cleaned. As a consequence the continuation of the western stylobate of the colonnaded street was made visible. In its northern part only the lower row of blocks is preserved, whereas further south it consists of two rows, thus corresponding to its counterpart on the eastern side of the street. The stylobate continues northwards until the bridge and then suddenly forms an angle of a little more than 90° in south-western direction. After a length of ca. 5 m it connects to the blocks of the embankment which were already visible before cleaning this zone (Fig. 38). A basic spatial formation and remains of a stone floor (Fig. 39) suggest that this row of blocks was not only a simple stabilization but rather the part of a building complex. Most probably it has to be interpreted as the front part of colonnades, as roofed colonnades have already been attested for both sides of the street (Reiter, 1991/92; Reiter, 1993; Pülz & Ruggendorfer, 2004, pp. 55-57). The row of blocks revealed in 2019 is a clear indication that this architectural feature, which was a widespread architectural element in the cities of North Africa, Syria and Asia Minor since the Roman Imperial period (Reiter, 1993, p. 105), reached until the immediate river bank. The finds (amongst them countless ceramic fragments, three coins, the lower part of a stamped unguentarium (Fig. 40), and several lead fragments) give a clear indication for this, as they fit very well into the mercantile character of the buildings behind the colonnades ‒ most probably sales shops.35 Furthermore, do they suggest that the shops still were intensively used in the late antique period, as also did the finds of earlier investigations in the area of the colonnaded street (Reiter, 1993, p. 107; Pülz & Ruggendorfer, 2004, p. 57).

A Summer School at Limyra 2019: Architects on Archaeological Sites (Z. Kuban)

90A summer school titled “Arkeolojik Alanda Mimar/Architects on Archaeological Sites” organized by Prof. Dr. Z. Kuban, Ass. Prof. Dr. U. Almaç, Ass. Prof. Dr. B. Ar and Research Assistant G. Günay from Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Architecture took place at Limyra in 2019. In general, undergraduate students of architecture do not get any practical training concerning archaeological sites during their university education. There is only one three-day lasting excursion as part of their compulsory course on history of ancient architecture in their first year, where they get the chance to interact consciously with archaeological sites. Many students contact the department of history of architecture with the request for assistance for a participation in archaeological excavations. On the other side, colleagues from excavations often are searching for architecture students with the necessary knowledge. Therefore, we decided to give students interested in archaeological excavations a chance to learn about the challenges and duties of an architect on archaeological sites. The first summer school took place in Apollonia at Ryndakos, Bithynia in 2018. The good experience there reassured the team to continue with intensive summer courses in order to give a larger amount of architecture students a basis for the wide scope of works of architects on archaeological sites. The close ties to the excavation of Limyra made it possible to realize the summer-school in 2019 here in cooperation with the Austrian Archaeological Institute.

91Between August 26 and September 2, 2019, a one week program was carried out. During the day, practical field work was executed, while in the evenings the knowledge was deepened and intensified with theoretical lectures. The members of the archaeological team presented the objects and topics they were working on, such as the archaeozoologist, the ceramic specialist as well as the archaeologist responsible for the field work. The director of the excavation gave an overview of archaeological studies on Limyra, and the senior architect talked about the different and manifold tasks he had been undertaking at Limyra since he came here first 49 years ago.

92During the field training, the students first learned traditional measurement techniques and documentation methods. They started with drawing small scale architectural pieces like column capitals, details of reliefs etc. on a scale of 1:5. As the second step, three-dimensional spaces were taken as study objects, such as the Lycian rock-cut graves (Fig. 41), of which Limyra has many examples. Here the students exercised plan-elevation and section of the tombs on a scale of 1:20. They exercised measuring, documentation and also hand drawing.

Fig. 41: Measuring a rock tomb in Limyra

Fig. 41: Measuring a rock tomb in Limyra

B. Ar, ©ÖAW-ÖAI

93In the third step, with a stretch of the Byzantine wall, practical study moved to a larger object, where the use of total station, photogrammetry techniques and computer drawing programs in this context were introduced to the students. In this part the students were divided into different groups, where each group was responsible for one segment of the wall. They sketched, took measures by hand, used total station and photogrammetry and completed their drawings. The students also learned about preparing verbal architectural descriptions. The drawings were digitized and put together into one single drawing of the wall. In the end, the students did not only learn about the role of the architect on an excavation-site, but also about team work and the heavy working conditions of an archaeological excavation. Some of the students of 2018 and 2019 will work on different sites in 2020. We hope to continue at Limyra in 2020 in order to educate a greater deal of architecture-students for excavations in Turkey.

Science Communication and International Collaboration (M. Seyer)

  • 36 I want to express my gratitude to the director of Ziraat Odası of Finike, Mr. Halil Sarıçobanoğlu, (...)

During the 2018 season Limyra excavation organized the international workshop “Archäologische und epigraphische Forschungen in Lykien – Lykia’da arkeoloji ve epigrafik araştırmalar” in order to provide a platform for the presentation of recent research in Lycia and for scientific discussions and exchange already during the excavation season. Due to the very positive experience, a similar event was held again in Finike on August 31, 2019. As this year’s focus was laid on the archaeological work in East Lycia, the directors and team members of the excavations in Olympos, Arycanda and Limyra were invited to talk about their research at the workshop “Recent Archaeological Research in Eastern Lycia ‒ Güncel Doğu Lykia’da arkeoloji araştırmalar”36. All together 13 researchers took the chance to present their projects that proved the variety of the scientific questions at these different sites. The event provided precious insights into ongoing work at the excavations in East Lycia as well as interesting discussions and exchange of ideas between the various enterprises.

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Notes

1 My gratitude is due to the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) for the approval of this research project. For first results see Seyer, Dolea, Kugler, Brückner and Stock 2017; Seyer, 2019; Seyer, Dolea, Bes, Schwarcz, Baybo, Leung, Quatember, Wörrle, Brückner, Stock, Symanczyk, Stanzl, Kugler, Yener-Marksteiner, 2019; Seyer and Quatember, 2020.

2 I express my gratitude to the following collaborators: G. Çimen, T. Günaydın, K. Kainz, B. Orakçılar, D. Üstünel.

3 More detailed in the contribution of D. Zs. Schwarcz below.

4 See the results of E. Cayre below.

5 See below the contribution of D. Zs. Schwarcz for further details regarding primary and secondary iron production in the West Gate-Polis West excavated sectors.

6 See below the contribution of Ph. Bes for more details regarding the Byzantine pottery identified in the West Gate-Polis West excavated sectors.

7 All dates are AD and ca. unless otherwise noted. Drawings were made by S. Mayer, R. Sporleder and D. Karakurt.

8 Research into these amphorae is in progress, hence a detailed discussion – in terms of fabric, typology and provenance – must await further documentation and study. Part of these amphorae can be preliminarily identified as members of the family of Globular Amphorae. See e.g., Hayes, 1992, p. 71 (Type 29, though gold ‘mica’ flakes are not mentioned). One parallel is possibly Cypriot (“a bit sandy, with fine gold mica and some brown-black specks”) that is tentatively dated to the 8th century: Hayes, 2003, pp. 506, 514, fig. 36.340. Further see e.g., Poulou-Papadimitriou and Nodarou, 2014; Tzavella, 2019; Klontza-Jaklova, 2014.

9 Hayes, 2003, pp. 502-503, fig. 30.327-328 (Deposit 15), pp. 504-505, fig. 31.334-335 (Deposit 16), pp. 512-516, figs 35.386 and 408, 36.405-407 (non-deposit items). Hayes mentions Soli, Salamis and Kourion as further findspots on Cyprus (2003, p. 515, n. 18).

10 Karambinis, 2015, p. 233, fig. 11.11.1, of presumed Aegean provenance. It is classified as FAB 20 (391) and (incorrectly?) grouped as LR Micaceous Aegean Ware.

11 Çömezoğlu, 2014, pp. 666, 672, fig. 3; the generic description of the fabric of cooking pots of type 2 possibly recalls that observed for Limyra, yet in profile only fig. 3e bears some resemblance (672).

12 Also see the contribution concerning such jugs by B. Yener-Marksteiner in Seyer et al., 2019.

13 In addition, loci 1016 and 1019 (WT18) contain Late Classical-Early/Middle Hellenistic pottery (probably not younger than the early 2nd century BC). Considerable quantities of Late Byzantine and Ottoman pottery, coarse and glazed wares, were also identified, and we are grateful to E. Fındık (Mustafa Kemal University, Antakya) for sharing her knowledge with us.

14 The Limyra specimen cannot be matched precisely; perhaps early/first half of the 5th century?

15 The fabric mostly conforms to what Hayes originally classified as Egyptian Red Slip Ware B (1972, pp. 398-399). Macroscopically, the fabric is the same as that of Islamic-period amphorae and basins. For the former, see e.g., Taxel and Fantalkin, 2011, pp. 79-83, 89-90, fig. 2; Konstantinidou, 2013, pp. 61, 73, fig. 7.28; for the latter, see Taxel and Fantalkin, 2011, pp. 90-93, figs 3-4 (labelled as “Egyptian Coarse Ware Basins”, or ECWB). Pers. obs.: fragments of these basins occur plentifully among the pottery from recent excavations (2018-2019) in Caesarea Maritima, directed by J. Rife and P. Lieberman (Vanderbilt University, Nashville, United States) and P. Gendelman (Israel Antiquities Authority).

16 Various standard works help the identification and classification of imported amphorae, predominantly Bezeczky, 2013; Bonifay, 2004; Keay, 1984; Peacock and Williams, 1986; Pieri, 2005; Reynolds, 2005, 2010; Kassab Tezgör, 2009; Robinson, 1959; Zeest, 1960; Marangou-Lerat, 1995; the Southampton online amphorae database. Hayes, 1972; Bonifay, 2004; Meyza, 2007 are mostly consulted for red slip tableware.

17 Cf. the preliminary results of the metal finds in Schwarcz, 2019, pp. 239-241.

18 Excluded from the overall sum are the nails and some metal finds from the East Gate 2011 and 2012 excavations. Due to the adverse natural conditions in the aforementioned area (i.e. high groundwater level), only a few poorly preserved metal artefacts were discovered during the archaeological work (s. Seyer, 2012, pp. 55-56). Furthermore, it should be noted, that the majority of the analysed pieces has not been restored yet. Therefore, the quantity of the finds represents a relative value.

19 The most significant layers containing slags weighing between one and three kilograms are located in the Sondage 01 of the Polis West 2018 (layers 1034, 1036, 1045) and Polis West 2019 (layers: 1001, 1058, 1078) excavations.

20 Concerning a summary of different slags produced during the iron smelting process s. Paynter, 2007, p. 17.

21 s. about the excavated lime kiln and lime production Dolea, 2019, pp. 232-233.

22 Polis East 2019, s. in detail the archaeological context in the contribution of A. Dolea above.

23 Steelyards were already widespread used in the Roman Empire. Analogous examples to the steelyard from Limyra are dated to the 5th and 7th centuries (cf. Davidson, 1952, pp. 207-208; Waldbaum, 1983; pp. 80-82; recent summary Pülz, 2020, pp. 126-127).

24 See below the contribution of G. Forstenpointer.

25 cf. Elaiussa Sebaste, Ferrazzoli, 2012, pp. 291-292

26 We want to thank A. Dolea and her team for their help with the Total Station measurements.

27 Following the 2005 and 2007 campaigns, the study of spolia carried out by L. Cavalier revealed the existence of a Corinthian pseudo-peripteral building (second half of the 1st century BCE according to L. Cavalier) and an Ionic peripteral building (4th century BCE according to L. Cavalier): Cavalier, L., 2012, pp. 133−140; Cavalier L., 2015, pp. 239-250; Cavalier L. 2020, pp. 55-62.

28 The project on spolia in the city walls was initiated by J. Borchhardt in the early 1970s and started by U. Peschlow and J. Ganzert but unfortunately it was not continued or published.

29 The nomenclature used for the numbering of the inventoried blocks has been simplified compared to 2005 and 2007: R (rempart in French) for spolia within the city-wall and SP for stray blocks.

30 Cf. footnote 28.

31 Blocks with recess at the resting surface indicate in principle a building of high quality (e.g., Ptolemaion of Limyra, Temple of Leto in Létôon (Xanthos), Temple of Apollo in Claros).

32 This block is very similar to the Block III of the Chryso Artemous Monument (currently in storeroom), Cf. Wörrle, 2016, pp. 403-451. We can see this kind of blocks at the Mausoleum of Belevi (first half of the 3rd century BCE).

33 The architrave blocks included in this arrangement are 4 dorico-ionic architrave blocks (3 blocks 1.98 m long and 1 block 2.07 m long) with a triglyph length of 0.27 m.

34 The authors want to express their gratitude to following collaborators: G. Dönmez, E. N. Ambarkaya, Ş. Ertek, E. Soydan, O. Sütçüoğlu and M. S. Gül.

35 The geophysical survey undertaken at Limyra in 2019 proves that the shops behind the colonnades on the eastern side of the street measured 6 x 6 m. For this information my thanks are due to K. Löcker and R. Totschnig (both Vienna). For this survey see their contribution above.

36 I want to express my gratitude to the director of Ziraat Odası of Finike, Mr. Halil Sarıçobanoğlu, for his considerable concession and help.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 1: Limyra, City Plan
Crédits C. Kurtze, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-1.png
Fichier image/png, 559k
Titre Fig. 2: Limyra East City 2019, final situation of trench 1
Crédits C. Kurtze, B. Orakçılar, A. Dolea, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 247k
Titre Fig. 3: Limyra West City 2019, final situation of trench 1
Crédits C. Kurtze, B. Orakçılar, A. Dolea, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 67k
Titre Fig. 4: Limyra West City 2019, dismantled Hellenistic city wall with a channelled stone and a spout
Crédits C. Kurtze, B. Orakçılar, A. Dolea, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 76k
Titre Fig. 5: Limyra West City 2019, massive square construction
Crédits C. Kurtze, B. Orakçılar, A. Dolea, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 235k
Titre Fig. 6: Limyra West City 2019, Hellenistic city wall and southern wall of the massive square construction, doubled and reinforced
Crédits C. Kurtze, B. Orakçılar, A. Dolea, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 86k
Titre Fig. 7: Limyra West City 2019, oven and water channel
Crédits C. Kurtze, B. Orakçılar, A. Dolea, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 85k
Titre Fig. 8: Limyra West City 2019, water management system
Crédits C. Kurtze, B. Orakçılar, A. Dolea, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-8.png
Fichier image/png, 3,1M
Titre Fig. 9: Limyra West City 2019, staircase adjoining smaller sized square construction
Crédits C. Kurtze, B. Orakçılar, A. Dolea, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 140k
Titre Fig. 10: Limyra West City 2019, storage and fire pits west to the lime kiln; inscription fragment (upper right corner) and architectural element (lower right corner)
Crédits A. Dolea, C. Kurtze, B. Orakçılar, K. Kainz, T. Günaydın, D. Üstünel, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 108k
Titre Fig. 11: Fragments of early Middle Byzantine pottery (locus 1034, PW18)
Crédits R. Hügli, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-11.png
Fichier image/png, 525k
Titre Fig. 12: Upper part of an early Middle Byzantine cooking pot (locus 5, WT11)
Crédits S. Mayer, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-12.png
Fichier image/png, 143k
Titre Fig. 13: Rim fragment of a Ras al-Bassit mortarium (locus 6018, PW16)
Crédits R. Sporleder, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-13.png
Fichier image/png, 122k
Titre Fig. 14: Fragment of a plate in Egyptian Red Slip Ware, similis to African Red Slip Ware Hayes 105 (locus 3009, PW16)
Crédits D. Karakurt, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-14.png
Fichier image/png, 60k
Titre Fig. 15: Rim fragment of a regional transport/storage vessel in Fabric 2 (locus 15, WT11)
Crédits D. Karakurt, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-15.png
Fichier image/png, 37k
Titre Table 1: : Overview of amphorae – regional and long-distance imports – quantified through MNI (loci 1025 [WT18] and 1052 [PW18])
Crédits P. Bes, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-16.png
Fichier image/png, 33k
Titre Fig. 16: Limyra East City (2019), various tools related to stone working
Crédits N. Gail, J. Kreuzer, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-17.png
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Titre Fig. 17: Limyra West City (2019), an arrowhead with lozenge flat blade
Crédits N. Gail, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-18.png
Fichier image/png, 480k
Titre Fig. 18: Mollusc shells from Sondage 6: Spondylus gaederopus (left), Mytilus galloprovincialis (above right), Charonia sp. (downright)
Crédits A. Dolea, J. Kreuzer, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-19.png
Fichier image/png, 471k
Titre Fig. 19: Representation of ovicaprine body parts by determined skeletal elements
Crédits G. Forstenpointner, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-20.png
Fichier image/png, 40k
Titre Fig. 20: Skeletal elements of large sized ovicaprines (above right Metacarpus, all others Femur; above left unfused epiphysis)
Crédits A. Dolea, J. Kreuzer, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-21.png
Fichier image/png, 366k
Titre Fig. 21 a: Culling ages of ovicaprines by staging of dental wear
Crédits G. Forstenpointner, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-22.png
Fichier image/png, 40k
Titre Fig. 21 b: Culling ages of ovicaprines by staging of epiphyseal fusion
Crédits G. Forstenpointner, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-23.png
Fichier image/png, 45k
Titre Fig. 22: Use of the adapted magnetic measurement system equipped with GNSS positioning in the Eastern Town of Limyra 2019
Crédits K. Löcker, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-24.png
Fichier image/png, 609k
Titre Fig. 23: Overview of the magnetic survey areas in Limyra 2019. Measuring dynamics displayed [+24nT/-16nT] in 255 levels of grey
Crédits K. Löcker, C. Kurtze, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-25.png
Fichier image/png, 235k
Titre Fig. 24: Magnetograms of the magnetic survey areas in the Western Town of Limyra 2019. Measuring dynamics displayed [+24nT/-16nT] in 255 levels of grey
Crédits R. Totschnig, C. Kurtze, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-26.png
Fichier image/png, 1,7M
Titre Fig. 25: Magnetograms of the magnetic survey areas in the zone of the Eastern Town North in Limyra 2019. Measuring dynamics displayed [+24nT/-16nT] in 255 levels of grey
Crédits R. Totschnig, C. Kurtze, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-27.png
Fichier image/png, 1,7M
Titre Fig. 26: Magnetograms of the magnetic survey areas in the zone of the Eastern Town South in Limyra 2019. Measuring dynamics displayed [+24nT/-16nT] in 255 levels of grey
Crédits R. Totschnig, C. Kurtze, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-28.png
Fichier image/png, 1,7M
Titre Fig. 27: Magnetograms of the magnetic survey areas in the zone of the Eastern Town Southeast in Limyra 2019. Measuring dynamics displayed [+24nT/-16nT] in 255 levels of grey
Crédits R. Totschnig, C. Kurtze, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-29.png
Fichier image/png, 1,6M
Titre Fig. 28: Updated city map with the results of the latest magnetic prospection in Limyra 2019
Crédits R. Totschnig, C. Kurtze, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-30.png
Fichier image/png, 323k
Titre Fig. 29: Isolated door lintel, possibly reused in the late city walls
Crédits I. Uytterhoeven, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-31.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 307k
Titre Fig. 30: Isolated fluted column fragment
Crédits I. Uytterhoeven, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-32.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 241k
Titre Fig. 31: In situ wall section in rubble
Crédits I. Uytterhoeven, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-33.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 354k
Titre Fig. 32: Blocks parking lots
Crédits E. Cayre, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-34.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 177k
Titre Fig. 33: Sets of registered blocks
Crédits E. Cayre, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-35.png
Fichier image/png, 230k
Titre Fig. 34: Blocks of tholos reused in the north-east section of the city wall (inner facing)
Crédits E. Cayre, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-36.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 183k
Titre Fig. 35: SP204
Crédits E. Cayre, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-37.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 87k
Titre Fig. 36: SP219
Crédits E. Cayre, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-38.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 105k
Titre Fig. 37: Ashlar blocks of the river embankment
Crédits M. S. Gül, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-39.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 98k
Titre Fig. 38: Aerial view of the situation south-east of the Ptolemaion
Crédits C. Kurtze, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-40.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 158k
Titre Fig. 39: Remains of a stone floor behind the colonnaded street
Crédits M. S. Gül, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-41.png
Fichier image/png, 1,1M
Titre Fig. 40: Lower part of a stamped unguentarium
Crédits G. Dönmez ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-42.png
Fichier image/png, 626k
Titre Fig. 41: Measuring a rock tomb in Limyra
Crédits B. Ar, ©ÖAW-ÖAI
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1614/img-43.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 151k
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Martin Seyer, Alexandra Dolea, Philip Mischa Bes, David Zsolt Schwarcz, Gerhard Forstenpointner, Klaus Löcker, Ralf Totschnig, Inge Uytterhoeven, Émilie Cayre, Hakan Öniz, Ceyda Öztosun et Zeynep Kuban, « The Excavation at Limyra (Lycia) 2019: Preliminary Report  »Anatolia Antiqua, XXVIII | 2020, 219-263.

Référence électronique

Martin Seyer, Alexandra Dolea, Philip Mischa Bes, David Zsolt Schwarcz, Gerhard Forstenpointner, Klaus Löcker, Ralf Totschnig, Inge Uytterhoeven, Émilie Cayre, Hakan Öniz, Ceyda Öztosun et Zeynep Kuban, « The Excavation at Limyra (Lycia) 2019: Preliminary Report  »Anatolia Antiqua [En ligne], XXVIII | 2020, mis en ligne le 01 décembre 2022, consulté le 30 janvier 2023. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/1614 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/anatoliaantiqua.1614

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Auteurs

Martin Seyer

Austrian Archaeological Institute – Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna

Articles du même auteur

Alexandra Dolea

Austrian Archaeological Institute – Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna

Articles du même auteur

Philip Mischa Bes

Independent researcher, Den Haag

David Zsolt Schwarcz

University of Vienna

Gerhard Forstenpointner

University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna

Klaus Löcker

Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Vienna

Ralf Totschnig

Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Vienna

Inge Uytterhoeven

Koç University, Istanbul

Émilie Cayre

Ausonius, Bordeaux

Hakan Öniz

Division of Mediterranean Underwater Cultural Heritage, Institute of Mediterranean Civilizations Research - Akdeniz University, Antalya

Ceyda Öztosun

Akdeniz University Underwater Research Center, Kemer

Zeynep Kuban

Istanbul Technical University

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