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On a Place Name in Urartian Studies and a new Inscription with an Urartian Expression: qudulani šuḫinaşi

Kenan Işık et Bülent Genç
p. 1-11

Résumé

Focusing on two main issues, this article first deals with the name and location of the village of Anguzek/Güsak (Topuzarpa) on the Bergri/Muradiye Plain where Urartian inscriptions have been discovered; there are various suggestions about its identification. The second issue is an inscription of the Urartian king Minua (810-785/80 BCE), which we found during the surface survey we conducted in this village in 2017. This new inscription, as well as the inscriptions discovered here in the late 19th century by Waldemar Belck, must have been taken off the walls of the susi (tower temple) in the Pértak (Körzüt) Fortress, which was the largest Urartian investment on the Muradiye Plain, and brought to Anguzek. The text from the newly found inscription is concerned with the ritual of animal sacrifice for the Urartian national God Haldi and his consort ˊArubaini (reading Warubani) in relation to the susi temple. The expression qudulani šuḫinaşi that is mentioned in the text can be interpreted as “the renewal or repetition of a ritual” that was particular to the susi temple. Although we do not know the exact content of this ritual for now, we know about the lambs (UDU.MAŠ.TUR) sacrificed to the Urartian gods.

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  • 1 For the policies of changing place names in Eastern Turkey which is the largest part of Urartu, see (...)
  • 2 This name is reported to be Inguzek/Enguzek in Armenian, which means “with walnuts” (https://nisany (...)
  • 3 In his corpus work on Urartian inscriptions (CTU I), Salvini states that the inscription on the ste (...)
  • 4 For the work of Waldemar Belck and Carl Friedrich Lehmann in the Lake Van basin, see also Genç, 201 (...)

1Research focusing on inscriptions from the Kingdom of Urartu has increased by the end of the 19th century. Inscriptions identified during research in Eastern Turkey, Northwest Iran-Zagros Mountain Range and Armenia, lands that were dominated by the kingdom, were recorded and published together with the names of the places where they were found. However, changes and alterations in place names in the region particularly in the last century caused confusions in Urartian studies up to the present1. Hence, the find place and its correct identification is quite important for that place and inscription. Fortunately, we were able to compare these original place names that are still used by the peoples living on the former Urartian lands, with the first identifications. In this context, one of the place names that causes confusion in studies on Urartian inscriptions is Güsak, as it is commonly used in publications. Güsak is a village on the hills to the south of the Muradiye Plain extending in the northeast of Lake Van (Figs. 1, 2, 3); the original name of Güsak is Anguzek2 (Topuzarpa). The name “Güsak” was heard in the world of oriental studies much later than the studies on Urartu that started in 18273. This place name was first noted as Guzek by Henri Hyvernat (during his travels in 1888-1889). Hyvernat, without seeing the place, recorded an “Urartian inscription in a church in ruins in the village of Guzek, half a mile (800 m) from the village of Khorzot (Korsot/Uluşar)” based on what he had been told (Müller-Simonis & Hyvernat, 1892, no XIX, 564). Then, Waldemar Belck reported that he found four Urartian inscriptions at Güsack during his travels around Lake Van in 1891 (Belck & Lehmann, 1892a, 125; Belck & Lehmann, 1892b, 480)4.

Fig. 1 Map showing the Pértak (Körzüt) Fortress and Urartian inscriptions in the Muradiye region

Fig. 1 Map showing the Pértak (Körzüt) Fortress and Urartian inscriptions in the Muradiye region

Fig. 2 View of the Anguzek (Topuzarpa) village from the Muradiye plain

Fig. 2 View of the Anguzek (Topuzarpa) village from the Muradiye plain

Fig. 3 The Muradiye plain and the Pértak (Körzüt) Fortress from the south of the Anguzek (Topuzarpa) village

Fig. 3 The Muradiye plain and the Pértak (Körzüt) Fortress from the south of the Anguzek (Topuzarpa) village

2These centres to the northeast of Lake Van, which were named Bergri, Karahan, Tar/Thar and Güsack, are place names on the Muradiye Plain (Lehmann, 1900, pp. 621-623; Belck, 1901, p. 302) (Fig. 1). The old-new, or more properly original-official dichotomy in these names causes confusion in studies of Urartian inscriptions (Table 1).

Table 1 Place names with Urartian inscriptions on Muradiye Plain (by 2017)

Original name

Official name

Bergri

Muradiye

Korsot/Kordsot

Uluşar

Güsak/Anguzek

Topuzarpa

Thar/Tar

Yalındüz

Karahan

Karahan

Koşk

Köşk

Surptatos/Sımtatos

Kocasaban

Şivekar

Ovapınar

  • 5 The name Cudgeh is seen as Djudquah in T. C. Dâhiliye Vekâleti, 1928, p. 1019 ; as Cudigak in T. C. (...)

3After Belck, the name Guzek/Güsack was used as Güsak in publications on Urartian inscriptions (Lehmann, 1900, pp. 621-623; Lehmann-Haupt, 1928-35, no 23, 24, 56, 70; König, 1955-57, no 19 a-b, 41, 58; UKN I: no 32, 33, 65, 66, 306 a-b). It is after the use of the name Güsak by Belck that interesting developments concerning this place name took place. Arutyunyan claimed that Güsak was the village of Karatavuk, without presenting any evidence (Arutyunyan, 1985, pp. 130, 278, 282; Arutyunyan, 2001, no 49, 50, 82, 83, 488). The village of Karatavuk (Cudgeh in Kurdish)5 mentioned here is not located on the Muradiye Plain, but on the Pani hills near Mount Suphan/Sipan to the west of Erciş. Another match with the name of Güsak was made by Dinçol, who studied Urartian inscriptions around Muradiye. Dinçol reported that Güsak was another village on the Muradiye Plain, named Köşk (Dinçol, 1976, pp. 20-21). However, Köşk is located in the middle of the Muradiye Plain, just 3 km north of the village of Anguzek (Fig. 1). This last erroneous match also found a place in recent studies on Urartian inscriptions by Salvini (CTU I: 67; CTU V: 101, 191).

  • 6 The name Anguzek in transformed in the official records into Anqusiqu in T. C. Dâhiliye Vekâleti, 1 (...)

4The name Anguzek was changed to Topuzarpa, sometime between 1933-1968. This change can be followed in studies of official village names6. The name Anguzek is used by the people who live there and its close vicinity (around Muradiye). After these points on the identification of Güsak=Anguzek, which has created confusion in Urartian studies, Urartian inscriptions discovered here should be presented.

5Belck, who conducted the first research in Anguzek, mentioned two churches in the village, an old and a new one, and a total of four inscriptions that were found in these Armenian churches. All of these inscriptions belong to Urartian king Minua (810-785/80 BCE).

  1. An inscription on a block used as an altar step in the New Church. Belck, 1892, XXIV, no17, 125 ; CICh : no 23 ; CTU I : A 5-2 D.

  2. An inscription on a block used as an altar step in the Old Church. Belck, 1892, XXIV, no17, 125 ; CICh : no 24 ; CTU I : A 5-2 D.

  3. Stele inscription used as a building block of a wall of the New Church. Belck, 1892, XXIV, no 8, 125 ; CICh : no 56 ; CTU I : A 5-33.

  4. An inscription used as a building block of a wall of the New Church. Belck, 1892, XXIV, no 8, 125 ; CICh : no 70 ; CTU I : A 5-36.

  • 7 We do not know the content of the inscriptions on the two stone fragments which were taken to Berli (...)

6Two inscribed stone fragments reported to have originated from Anguzek were also noted in addition to these inscriptions7.

  • 8 The name of this large Urartian Fortress on the Muradiye Plain was recorded erroneously as Körzüt b (...)

7Blocks no 1 and 2, which had six lines of text, were reported to belong to the susi temple of Urartian king Minua; the temple is thought to be located in the large Urartian Fortress Pértak (Körzüt)8 on the Muradiye Plain (Dinçol, 1976, pp. 19-30; CTU I: A 5-2A-F, 184). Pértak Fortress is located on a hill of Mount Korsevel that extents to the northwest, just 3 km northeast of Anguzek (Fig. 3). Many basalt blocks were found in villages near the Pértak Fortress (Fig. 1), which were identical in terms of dimensions and number of lines. These inscribed blocks, which are thought to have been placed side by side, must have belonged to a long text that decorated the façade of the susi temple (Dinçol, 1976, pp. 19-30 ). The overall subject of this inscription is Urartian king Minua’s military expedition against the Erkua tribe and their royal city Luḫuini, located on the Iğdır Plain, and the loot he gained as a result of this campaign, in particular women and men taken as prisoners of war (CTU I: A 5-2A-F). The inscription on the large basalt stele no 3 found by Belck, states that this stele was erected in dedication to a vineyard called Minuai uldi named by Minua after himself (CTU I: A 5-33). Lastly, the inscription on no 4 states that Minua built an É (building) and É.GAL (fortress) for “Ḫaldi URU”, city of God Haldi that he founded (CTU I: A 5-36). It is worth noting here that Ḫaldi URU is the Urartian name of the Pértak Fortress (Kuvanç, Işık & Genç, 2020, p. 114).

Fig. 4 Sacrifice inscription belonging to King Minua in Anguzek (Topuzarpa)

Fig. 4 Sacrifice inscription belonging to King Minua in Anguzek (Topuzarpa)

Fig. 5 Anguzek (Topuzarpa) sacrifice inscription

Fig. 5 Anguzek (Topuzarpa) sacrifice inscription
  • 9 The survey “Urartian Routes around Lake Van in light of Archaeological and Epigraphical Finds” was (...)

8During the surface survey we conducted in Muradiye in 2017, we rediscovered the Pértak Fortress susi temple inscription no 1 found by Belck in the village of Anguzek (CTU I: A 5-2D) and the stele inscription no 3 (CTU I: A 5-33)9. After 126 years (1891-2017), we learned that these inscriptions were found among the ruins of the church mentioned by Belck, which was located in the garden of a villager named Kazım Kurtcebe. In addition to previously-known inscriptions, one more Urartian inscription was found in Kurtcebe’s garden, which we will introduce here for the first time (Fig. 4). This inscription was also found near the ruins of the Anguzek Church by Kurtcebe. This block, which was somehow missed by Belck during his visit, must have been used in the construction of the church like the others. The rectangular basalt block is 32 cm high, 66.5 cm wide and 50 cm thick. Eight lines of cuneiform inscription was carved, with spaces that vary around 3-3.5 cm between them, on the side face of the stone, which was quite polished (Fig. 5). Like other Anguzek inscriptions, this inscription also belongs to Urartian king Minua. The text is about animal sacrifices made for the Urartian supreme God Haldi and his consort Goddess Warubani.

Transcription

1 mmi-nu-ú-a-še-a-li
2 qu-ú-du-la-a-ni-e
3 šú-ú-ḫi-i-na-a-ṣi-e
4 UDU.MÁŠ.TUR
Dḫal-di-e
5 ni-ip-si-du-li-i-ni
6 GU
4 3 UDU Dḫal-di ŠUM
7 GU
4.ÁB 2 UDUMEŠ-li
8
D’a-ru-ba-i-ni

Translation and Commentary

9(1-5.) Minua says: In (occasion of) new buildings/constructions(?) a kid has to be slaughtered (sacrificed) to God Haldi, (6-8.) One ox and three sheep must be sacrificed to God Haldi, one cow and two sheep(s) (sacrificed) to Goddess Warubani.

  • 10 For two relevant examples ; for inscribed blocks which are thought to belong to the Pertak (Körzüt) (...)

10According to latest data on Urartian language, the inscription can be translated as above. However, the translation of the expression qudulani šuḫinaşi that appears in this text as it does in some Urartian sacrificial texts as “In (occasion of) new buildings/constructions (?)” is uncertain. This expression is found at the beginning lines of Urartian inscriptions that list the sacrifices for Gates (KÁ) dedicated to God Haldi (CTU I: A 3-2, 4.9; CTU I: A 12-1 I, 9), as well as to gods like Ua (CTU I: A 3-12, 11) and Šebitu (CTU I: A 10-5, 4’-5’). KÁ (šešti in Urartian), which is often mentioned in Urartian texts dedicated to gods, is a Sumerogram and means “Gate” (ABZ: 133). It seems reasonable to claim that the expression "God Gates" refers to tower temples with a square plan (susi in Urartian) found in some Urartian centres (Kroll, Gruber, Hellwag, Roaf, & Zimansky, 2012, pp. 29, 32). For this reason, some Urartian temple inscriptions use the expression KÁ instead of susi10.

  • 11 –(i)lani functions as subjunctive in verb forms. Also –(a)lani is a negative verbal expression of t (...)

11It is noteworthy that the Urartian inscriptions with the expression qudulani šuḫinaşi discovered so far belong only to inscriptions dedicated to the construction of susi temples. In these inscriptions, following the mention of the susi construction, the king announces the program of sacrifices dedicated to gods/goddesses to be organized in (or in front of) the temple that is constructed. The key expression for this program is qudulani šuḫinaşi. This expression has been interpreted in various ways, such as “new sacrifices?” (HchI: 62), “new temple” (KUKN: 43, fn. 10: qudulani=É.BARA), “new moon days/at the new lunation” (Diakonoff, 1971, p. 133, 1989, p. 92). Finally this expression was translated as “new foundation or building” by Salvini (Salvini, 1977, p. 133). However, we do not have concrete evidence to associate the expression qudulani with buildings or foundations so far. It cannot be said that passages containing the form qudulani are constructed with suffixes11 that are added to verbs like -(i)lani or -(a)lani (qudu-lani). Instead, it is in singular form qudula-ni like the form of burgala-ni (enemy). As the expression qudulani is not specified with any determinative in the inscriptions, and no different expression has been encountered so far, where this word is used other than šuḫinaşi, it makes it difficult for us to guess the meaning of qudulani.

12Another form is šuḫinaşi. šuḫi is an Urartian word meaning “new” (Salvini & Wegner, 2014, p. 113). The form šuḫinaşi is contained in the sacrificial passage of the Mahmud Abad inscription as Sumerogram GIBIL-şi (CTU I: A 10-6, 5’). Here, šuḫinaşi can be formulated as šuḫi=na (plural suffix)=şi (locative postposition).

13If we go back to the Urartian passages containing the expression qudulani šuḫinaşi/GIBIL-şi, we can understand that the slaughter of sacrificial animals is mentioned in case of a certain condition is realized at the susi temples/Gates of Haldi. This condition must be the performance of a worship ritual particular to susi temples. In short, qudulani must be a kind of a ritual name, particular to susi temples only. Another important deduction is that qudulani must be a practice specific to susi temples or for the god who have susi or god gate metaphorically. In other words, it was not a ritual specific to a chief God, especially Haldi. Thus, the expression qudulani šuḫinaşi can be interpreted as “(when) the qudulani is renewed or repeated”.

14Another point noteworthy is the locations of centres where inscriptions with the expression qudulani šuḫinaşi have been found. These inscriptions are located on critical crossroads on campaign routes frequently used by Urartian kings. Pagan is located on the campaign route to the east, Pértak Fortress is on the west-north route, and Mahmud-Abad is on the campaign route to the Urmia basin and the Zagros. The king must have performed the ritual at these stations when he went on campaigns. Rusa I (730-714 BCE) reports in the Mahmud Abad inscription that kings make sacrifices to God Šebitu’s temple (KÁ/susi) if they pass there during campaigns (KASKAL) (CTU I:A 10-6 l’- 5’). Susi constructions and rituals were tried to be established during the Išpuini and Minua co-regency (820-810 BCE), which is the early period of the Urartian kingdom. Susi constructions, which are mostly built on expedition routes next to the capital Tušpa (Van Fortress), can be viewed from this perspective. In this respect, Karmir-Blur and Ayanis susi temples belonging to the Rusai Argištiḫi (Rusa, son Argišti: 673/72-650? BCE), one of the last kings of Urartian kingdom can be evaluated differently due to their exceptional location. This situation can be explained as follows: The centres with susi are established on royal expedition routes in the early period. This investment program must have turned into a strict architectural standard applied in every centre established towards the end of the kingdom. Thus, Ayanis and Karmir-Blur inscriptions containing the formula of qudulani šuḫinaşi belong to the last susi temples which follow the continuation of the architectural tradition of the kingdom, in which formulaic expressions are applied.

15The question may be asked at what time of year the qudulani rituals are performed. At this point, one should remember Diakonoff’s comment “new moon days or at the new lunation” on qudulani šuḫinaşi. However, we have no evidence that rituals were performed on new moons or on the new lunation days. Indeed, new moons occur every month of the year. In addition, lunar eclipses occur several times a year. We do not have enough data to explain the susi rituals with states of moon or a precise intra-year calendar. At this point, the sacrificial texts about the question of when the qudulani ritual was performed and the dates of the military expeditions that the king took part in during the year can give us an idea. Considering the harsh climate of the Urartian geography, military campaigns that started towards the end of May, may be pointing to the date of the ritual performance. As a matter of fact, lambs are present during the spring months. As stated in the qudulani rituals, these lambs (UDU.MÁŠ.TUR) were slaughtered for God Haldi. Based on the inscriptions, it can be said that the qudulani šuḫinaşi sacrifice ritual took place in front of the susi. There are expressions which can be translated as “On the part of the gate of Haldi should both (that) command as well as (and that) arqau= še be.” (Salvini & Wegner, 2014, p. 87) in both the Ayanis and its nearly duplicate Karmir-Blur inscriptions (CTU I: A 12-1 I,8-9; A 12-2 I, 6-7). Immediately after this expression, the renewal (šuḫinaṣi) of the qudulani ritual is mentioned. According to the narrative, the aforementioned gates must be the gates of the susi temple. In the Karmir-Blur inscription, the Haldi gate is indicated by the wooden determinative (GIŠKÁ). This directly explains the susi temple door. Thus, the sacrifice ritual is performed in front of the temple door. As a matter of fact, in the following passages of the same inscriptions, it is clearly stated that a sacrifice was made (Dḫaldinini KÁ-kai ali urpuaṣi) in front of the gate of God Haldi (susi).

16It is possible to deduce through some clues, which architectural units from the Pértak Fortress bore this sacrifice inscription. Sacrifice texts containing the expression qudulani šuḫinaşi are understood to be a sacrifice practice particular to susi temples, beginning with the Yeşilalıç/Pagan inscription belonging to the period of King Išpuini and his son Minua’s co-regency. Most recent work has proven the traces of the susi temple mentioned in the Pagan inscription on the monumental rock gate (Genç, 2016, pp. 7-76). However, the inscription here was carved on the rock gate rather than an individual block. As the Mahmud Abad inscription, another record containing the sacrifice expression, was not found in situ, it is not possible to determine from which Urartian centre it came from. Again, the qudulani šuḫinaṣi formula passed on the Karmir-Blur inscription (CTU I: A 12-2) and the inscribed block from Patnos(?) (CTU I: A 3-12), were both recovered separately from a structure. Lastly, the susi temple inscription at Ayanis also contains the sacrifice ritual. The long temple inscription that consists of many inscribed stone blocks at Ayanis is significant as it is found in situ. This indicates that the practice is pertinent also for the susi temple thought to be at the Pértak Fortress. Thus, the Anguzek sacrifice inscription block must have originally been one of the blocks of the Pértak susi temple walls. However, the Anguzek inscription is not a part of or a continuation of the long susi temple text of the Pértak Fortress, which consists of many blocks. As a matter of fact, the text of this inscription is complete in terms of words and expression and is carved on a single block. In other words, the text does not continue in separate blocks like the long Pértak temple inscription (CTU I: A 5-2 A-E). However, it is highly probable that this inscription was originally located on the walls of the susi temple, due to the presence of previous similar inscriptions and the dimensions of the inscription. Thus, it is most likely that the walls of the Pértak susi temple were designed with two groups of inscriptions. One of these was the long inscription of Minua, which consists of tens of inscribed blocks featuring the Erkua campaign. The second group of inscriptions consisted of blocks that also contained the Anguzek sacrificial inscription. Each of those in this second group should have consisted of independent texts which were written on separate blocks like the Anguzek inscription. Here, blocks bearing the Erkua expedition inscriptions may have been used on the inner walls of the Pértak Fortress. Because, inscribed blocks mentioning Minua’s campaigns in the Aznavurtepe Fortress, which is also a Minua investment, were placed on the inner walls of the temple room there (Balkan, 1960, pp. 99-158).

17These written blocks were moved from the Pértak susi temple. The first evidence of this transfer are the two inscriptions that were found by Belck in the “new church” at Anguzek (CTU I: A 5-2 D; A 5-36). One of these inscriptions is an É (building?) construction text, while the other one is a smooth inscribed block from the susi temple. The sacrificial inscription was also found in the ruins of the aforementioned church. The fact that these blocks were taken off the walls from the fortress and used in the construction of the church makes it more likely that the sacrificial inscription also came from the walls of the aforementioned susi temple. Another noteworthy point relevant to the subject is the parallel between the height of the sacrifice inscription block (32 cm) and the height of the inscribed blocks of the Pértak susi temple (32/32.5 cm) (Dinçol, 1976, pp. 20-21). Even the dimensions of the spaces between the lines of the inscriptions are in harmony (3.5 cm). In particular, their identical heights indicate that this block was also taken off the basalt wall course consisting of the inscribed blocks of the Pértak susi temple.

  • 12 A short salvage excavation was carried out by a team that included us in the Pértak Fortress in 201 (...)

18Apart from a short-term salvage excavation in a limited area12, no systematic excavations were carried out in the Pértak Fortress. Only attempts at a reconstruction of the susi temple that is thought to have existed through inscribed blocks scattered around the fortress have been made (Dinçol, 1976, p. 23, Abb.2; CTU III: 110, 113). Dinçol depicted this temple with a square plan, risalit corners and with rabbeted entrance as other Urartian susi temples of standard architectural conception (Fig. 6).

Fig. 6 Reconstructive plan of the susi temple with the inscription of the Pértak (Körzüt) Fortress

Fig. 6 Reconstructive plan of the susi temple with the inscription of the Pértak (Körzüt) Fortress

Dinçol, 1976, p. 23, Abb.2

  • 13 Inscriptions on the inner walls of the Aznavurtepe Temple Room consist of two texts that are duplic (...)

19These drawings showed that many inscribed blocks covered the walls of the façade of the temple room and the foundation walls along the entrance corridor (Dinçol, 1976, drawings 1-3; CTU III: 110, 113). To the almost twenty inscribed blocks of the Pértak susi temple, those we have found in the villages of Simtatos (Kocasaban) and Şivekar (Ovapınar) around Muradiye during our 2017-2018 survey, are added (Fig. 1). These inscribed blocks may have been placed on the inner walls of the temple cella. Besides, the new Anguzek sacrificial inscription block was probably located on the façade or the entrance corridor of the temple room along with several inscribed blocks. The use of inscribed stone blocks are also encountered in the temple cella in the Aznavurtepe Fortress that is, like the Pértak Fortress, dated to the reign of Minua (Balkan, 1960, pp. 99-158)13.

20In conclusion, the Anguzek inscription was probably located on the façade of the susi temple. This inscription, found on an independent block and bearing an independent text, was, at the same time, the continuation of the inscriptions mentioning the establishment of the temple. The expression qudulani šuḫinaşi encountered in Urartian inscriptions, describes the religious sacrifices to be performed in front of a susi temple/Gates of Haldi dedicated either to God Haldi or to another god. We can say that this ritual, which the inscriptions point was particular to the susi temple, was observed from the reign of Išpuini and Minua, per the Pagan inscription that is dated to the reign of the father and the son. The ritual has continued until the reign of Rusai Argištiḫi, one of the last kings of Urartu.

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Notes

1 For the policies of changing place names in Eastern Turkey which is the largest part of Urartu, see Nişanyan, 2011, 13-18.

2 This name is reported to be Inguzek/Enguzek in Armenian, which means “with walnuts” (https://nisanyanmap.com/ ?y =Topuzarpa&t =&lv =1). “Inguyz” in Armenian and “Gwuz” in Kurdish means walnut.

3 In his corpus work on Urartian inscriptions (CTU I), Salvini states that the inscription on the stele which Schulz stated was in the Van/Warrakwank (Yedikilise) Church (Schulz, 1840, p. 316), is the Güsak Stele (CTU I. A 5-33, 26, 224). However, Belck specifically reports that he found this stele himself (Belck, 1901, p. 309).

4 For the work of Waldemar Belck and Carl Friedrich Lehmann in the Lake Van basin, see also Genç, 2019, pp. 35-54.

5 The name Cudgeh is seen as Djudquah in T. C. Dâhiliye Vekâleti, 1928, p. 1019 ; as Cudigak in T. C. Dâhiliye Vekâleti Mahalli İdareler Umum Müdürlüğü, 1933, p. 143 ; as Cütgah in T. C. İçişleri Bakanlığı İller İdaresi Genel Müdürlüğü, 1968, p. 326.

6 The name Anguzek in transformed in the official records into Anqusiqu in T. C. Dâhiliye Vekâleti, 1928, p. 1031 ; into Angüzek in T. C. Dâhiliye Vekâleti Mahalli İdareler Umum Müdürlüğü, 1933, p. 43 ; into Topuzarpa in T. C. İçişleri Bakanlığı İller İdaresi Genel Müdürlüğü, 1968, p. 517.

7 We do not know the content of the inscriptions on the two stone fragments which were taken to Berlin as they are not published (CICh :173 a-b ; HchI : Inc.6).

8 The name of this large Urartian Fortress on the Muradiye Plain was recorded erroneously as Körzüt by Burney, who investigated the place in 1956, after the name of the closest village Korsot/Kordsot ; the name thus entered Urartian studies (1957, pp. 47-48, Fig. 6). We observed that the fortress was called “Pértak Fortress” by the local Kurdish people. Even they reacted to us because we called it "Körzüt".

9 The survey “Urartian Routes around Lake Van in light of Archaeological and Epigraphical Finds” was conducted in 2017, mostly in the district of Muradiye. Our work proved productive in terms of Urartian inscriptions which were found on the Muradiye Plain and were transported to Van Museum, where I worked at the time. In addition to our publication on Karahan inscriptions (Işık, Genç, Gökce & Kuvanç, 2019, pp. 100-119), we continue to work on the publication of other Urartian inscriptions that were found during our survey.

10 For two relevant examples ; for inscribed blocks which are thought to belong to the Pertak (Körzüt) fortress susi temple, see CTU I : A 5-2 A-E, 1 ; for Aznavurtepe susi temple inscription, see CTU I : A 5- 37, 5.

11 –(i)lani functions as subjunctive in verb forms. Also –(a)lani is a negative verbal expression of the 3rd singular person of simple past tense. (Salvini & Wegner, 2014, pp. 55-56).

12 A short salvage excavation was carried out by a team that included us in the Pértak Fortress in 2016. An Urartian temple room that was partly unearthed by looters was excavated and documented during this salvage excavation. This temple room, distinguished from standard susi buildings with its coarse architecture and uninscribed walls, indicates that the fortress was an Urartu fortress with double temples (Kuvanç, Işık, & Genç, 2020, pp. 112-138).

13 Inscriptions on the inner walls of the Aznavurtepe Temple Room consist of two texts that are duplicates of each other, and are carved on four large stone blocks. See Balkan, 1960, pp. 148-151, Metin no 1 ; no 2.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 1 Map showing the Pértak (Körzüt) Fortress and Urartian inscriptions in the Muradiye region
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1813/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 302k
Titre Fig. 2 View of the Anguzek (Topuzarpa) village from the Muradiye plain
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1813/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 358k
Titre Fig. 3 The Muradiye plain and the Pértak (Körzüt) Fortress from the south of the Anguzek (Topuzarpa) village
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1813/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 518k
Titre Fig. 4 Sacrifice inscription belonging to King Minua in Anguzek (Topuzarpa)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1813/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 801k
Titre Fig. 5 Anguzek (Topuzarpa) sacrifice inscription
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1813/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 746k
Titre Fig. 6 Reconstructive plan of the susi temple with the inscription of the Pértak (Körzüt) Fortress
Crédits Dinçol, 1976, p. 23, Abb.2
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/1813/img-6.png
Fichier image/png, 126k
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Kenan Işık et Bülent Genç, « On a Place Name in Urartian Studies and a new Inscription with an Urartian Expression: qudulani šuḫinaşi  »Anatolia Antiqua, XXIX | 2021, 1-11.

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Kenan Işık et Bülent Genç, « On a Place Name in Urartian Studies and a new Inscription with an Urartian Expression: qudulani šuḫinaşi  »Anatolia Antiqua [En ligne], XXIX | 2021, mis en ligne le 01 mars 2022, consulté le 13 juin 2024. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/1813 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/anatoliaantiqua.1813

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Auteurs

Kenan Işık

Independent researcher, Van/Turkey

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Bülent Genç

Mardin Artuklu University, Faculty of Letters, Department of Archaeology, Artuklu-Mardin/Turkey
bulendgenc@hotmail.com

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