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Reflections on White Marble at Labraunda

Agneta Freccero
p. 23-75

Résumé

The aim of this paper is to discuss white marble used for architectonic elements and statuary in the Labraunda Sanctuary.1 The buildings on the site date from three main periods: Hekatomnid, Roman Imperial, and Late Antiquity. White marble pieces with widely different characteristics were identified during examination and conservation. Some were coarse or medium-grained of a warm white hue; others were fine-grained of a cold white hue, grey-veined or in a variety of greyish nuances. One area of interest was the marbles’ provenance and how marble trade in the region was conducted, especially during the Hekatomnid period. Another area of interest was whether distinctive types could be associated with the respective periods or whether the choice of marble was related to types of object, in this case architectural elements and statuary. A set of scientific methods were applied on a number of samples. The results showed that marbles quarried during the Hekatomnid period mainly came from Herakleia on Latmos; that marble quarried during the Roman Imperial period was brought from quarries at Mylasa and elsewhere; and that marbles found on the site were reused during Late Antiquity. Subsequent tests indicated that the type of marble used related to a specific period rather than to a specific type of artefact.

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Introduction

Fig. 1: The Sanctuary seen from the Split Rock

Fig. 1: The Sanctuary seen from the Split Rock

Fig. 2 The Split Rock and the Built Tomb. In the foreground, the architrave blocks with the dedication of Maussollos

Fig. 2 The Split Rock and the Built Tomb. In the foreground, the architrave blocks with the dedication of Maussollos

Fig. 3 Plan of the sanctuary

Fig. 3 Plan of the sanctuary
  • 2 Herodotos calls the god Zeus Stratios, Strabo speaks of Zeus Labraundenos, and Aelian mentions Zeus (...)
  • 3 Hekatomnid period, c. 392-330 BC. The buildings were constructed in the time span between 377 and 3 (...)
  • 4 For Mylasa see Rumscheid, 2010, who suggests Uzun Yuva at Milas might have been intended as the rul (...)

1Labraunda is situated approximately 700 m above sea level, near the top of a steep mountain overlooking the Mylasa valley (Fig. 1). It was a place of worship already during the Archaic period, with a sacred spring under a split rock and a sanctuary dedicated to Cybele (Baran, 2011; Carstens, 2009; Hellström, 1994, p. 39; Hornblower, 1982; Westholm, 1963, pp. 90ff, pp. 105f; regarding the sanctuary of Kybele, see Karlsson, 2013a, pp. 298-300) (Fig. 2). There were several natural springs along the processional way leading up to Labraunda (Durusoy & Altinöz, 2013, p. 346; Durusoy, 2015, p. 91). Herodotos (V.119), Strabo (14.2.23), Plutarch, and Aelian (XII.30) mention Labraunda as the place where Zeus was worshipped by the local population.2 Most of the standing structures that are visible today date from the 4th century BC and were part of the extensive Hekatomnid building programme (Fig. 3).3 Large staircases led to the wide terraces that were constructed to provide structural support for the buildings in the steep terrain, and a monumental tomb was built close to the split rock (Fig. 4). A new style combining ancient Anatolian, Persian and Greek iconography, ideology, and power structures is referred to as the Ionian Renaissance (Carstens, 1995, pp. 19ff, 2009, p. 22; Pedersen, 1994; on the built tomb see Henry, 2011, 2014). This style was used in buildings and artefacts with the purpose of establishing Hekatomnid rule and legacy, not only at Labraunda, Mylasa and Halikarnassos, but also in other cities and sanctuaries throughout western Anatolia and beyond (Fig. 5).4

Fig. 4 The monumental staircase and Andron A

Fig. 4 The monumental staircase and Andron A

Fig. 5 The male sphinx on its column

Fig. 5 The male sphinx on its column
  • 5 For Labraunda see e.g. Hellström, 2007; Hellström & Thieme, 1981, 1982; Hellström & Blid, 2019; Kar (...)
  • 6 The early temple was built at the turn of the 6th century.

2The extensive building activity at Labraunda may have been planned by Hekatomnos, son of Hyssaldomos, as he was appointed Persian satrap of Karia, but the buildings were dedicated by his sons and successors Maussollos and Idrieus.5 The early distyle in antis Zeus temple was altered and the old structures were incorporated into a new, larger building (Hellström & Thieme, 1982; Baran, 2006).6 When Maussollos moved the Karian capital from inland Mylasa to Halikarnassos on the coast, Idrieus remained at Mylasa. It has been assumed that buildings dedicated by Idrieus were constructed when he succeeded his brother as satrap, but recent research indicates that all Hekatomnid buildings were constructed as part of one major dynastic project and completed before the death of Artemisia in 351, or maybe already in 353 (Hellström, 2011, pp. 154f). However, it is clear that Andron B, the Andron of Maussollos, was constructed before Andron A, which was presumably dedicated by Idrieus (Hellström & Blid, 2019).

Fig. 6 The exedra of the Hellenistic period dedicated by Demetrios, son of Python

Fig. 6 The exedra of the Hellenistic period dedicated by Demetrios, son of Python
  • 7 On the structures on the M-Terrace see Blid & Hedlund, 2014, pp. 327ff.
  • 8 On the Roman Stoa, see Liljenstolpe & von Schmalensee. On the baths, see Blid, 2012.

3Among the buildings dating to the Hellenistic period is the semi-circular exedra (Fig. 6). The structure – dedicated by Demetrios, son of Python – consists of a curved wall and a low bench (Tobin, 2014). Markings at the top of the wall indicate where a row of bronze statues would have been placed. Another area that may reveal Hellenistic structures is the so-called M-Terrace.7 Many new edifices were erected and some old ones were reconstructed for new purposes during the Roman era (30 BC-AD 400).8 The Stoa of Poleites and two bath complexes are Roman. Again, in Late Antiquity or the Byzantine period, after 400, old edifices were reconstructed and turned into Christian churches (Blid, 2012, 2016).

  • 9 The marbles selected for conservation were placed in connection to Andron A, Andron B, Oikoi, the T (...)

4The Swedish excavations at Labraunda began in 1948 and continued until 1953 when there was a break until they were completed in 1960. Field work began in 1979, followed by new excavations continued until 2007 under the direction of Pontus Hellström, succeeded by Lars Karlsson in 2008. As of 2013, excavations and research have continued in the form of an international project under the direction of Olivier Henry. In 2009, Lars Karlsson asked me to propose a plan for the conservation of the many architectural marble at the site. An overview in 2010 led to an initial selection of thirty-three items that were in great need of conservation. Most of these were located in connection with Hekatomnid structures (Fig. 7).9

Fig. 7 Ionic capital in front of Andron B

Fig. 7 Ionic capital in front of Andron B

Fig. 8 Conservation of a column at Andron B, teamwork

Fig. 8 Conservation of a column at Andron B, teamwork
  • 10 All annual conservation reports are available in the archives at Labraunda.

5Conservation began in 2011 in collaboration with the Institute of Conservation at Gothenburg University (Freccero, 2013, 2014a, 2014b).10 Observations during conservation broadened the area of interest into the marble’s provenance, marble trade in Antiquity, and the relationship between marble type and category of object. These issues will be discussed in the present paper, which focus on the Hekatomnid period (Freccero, 2015, 2016a, 2016b) (Fig. 8).

Marble quarries and written sources

Fig. 9 Sodradag seen from the plain of Milas

Fig. 9 Sodradag seen from the plain of Milas

6It has been taken for granted that marble at Labraunda was quarried on Sodradağ, a hill at the foot of which ancient Mylasa was situated (Fig. 9). There are potentially three main reasons for this belief: the many ancient quarries visible on the side of the mountain facing Milas; the presence of a stone-paved sacred way from Mylasa to Labraunda; and Strabo’s description (14.2.23). According to Strabo, Mylasa “…has a most excellent quarry of white marble. Now this quarry is of no small advantage since it has stone in abundance and close at hand for building purposes and in particular for the building of temples and other public works. Accordingly, this city, as much as any other, is in every way beautifully adorned with porticoes and temples.Strabo recounts that the town had two temples dedicated to Zeus, one in the city proper and the other at Labraunda, and these were connected by a processional way. Therefore, it has been assumed that the quarries that can be seen from Milas provided marble not only for the city, but also for Labraunda, and that the processional way permitted transport of heavy marble blocks to the Sanctuary.

7In the modern literature, the city of Milas, the Sodra quarries, the Sacred Way, the white marble and its quality, are referred to in various combinations. Alfred Westholm mentions that the marble used for the Labraunda buildings “…was quarried on the north-east slope of the Sodra mountain near the city of Milas, where the quarries can still be seen” (1963, p. 11). He states that the marble unfortunately “…is a very coarse one with large crystals which show a tendency to crumble”. Kristian Jeppesen simply describes the South Propylon marble as “…whitish, of a bad, friable quality, and the surface of the blocks has worn away,” but he does not mention its provenance (1955, p. 6). Simon Hornblower, quoting Westholm, states that marble from the Mylasa district was extensively used at Labraunda and that the marble in this area is not good and has weathered badly (1982, p. 7). Pontus Hellström and Thomas Thieme describe the marble used in the Zeus temple as white and coarse-grained, and “of the highest quality,” although badly weathered due to the not very favourable climate at the site (1982, p. 17). Later, Hellström refers to the marble as quarried at Mylasa and transported to Labraunda along the Sacred Way (2007, p. 25, 2009, p. 270). In a more recent article, Abdulkadir Baran explains that the white marble was supplied by quarries on Sodra Mountain at Mylasa and brought to Labraunda via the Sacred Way, which was presumably built for this type of transport (2011, p. 52). In his most recent publication on the andrones, Hellström does not mention the provenance of the marble (Hellström & Blid, 2019).

8The marble at Labraunda is described as coarse-grained, friable, weathered and white. It is a correct description of one of the marble types at the site. During damage investigation and conservation, I found that this particular marble seemed to be connected to buildings of the Hekatomnid period (Freccero, 2013, 2014a, 2016a). But there were other types too, which seemed to be related to later structures. This gives rise to the following three questions: Could quarries on Sodradaǧ provide such a variety of marble? Was marble brought from more than one quarry? Could marble type be related to period?

Marble quarries in the region

9Some forty years ago, Dario Monna and Patrizio Pensabene visited quarries in Asia Minor and analysed the marble there. They mention three areas in connection with Milas, two of which are on Sodradaǧ and a third along the road to Bafa Gölü, before the ancient site of Euromos (1977, pp. 117ff). At Milas they collected samples at 565 m (Milas N) on the northeast slope of Sodradaǧ and in an area south of the city, along the road to Bodrum (Milas S). They found variations in colour and structure. Milas S marble was fine-grained grey-black, grey, grey-veined or grey-white, and two samples were white (chiaro) with large grains. Marbles labelled Milas N were grey-white.

Fig. 10 Menderes massif, after Cramer

Fig. 10 Menderes massif, after Cramer
  • 11 Thomas Cramer initiated his marble study on thirty-eight objects in the Antikensammlung Berlin in c (...)
  • 12 The first layer consists of schist and dark grey limestone. The second layer is marble known as Mil (...)

10A multi-disciplinary investigation by Thomas Cramer partly includes marble formations in the western part of the Menderes massif, to which the mountains around Milas belong (2004) (Fig. 10).11 Multiple analytical methods were used to determine the marbles’ petrographic, isotopic and geochemical properties. Cramer could identify several varieties of Milas marble, and he also pointed out that the term is used for all marble quarried in the southern part of the Menderes massif regardless of colour and chemical composition, which varies between quarries (2004, p. 148). The stone quarried at Milas itself was fine-grained, although some rocks had larger grains. Another study, by a Turkish team, focuses on the southern part of the Menderes massif (Baǧci, Kibici, Yildiz, & Tezcan Akinci, 2010). Marble from quarries at Kestanecik (KM), situated south of the town of Kavaklidere, is marketed commercially as Milas marble. This stone is formed in seven layers, with a slight variation in chemical composition and grain size between the layers (Baǧci, Kibici, Yildiz, & Tezcan Akinci, 2010, pp. 47ff.).12 Therefore, the term Milas marble may not uniquely refer to marble quarried on Sodradaǧ.

11As far as I know, studies of Sodradaǧ marble focus on the many quarries that are found high up on the northeast slope that overlooks Milas. Cramer, for example, mentions quarries situated far above the city that are difficult to access (2004, p. 184). Monna and Pensabene collected samples also on the south side. Results from both investigations show that Sodra marble is fine-grained, often with a grey hue, more rarely white and almost never with large grains.

Fig. 11 Sodradaǧ. Excursion to a quarry on the north-east side of the mountain, facing Milas

Fig. 11 Sodradaǧ. Excursion to a quarry on the north-east side of the mountain, facing Milas

Fig. 12 Sodradaǧ, west side, first quarry visited

Fig. 12 Sodradaǧ, west side, first quarry visited

12My own visits to Sodradaǧ confirm the above descriptions, and I found no white marble with large grains (Fig. 11). On the other hand, Milas is a rapidly growing city and the only evidence of the quarry area on the south side – mentioned by Monna and Pensabene – is in the form of some marble debris and a few limekiln remains among the rubble and modern multi-storey buildings along the old Bodrum road. Moreover, houses are being built further up the side of the mountain that faces Milas, which means that if there once were quarries here that supplied white marble at lower levels, they are no longer visible. However, on the western slope of the mountain, facing the airport, there is an almost completely unexploited area with some ancient quarries (Fig. 12). According to a marble trader in Milas, the very best marble for sculpting can be found there. At the four old quarries I visited – that were situated at a comparatively low level – the marble was fine-grained and pure white; a beautiful marble, but not the same type that was used for the Hekatomnid buildings at Labraunda (Fig. 13).

Fig. 13 Sodradaǧ west side, white marble

Fig. 13 Sodradaǧ west side, white marble

Fig. 14 Euromos, quarry along the road

Fig. 14 Euromos, quarry along the road
  • 13 In spite of these similarities the Euromos marbles form a group of their own.

13Monna and Pensabene also mention quarry sites along the road between Milas and Bafa Gölü. They referred to quarries that can be seen from the road approximately twelve kilometres northwest of Milas and before Euromos (1977, p. 117) (Fig. 14). These are situated on the east side of the mountain, but Anneliese Peschlow-Bindokat describes other quarries on the west side, east of the Temple of Zeus, which presumably provided marble for the Temple and other monuments (1981, pp. 211f) (Figs. 15, 16). The west side of the mountain has been explored by Cramer too (2004, p. 142).13 He describes the marble as fine-grained in tones that vary from white to grey, that is to say, rather similar to the Sodradaǧ material. My observations on these sites correspond to the above-mentioned findings. The marble close to the side of the road mainly goes from pale to dark grey, but the stone in the quarries above the Temple is white.

Fig. 15 Euromos, first quarry above the temple, with abandoned column

Fig. 15 Euromos, first quarry above the temple, with abandoned column

Fig. 16 Euromos second quarry above the temple, white marble

Fig. 16 Euromos second quarry above the temple, white marble
  • 14 On the Miletus and Herakleia quarries, see Peschlow-Bindokat, 1981; Monna & Pensabene, 1977, p. 124

14At Herakleia on Latmos there are two extended quarry areas along the southern shore of Lake Bafa where marble has been extracted from at least the 6th century BC.14 I first visited the area in the company of Anneliese Peschlow-Bindokat, who generously showed me and a colleague the two sites and many ancient quarries (Figs. 17, 18). The eastern quarry area, which belonged to the ancient city of Latmos, is now recognized as the Herakleia quarries and the western area as the Miletus quarries (Peschlow-Bindokat, 1989, pp. 69f). The Herakleia quarries have a coarse-grained white stone while Miletus marble has finer grains and is rarely pure white (Pensabene, 2002b, pp. 214f). In between the previously described quarries is an area where the marble is slightly finer than in the eastern area. In spite of petrological differences, the marbles have proved to be isotopically and spectroscopically quite similar and can therefore be collectively identified as Herakleian marble (Attanasio, Brilli, & Ogle, 2006, p. 190). In these quarries I found marble with the same characteristics as at Labraunda: splendid white, coarse-grained with clusters of large crystals, which brings us to the question of transport and trade in the Hekatomnid period.

Fig. 17 Herakleia walk

Fig. 17 Herakleia walk

Fig. 18 Herakleia quarry with abandoned architectural elements

Fig. 18 Herakleia quarry with abandoned architectural elements

Marble and trade

15Transport of heavy goods was a problem in Antiquity, as we can imagine from Vitruvius’ account about the citizens of Ephesus, who were discussing whether to obtain marble from Paros, Prokonnesos, Herakleia or Thasos while planning their temple to Aphrodite. Fortunately, they never had to make a choice since the shepherd Pixodarus accidentally discovered white marble nearby (10.2.15).

  • 15 Hellström, 2009, mentions the paved road “on the other side of the mountain”, from Alinda to Alaban (...)
  • 16 For wall structures at Milas, see Rumscheid, 2010, pp. 79ff; for fortification walls at Halikarnass (...)

16Labraunda is situated on the south-eastern side of the Beşparmak Mountain in the Latmos massif, almost at the highest point approximately 700 m above sea level. The site could be reached by ancient roads from the valley of Mylasa and from Herakleia too. The Sacred Way from Mylasa to Labraunda was stone-paved in the Hekatomnid era (Durusoy & Altinöz, 2013; Durusoy, 2015). It continued to Alinda, from where a road led to Herakleia (Westholm, 1963, 10; Peschlow-Bindokat, 1996, p. 43).15 There are no marble quarries near Labraunda, so the stone used for decoration had to be pulled up to approximately 700 m regardless of where the quarries were situated. Recent studies of these roads show that the Sacred Way from Mylasa and the ancient road to Alinda have a similar construction, and may therefore be contemporary (Baran, 2011, p. 53). There is evidence of Hekatomnid building at Latmos, including a fortification complex with fourteen towers, most probably built by Maussollos (Peschlow-Bindokat, 1989, p. 75) (Fig. 19). The construction principles are typical of the period and used also in the fortifications that were part of the Labraunda complex (Karlsson, 2011, pp. 217ff). The same construction principles can be observed at Mylasa and Halikarnassos (Fig. 20).16 The Hekatomnids were building at Mylasa and Herakleia, there was a functional road system and the family had control over the territory on both sides of the mountain (Hornblower, 1982, p. 2). It would, therefore, not be surprising if they were able to transport white marble from the Latmos area to the building site at Labraunda.

Fig. 19 Herakleia – Latmos fortification

Fig. 19 Herakleia – Latmos fortification

Fig. 20 Herakleia, temple wall

Fig. 20 Herakleia, temple wall
  • 17 On procession and transport routes in antiquity in the Near East/Asia Minor, see e.g. Andrae, 1941; (...)
  • 18 On the Great Caravan Route see Efe, 2007.

17Mountain routes already existed in Anatolia, some were established as early as the middle of the third millennium BC.17 The “Great Caravan Route” between Cilicia and Troy was established in the early Bronze Age.18 At the time of the rise of the Hittite Kingdom in the 16th century BC there were fortified administrative centres and storehouses at regular intervals (Ökse, 2007, p. 41). Roads were stone-paved around 1200 BC. One example is the two-kilometre-long procession road from the main temple at Hattusa to the Sanctuary (Andrae, 1941; Forbes, 1965, p. 136). A consistent traffic policy developed by the Persian King in order to control the empire is further evidence of transport and trade (Forbes, 1965, p. 133). One trade network linked the Anatolian coast, the Aegean islands and mainland Greece (Ökse, 2007, p. 61). It is hardly surprising that the Hekatomnids were able to transport the brilliant white sparkling marble at Herakleia for their impressive building programme at the Sanctuary.

Identification of marbles

  • 19 CNR/ICVBC: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche/ Istituto per la Conservazione e la Valutazione dei B (...)
  • 20 3 samples from elements dated to the Pre-Hekatomnid period, 21 from the Hekatomnid, 4 from the Hell (...)

18Ocular examination during survey and conservation indicated that marble from Herakleia was used in the Hekatomnid period. During my very first visit to Labraunda I took a few samples of different white marbles, and analyses of these were made at ICR/ICVBC in Florence.19 The results showed that there were considerable differences, which prompted a proper sampling plan. Therefore, archaeologists were asked to suggest architectural elements of importance for their studies, after which forty-six samples were obtained from selected items dated to the pre-Hekatomnid, Hekatomnid, Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods.20 Several analytical methods were applied, beginning in situ with ocular examination and description of the object, followed by sampling, scrutiny under magnifying glass, and later under a stereo microscope. Then followed the photographic documentation of the object and of the sampling area, after which close-ups of the samples were taken.

  • 21 Cantisani and Vettori, description of the samples preparation and methodologies applied at CNR. The (...)
  • 22 On analytical methods on marble, including stable isotope analysis see e.g. Attanasio, 2003; Attana (...)

19Thirty-nine samples were selected for scrutiny using a set of analytical methods conducted by Emma Cantisani and Silvia Vettori at CNR.21 They started with petrographic and mineralogical (P/M) analyses. After obtaining the results of the P/M analyses, discussions about marble types and their possible designations to preliminary groups could begin, which led to the establishment of eight preliminary groups (Table 1) – seven for marbles of varying characteristics and one for other minerals such as quartz and metabauxite (Fig. 21). Later, isotopic analyses were also performed by Donato Attanasio on a number of important samples.22

Fig. 21 Selection of marble samples, showing variations in grain sizes and hues

Fig. 21 Selection of marble samples, showing variations in grain sizes and hues

20Many projects have been conducted in order to determine the type of marble used in Classical Greek, Hellenistic and Roman sculpture, and to identify where it was quarried. As pointed out by Donato Attanasio, the identification of these quarries is essential for our understanding of important factors such as various commercial relationships and trade routes during Antiquity, as well as recognizing technological distinctions and changing trends (Attanasio, Brilli, & Ogle, 2006, p. 13).

Table 1 Marble groups

Table 1 Marble groups
  • 23 He observed Parian marble, fine-grained white Pentelic for most of the freestanding statues and the (...)
  • 24 Pentelic marble was used for the over-life-size statues of the so-called Maussollos and Artemisia, (...)

21One example that is relevant to the present project is the Mausoleum at Halikarnassos and its marbles, which have been subject to a series of studies since they were excavated in 1857–58 (Stampolides, 1989; Waywell, 1978; Walker & Matthews, 1988, 1997). G. B. Waywell could, by ocular examination, identify several marbles in 1978 as Parian, Pentelic, and possibly Proconnesian or Thasian (1978, p. 14).23 N. C. Stampolides investigated the Amazon frieze from the Mausoleum and found that quarries on the island of Kos were the most probable source. The main argument was that “… the proximity on one hand, and the convenience of extraction and transport by sea on the other, together constitutes a convincing economic reason for using this source” (1989, pp. 45-49). Some years later, however, the Mausoleum marbles were investigated by Walker and Matthews, this time using a different set of methods, the most important being stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry, or isotopic analysis (1997, p. 49). The source of most of the marbles could be identified, but the provenance of other elements could not be established (Walker & Matthews, 1997, p. 53).24 No marble could be attributed to any of the quarries on Kos. This example shows that marble can be identified by ocular examination, that laboratory analyses are generally successful, and that rational consideration concerning transport distance is not. In my view, these methods in combination constitute a useful tool.

Decoration and statuary

  • 25 I rely in the following part on the publications of Ann C. Gunter, in particular the study on marbl (...)

22There is no sculptural decoration for visitors to see at Labraunda, but many blocks have marks on the top that show where the statues’ feet were anchored. One example is a piece that had been used as a base for a bronze statue (Fig. 22). Sculpted marbles found at the site during excavations in 1948­–53 are distributed between the archaeological museums at Bodrum, Izmir and Milas, and only a limited number of fragments, most of which are architectural elements, are kept in the excavation storage facility.25

Fig. 22 Statue base at the Temple terrace: cuttings for feet

Fig. 22 Statue base at the Temple terrace: cuttings for feet

Fig. 23 The bearded sphinx, detail

Fig. 23 The bearded sphinx, detail
  • 26 On the early excavations 1948-1953 and 1960, see e.g. Jeppesen, 1955; Westholm, 1963; Hellström & T (...)
  • 27 The fragment is exhibited in the Istanbul Archaeological Museums.
  • 28 Gunter, 1995, p. 24: “The present location of these fragments is unknown”.

23Excavations began in the oldest structures, for example Andron A, Andron B, the Oikoi, and the Temple terrace.26 In 1953, an almost complete male sphinx crowned by a polos was found in Andron C, a building dated to the Hellenistic period (Hellström & Blid, 2019, pp. 223, 232).27 Fragments recorded in notebooks as wings belonging to a sphinx were found in the same context (Fig. 23).28 The head of a second sphinx was found southeast of Andron B in 1960. The sphinxes were probably corner acroteria crowning Andron B, from where they fell into the adjacent Andron C, which is situated on a lower terrace.

  • 29 It has been suggested, and is now accepted that at least one monumental statue was placed in the la (...)
  • 30 Two of these apparently were lost as only one, the head of an eagle, could be found for re-examinat (...)
  • 31 On the Ionian Renaissance, see Waywell, 1994; Gunter, 1995; Carstens, 2009; Rumscheid, 2010; Henry, (...)

24Andron B, dedicated by Maussollos, was a building for ritual banquets. Fragments of marble and bronze statues that were larger than life size were found inside the building. They were interpreted as potential parts of a statue of Zeus and figures representing members of the Hekatomnid family, presumably placed in niches in the rear wall.29 Other finds connected to the building were three fragments of animals, two of which may have belonged to lion sculptures; the third is the head of an eagle (Gunter, 1995, p. 19).30 Blid suggests the eagle fragment could be the head of a griffin (Hellström & Blid, 2019, p. 257). Another piece consisted of a marble foot of a male wearing a sandal of the same type as sandals found on the Mausoleum at Halikarnassos (Gunter, 1995, pp. 19f). There are stylistic and conceptual links between the decorations on the Mausoleum at Halikarnassos and the Sanctuary at Labraunda. Symbols including sphinxes, lions, eagles, and chariots appear in both contexts. The consciously archaistic style with iconographic references to dynastic power, in which ancient Anatolian, Persian and Greek features are combined, is currently referred to as the Ionian Renaissance.31 There are many examples of a combination of Ionic columns and Doric entablature at Labraunda. The stylistic link between sites of Hekatomnid dominion is also evident at Milas, in the Uzun Yuva decoration (Henry, 2017, pp. 106f). As an example, the Lesbian cymata there are similar to those at the temple of Zeus at Labraunda and at the Mausoleum at Halikarnassos (Rumscheid, 2010, pp. 89ff) (Figs. 24, 25).

Fig. 24 Anta capital at Andron B: egg-and-dart moulding, followed by a lotus and palmetto frieze, a Lesbian cymatium and a bead and reel list

Fig. 24 Anta capital at Andron B: egg-and-dart moulding, followed by a lotus and palmetto frieze, a Lesbian cymatium and a bead and reel list

Fig. 25 New find: fragment of a draped figure

Fig. 25 New find: fragment of a draped figure
  • 32 Catalogue numbers 4, 6, 9, Fragments of marble sculptures from some eighteen separate monuments had (...)
  • 33 Catalogue number 4.
  • 34 21 fragments are described in the catalogue. For 8 of these the present location was unknown. She s (...)
  • 35 Main part of the fragments found on the terrace was less than life sized parts of male and female s (...)
  • 36 Girl with a goose, catalogue no.5, now in the Archaeological Museum of Bodrum.
  • 37 The Chariot with Nike, catalogue no 12, now in the Archaeological Museum of Milas.

25Fragments of four apparently freestanding, life-sized marble figures, male and female, were found in front of Andron A (Gunter, 1995).32 The drapery on one of these – the torso of a female – had a general resemblance to drapery worn by female figures on the Amazon frieze on the Mausoleum, and the freestanding figure “Artemisia” (Gunter, 1995, p. 31).33 At least forty double meander frieze fragments with enclosed elements in relief such as ears, double axes and a shield were found in the Oikoi, Andron B and the Temple (Gunter, 1995, p. 44).34 Statue bases with inscriptions indicate that the east part of the terrace, in front of the Temple, was a showplace for sculptural dedications spanning from the early 4th century BC to the 2nd century AD (Gunter, 1989, p. 91).35 Among the larger fragments was a statue of a Girl Holding a Goose, now in the Archaeological Museum of Bodrum (Gunter, 1995).36 Marks on the large base show that there would have been a second statue, of which no trace has been found. Another large fragment is in the form of a base with relief decoration showing a chariot and a figure interpreted as Nike (see Gunter, 1995).37 The heads of the figure and horses, which are lost, were sculpted in the round. In a recent article, Hellström convincingly argues for an alternative reading of the unusual iconography with its influences of Persian and neo-Hittite art by proposing that the statue standing on the chariot depicted Zeus Labraundos on a divine Persian chariot, and the figure in front would have been the charioteer (2020, p. 153).

26Gunter was able to distinguish three varieties of marble that differed in terms of hardness, colour, and grain size. Most frequent was a large-crystalled type (catalogue no. 1, 5, 6, 9, 10 and Appendix 1). A very similar large-crystalled stone, thought to be of the same kind as the previous, had been used for two items (catalogue numbers 4 and 8). The marble of the two sphinxes and the head of an eagle (catalogue no. 2, 3, 11) was somewhat finer. A third variety, even more fine-grained, harder and whiter, was represented by the carved meander frieze fragments (catalogue no. 18a, b, c, etc.) (Gunter, 1995, p. 18). Gunter has dated most fragments of coarse-grained marble to the middle of the 4th century BC, one to the middle or late 4th century, and she has offered no date on some fragments. The parts of a meander frieze were considered to be Roman.

New finds and fragments in the depot

Fig. 26 Meander frieze fragment

Fig. 26 Meander frieze fragment
  • 38 On recent excavations and work at Andron A, see Henry, 2015.
  • 39 The box was one of 20 boxes with small archaeological finds received from the Archaeological Museum (...)
  • 40 Requests were sent to the Bodrum Museum for permission to look at and take photos of some objects i (...)

27Sculpted marble fragments were found during excavations of Andron A in 2015, and four of these were selected for material study.38 Two fragments, tentatively interpreted as parts of palmetto leaves, a large fragment of a meander frieze, and a piece of a draped, large figure were studied, scheduled and sampled (Figs. 25, 26). A box labelled Mermer D48, which was stored in the depot, contained smaller sculpted fragments of which six were selected for examination.39 The ten fragments were chosen according to the principle that they, hypothetically, represented the principal construction periods at the site, were of different types and belonged to objects of different size. The intention was to send these samples to Florence for P/M analyses, but due to new regulations that came into force in 2017, the samples were instead transferred to Istanbul.40

  • 41 Hellström (2019b, pp. 61f) begins his article regarding the early excavations by explaining they we (...)
  • 42 The samples in this study were labelled MS (Marble Sample) and a consecutive number. The palmetto l (...)
  • 43 The 13 samples can be used for comparative studies with the previous marbles investigated at Labrau (...)

28After having studied, measured, photographed, sampled and scheduled the fragments on site, I was informed that the provenance of the fragments in box D48 was uncertain. As previous documentation, unfortunately, has sometimes turned out to be unreliable, it is, at present, impossible to say anything more regarding their provenance (Hellström, 2019b, pp. 61f; Blid 2016, p. 133; Gunter, 1995, p. 19).41 The question was whether to leave out these fragments or include them in the study. I decided to use them only as examples of small sculpture and investigate whether finer grained marble had been used for these.42 Two items in the museum at Bodrum – the Girl Holding a Goose and a meander frieze fragment, as well as the block in the Labraunda depot on which the girl with the goose had stood – were sampled by others at a later date, which means that a total of thirteen fragments were sampled. As scientific analyses of these samples are not available, this part of the study is based on ocular examination only.43

  • 44 Interpretations of the Andron A fragments were made by Olivier Henry. As they were sampled for mate (...)
  • 45 Gunter catalogue no.’s 4, 6, 9 and appendix no 1.

29I will begin with the observations of recent finds from Andron A.44 Three fragments, the palmetto leaves and the fragment of a draped figure, were made of the same kind of marble: coarse-grained, white, and frail. It was the same kind as the marble used for architectural elements on all buildings of the Hekatomnid period. Gunter mentioned four large, freestanding statues made of coarse-grained marble that were found in front of Andron A.45 Most probably, the new fragments belong to at least one of these figures. They have been sampled and the material can be compared to marble analysed in previous investigations. The meander frieze fragment was made of a different kind of marble, white and fine-grained, similar to Sodradaǧ marble, which was used, for example, for the Corinthian capitals that belonged to the North Stoa, a building that was originally erected by Maussollos and later rebuilt in the Roman period (Liljenstolpe & von Schmalense, 1996). Gunter has described the frieze marbles as hard and fine-crystalled, which corresponds to my own observations.

  • 46 The last three samples obtained in the Bodrum Museum and the base in Labraunda, are excluded becaus (...)

30Six fragments from the D48 marble box (MS5-MS10) were scheduled too.46 Some of them have marks on the rear side, which may be used for future identification. I only use these fragments as examples of the relationship between grain size and the size of a sculpture. All details are, however, recorded in schedules that are kept in the Labraunda archive. The first fragment in this group is from the head of a female (MS5). The marble is coarse-grained, rather frail and similar to Herakleia marble, which shows that smaller objects could be made from coarse-grained marble. The same goes for the part of an arm consisting of two pieces glued together (MS6), a fragmentary draped forearm of a male (MS7), the right arm of a male (MS9), and the fragment of a lion’s paw (MS10). All were made of white, medium to coarse-grained marble. The fragmentary leg of a Roman male (MS8) was made from hard white marble with medium-fine grains, very similar to Sodradaǧ marble. In summary, the following five samples were categorized as Herakleia marble: MS7 and MS10 (which were considered to be very similar/the same); MS5, MS6, MS9 (considered as very similar/the same). Sample MS8 was a different kind of marble. I have no information for fragments MS11–13.

Fig. 27-30 Full size and expanded isotopic graphs of the Labraunda samples

Fig. 27-30 Full size and expanded isotopic graphs of the Labraunda samples

Attanasio, 2014

Conclusion

31The investigation presented in this paper is two-fold. It deals with, on the one hand, the provenance of Labraunda marbles, and on the other hand with whether the type of marble used relates to specific historical periods. Visits to quarries in the area, the study of ancient texts and recent research, the examination of marbles and the application of a spectrum of analytical methods at CNR/ICVBC, as well as isotopic analysis on a number of samples, have provided some solid results (Figs. 27-30; Table 2, 3). There is no doubt that the coarse-grained marble used in the Hekatomnid period was quarried at Herakleia. There is a possibility that stone from the area between the Miletus and Herakleia districts – with slightly finer grains than in the Herakleia quarries – was used for the architrave with dedication at Andron B, the sphinxes, the sandaled foot and the eagle head, which are associated with the construction period that took place during the reign of Maussollos. The marble’s fragility, which was noted both by archaeologists and during conservation, is often superficial and the result of weathering. It is the same with the frequent discolouration, which is due to exposure to grime and biological growth. In areas where the fresh marble is observable, it is hard, lustrous and a brilliant warm white, often with clusters of large crystals.

32The fine-grained marble of three items dated to the pre-Hekatomnid period was either brought from quarries at Miletus or Milas. Marble in the Hellenistic and Roman periods was mostly fine-grained and mainly brought from quarries on Sodradaǧ, as mentioned by Strabo. There was probably an abundance of white marble at Mylasa at the time. Today, white marble “close at hand” as mentioned by Strabo, can be found on the east side of the mountain. The provenance of a few elements dated to the Roman period remains unknown, which is no great surprise, as the marble trade during the Roman Imperial period was highly developed. The Byzantine ambo was made of marble from Milas.

33The possible relationship between marble type and object was not fully proved as laboratory analyses of the statuary could not be conducted. Gunter, however, has defined the marble of all sculpted items of the 4th century BC as principally coarse-crystalled. My observations of the new finds in Andron A show that they are made of coarse-grained marble, which indicates that they were part of the same decoration and that the marble was of the same kind as that used for the architectural elements.

34Ocular observation of the sphinx at Bodrum and the chariot at Milas suggest the above marble quality may also have been used for these sculptures. Fine-grained marble was preferred for building and sculpture in the Roman Imperial era, which has been shown in previous investigations and confirmed by the meander frieze fragment. The fragments from the small statues in box D48 were made from coarse-grained marble, except for the fragment of a Roman male which had fine grains. To conclude, coarse-grained marble from Herakleia on Latmos was preferred by the Hekatomnids; fine-grained marble from Mylasa and other sites were preferred by the Romans and marble type was linked to historical period rather than to the object’s type or size.

Table 2 Concordance table

Table 2 Concordance table

P/M analyses made by Emma Cantisani, CNR/ICVBC, Firenze, which is the base for the present marble groups. Isotopic analyses were made by Donato Attanasio, CNR-ISM, Roma. The two samples investigated by Herz in 2006 are included in the table too

Table 3 Table of analytical data and provenance results for the 19 samples from Labraunda together with data for the X quarry sites (XX marble groups) considered to be possible provenances

Table 3 Table of analytical data and provenance results for the 19 samples from Labraunda together with data for the X quarry sites (XX marble groups) considered to be possible provenances

Quarry data are summarized by mean values and total variable ranges (min-max). The isotopic and EPR variables are given in ‰ or % with respect to specific standards (Pee Dee Belemnite for isotopes and Dolomite N368 BCS for EPR). The MGS is in mm and the colour value is given in % on an 8-bit scale where black = 0 and white = 255. The distance and probability parameters are given in a.u. (arbitrary units) or % and are defined on page X (Attanasio, 2014)

Picture 2: LabAmbo

Picture 2: LabAmbo

Picture 4: Lab C42

Picture 4: Lab C42

Picture 6: Lab CorCap 1

Picture 6: Lab CorCap 1

Picture 7: Lab CorCap 2

Picture 7: Lab CorCap 2

Picture 8: Lab DH

Picture 8: Lab DH

Picture 9: Lab EProp

Picture 9: Lab EProp

Picture 10: LabEx

Picture 10: LabEx

Picture 13: Lab SProp

Picture 13: Lab SProp

Picture 14: Lab Tov

Picture 14: Lab Tov

Picture 16: Lab TTC

Picture 16: Lab TTC

Picture 17: Lab TTsima

Picture 17: Lab TTsima

Picture 20: Labraunda grigio

Picture 20: Labraunda grigio
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Annexe

Appendix A. Mineralogical and petrographic analyses of marbles from Labraunda (Turkey) by Emma Cantisani

The marble samples to be analyzed were provided by Dr. Agneta Freccero. The samples were prepared and analyzed at the Consiglio Nazionale della Richerche, Institute for Conservation and Valorization of Cultural Heritage (CNR ICVBC), now Institute for Heritage Science, (CNR ISPC), Sesto Fiorentino.

LABRAUNDA
Sample: Lab A3.
Location: Andron A.
Object: Inscribed block, inv. A3. Architrave with dedication of Idrieus.

Mineralogical composition: calcite
Petrographic description:

Granulometry: maximum: 2 mm; medium: 600 micron; minimum: 400 micron

Marble with a medium-coarse grain size. The shape of the crystals is euhedral, the grain boundaries are prevalently straight. The microstructure is not oriented. The calcitic crystals have not deformed twins.

Picture 1: Lab A3

Picture 1: Lab A3

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA
Sample: LabAmbo
Location: West Church.
Object: Ambo.

Mineralogical composition: Calcite, traces of quartz
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum 1 mm, minimum 100 micron.

The prevailing crystal shape is subhedral, and the boundaries between crystals are mainly lobate. The marble is strongly decayed and therefore the petrographic characteristics are difficult to discern.

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA
Sample: Lab Btomb
Location: Open court. From the built tomb on top of the mountain. Depot.
Object: Marble slab. Inv. 3Y13.

Mineralogical composition: Calcite
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum: 600 micron, minimum 200 micron.

The crystal shape is euhedral to subhedral, and the boundaries between crystals are straight to lobate. There are internal deformations in the crystals. The microstructure is deformed.

Picture 3: Lab Btomb

Picture 3: Lab Btomb

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA
Sample: Lab C42.
Location: Andron B
Object: Inscribed block, inv. C 42. Architrave dedication of Maussollos.

Mineralogical composition: Calcite
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum: 3 mm; medium: 700 micron; minimum 250 micron

The crystals have euhedral to subhedral shape. The grain boundaries vary from straight to slightly lobate. There are zones with finer or larger grains. The microstructure is not oriented.

The calcite crystals have not deformed twins.

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx)

LABRAUNDA
Sample: Labcol.
Location: The terrace above the entrance to the sanctuary.
Object: Column without flutes.

Mineralogical composition: Calcite
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum: 1.5 mm; medium: 700 micron

Crystals of euhedral shape. The grain boundaries are straight, the microstructure is not oriented. The marble is strongly decayed, has a high porosity due to the detachment of crystals.

Picture 5: Labcol

Picture 5: Labcol

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx)

LABRAUNDA
Sample: Lab CorCap 1
Location
: North Stoa
Object: Corinthian capital.

Mineralogical composition: Calcite
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum: 600 micron; medium: 200 micron; minimum: 50 micron

The crystals have subhedral shape. The grain boundaries vary from straight to lobate. This sample is characterized by areas strongly deformed and presents phenomena of alteration.

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx)

LABRAUNDA
Sample: Lab CorCap 2
Location: North Stoa.
Object: Corinthian capital.

Mineralogical composition: Calcite
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum: 600 micron; medium: 200 micron; minimum: 50 micron.

The crystals have subhedral shape. The grain boundaries vary from straight to lobate. This sample is characterized by areas strongly deformed and presents phenomena of alteration

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA
Sample: Lab DH
Location: Doric house.
Object: Architrave.

Mineralogical composition: Calcite
Petrographic description:

Granulometry: maximum: 1.8 mm, minimum: 300 micron.

The microstructure is granoblastic, there are only few finer grains. The crystals, of euhedral shape, are not oriented in any preferential way. The prevailing boundaries between crystals is straight, there are triple joints. Single crystals present e twins.

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA
Sample: Lab EProp
Location: East Propylaea
Object: Architrave.

Mineralogical composition: Calcite
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum: 2 mm, minimum: 400 micron.

The crystals have euhedral shape, and the prevailing boundaries between crystals is straight. There are triple joints. The microstructure is granoblastic, and the crystals, which present typical e twins, are not oriented in any preferential way.

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA
Sample: LabEx
Location: Temple terrace.
Object: Exedra. Rear side of the central block;

Mineralogical composition: Calcite
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum: 500 micron.

This sample has a variable grain size. The crystal shape is subhedral and the microstructure is slightly oriented. In the areas of medium fine grains the boundaries between crystals varies between straight and slightly lobate.

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA
Sample: Lab NStoa
Location: North Stoa.

Object: Frieze/architrave.

Mineralogical composition: Calcite
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum: 400 micron.

The crystals are subhedral and the prevailing boundaries between crystals are lobate. The crystals seem slightly oriented and the microstructure is elaborated. In some areas the crystals look even finer due to intense disaggregation.

Picture 11: Lab NStoa

Picture 11: Lab NStoa

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA
Sample: Lab Oikoi
Location: Oikoi.
Object: Architrave with dedication.

Mineralogical composition: Calcite, traces of quartz
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum: 2.5 mm, minimum: 500 micron.

The shape of the crystals is euhedral, and the microstructure is granoblastic, with only few finer grains. The crystals are not oriented in any preferential direction. The prevailing boundaries between crystals is straight, and there are triple joints. Single crystals present e twins.

Picture 12: Lab Oikoi

Picture 12: Lab Oikoi

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA
Sample: Lab SProp
Location: South Propylaea.
Object: Architrave with dedication. Inv. K81.

Mineralogical composition: Calcite
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum: 2 mm, minimum: 400 micron.

The crystals are of euhedral shape, and the prevailing boundaries between crystals are straight to slightly lobate, and there are triple joints. The crystals present typical e twins. The microstructure is not oriented in any preferential direction.

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA
Sample: Lab Tov
Location: Depot. Fragment of the older temple.
Object: Ovolo.

Mineralogical composition: Calcite
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum: 350 micron, minimum: 150 micron.

The crystals, of euhedral shape, are not oriented in any preferential way. The prevailing boundaries between crystals are straight to slightly lobate. The microstructure is slightly oriented.

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA
Sample: Lab TTarch.
Location: Temple terrace.
Object: Architrave frieze, Type B. Inv. B54.

Mineralogical composition: Calcite with traces of dolomite and quartz
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum: 300 micron, minimum: 10 micron.

The crystal shape varies from euhedral to subhedral. The marble is disintegrated and has black crusts which are visible in thin sections and the petrographic characteristics are not discernible due to the strong decay. The grain sizes vary from between 10 to 300 micron, in some areas even finer.

Picture 15: Lab TTarch

Picture 15: Lab TTarch

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA
Sample: Lab TTC
Location: Temple terrace.
Object: Architrave/frieze, type C.

Mineralogical composition: Calcite
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum: 500 micron, minimum: 50 micron.

The crystals have varying granulometry, and the shape of the crystals is between euhedral and subhedral. The prevailing boundaries between crystals are straight to slightly lobate and the crystals are not oriented in any preferential way. The marble is disintegrated and has black incrustations that are visible in thin section.

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA
Sample: Lab TTsima
Location: Temple terrace.
Object: Sima. Inv. B71.

Mineralogical composition: Calcite, traces of dolomite
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum: 500 micron, minimum: 50 micron.

The crystals shape in the medium fine area is euhedral and the prevailing shape of grain boundaries are straight. The crystals are not oriented in any preferential direction. There are a few double twin crystals. In the fine grained zones the characteristics of the grains is impossible to solve under optical microscope.

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA
Sample: Lab TZeus
Location: Temple of Zeus.
Object: Architrave (reconstruction).

Mineralogical composition: Calcite.
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum: 2 mm, minimum: 500 micron.

The crystals have euhedral shape, and the prevailing boundaries between crystals are straight. Single crystals present normal and e twins. Some twins are deformed. The microstructure is granoblastic, only few finer grains.

Picture 18: Lab TZeus

Picture 18: Lab TZeus

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA
Sample: Labraunda bianco.
Location: Temple terrace.
Object: Loose fragment.

Mineralogical composition: Calcite, traces of dolomite
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum: 1,2 mm

The crystals have euhedral shape, and the prevailing boundaries between crystals are straight. The microstructure is granoblastic, with triple junctions among crystals.

Picture 19: Labraunda bianco

Picture 19: Labraunda bianco

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA
Sample: Labraunda grigio.
Location: Terrace in front of Andron B.
Object: Marble block.

Mineralogical composition: dolomite, traces of calcite
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: very fine

Mineralogical composition: dolomite, traces of calcite

Petrographic description:
Granulometry: very fine

This sample can be defined a microsparitic dolomitic limestone or a “dolomitic marble” with a very fine granulometry. The granulometry is generally very fine (<50 micron) but there are present some areas with larger crystals of 100 micron. The microstructure is slightly oriented.

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n)

LABRAUNDA
Sample: LAB Yanta
Location: Propylon Y
Object: architrave

Mineralogical composition: calcite, traces of quartz.
Petrographic description:

Granulometry: maximum 400, minimum 50 micron.

Marble with a medium grain size. The crystal shape varies from euhedral to subhedral, and the boundaries between crystals vary from straight to lobate. The calcite crystals present parallel and crossed twins. The microstructure is not oriented and is a “mosaic” microfabric.

Picture 21: LAB Yanta

Picture 21: LAB Yanta

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA
Sample: LAB Yarch
Location: Propylon Y
Object: Architrave, Y21

Mineralogical composition: calcite, traces of quartz and muscovite
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum 400, minimum 50 micron.

Marble with a medium-fine grain size. The crystal shape is euhedral, and the boundaries between crystals straight. In thin section is clear the presence of small crystal of micas (muscovite). The microstructure is not oriented and is a typical granoblastic mosaic microfabric.

Picture 22: LAB Yarch

Picture 22: LAB Yarch

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA
Sample: LAB TTcol
Location: Temple terrace
Object: Column

Mineralogical composition: calcite, traces of quartz, muscovite and chlorite
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum 450, minimum 250 micron.

Marble with a medium grain size. The crystal shape varies from euhedral to subhedral, the boundaries between crystals vary from straight to prevalently lobate. The microstructure is oriented.

There are some areas with accessory minerals such as quartz, muscovite and chlorite.

Picture 23: LAB TTcol

Picture 23: LAB TTcol

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

Appendix B. Mineralogical and petrographic analyses of marbles from Labraunda (Turkey) by Emma Cantisani and Silvia Vettori

The marble samples to be analysed were provided by Dr Agneta Freccero. The samples were prepared and analysed at the Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche, Institute for Conservation and Valorization of Cultural Heritage (CNR ICVBC), now Institute for Heritage Science, (CNR ISPC), Sesto Fiorentino.

LABRAUNDA Sample: Lab EXBAS

Location: Exedra
Object: Base of exedra

Picture 1a: Lab EXBAS

Picture 1a: Lab EXBAS

Photographs under stereomicroscope

Mineralogical composition: Calcite, traces of quartz
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum 700 micron, minimum 80 micron, mean 250-300 micron.

The prevailing crystal shape is anhedral, the microstructure is heteroblastic and the boundaries between crystals are mainly lobate. Any isorientation (No shape orientation is observed).

Picture 1b: Lab EXBAS

Picture 1b: Lab EXBAS

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA Sample: Lab TZ1

Location: Temple Terrace
Object: Architrave with dedication of the Temple. Inv. D60.

Picture 2a: Lab TZ1

Picture 2a: Lab TZ1

Photographs under stereomicroscope

Mineralogical composition: Calcite, quartz
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum 1,7 mm, minimum 200micron, mean 700-800 micron.

The prevailing crystal shape is subhedral. The microstructure is heteroblastic and the boundaries between crystals are mainly straight to weakly lobate. Any isorientation.

Picture 2b: Lab TZ1

Picture 2b: Lab TZ1

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA Sample: Lab TZ2

Location: Temple Terrace
Object: Architrave with dedication of the Temple. Inv. D99.

Picture 3a: Lab TZ2

Picture 3a: Lab TZ2

Photographs under stereomicroscope

Mineralogical composition: Calcite, quartz
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum 5 mm, minimum 300 micron, mean 1-1,1 mm.

The prevailing crystal shape is subhedral. The microstructure is heteroblastic and the boundaries between crystals are mainly straight to weakly lobate. Any isorientation.

Picture 3b: Lab TZ2

Picture 3b: Lab TZ2

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA Sample: Lab TZ3

Location: Temple Terrace
Object: Architrave with dedication of the Temple.

Picture 4a: Lab TZ3

Picture 4a: Lab TZ3

Photographs under stereomicroscope

Mineralogical composition: Calcite, quartz
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum 2 mm, minimum 200 micron, mean 1 mm.

The prevailing crystal shape is euhedral/subhedral. The microstructure is heteroblastic and the boundaries between crystals are mainly straight to weakly lobate. Any isorientation.

Picture 4b: Lab TZ3

Picture 4b: Lab TZ3

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA Sample: Lab DH2

Location: North side of the Doric House
Object: Fragment of architrave with dedication, inv. 103/P12.

Picture 5a: Lab DH2

Picture 5a: Lab DH2

Photographs under stereomicroscope

Mineralogical composition: Calcite, quartz
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum 1,6 mm, minimum 200 micron, mean 1 mm- 800 micron.

The prevailing crystal shape is subhedral. The microstructure is heteroblastic and the boundaries between crystals are mainly straight to weakly lobate. Any isorientation.

Picture 5b: Lab DH2

Picture 5b: Lab DH2

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA Sample: Lab MAU

Location: North Stoa
Object: Anta block with inscription. Inv 9A/B11

Picture 6a: Lab MAU

Picture 6a: Lab MAU

Photographs under stereomicroscope

Mineralogical composition: Calcite, quartz
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum 1,8 mm, minimum 200 micron, mean 1,1 mm.

The prevailing crystal shape is subhedral. The microstructure is heteroblastic and the boundaries between crystals are from straight to lobate. Any isorientation.

Picture 6b: Lab MAU

Picture 6b: Lab MAU

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA Sample: Lab ARIA

Location: Temple Terrace
Object: Statue base with dedication. Inv. 38/D 108.

Picture 7a: Lab ARIA

Picture 7a: Lab ARIA

Photographs under stereomicroscope

Mineralogical composition: Calcite, traces of quartz and dolomite
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum 300 micron, minimum 50 micron, mean 100-200 micron.

The crystal shape is subhedral / anhedral. The microstructure is heteroblastic and the boundaries between crystals are straight to lobate. Any isorientation.

Picture 7b: Lab ARIA

Picture 7b: Lab ARIA

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA Sample: Lab E PROP ANTA

Location: East Propylon
Object: Anta block. Inv. H23

Picture 8a: Lab E PROP ANTA

Picture 8a: Lab E PROP ANTA

Photographs under stereomicroscope

Mineralogical composition: Calcite, quartz
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum 1,4 mm, minimum 180 micron, mean 800-900 micron.

The crystal shape is anhedral. The microstructure is heteroblastic and the boundaries between crystals are lobate. Any isorientation.

Picture 8b: Lab E PROP ANTA

Picture 8b: Lab E PROP ANTA

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA Sample: Lab E PROPTYM

Location: East Propylon
Object: Tympanon block. Inv. H15

Picture 9a: Lab E PROPTYM

Picture 9a: Lab E PROPTYM

Photographs under stereomicroscope

Mineralogical composition: Calcite, quartz
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum 3mm, minimum 100 micron, mean 800-900 micron.

The crystal shape is anhedral. The microstructure is heteroblastic and the boundaries between crystals are strongly lobate. Any isorientation.

Picture 9b: Lab E PROPTYM

Picture 9b: Lab E PROPTYM

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA Sample: Lab S PROP 2

Location: South Propylon
Object: Part of architrave with dedication. Inv K 81.

Picture 10a: Lab S PROP 2

Picture 10a: Lab S PROP 2

Photographs under stereomicroscope

Mineralogical composition: Calcite, quartz
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum 3mm, minimum 300 micron, mean 1,5mm.

The crystal shape is anhedral. The microstructure is heteroblastic and the boundaries between crystals varies from straight to lobate. Any isorientation.

Picture 10b: Lab S PROP 2

Picture 10b: Lab S PROP 2

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA Sample: Lab ACAP

Location: The capital is placed on a column drum in Andron A.

Object: Ionic capital. Inv A104.

Picture 11a: Lab ACAP

Picture 11a: Lab ACAP

Photographs under stereomicroscope

Mineralogical composition: Calcite, quartz
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum 1,8 mm, minimum 300 micron, mean 1mm.

The crystal shape is anhedral. The microstructure is heteroblastic and the boundaries between crystals varies from straight to lobate. Any isorientation.

Picture 11b: Lab ACAP

Picture 11b: Lab ACAP

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA Sample: Lab OIKOI

Location: Oikoi
Object: Architrave with dedication. Inv 2/A27, 33, 35, 38.

Picture 12a: Lab OIKOI

Picture 12a: Lab OIKOI

Photographs under stereomicroscope

Mineralogical composition: Calcite, traces of quartz
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum 1,5 mm, minimum 250 micron, mean 700 micron.

The crystal shape is anhedral. The microstructure is heteroblastic and the boundaries between crystals are mainly lobate. Any isorientation.

Picture 12b: Lab OIKOI

Picture 12b: Lab OIKOI

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA Sample: Lab HEK

Location: Temple Terrace
Object: Base block for a statue. Inv 55/B 181.

Picture 13a: Lab HEK

Picture 13a: Lab HEK

Photographs under stereomicroscope

Mineralogical composition: Calcite, quartz
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum 300 micron, minimum 50 micron, mean 100-200 micron.

The crystal shape is subhedral / anhedral. The microstructure is heteroblastic and the boundaries between crystals are straight to lobate. Any isorientation.

Picture 13b: Lab HEK

Picture 13b: Lab HEK

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

LABRAUNDA Sample: Lab BANTA

Location: Andron B.
Object: Anta block. Inv. C84.

Picture 14a: Lab BANTA

Picture 14a: Lab BANTA

Photographs under stereomicroscope

Mineralogical composition: Calcite, quartz
Petrographic description:
Granulometry: maximum 2 mm, minimum 50 micron, mean 1,5mm.

The crystal shape is subhedral / anhedral. The microstructure is heteroblastic and the boundaries between crystals varies from straight to lobate. Any isorientation.

Picture 14b: Lab BANTA

Picture 14b: Lab BANTA

Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))

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Notes

1 The studies of Labraunda marbles have been a great pleasure and most rewarding for me, as were the friendly and constructive periods at the site. For this, my gratitude goes to all persons in the team. I am deeply grateful to Lars Karlsson who invited me to conserve and study the marbles, to Pontus Hellström for taking time to answer my many questions related to archaeology and earlier excavation periods, and to Olivier Henry for always being patient and supporting my studies, and for valuable comments on the present paper.

2 Herodotos calls the god Zeus Stratios, Strabo speaks of Zeus Labraundenos, and Aelian mentions Zeus Labraundeus, and Plutarch speaks of the statue of the Labrandean Zeus in Karia, holding an axe.

3 Hekatomnid period, c. 392-330 BC. The buildings were constructed in the time span between 377 and 351 BC.

4 For Mylasa see Rumscheid, 2010, who suggests Uzun Yuva at Milas might have been intended as the rulers’ tomb, the “proto-Mausolleion”, which was unfinished due to the displacement of the capital to Halikarnassos. For Halikarnassos see e.g. Jeppesen, 1997, 2002; Pedersen, 2010; Waywell, 1997. For the Tegea relief see e.g. Waywell, 1993, pp. 61f.

5 For Labraunda see e.g. Hellström, 2007; Hellström & Thieme, 1981, 1982; Hellström & Blid, 2019; Karlsson, 2013b. Maussollos dedicated Andron B and the Old North Stoa. Idrieus dedicated Andron A, the Oikoi, the Temple of Zeus, the Doric House, the South Propylon, and presumably the East Propylon as well. For the inscriptions, see Crampa, 1969, 1972. Many other buildings could be attributed to the Hekatomnid period, although no dedication were found during the excavations.

6 The early temple was built at the turn of the 6th century.

7 On the structures on the M-Terrace see Blid & Hedlund, 2014, pp. 327ff.

8 On the Roman Stoa, see Liljenstolpe & von Schmalensee. On the baths, see Blid, 2012.

9 The marbles selected for conservation were placed in connection to Andron A, Andron B, Oikoi, the Temple of Zeus, South Propylea and North Stoa. I also conserved a badly weathered Ionic capital (inv.A104), in Andron A to have a factual understanding of problems related to the materials.

10 All annual conservation reports are available in the archives at Labraunda.

11 Thomas Cramer initiated his marble study on thirty-eight objects in the Antikensammlung Berlin in connection with conservation interventions, aiming at determining the material’s provenance in quarry districts in Mediterranean and Anatolian marble areas. On the extension of stone and marble in the Menderes massif, see Cramer, 2004, pp. 135ff.

12 The first layer consists of schist and dark grey limestone. The second layer is marble known as Milas white. Milas veined marble occurs in layer 3, Milas pearl in layer 4, Milas lilac in layer 5, and Milas white and Milas lemon in layer 6. Layer 7 consists mainly of Dolomitic marble.

13 In spite of these similarities the Euromos marbles form a group of their own.

14 On the Miletus and Herakleia quarries, see Peschlow-Bindokat, 1981; Monna & Pensabene, 1977, p. 124.

15 Hellström, 2009, mentions the paved road “on the other side of the mountain”, from Alinda to Alabanda.

16 For wall structures at Milas, see Rumscheid, 2010, pp. 79ff; for fortification walls at Halikarnassos see Pedersen, 2010, pp. 313ff.

17 On procession and transport routes in antiquity in the Near East/Asia Minor, see e.g. Andrae, 1941; Archibald, 2016; Efe, 2007; Ökse, 2007.

18 On the Great Caravan Route see Efe, 2007.

19 CNR/ICVBC: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche/ Istituto per la Conservazione e la Valutazione dei Beni Culturali, now Institute for Heritage Science, (CNR ISPC), Sesto Fiorentino.

20 3 samples from elements dated to the Pre-Hekatomnid period, 21 from the Hekatomnid, 4 from the Hellenistic, 9 from the Roman and 1 object dated to the Byzantine period.

21 Cantisani and Vettori, description of the samples preparation and methodologies applied at CNR. The samples received were all observed and photographed under a stereomicroscope. From all the samples were obtained powders for mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction and small fragments for the realization of thin sections for petrographic analysis by optical microscope polarizer. Thin sections of samples were documented and analysed by optical microscopy in transmitted light. A polarized light microscope (Zeiss Axioscope A1) equipped with a camera (resolution 5 Megapixel) and dedicated image software (Axiovision) for evaluating the microstructural parameters (i.e. minimum and maximum diameter) was used. Powders obtained from each sample were analysed with a PANalytical diffractometer X’Pert PRO with radiation CuK1= 1,545Å, operating at 40 KV, 30 mA, investigated range 2 3-70°, equipped with X’ Celerator multidetector and High Score data acquisition and interpretation software for determining the mineralogical composition. See Appendices.

22 On analytical methods on marble, including stable isotope analysis see e.g. Attanasio, 2003; Attanasio, Brilli, & Ogle, 2006; Attanasio, Bruno, & Prochaska, 2011; Prochaska & Attasanio, 2012; Walker & Matthews, 1988. P. Hellström informed me in 2012 that isotopic analyses of two samples, from Andron A and Andron B, had been made by Herz in 2006. Herz considered the two slightly different marbles to be from Herakleia sul Latmos, Bafa Gölü. Attanasio’s results on Labraunda marbles with the same means showed that marble of Hekatomnid buildings were from Herakleia while Milas marble could be identified in elements from other buildings.

23 He observed Parian marble, fine-grained white Pentelic for most of the freestanding statues and the Chariot frieze, white with larger crystals for architectural stones and the lion-heads water sprouts, and possibly Proconnesian or Thasian for the Amazon frieze. At Aliki on Thasos I noted marbles that very much resembled the coarse-grained Herakleian marble with clusters of large crystals. Maybe Herakleian marble was noted by Waywell?

24 Pentelic marble was used for the over-life-size statues of the so-called Maussollos and Artemisia, some portrait heads, the lions on the roof and other animals from hunting and sacrificial scenes on the podium. Parian marble had been used for the head of the so-called Maussollos and for female heads. The Amazon frieze and one panel of the Centaur frieze presumably was made of made of Proconnesian marble, and the chariot frieze was made of finer stone, indicating Pentelic marble.

25 I rely in the following part on the publications of Ann C. Gunter, in particular the study on marble sculpture from 1995. The intension was to compare her observations on marbles with my own, and to use scientific laboratory methods on marble samples to observe the degree of correspondence. New sculpted fragments have been found since then, and these were the immediate reason for making this comparative study. As mentioned above, the laboratory methods had to be excluded due to new regulations. The samples, however, were obtained and can still be used for comparison.

26 On the early excavations 1948-1953 and 1960, see e.g. Jeppesen, 1955; Westholm, 1963; Hellström & Thieme, 1982; Hellström, 2007.

27 The fragment is exhibited in the Istanbul Archaeological Museums.

28 Gunter, 1995, p. 24: “The present location of these fragments is unknown”.

29 It has been suggested, and is now accepted that at least one monumental statue was placed in the large niche in the back wall, as on the Tegea relief, where Zeus with the double axe and pectoral decoration stands between Idrieus and Ada.

30 Two of these apparently were lost as only one, the head of an eagle, could be found for re-examination.

31 On the Ionian Renaissance, see Waywell, 1994; Gunter, 1995; Carstens, 2009; Rumscheid, 2010; Henry, 2013a.

32 Catalogue numbers 4, 6, 9, Fragments of marble sculptures from some eighteen separate monuments had been found between 1948 and 1960.

33 Catalogue number 4.

34 21 fragments are described in the catalogue. For 8 of these the present location was unknown. She states that “For fragments that could not be located for re-examination information has been supplied from descriptions or sketches preserved in notebooks.” And she informs that fragments “… too small to catalogue were not reported in the notebooks”.

35 Main part of the fragments found on the terrace was less than life sized parts of male and female statues in the round.

36 Girl with a goose, catalogue no.5, now in the Archaeological Museum of Bodrum.

37 The Chariot with Nike, catalogue no 12, now in the Archaeological Museum of Milas.

38 On recent excavations and work at Andron A, see Henry, 2015.

39 The box was one of 20 boxes with small archaeological finds received from the Archaeological Museum in Izmir in 2007.

40 Requests were sent to the Bodrum Museum for permission to look at and take photos of some objects in Gunter’s catalogue, and if possible, to take some sample. Olivier Henry was allowed to look at, and take photos of two objects, a statuette of a girl holding a goose, and a meander frieze fragment. Samples were taken by a museum employee. The statue base on which the girl had been standing was kept in the depot at Labraunda and sampled by Henry. These samples are among those sent to Istanbul.

41 Hellström (2019b, pp. 61f) begins his article regarding the early excavations by explaining they were not published, and that due to inadequate recording, the find spots remain unknown. When the excavations were concluded in 1960, the stratigraphic material was transferred to the Archaeological Museum in Izmir, and only the notebooks with insufficient information remain. Inconsistences in registration during early excavations have been noted also by Blid (2016, p. 133); “Most finds from early excavations can only reveal an indication of activity at certain periods, but not a precise and accurate date…” Gunter 1995, 19. Only one of three fragments of animal sculpture found in the context of Andron B could be found for re-examination. Another object which could not be located was a fragment of a draped female torso, catalogue number 7.

42 The samples in this study were labelled MS (Marble Sample) and a consecutive number. The palmetto leafs were labelled MS1 and MS2, the frieze fragment MS3, and the part of draped figure MS4. Fragments from the marble box were labelled MS 5-10, and the two museum pieces and the base MS 11-13.

43 The 13 samples can be used for comparative studies with the previous marbles investigated at Labraunda. All information is available in the schedules in the Labraunda archives.

44 Interpretations of the Andron A fragments were made by Olivier Henry. As they were sampled for material study they received the labels MS 1-4 (Marble Sample 1-4).

45 Gunter catalogue no.’s 4, 6, 9 and appendix no 1.

46 The last three samples obtained in the Bodrum Museum and the base in Labraunda, are excluded because I did neither see nor sample them.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 1: The Sanctuary seen from the Split Rock
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-1.jpg
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Titre Fig. 2 The Split Rock and the Built Tomb. In the foreground, the architrave blocks with the dedication of Maussollos
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-2.jpg
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Titre Fig. 3 Plan of the sanctuary
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-3.jpg
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Titre Fig. 4 The monumental staircase and Andron A
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-4.jpg
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Titre Fig. 5 The male sphinx on its column
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-5.jpg
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Titre Fig. 6 The exedra of the Hellenistic period dedicated by Demetrios, son of Python
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-6.jpg
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Titre Fig. 7 Ionic capital in front of Andron B
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-7.jpg
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Titre Fig. 8 Conservation of a column at Andron B, teamwork
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-8.jpg
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Titre Fig. 9 Sodradag seen from the plain of Milas
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-9.jpg
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Titre Fig. 10 Menderes massif, after Cramer
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-10.jpg
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Titre Fig. 11 Sodradaǧ. Excursion to a quarry on the north-east side of the mountain, facing Milas
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-11.jpg
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Titre Fig. 12 Sodradaǧ, west side, first quarry visited
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-12.jpg
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Titre Fig. 13 Sodradaǧ west side, white marble
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-13.jpg
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Titre Fig. 14 Euromos, quarry along the road
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-14.jpg
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Titre Fig. 15 Euromos, first quarry above the temple, with abandoned column
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-15.jpg
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Titre Fig. 16 Euromos second quarry above the temple, white marble
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-16.jpg
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Titre Fig. 17 Herakleia walk
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-17.jpg
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Titre Fig. 18 Herakleia quarry with abandoned architectural elements
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-18.jpg
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Titre Fig. 19 Herakleia – Latmos fortification
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-19.jpg
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Titre Fig. 20 Herakleia, temple wall
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-20.jpg
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Titre Fig. 21 Selection of marble samples, showing variations in grain sizes and hues
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-21.jpg
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Titre Table 1 Marble groups
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-22.jpg
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Titre Fig. 22 Statue base at the Temple terrace: cuttings for feet
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-23.jpg
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Titre Fig. 23 The bearded sphinx, detail
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-24.jpg
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Titre Fig. 24 Anta capital at Andron B: egg-and-dart moulding, followed by a lotus and palmetto frieze, a Lesbian cymatium and a bead and reel list
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-25.jpg
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Titre Fig. 25 New find: fragment of a draped figure
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-26.jpg
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Titre Fig. 26 Meander frieze fragment
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-27.jpg
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Titre Fig. 27-30 Full size and expanded isotopic graphs of the Labraunda samples
Crédits Attanasio, 2014
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-28.jpg
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Titre Table 2 Concordance table
Légende P/M analyses made by Emma Cantisani, CNR/ICVBC, Firenze, which is the base for the present marble groups. Isotopic analyses were made by Donato Attanasio, CNR-ISM, Roma. The two samples investigated by Herz in 2006 are included in the table too
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-29.png
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Titre Table 3 Table of analytical data and provenance results for the 19 samples from Labraunda together with data for the X quarry sites (XX marble groups) considered to be possible provenances
Légende Quarry data are summarized by mean values and total variable ranges (min-max). The isotopic and EPR variables are given in ‰ or % with respect to specific standards (Pee Dee Belemnite for isotopes and Dolomite N368 BCS for EPR). The MGS is in mm and the colour value is given in % on an 8-bit scale where black = 0 and white = 255. The distance and probability parameters are given in a.u. (arbitrary units) or % and are defined on page X (Attanasio, 2014)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-30.png
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Titre Picture 2: LabAmbo
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-31.jpg
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Titre Picture 4: Lab C42
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-32.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 92k
Titre Picture 6: Lab CorCap 1
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-33.jpg
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Titre Picture 7: Lab CorCap 2
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-34.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 59k
Titre Picture 8: Lab DH
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-35.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 53k
Titre Picture 9: Lab EProp
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-36.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 47k
Titre Picture 10: LabEx
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-37.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 47k
Titre Picture 13: Lab SProp
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-38.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 51k
Titre Picture 14: Lab Tov
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-39.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 59k
Titre Picture 16: Lab TTC
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-40.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 52k
Titre Picture 17: Lab TTsima
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-41.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 58k
Titre Picture 20: Labraunda grigio
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-42.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 83k
Titre Picture 1: Lab A3
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-43.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 45k
Titre Picture 3: Lab Btomb
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-44.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 52k
Titre Picture 5: Labcol
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx)
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-45.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 44k
Titre Picture 11: Lab NStoa
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-46.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 53k
Titre Picture 12: Lab Oikoi
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-47.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 43k
Titre Picture 15: Lab TTarch
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-48.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 56k
Titre Picture 18: Lab TZeus
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-49.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 44k
Titre Picture 19: Labraunda bianco
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-50.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 41k
Titre Picture 21: LAB Yanta
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-51.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 59k
Titre Picture 22: LAB Yarch
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-52.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 51k
Titre Picture 23: LAB TTcol
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-53.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 52k
Titre Picture 1a: Lab EXBAS
Légende Photographs under stereomicroscope
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-54.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 21k
Titre Picture 1b: Lab EXBAS
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-55.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 47k
Titre Picture 2a: Lab TZ1
Légende Photographs under stereomicroscope
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-56.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 36k
Titre Picture 2b: Lab TZ1
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-57.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 46k
Titre Picture 3a: Lab TZ2
Légende Photographs under stereomicroscope
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-58.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 34k
Titre Picture 3b: Lab TZ2
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-59.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 46k
Titre Picture 4a: Lab TZ3
Légende Photographs under stereomicroscope
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-60.jpg
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Titre Picture 4b: Lab TZ3
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-61.jpg
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Titre Picture 5a: Lab DH2
Légende Photographs under stereomicroscope
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-62.jpg
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Titre Picture 5b: Lab DH2
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-63.jpg
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Titre Picture 6a: Lab MAU
Légende Photographs under stereomicroscope
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-64.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 29k
Titre Picture 6b: Lab MAU
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-65.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 49k
Titre Picture 7a: Lab ARIA
Légende Photographs under stereomicroscope
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-66.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 37k
Titre Picture 7b: Lab ARIA
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-67.jpg
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Titre Picture 8a: Lab E PROP ANTA
Légende Photographs under stereomicroscope
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-68.jpg
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Titre Picture 8b: Lab E PROP ANTA
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-69.jpg
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Titre Picture 9a: Lab E PROPTYM
Légende Photographs under stereomicroscope
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-70.jpg
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Titre Picture 9b: Lab E PROPTYM
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-71.jpg
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Titre Picture 10a: Lab S PROP 2
Légende Photographs under stereomicroscope
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-72.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 24k
Titre Picture 10b: Lab S PROP 2
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-73.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 48k
Titre Picture 11a: Lab ACAP
Légende Photographs under stereomicroscope
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-74.jpg
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Titre Picture 11b: Lab ACAP
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-75.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 50k
Titre Picture 12a: Lab OIKOI
Légende Photographs under stereomicroscope
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-76.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 30k
Titre Picture 12b: Lab OIKOI
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-77.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 49k
Titre Picture 13a: Lab HEK
Légende Photographs under stereomicroscope
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-78.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 37k
Titre Picture 13b: Lab HEK
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-79.jpg
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Titre Picture 14a: Lab BANTA
Légende Photographs under stereomicroscope
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-80.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 35k
Titre Picture 14b: Lab BANTA
Légende Microphotographs of thin section under polarized optical microscopy (2,5 X, n// (dx), n(sx))
URL http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/docannexe/image/2118/img-81.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 50k
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Agneta Freccero, « Reflections on White Marble at Labraunda »Anatolia Antiqua, XXIX | 2021, 23-75.

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Agneta Freccero, « Reflections on White Marble at Labraunda »Anatolia Antiqua [En ligne], XXIX | 2021, mis en ligne le 15 mars 2022, consulté le 13 juin 2024. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/anatoliaantiqua/2118 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/anatoliaantiqua.2118

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Agneta Freccero

Swedish Institute of Classical Studies in Rome

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